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babylonians

babylonians Sentence Examples

  • Moreover, it is doubtful from extant remains of Assyrian calendars whether the astrological week prevailed in civil life even among the Babylonians and Assyrians.

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  • Here was fought the last fight between the Babylonians and Zedekiah, wherein the kingdom of Judah came to an end (2 Kings xxv.

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  • Divination through the liver remained in force among the Assyrians and Babylonians down to the end of the Babylonian Empire.

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  • As for the Greeks, it is still an open question whether they perfected their method of hepatoscopy under Etruscan influence or through the Babylonians.

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  • As late as the accession of Assur-bani-pal and Samas-sum-yukin we find the Babylonians appealing to their city laws that groups of aliens to the number of twenty at a time were free to enter the city, that foreign women once married to Babylonian husbands could not be enslaved and that not even a dog that entered the city could be put to death untried.

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  • From this time forward it was against Assyria instead of Babylonia that Elam found itself compelled to exert its strength, and Elamite policy was directed towards fomenting revolt in Babylonia and assisting the Babylonians in their struggle with Assyria.

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  • Now the penalty had been paid, and the Babylonians, whose policy was less destructive than that of Assyria, contented themselves with appointing as governor a certain Gedaliah.

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  • 2 Sargon had removed Babylonians into the land of Hatti (Syria and Palestine), and in 715 B.C. among the colonists were tribes apparently of desert origin (Tamud, Hayapa, &c.); other settlements are ascribed to Esar-haddon and perhaps Assur-bani-pal (Ezra iv.

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  • While using the same language as the Babylonians, the Assyrians had an individuality which showed itself in art and religion.

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  • They destroyed Nineveh in alliance with the Babylonians, and half a century later Cyrus took Babylon and founded the great dynasty of the Achaemenidae.

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  • Their relationship to the Babylonians and Jews is indicated by linguistic and ethnological data.

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  • As for science, astronomy was cultivated by the Babylonians at an early period, and it is probably from them that a knowledge of the heavenly bodies and their movements spread over Asia.

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  • But in his proclamation to the Babylonians (V.R.

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  • The original sources are very scanty, besides the cylinder containing his proclamation to the Babylonians we possess only a great many dated private documents from Babylon.

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  • (1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.

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  • Along with the Babylonians, Egyptians and Romans, the Israelites are classed as one of the great agricultural nations of antiquity.

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  • In later days, in the time of the Sargonid kings of Akkad or the monarchs of Ur, stones such is granite, basalt, diorite and dolerite were probably brought from the Sinaitic peninsula, if not from the western desert of Egypt, if the Red Sea coast is to be identified, as seems very probable, with Magan, " the place to which ships went," the land whence the Babylonians got some of their first stones for sculpture and architecture.

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  • Whence the Egyptians and a little later on the Babylonians got their tin for the alloy we do not yet know.

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  • The Babylonians apparently refused to be impressed by the Egyptians in this matter, and went on building temples in brick, probably for the good reason that they could not get any stone.

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  • considerable thickness, suspended in the centre ' of the circular vault of the heavens, an idea perhaps borrowed from the Babylonians, for Job (xxvi.

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  • This circumstance might, if it stood alone, be explained by placing Joel with Zephaniah in the brief interval between the decline of the empire of Nineveh and the advance of the Babylonians.

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  • In the cosmogonies of many ancient peoples there was a plurality of heavens, probably among the earlier Hebrews, the idea being elaborated in rabbinical literature, among the Babylonians and in Zoroastrianism.

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  • The combined stream of the Euphrates and Tigris as it flowed through the marshes was known to the Babylonians as the nar marrati, " the salt river" (cp. Jer.

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  • (883 B.C.), containing a stone coffer or ark in which were two inscribed tables of alabaster of rectangular shape, as well as of a palace which had been destroyed by the Babylonians but restored by Shalmaneser II.

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  • A cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Canaanitish origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, as Syria and Palestine were called by the Babylonians.

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  • Then the Babylonians revolted.

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  • He seems to have been slain fighting against the Babylonians, who were still under the rule of Hadad-dadin-akhi, and a new dynasty was established at Assur by In-aristi-pileser, who claimed to be a descendant of the ancient prince Erba-Raman.

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  • Shalmaneser died suddenly in Tebet 722 B.C., while pressing the siege of Samaria, and the seizure of the throne by another general, Sargon, on the 12th of the month, gave the Babylonians an opportunity to revolt.

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  • His campaign against Hezekiah of Judah was as much a failure as his policy in Babylonia, and in his murder by his sons on the 10th of Tebet 681 B.C. both Babylonians and Jews saw the judgment of heaven.

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  • The arrangement was evidently intended to flatter the Babylonians by giving them once more the semblance of independence.

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  • The Scythian king of Ecbatana, the Cyaxares of the Greeks, came to the help of the Babylonians.

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  • A battle was fought at Opis in the month of June, in which the Babylonians were defeated, and immediately afterwards Sippara surrendered to the invader.

