Alexander returns to Babylon, is crowned with much pomp and mass is celebrated.
Epiphanius (Vitae prophetarum) says that he came up from Babylon while still young, prophesied the return, witnessed the building of the temple and received an honoured burial near the priests.
Occidental geographers, however, have followed the Greek use, and so to-day we call the river of Babylon or Nahr Sura the Euphrates and the older westerly channel the Hindieh canal.
The right arm was the original bed, and the left arm, on which Babylon was built, the artificial deviation, as is clear from the cuneiform inscriptions.
Under the Arabs the old designation again prevailed and the Euphrates is always described by the Arabian geographers as the river which flows direct to Kufa, while the present stream, passing along the ruins of Babylon to Hillah and Diwanieh, has been universally known as the Nahr Sura.
Below the bifurcation the river of Babylon was again divided into several streams, and indeed the most famous of all the ancient canals was the Arakhat (Archous of the Greeks and Serrat and Nil of the Arabs), which left that river just above Babylon and ran due east to the Tigris, irrigating all the central part of the Jezireh, and sending down a branch through Nippur and Erech to rejoin the Euphrates a little above the modern Nasrieh.
The fact also that many of the most ancient of these ruins, like Ur, Lagash (Sirpurla), Larsa, Erech, Nippur, Sippara and Babylon, were situated on the banks of the great canals would indicate that the control of the waters of the rivers by a system of canalization and irrigation was one of the first achievements of civilization.
But when tradition preserves some recollection of an offence for which Manasseh was taken to Babylon to explain his conduct (2 Chron.
Cyrus on entering Babylon had even restored the gods to the cities to which they belonged.
In Egypt, moreover, in Babylon and in Persia individual Jews had responded to the influences of their environment and won the respect of the aliens whom they despised.
The city of Babylon came to the fore as metropolis about 2285 B.C. under Khammurabi.
Many of the villages of Mesopotamia are built of second-hand bricks of a very good quality, obtained from the ruins of Babylon, and the cement on them is older and probably harder still.
The judges at Babylon seem to have formed a superior court to those of provincial towns, but a defendant might elect to answer the charge before the local court and refuse to plead at Babylon.
Alexander died at Babylon in 323 B.C., and the fleet was dispersed without making the voyage.
Before the rise of the First Dynasty of Babylon, however, Elam had recovered its independence, and in 2280 B.C. the Elamite king Kutur-Nakhkhunte made a raid in Babylonia and carried away from Erech the image of the goddess Nana.
Susa once more became a capital, and on the establishment of the Persian empire remained one of the three seats of government, its language, the Neo-Susian, ranking with the Persian of Persepolis and the Semitic of Babylon as an official tongue.
Layard, Nineveh and Babylon (1853); W.
ABEDNEGO, the name given in Babylon to Azariah, one of the companions of Daniel.
His sons were slain before his eyes, and he himself was blinded and carried off to Babylon after a reign of eleven years.
3-9, where the two brothers carried off to Egypt and Babylon respectively would seem to be Jehoahaz and his nephew Jehoiachin).
The prophets who had marked in the past the advent of Assyrians and Chaldeans now fixed their eyes upon the advance of Cyrus, confident that the fall of Babylon would bring the restoration of their fortunes.
Babylonia was politically unsettled, the representative of the Davidic dynasty had descendants; if Babylon was assured of the allegiance of Judah further acts of clemency may well have followed.
In the spring of 323 he moved down to Babylon, receiving on the way embassies from lands as far as the confines of the known world, for the eyes of all nations were now turned with fear or wonder to the figure which had appeared with so superhuman an effect upon the world's stage.
The latter enterprise Alexander designed to conduct in person; under his supervision was prepared in Babylon an immense fleet, a great basin dug out to contain 1000 ships, and the watercommunications of Babylonia taken in hand.
Such a remnant, amongst whom might be members of the priestly and royal families, would gather strength and boldness as the troubles of Babylon See the note on Ps.
Increased and her vigilance was relaxed, and might receive from Babylon and other lands both refugees and some account at least of the writings of Ezekiel and the Second Isaiah.
These events shook the whole Persian empire; Babylon and other subject states rose in revolt, and to the Jews it seemed that Persia was tottering and that the Messianic era was nigh.
