(3) Damascus, a district which included Baalbek, Tripoli and Beirut, and also the I;Iauran.
They appear to be connected with Semitic sun-worship, and are assigned by Bent to the same period as the temple at Baalbek, though some antiquarians would place them much earlier; the representation of a castle in a single stone seems to bear some relation to the idea worked out in the monolith churches of Lalibela described byRaffray.
South from them is the pass (8351 ft.) which leads from Baalbek to Tripoli; the great mountain amphitheatre on the west side of its summit is remarkable.
The broad valley which separates Lebanon from Anti-Lebanon is watered by two rivers having their watershed near Baalbek, at an elevation of about 3600 ft., and separated only by a short mile at their sources.
At present its full name is Buka`a el-'Aziz (the dear Buka'a), and its northern portion is known as Sahlet Baalbek (the plain of Baalbek).
BAALBEK (anc. Heliopolis), a town of the Buka`a (Coelesyria), altitude 3850 ft., situated E.
Since 1902 Baalbek has been connected by railway with Rayak (Rejak) on the Beirut-Damascus line, and since 1907 with Aleppo.
With the treaty of London (1840) Baalbek became really Ottoman, and since the settlement of the Lebanon (1864) has attracted great numbers of tourists.
Frauberger, Die Akropolis von Baalbek (1892).
Baalbek (1905), (with Th.
==Lion== The lion was associated with the Egyptian gods Re and Horus; there was a lion-god at Baalbek and a lion-headed goddess Sekhet.
In 1139 Ayyub received Baalbek from Zengi, in 1146 he moved, on Zengi's death, to the court of Damascus.
In 1174 he entered Damascus, Emesa and Hamah; in 1175 Baalbek and the towns round Aleppo.
Hisham, at the head of 120,000 men, was defeated at `Ain al-Darr, between Baalbek and Damascus.
After the victory the walls were demolished, and likewise those of Baalbek, Damascus, Jerusalem and other towns.
The site is indicated by ruins of a temple, aqueducts, &c., and inscriptions on the banks of the river Barada at Suk Wadi Barada, a village called by early Arab geographers Abil-es-Suk, between Baalbek and Damascus.
The sees are Aleppo, Baalbek, Tripoli, Ehden, Damascus, Beirut, Tyre, Cyprus and Jebel' (held by the patriarch himself ex officio).