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  • The development of astronomy implies considerable progress in mathematics; it is not surprising, therefore, that the Babylonians should have invented an extremely simple method of ciphering or have discovered the convenience of the duodecimal system.

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  • - In the early days of the decipherment of the cuneiform inscriptions, the reading of the proper names borne by Babylonians and Assyrians occasioned great difficulties; and though most of these difficulties have been overcome and there is general agreement among scholars as to the principles underlying both the formation and the pronunciation of the thousands of names that we encounter in historical records, business documents, votive inscriptions and literary productions, differences, though mostly of a minor character, still remain.

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  • This script, together with the general Sumerian culture, was taken over by the Babylonians upon their settlement in the Euphrates valley and adapted to their language, which belonged to the Semitic group. In this transfer the Sumerian words - largely monosyllabic - were reproduced, but read as Semitic, and 1 Cf.

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  • In many cases they will probably turn out to be descriptive epithets of gods 3 The Assyrian language is practically identical with the Babylonian, just as the Assyrians are the same people as the Babylonians with some foreign admixtures.

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  • It is not the purpose of this note to set forth the principles underlying the formation of proper names among the Babylonians and Assyrians, but it may not be out of place to indicate that by the side of such full names, containing three elements (or even more), we have already at an early period the reduction of these elements to two through the combination of the name of a deity with a verbal form merely, or through the omission of the name of the deity.

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  • On the contrary, the scholarship of to-day regards the fifth millennium B.C. as well within the historical period for such nations as the Egyptians and the Babylonians.

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  • It is believed to have been in use from the very time of its origin; for the observations of eclipses which were collected in Chaldaea by Callisthenes, the general of Alexander, and transmitted by him to Aristotle, were for the greater part referred to the beginning of the reign of Nabonassar, founder of the kingdom of the Babylonians.

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  • The Babylonians looked on the world as a vast round mountain rising from the midst of a universal sheet of water.

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  • 00os, a dart, and µavr€ia, prophecy or divination), a form of divination by means of arrows, practised by the Babylonians, Scythians and other ancient peoples.

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  • For several years he continued the war against Miletus begun by his father, but was obliged to turn his attention to the Medes and Babylonians.

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  • He was one of the evil demons of the seven planets, the Maskim of the ancient Akkadian religion, a conception transmitted through the Chaldeans, the Babylonians and the Jewish Kabbala to medieval and modern astrologers and magicians.

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  • It shared the fate of Nineveh, was captured and destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians toward the close of the 7th century, and from that time has remained a ruin.

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  • AmOng the Babylonians and Assyrians the baru (from bars to see, inspect) was a soothsaying priest who was consulted whenever any important undertaking was proposed, and addressed his inquiries to Samas the sun god (or Adad) as bet biri or lord of the oracle (accompanied by the sacrifice of lambs).

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  • 858 B.C. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria, as well as Cilicia and Ararat.

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  • The Babylonians and Assyrians were probably the first to construct and employ a fixed chronological standard; and the numerous contract-tablets, and list of kings and yearly officials, discovered within recent years, afford striking evidence of the precision with which they noted chronological details.

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  • The Babylonians, according to Berossus, supposed that there were ten antediluvian kings, who they declared had reigned for the portentous period of 432,000 years: 432,000 years, however, it has been ingeniously pointed out by Oppert (Gott.

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  • 23, 26), the Babylonians (Oppert, Journ.

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  • The absence of any equivalent names in Babylonian or Assyrian documents is noteworthy, 3 especially as the Babylonians spoke of the "Sea-Country" (mat Tamtim).

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  • Some of the Phoenician chiefs, among them Ithobal II., the new king of Tyre, while forced to yield to a change of masters, were bold enough to declare their hostility to the Babylonians.

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  • But dyeing and embroidery probably came from Babylon in the first instance; glass-making seems to have been borrowed from Egypt; the invention of arithmetic and of weights and measures must be laid to the credit of the Babylonians.

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  • The god or goddess was generally called the Ba'al or Ba'alath of such and such a place, a title which was used not only by the Canaanites, but by the Aramaeans (Be`el) and Babylonians (Bel) as well.

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  • However, it is practically certain, both from the etymology of the word Purim and from the resemblance of the festivals, that the feast, as represented in the Book of Esther, was borrowed from the Persians, who themselves appeared to have adapted it from the Babylonians.

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  • The wider extension of the use of Amurru by the Babylonians and Assyrians is complicated by the fact that it was even applied to a district in the neighbourhood of Babylonia.

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  • Cyrus himself, in his proclamation to the Babylonians after the conquest of Babylon, does not mention his name.

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  • Psammetichus died in the fifty-fourth year of his reign and was succeeded by his son Necho, 610594 B.C. Taking advantage of the helpless state of the Assyrians, whose capital was assailed by the Medes and the Babylonians, the new Pharaoh prepared an expedition to recover the ancient possessions of the Empire in Syria.

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  • He acquired his surname of Soter, or Saviour, from the Babylonians, whom he delivered from the tyranny of the Median satrap, Timarchus, and is famous in Jewish history for his contests with the Maccabees.