A number of the principal inhabitants were carried captive to Babylon, and Jerusalem was reduced to the position of an insignificant town.
As a residence, however, for the rulers of the empire, a remote place in a difficult alpine region was far from convenient, and the real capitals were Susa, Babylon and Ecbatana.
This appears actually to be the case in the period of the First Dynasty of Babylon and also in the 7th century in Assyria, where early Babylonian customs were kept up conservatively.
Cromwell, however, persevered, reminding Fortescue, who was left in command, that the war was one against the" Roman Babylon,"that they were" fighting the Lord's battles "; and he sent out reinforcements under Sedgwick, offering inducements to the New Englanders to migrate to Jamaica.
He explored the remains of Babylon, and projected a geographical and statistical account of the pashalic of Bagdad.
The results of his work at Babylon appeared first in the Vienna serial Mines de l'orient, and in 1815 in England, under the title Narrative of a Journey to the Site of Babylon in 1811.
During this period he made a second excursion to Babylon, and in 1820 undertook an extensive tour to Kurdistan - from Bagdad north to Sulimania, eastward to Sinna, then west to Nineveh, and thence down the Tigris to Bagdad.
It was, however, reserved for the genius of Khammurabi to make Babylon his metropolis and weld together his vast empire by a uniform system of law.
The pax Babylonica is so assured that private individuals do not hesitate to ride in their carriage from Babylon to the coast of the Mediterranean.
In commercial matters, payment in kind was still common, though the contracts usually stipulate for cash, naming the standard expected, that of Babylon, Larsa, Assyria, Carchemish, &c. The Code enacted, however, that a debtor must be allowed to pay in produce according to statutory scale.
Harper, The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon about 2250 B.C. (Chicago, 1904); S.
When Alexander had won the victory of Arbela, and occupied Babylon and Susa, he met (in the spring of 330) with strong resistance in Persia, where the satrap Ariobarzanes tried to stop his progress at the "Persian gates," the pass leading up to Persepolis.
Babylon speedily fell (539 B.C.) and a fresh era opened.
Similarly, the " book of the Law of Moses," brought from Babylon by Ezra (Ezra vii.; Neh.
What book Ezra really brought from Babylon is uncertain; the writer, it seems, is merely narrating the introduction of the Law ascribed to Moses, even as a predecessor has recounted the discovery of the Book of the Law, the Deuteronomic code subsequently included in the Pentateuch.
The importance which the biblical writers attach to the return from Babylon in the reign of Artaxerxes forms a starting-point for several interesting inquiries.
And out of one of them came forth a little horn (Antiochus Epiphanes) which waxed exceeding great towards the south (Egypt) and towards the East (Babylon) and towards the beauteous land (the land of Israel)."
Assyria, being essentially a military power, disappeared with the destruction of Nineveh, but Babylon continued to exercise an influence on culture and religion for many centuries after the Persian conquest.
They destroyed Nineveh in alliance with the Babylonians, and half a century later Cyrus took Babylon and founded the great dynasty of the Achaemenidae.
Owing to its position, the Persian state, when it from time to time became a conquering empire, overlapped Asia Minor, Babylon and India, and hence acted as an intermediary for transmitting art and ideas, sending for instance Greek sculpture to India and the cult of Mithra to western Europe.
Babylon long continued to be a Jewish centre whence the Jews radiated to other countries.
And Cambyses I., "kings of Anshan," and the same title is given to him in the inscriptions and in the chronicle of Nabonidus of Babylon before his victory over Astyages.
Soon after the conquest of the Median empire, Cyrus was attacked by a coalition of the other powers of the East, Babylon, Egypt and Lydia, joined by Sparta, the greatest military power of Greece.
The army of Nabonidus was defeated; Babylon itself attempted no resistance, but surrendered on the 16th Tishri (loth of October) 539, to the Persian general Gobryas (Gaubaruva, see the chronicle of the reign of Nabonidus; the name Gobryas is preserved also by Xenophon, Cyrop. vii.
February 528; for in Babylon the first year of Cyrus began in the spring of 538.
When the Macedonian empire was divided in 323 (the "Partition of Babylon") Seleucus was given the office of chiliarch (Gr.
His return to Babylon in that year was afterwards officially regarded as the beginning of the Seleucid empire.
Winckler, " Die Gesetze Hammurabis Kiinigs von Babylon urn 2250 v.