Occupyinf Adigrat and Makall, he reached Adowa on the 1st of April, an~ thence pushed forward to Axum, the holy city of Abyssinia.
In Abyssinia, at Axum and elsewhere, there is a marvellous series of obelisk-like monuments, probably sepulchral.
The loftiest of those still standing at Axum is about 60 ft.
- About the 1st century of the Christian era a new kingdom grew up at Axum, of which a king Zoscales is mentioned in the Periplus Marls Erythraei.
Theodore Bent at Axum in 1893, and completed by E.
About 57 o the dynasts of Yemen, who had been subdued by the Ethiopians of Axum, applied to Chosroes for help. He sent a fleet with a small army under Vahriz, who expelled the Ethiopians.
Bent conjectured that the seat of government was transferred to Axum from Jeha, which he identified with the ancient Ava; and according to a document quoted by Achille Raffray the third Christian monarch transferred it from Axum to Lalibela.
This second transference probably took place very much later; in spite of it, the custom of crowning Abyssinian kings at Axum continued, and King John was crowned there as late as 1871 or 1872.
Most of the antiquities of Axum still await excavation; those that have been described consist mainly of obelisks, of which about fifty are still standing, while many more are fallen.
The fall of many of the monuments, according to Bent, was caused by the washing away of the foundations by the stream called Mai Shum, and indeed the native tradition states that " Gudert, queen of the Amhara," when she visited Axum, destroyed the chief obelisk in this way by digging a trench from the river to its foundation.
- Classical references to Axum are collected by Pietschmann in Pauly's Realencyclopiidie (2nd ed.); for the history as derived from the inscriptions see D.
And the Ethiopians were not without successes, for on the Greek inscription of Axum (c. the middle of the 4th century) King Aeizanes calls himself " king of the Axumites, the Homerites, and Raidan, and of the Ethiopians, Sabaeans, and Silee."
The last, as we know from the Axum inscriptions, are the latest, and those with the title " mukrab " must be the earliest.
As the chronicle of Axum relates, Christianity was adopted in Abyssinia in the 4th century.
The cathedral at Axum is basilican, though the early basilicas are nearly all in ruins - e.g.
Asmara appears to have been one of the most prosperous of these villages, and to have attained commercial importance through being on the high road from Axum to Massawa.
The two young men were taken to the king at Axum, where they were well treated and in time obtained great influence.
In 1893 he investigated the ruins of Axum and other places in the north of Abyssinia, partially made known before by the researches of Henry Salt and others, and The Sacred City of the Ethiopians (1893) gave an account of this expedition.
Of Axum, the ancient capital of Abyssinia.
At Axum in Abyssinia, iianity.
The earliest capital appears to have been Axum in Tigre, where there are extensive ruins.
Of Axum), Adigrat, Macalle and Antalo.
Another inscription, not so ancient, found at Axum, states that Aizanas, king of the Axumites, the Homerites, &c., conquered the nation of the Bogos, and returned thanks to his father, the god Mars, for his victory.
The capital Auxume and the seaport Adulis were then the chief centres of the trade with the interior of Africa in gold dust, ivory, leather, aromatics, &c. At Axum, the site of the ancient capital, many vestiges of its former greatness still exist; and the ruins of Adulis, which was once a seaport on the bay of Annesley, are now about 4 m.
Accordingly, leaving Massawa in September 1769, he travelled via Axum to Gondar, where he was well received by King Tekla Haimanot II.
It is certain in any case that the process was constantly repeated &t different dates and in different parts of the country from Aswan to Axum, and to the stimulation which resulted from it must be ascribed the principal political and intellectual movements of the Sudanese nations.