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  • The partiality for the chase which the ancient Egyptians manifested was shared by the Assyrians and Babylonians, as is shown by the frequency with which hunting scenes are depicted on the walls of their temples and palaces; it is even said that their 1 See on this whole subject ch.

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  • After the Phoenicians, Babylonians, and Arabs came the Persians; though they never aspired to command of the seas and are indeed not a maritime race, the Persian Gulf was no obstacle to them, and at one time or another they occupied Muscat and parts of Oman and Bahrein, and penetrated into the greater part of Arabia.

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  • The Jews, Chaldeans and Babylonians began the day at the rising of the sun; the Athenians at the fall; the Umbri in Italy began at midday; the Egyptians and Romans at midnight; and in England, the United States and most of the countries of Europe the Roman civil day still prevails, the day usually commencing as soon as the clock begins to strike 12 P.M.

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  • "To take the hand of Bel-Marduk" was the ceremony of installation which Assyrian rulers recognized equally with Babylonians as an essential preliminary to exercising authority in the Euphrates.

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  • Sayce, The Religion of the Ancient Babylonians (Hibbert Lectures, London, 1887), now superseded by the same author's Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia (Gifford Lectures.

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  • On his retirement he turned to the astronomy of the Hebrews and Babylonians; his earlier results are given in his L' Astronomia nell' antico Testamento (1903), a work which has been translated into English and German, whilst later ones are to be found in various journals, the last being in Scientia (1908).

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  • The early Christian Fathers recorded many a valuable observation of the Gentile faiths around them from varying points of view, sympathetic or hostile; and Eusebius and Epiphanius, in the 4th century A.D., attributed to the librarian of Ptolemy Philad.elphus the design of collecting the sacred books of the Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Romans, Phoenicians, Syrians and Greeks.

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  • Anthropomorphic polytheism (religions of the Vedic Indians,the ancient Persians, the later Babylonians and Assyrians,the advanced Semites, the Kelts, Germans, Hellenes, Greeks and Romans).

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  • to the Babylonians, even in the time of Khammurabi, as to the Egyptians under the XIIth Dynasty.

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  • Thus it is quite conceivable that they brought it with them into Western Asia: and the quarter from which it came is sufficiently indicated by the fact that the Babylonians write the word horse with a group of signs denoting ass of the East.

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  • The Babylonians employ the name Gimiri (i.e.

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  • We cannot deduce from them a conquest of Iran from Babylon: for the Babylonians never set foot in Iran and even the Assyrians merely conquered the western portior of Media.

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  • But these works, while proving Scaliger's right to the foremost place among his contemporaries as Latin scholar and critic, did not go beyond mere scholarship. It was reserved for his edition of Manilius (1579), and his De emendatione temporum (1583), to revolutionize all the received ideas of ancient chronology - to show that ancient history is not confined to that of the Greeks and Romans, but also comprises that of the Persians, the Babylonians and the Egyptians, hitherto neglected as absolutely worthless, and that of the Jews, hitherto treated as a thing apart, and that the historical narratives and fragments of each of these, and their several systems of chronology, must be critically compared, if any true and general conclusions are to be reached.

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  • He had been publicly nominated king of Assyria (on the 12th of Iyyar) by his father Esar-haddon, some time before the latter's death, Babylonia being assigned to his twinbrother Samas-sum-yukin, in the hope of gratifying the national feeling of the Babylonians.

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  • The expressions "Chaldaea r" and "Chaldaeans" are frequently used in the Old Testament as equivalents for "Babylonia" and "Babylonians."

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  • The racial distinction between the Chaldaeans and the Babylonians proper seems to have existed until a much later date, although it is almost certain that the former were originally a Semitic people.

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  • 28), whence they began a series of encroachments, partly by warfare and partly by immigration, against the other Semitic Babylonians.

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  • The sudden rise of the later Babylonian empire under Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabopolassar, must have tended to produce so thorough an amalgamation of the Chaldaeans and Babylonians, who had theretofore been considered as two kindred branches of the same original Semite stock, that in the course of time no perceptible differences existed between them.

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  • It is applied as elsewhere in the Old Testament as a race-name to the Babylonians (Dan.

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  • This name in later times, owing to the racial amalgamation of the Chaldaeans and Babylonians, lost its former national force, and became, as it occurs in Daniel, a distinctive appellation of the Babylonian priestly class.

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  • It could certainly not have come from the Babylonians, however, whose system of attendant spirits was far from being so complete as that which is set forth in the Book of Daniel, but rather from Persian sources where a more complicated angelology had been developed.

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  • - The Egyptian notation was purely denary, the only separate signs being those for 1, io, too, &c. The ordinary notation of the Babylonians was denary, but they also used a sexagesimal scale, i.e.

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  • The Babylonians adopted 60 for both these purposes, thus giving us the sexagesimal division of angles and of time.

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  • Thus (§ 79) the Romans reckoned in twelfths, and the Babylonians in sixtieths; the former method supplied a basis for division by 2, 3, 4, 6 or 12, and the latter for division by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, TO, 12, 15, 20, 30, or 60.

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  • The Babylonians expressed numbers less than r by the numerator of a fraction with denominator 60; the numerator only being written.

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  • The Greeks originally used unit-fractions, like the Egyptians; later they introduced the sexagesimal fractions of the Babylonians, extending the system to four or more successive subdivisions of the unit representing a degree.

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  • which contains Cyrus's proclamation to the Babylonians his name is joined to that of his father in the prayers to Marduk.

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  • In the subsequent overthrow of the Assyrian empire the Babylonians saw another example of divine vengeance.

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  • Sayce, Religion of the Ancient Babylonians, App. ii.

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  • With the Babylonians the case was different, although their science lacked the vital principle of growth imparted to it by their successors.

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  • The Babylonians knew of the inequality in the daily motion of the sun, but misplaced by to' the perigee of his orbit.

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  • The study of astromancy and the belief in it, as part of astronomy, is found in a developed form among the ancient Babylonians, and directly or indirectly through the Babylonians spread to other nations.

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  • In the hands of the Greeks and of the later Egyptians both astrology and astronomy were carried far beyond the limits attained by the Babylonians, and it is indeed a matter of surprise to observe the harmonious combination of the two fields - a harmony that seems to grow more complete with each age, and that is not broken until we reach the threshold of modern science in the 16th century.

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  • To the Greek astronomer Hipparchus belongs the credit of the discovery (c. 130 B.C.) of the theory of the precession of the equinoxes, for a knowledge of which among the Babylonians we find no definite proof; but such a signal advance in pure science did not prevent the Greeks from developing in a most elaborate manner the theory of the influence of the planets upon the fate of the individual.

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  • Saturn, taking in Greek astrology the place at the head of the planets which among the Babylonians was accorded to JupiterMarduk, was given a place in the brain, which in later times was looked upon as the centre of soul-life; Venus, as the planet of the passion of love, was supposed to reign supreme over the genital organs, the belly and the lower limbs; Mars, as the violent planet, is associated with the bile, as well as with the blood and kidneys.

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  • Passing on into still later periods, Saturn's day was associated with the Jewish sabbath, Sunday with the Lord's Day, Tuesday with Tiw, the god of war, corresponding to Mars of the Romans and to the Nergal of the Babylonians.

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  • Wednesday was assigned to the planet Mercury, the equivalent of the Germanic god Woden; Thursday to Jupiter, the equivalent of Thor; and Friday to Friga, the goddess of love, who is represented by Venus among the Romans and among the Babylonians by Ishtar.

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  • 2 It is true the Babylonians themselves interpreted the name differently (5 R.

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  • The poet had a grudge against Cleon, who had accused him before the senate of having ridiculed (in his Babylonians) the policy and institutions of his country in the presence of foreigners and at the time of a great national war.

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  • It is believed that the ultimate origin of the constellation figures and names is to be found in the corresponding systems in vogue among the primitive civilizations of the Euphrates valley - the Sumerians, Accadians and Babylonians; that these were carried westward into ancient Greece by the Phoenicians, and to the lands of Asia Minor by the Hittites, and that Hellenic culture in its turn introduced them into Arabia, Persia and India.

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  • The Sumerians and Accadians, the non-Semitic inhabitants of the Euphrates valley prior to the Babylonians, described the stars collectively as a " heavenly flock "; the sun was the " old sheep "; the seven planets were the " old-sheep stars "; the whole of the stars had certain " shepherds, " and Sibzianna (which, according to Sayce and Bosanquet, is the modern Arcturus, the brightest star in the northern sky) was the " star of the shepherds of the heavenly herds."

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  • The Accadians bequeathed their system to the Babylonians, and cuneiform tablets and cylinders, boundary stones, and Euphratean art generally, point to the existence of a well-defined system of star names in their early history.

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  • Three years later a great battle was fought at Khalule on the Tigris between the Assyrians on the one side and the Elamites and Babylonians on the other.

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  • The Wet Babylonians began an exodus which rivaled that of rats abandoning a sinking ship.

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  • The Babylonians studied problems which lead to simultaneous linear equations and some of these are preserved in clay tablets which survive.

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  • Moreover, it is doubtful from extant remains of Assyrian calendars whether the astrological week prevailed in civil life even among the Babylonians and Assyrians.

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  • Here was fought the last fight between the Babylonians and Zedekiah, wherein the kingdom of Judah came to an end (2 Kings xxv.

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  • Divination through the liver remained in force among the Assyrians and Babylonians down to the end of the Babylonian Empire.

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  • As for the Greeks, it is still an open question whether they perfected their method of hepatoscopy under Etruscan influence or through the Babylonians.

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  • As late as the accession of Assur-bani-pal and Samas-sum-yukin we find the Babylonians appealing to their city laws that groups of aliens to the number of twenty at a time were free to enter the city, that foreign women once married to Babylonian husbands could not be enslaved and that not even a dog that entered the city could be put to death untried.

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  • From this time forward it was against Assyria instead of Babylonia that Elam found itself compelled to exert its strength, and Elamite policy was directed towards fomenting revolt in Babylonia and assisting the Babylonians in their struggle with Assyria.

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  • Now the penalty had been paid, and the Babylonians, whose policy was less destructive than that of Assyria, contented themselves with appointing as governor a certain Gedaliah.

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  • 2 Sargon had removed Babylonians into the land of Hatti (Syria and Palestine), and in 715 B.C. among the colonists were tribes apparently of desert origin (Tamud, Hayapa, &c.); other settlements are ascribed to Esar-haddon and perhaps Assur-bani-pal (Ezra iv.

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  • While using the same language as the Babylonians, the Assyrians had an individuality which showed itself in art and religion.

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  • They destroyed Nineveh in alliance with the Babylonians, and half a century later Cyrus took Babylon and founded the great dynasty of the Achaemenidae.

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  • Their relationship to the Babylonians and Jews is indicated by linguistic and ethnological data.

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  • As for science, astronomy was cultivated by the Babylonians at an early period, and it is probably from them that a knowledge of the heavenly bodies and their movements spread over Asia.

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  • But in his proclamation to the Babylonians (V.R.

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  • The original sources are very scanty, besides the cylinder containing his proclamation to the Babylonians we possess only a great many dated private documents from Babylon.

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  • (1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.

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  • Along with the Babylonians, Egyptians and Romans, the Israelites are classed as one of the great agricultural nations of antiquity.

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  • In later days, in the time of the Sargonid kings of Akkad or the monarchs of Ur, stones such is granite, basalt, diorite and dolerite were probably brought from the Sinaitic peninsula, if not from the western desert of Egypt, if the Red Sea coast is to be identified, as seems very probable, with Magan, " the place to which ships went," the land whence the Babylonians got some of their first stones for sculpture and architecture.

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  • Whence the Egyptians and a little later on the Babylonians got their tin for the alloy we do not yet know.

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  • The Babylonians apparently refused to be impressed by the Egyptians in this matter, and went on building temples in brick, probably for the good reason that they could not get any stone.

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  • considerable thickness, suspended in the centre ' of the circular vault of the heavens, an idea perhaps borrowed from the Babylonians, for Job (xxvi.

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  • This circumstance might, if it stood alone, be explained by placing Joel with Zephaniah in the brief interval between the decline of the empire of Nineveh and the advance of the Babylonians.

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  • In the cosmogonies of many ancient peoples there was a plurality of heavens, probably among the earlier Hebrews, the idea being elaborated in rabbinical literature, among the Babylonians and in Zoroastrianism.

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  • The combined stream of the Euphrates and Tigris as it flowed through the marshes was known to the Babylonians as the nar marrati, " the salt river" (cp. Jer.

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  • (883 B.C.), containing a stone coffer or ark in which were two inscribed tables of alabaster of rectangular shape, as well as of a palace which had been destroyed by the Babylonians but restored by Shalmaneser II.

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  • A cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Canaanitish origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, as Syria and Palestine were called by the Babylonians.

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  • Then the Babylonians revolted.

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  • He seems to have been slain fighting against the Babylonians, who were still under the rule of Hadad-dadin-akhi, and a new dynasty was established at Assur by In-aristi-pileser, who claimed to be a descendant of the ancient prince Erba-Raman.

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  • Shalmaneser died suddenly in Tebet 722 B.C., while pressing the siege of Samaria, and the seizure of the throne by another general, Sargon, on the 12th of the month, gave the Babylonians an opportunity to revolt.

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  • His campaign against Hezekiah of Judah was as much a failure as his policy in Babylonia, and in his murder by his sons on the 10th of Tebet 681 B.C. both Babylonians and Jews saw the judgment of heaven.

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  • The arrangement was evidently intended to flatter the Babylonians by giving them once more the semblance of independence.

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  • Assyria, therefore, was ill prepared to face the hordes of Scythians - or Manda, as they were called by the Babylonians - who now began to harass the frontiers.

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  • The Scythian king of Ecbatana, the Cyaxares of the Greeks, came to the help of the Babylonians.

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  • A battle was fought at Opis in the month of June, in which the Babylonians were defeated, and immediately afterwards Sippara surrendered to the invader.

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  • The development of astronomy implies considerable progress in mathematics; it is not surprising, therefore, that the Babylonians should have invented an extremely simple method of ciphering or have discovered the convenience of the duodecimal system.

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  • - In the early days of the decipherment of the cuneiform inscriptions, the reading of the proper names borne by Babylonians and Assyrians occasioned great difficulties; and though most of these difficulties have been overcome and there is general agreement among scholars as to the principles underlying both the formation and the pronunciation of the thousands of names that we encounter in historical records, business documents, votive inscriptions and literary productions, differences, though mostly of a minor character, still remain.

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  • This script, together with the general Sumerian culture, was taken over by the Babylonians upon their settlement in the Euphrates valley and adapted to their language, which belonged to the Semitic group. In this transfer the Sumerian words - largely monosyllabic - were reproduced, but read as Semitic, and 1 Cf.

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  • In many cases they will probably turn out to be descriptive epithets of gods 3 The Assyrian language is practically identical with the Babylonian, just as the Assyrians are the same people as the Babylonians with some foreign admixtures.

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  • It is not the purpose of this note to set forth the principles underlying the formation of proper names among the Babylonians and Assyrians, but it may not be out of place to indicate that by the side of such full names, containing three elements (or even more), we have already at an early period the reduction of these elements to two through the combination of the name of a deity with a verbal form merely, or through the omission of the name of the deity.

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  • On the contrary, the scholarship of to-day regards the fifth millennium B.C. as well within the historical period for such nations as the Egyptians and the Babylonians.

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  • It is believed to have been in use from the very time of its origin; for the observations of eclipses which were collected in Chaldaea by Callisthenes, the general of Alexander, and transmitted by him to Aristotle, were for the greater part referred to the beginning of the reign of Nabonassar, founder of the kingdom of the Babylonians.

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  • The Babylonians looked on the world as a vast round mountain rising from the midst of a universal sheet of water.

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  • 00os, a dart, and µavr€ia, prophecy or divination), a form of divination by means of arrows, practised by the Babylonians, Scythians and other ancient peoples.

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  • For several years he continued the war against Miletus begun by his father, but was obliged to turn his attention to the Medes and Babylonians.

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  • He was one of the evil demons of the seven planets, the Maskim of the ancient Akkadian religion, a conception transmitted through the Chaldeans, the Babylonians and the Jewish Kabbala to medieval and modern astrologers and magicians.

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  • Herodotus informs us that the Babylonians knew of old that there were male and female date-trees, and that the female required the concurrence of the male to become fertile..

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  • The Babylonians suspended male clusters from wild dates over the females; but they seem to have supposed that the fertility thus produced depended on the presence of small flies among the wild flowers, which, by entering the female flowers, caused them to set and ripen.

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  • It shared the fate of Nineveh, was captured and destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians toward the close of the 7th century, and from that time has remained a ruin.

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  • AmOng the Babylonians and Assyrians the baru (from bars to see, inspect) was a soothsaying priest who was consulted whenever any important undertaking was proposed, and addressed his inquiries to Samas the sun god (or Adad) as bet biri or lord of the oracle (accompanied by the sacrifice of lambs).

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  • 858 B.C. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria, as well as Cilicia and Ararat.

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  • The Babylonians and Assyrians were probably the first to construct and employ a fixed chronological standard; and the numerous contract-tablets, and list of kings and yearly officials, discovered within recent years, afford striking evidence of the precision with which they noted chronological details.

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  • The Babylonians, according to Berossus, supposed that there were ten antediluvian kings, who they declared had reigned for the portentous period of 432,000 years: 432,000 years, however, it has been ingeniously pointed out by Oppert (Gott.

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  • date of the Flood) =86,400 weeks (1656=72X23; and 23 years being =8395 days+5 intercalary days =8400 days = 1200 weeks); and hence the inference has been drawn that the two periods have in some way been developed from a common basis, the Hebrews taking as their unit a week, where the Babylonians took a lustrum of 5 years.

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  • 23, 26), the Babylonians (Oppert, Journ.

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  • When after the assassination of Smerdis all the Iranian tribes, the Babylonians and the Armenians rebelled against Darius and the Persian rule, "a man of the name of Fravartish (i.e.

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  • The absence of any equivalent names in Babylonian or Assyrian documents is noteworthy, 3 especially as the Babylonians spoke of the "Sea-Country" (mat Tamtim).

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  • Some of the Phoenician chiefs, among them Ithobal II., the new king of Tyre, while forced to yield to a change of masters, were bold enough to declare their hostility to the Babylonians.

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  • 89), 4 So the Babylonians, Canaanites (e.g.

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  • But dyeing and embroidery probably came from Babylon in the first instance; glass-making seems to have been borrowed from Egypt; the invention of arithmetic and of weights and measures must be laid to the credit of the Babylonians.

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  • The god or goddess was generally called the Ba'al or Ba'alath of such and such a place, a title which was used not only by the Canaanites, but by the Aramaeans (Be`el) and Babylonians (Bel) as well.

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  • However, it is practically certain, both from the etymology of the word Purim and from the resemblance of the festivals, that the feast, as represented in the Book of Esther, was borrowed from the Persians, who themselves appeared to have adapted it from the Babylonians.

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  • The wider extension of the use of Amurru by the Babylonians and Assyrians is complicated by the fact that it was even applied to a district in the neighbourhood of Babylonia.

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  • Cyrus himself, in his proclamation to the Babylonians after the conquest of Babylon, does not mention his name.

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  • Psammetichus died in the fifty-fourth year of his reign and was succeeded by his son Necho, 610594 B.C. Taking advantage of the helpless state of the Assyrians, whose capital was assailed by the Medes and the Babylonians, the new Pharaoh prepared an expedition to recover the ancient possessions of the Empire in Syria.

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  • He acquired his surname of Soter, or Saviour, from the Babylonians, whom he delivered from the tyranny of the Median satrap, Timarchus, and is famous in Jewish history for his contests with the Maccabees.

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  • The partiality for the chase which the ancient Egyptians manifested was shared by the Assyrians and Babylonians, as is shown by the frequency with which hunting scenes are depicted on the walls of their temples and palaces; it is even said that their 1 See on this whole subject ch.

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  • After the Phoenicians, Babylonians, and Arabs came the Persians; though they never aspired to command of the seas and are indeed not a maritime race, the Persian Gulf was no obstacle to them, and at one time or another they occupied Muscat and parts of Oman and Bahrein, and penetrated into the greater part of Arabia.

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  • The Jews, Chaldeans and Babylonians began the day at the rising of the sun; the Athenians at the fall; the Umbri in Italy began at midday; the Egyptians and Romans at midnight; and in England, the United States and most of the countries of Europe the Roman civil day still prevails, the day usually commencing as soon as the clock begins to strike 12 P.M.

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  • "To take the hand of Bel-Marduk" was the ceremony of installation which Assyrian rulers recognized equally with Babylonians as an essential preliminary to exercising authority in the Euphrates.

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  • Sayce, The Religion of the Ancient Babylonians (Hibbert Lectures, London, 1887), now superseded by the same author's Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia (Gifford Lectures.

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  • On his retirement he turned to the astronomy of the Hebrews and Babylonians; his earlier results are given in his L' Astronomia nell' antico Testamento (1903), a work which has been translated into English and German, whilst later ones are to be found in various journals, the last being in Scientia (1908).

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  • The early Christian Fathers recorded many a valuable observation of the Gentile faiths around them from varying points of view, sympathetic or hostile; and Eusebius and Epiphanius, in the 4th century A.D., attributed to the librarian of Ptolemy Philad.elphus the design of collecting the sacred books of the Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Romans, Phoenicians, Syrians and Greeks.

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  • Anthropomorphic polytheism (religions of the Vedic Indians,the ancient Persians, the later Babylonians and Assyrians,the advanced Semites, the Kelts, Germans, Hellenes, Greeks and Romans).

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  • to the Babylonians, even in the time of Khammurabi, as to the Egyptians under the XIIth Dynasty.

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  • Thus it is quite conceivable that they brought it with them into Western Asia: and the quarter from which it came is sufficiently indicated by the fact that the Babylonians write the word horse with a group of signs denoting ass of the East.

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  • The Babylonians employ the name Gimiri (i.e.

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  • We cannot deduce from them a conquest of Iran from Babylon: for the Babylonians never set foot in Iran and even the Assyrians merely conquered the western portior of Media.

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  • None the less, till Marathon the Persians were successful in discomfiting every enemy before he could close, whether that enemy consisted of similarly accoutred bowmen (as the Medes), of cavalry armed with the lance (as the Lydians), or of heavily armoured warriors (as the Babylonians, Egyptians and Greeks).

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  • But these works, while proving Scaliger's right to the foremost place among his contemporaries as Latin scholar and critic, did not go beyond mere scholarship. It was reserved for his edition of Manilius (1579), and his De emendatione temporum (1583), to revolutionize all the received ideas of ancient chronology - to show that ancient history is not confined to that of the Greeks and Romans, but also comprises that of the Persians, the Babylonians and the Egyptians, hitherto neglected as absolutely worthless, and that of the Jews, hitherto treated as a thing apart, and that the historical narratives and fragments of each of these, and their several systems of chronology, must be critically compared, if any true and general conclusions are to be reached.

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  • He had been publicly nominated king of Assyria (on the 12th of Iyyar) by his father Esar-haddon, some time before the latter's death, Babylonia being assigned to his twinbrother Samas-sum-yukin, in the hope of gratifying the national feeling of the Babylonians.

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  • The expressions "Chaldaea r" and "Chaldaeans" are frequently used in the Old Testament as equivalents for "Babylonia" and "Babylonians."

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  • The racial distinction between the Chaldaeans and the Babylonians proper seems to have existed until a much later date, although it is almost certain that the former were originally a Semitic people.

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  • 28), whence they began a series of encroachments, partly by warfare and partly by immigration, against the other Semitic Babylonians.

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  • The sudden rise of the later Babylonian empire under Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabopolassar, must have tended to produce so thorough an amalgamation of the Chaldaeans and Babylonians, who had theretofore been considered as two kindred branches of the same original Semite stock, that in the course of time no perceptible differences existed between them.

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  • It is applied as elsewhere in the Old Testament as a race-name to the Babylonians (Dan.

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  • This name in later times, owing to the racial amalgamation of the Chaldaeans and Babylonians, lost its former national force, and became, as it occurs in Daniel, a distinctive appellation of the Babylonian priestly class.

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  • It could certainly not have come from the Babylonians, however, whose system of attendant spirits was far from being so complete as that which is set forth in the Book of Daniel, but rather from Persian sources where a more complicated angelology had been developed.

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  • - The Egyptian notation was purely denary, the only separate signs being those for 1, io, too, &c. The ordinary notation of the Babylonians was denary, but they also used a sexagesimal scale, i.e.

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  • The Babylonians adopted 60 for both these purposes, thus giving us the sexagesimal division of angles and of time.

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  • Thus (§ 79) the Romans reckoned in twelfths, and the Babylonians in sixtieths; the former method supplied a basis for division by 2, 3, 4, 6 or 12, and the latter for division by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, TO, 12, 15, 20, 30, or 60.

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  • The Babylonians expressed numbers less than r by the numerator of a fraction with denominator 60; the numerator only being written.

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  • The Greeks originally used unit-fractions, like the Egyptians; later they introduced the sexagesimal fractions of the Babylonians, extending the system to four or more successive subdivisions of the unit representing a degree.

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  • which contains Cyrus's proclamation to the Babylonians his name is joined to that of his father in the prayers to Marduk.

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  • In the subsequent overthrow of the Assyrian empire the Babylonians saw another example of divine vengeance.

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  • Sayce, Religion of the Ancient Babylonians, App. ii.

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  • With the Babylonians the case was different, although their science lacked the vital principle of growth imparted to it by their successors.

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  • The Babylonians knew of the inequality in the daily motion of the sun, but misplaced by to' the perigee of his orbit.

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  • The study of astromancy and the belief in it, as part of astronomy, is found in a developed form among the ancient Babylonians, and directly or indirectly through the Babylonians spread to other nations.

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  • In the hands of the Greeks and of the later Egyptians both astrology and astronomy were carried far beyond the limits attained by the Babylonians, and it is indeed a matter of surprise to observe the harmonious combination of the two fields - a harmony that seems to grow more complete with each age, and that is not broken until we reach the threshold of modern science in the 16th century.

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  • To the Greek astronomer Hipparchus belongs the credit of the discovery (c. 130 B.C.) of the theory of the precession of the equinoxes, for a knowledge of which among the Babylonians we find no definite proof; but such a signal advance in pure science did not prevent the Greeks from developing in a most elaborate manner the theory of the influence of the planets upon the fate of the individual.

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  • Saturn, taking in Greek astrology the place at the head of the planets which among the Babylonians was accorded to JupiterMarduk, was given a place in the brain, which in later times was looked upon as the centre of soul-life; Venus, as the planet of the passion of love, was supposed to reign supreme over the genital organs, the belly and the lower limbs; Mars, as the violent planet, is associated with the bile, as well as with the blood and kidneys.

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  • Passing on into still later periods, Saturn's day was associated with the Jewish sabbath, Sunday with the Lord's Day, Tuesday with Tiw, the god of war, corresponding to Mars of the Romans and to the Nergal of the Babylonians.

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  • Wednesday was assigned to the planet Mercury, the equivalent of the Germanic god Woden; Thursday to Jupiter, the equivalent of Thor; and Friday to Friga, the goddess of love, who is represented by Venus among the Romans and among the Babylonians by Ishtar.

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  • 2 It is true the Babylonians themselves interpreted the name differently (5 R.

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  • The poet had a grudge against Cleon, who had accused him before the senate of having ridiculed (in his Babylonians) the policy and institutions of his country in the presence of foreigners and at the time of a great national war.

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  • It is believed that the ultimate origin of the constellation figures and names is to be found in the corresponding systems in vogue among the primitive civilizations of the Euphrates valley - the Sumerians, Accadians and Babylonians; that these were carried westward into ancient Greece by the Phoenicians, and to the lands of Asia Minor by the Hittites, and that Hellenic culture in its turn introduced them into Arabia, Persia and India.

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  • The Sumerians and Accadians, the non-Semitic inhabitants of the Euphrates valley prior to the Babylonians, described the stars collectively as a " heavenly flock "; the sun was the " old sheep "; the seven planets were the " old-sheep stars "; the whole of the stars had certain " shepherds, " and Sibzianna (which, according to Sayce and Bosanquet, is the modern Arcturus, the brightest star in the northern sky) was the " star of the shepherds of the heavenly herds."

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  • The Accadians bequeathed their system to the Babylonians, and cuneiform tablets and cylinders, boundary stones, and Euphratean art generally, point to the existence of a well-defined system of star names in their early history.

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  • Three years later a great battle was fought at Khalule on the Tigris between the Assyrians on the one side and the Elamites and Babylonians on the other.

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  • The system is based around the five planets of which the Babylonians were aware.

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  • The Babylonians were the first to create astrology.

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  • In this list, the Babylonians decided to do without a thirteenth law.

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  • This craft dates back to about the 11th century when historians say Hebrews, Phoenicians, and Babylonians embroidered their robes.

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  • It is thought that the first pizza's came from the Babylonians who then passed them along to the Greeks.

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  • Herodotus informs us that the Babylonians knew of old that there were male and female date-trees, and that the female required the concurrence of the male to become fertile..

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  • The Babylonians suspended male clusters from wild dates over the females; but they seem to have supposed that the fertility thus produced depended on the presence of small flies among the wild flowers, which, by entering the female flowers, caused them to set and ripen.

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    1
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