The female flowers are equally simple, consisting of a bract, from whose axil arises usually a very short stalk, surmounted by two carpels adherent one to the other for their whole length, except that the upper ends of the styles are separated into two stigmas.
The bract is not, however, the one from which the axis terminating in the flower arises, but is a bract produced upon it, and gives origin in its axil to a new axis, the basal portion FIG.
The flower with its pale is sessile, and is placed in the axil of another bract in such a way that the pale is exactly opposed to it, though at a slightly higher level.
From the axil of this leaf, that is, between it and the primary axis a l arises a secondary axis a2, ending in a flower f 2, and producing a leaf about the middle.
One argument that has been adduced in support of the axillary bud theory is derived from the Palaeozoic type Cordaites, in which each ovule occurs en an axis borne in the axil of a bract.
Amongst indefinite forms the simplest occurs when a lateral shoot produced in the axil of a large single foliage leaf of the plant ends in a single flower, the axis of the plant elongating beyond, as in Veronica hederifolia, Vinca minor and Lysimachia nemorum.
In Pinus the needles occur in pairs, or in clusters of 3 or 5 at the apex of a small and inconspicuous short shoot of limited growth (spur), which is enclosed at its base by a few scale-leaves, and borne on a branch of unlimited growth in the axil of a scale-leaf.
Numerous circular pits occur on the concentric ridges of the depressed and wrinkled crown, marking the position of former inflorescences borne in the leaf-axil at different stages in the growth of the plant.
Occasionally, as in violet, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf; it is then termed axillary.
12), borne in the axil of scale-leaves, consist of a stalked central axis bearing loosely.
Each cone consists of an axis, on which numerous broad and thin bracts are arranged in regular rows; in the axil of each bract occurs a single flower; a male flower is enclosed by two opposite pairs of leaves, forming a perianth surrounding a central sterile ovule encircled by a ring of stamens united below, but free distally as short filaments, each of which terminates in a trilocular anther.
In the axil of previously formed leaves leaf-buds arise.
Except where it is terminal it arises, like the leaf-shoot, in the axil of a leaf, which is then known as a bract.
7rLru), a name given by the ancients to some of the resinous cone-bearing trees to which it is now applied, and, as limited by modern botanists, the designation of a large genus of true conifers, differing from the firs in their hard woody cone-scales being thickened at the apex, and in their slender needle - shaped leaves growing from a membranous sheath, either in pairs or from three to five together - each tuft representing an abortive branch, springing from the axil of a partially deciduous scale-leaf, the base of which remains closely adherent to the stem.
In a young cone the seminiferous scale appears as a hump of tissue at the base or in the axil of the carpellary scale, but Celakovsky, a strong supporter of the axillary-bud theory, attaches little or no importance to this kind of evidence, regarding the present manner of development as being merely an example of a short cut adopted in the course of evolution, and replacing the original production of a branch in the axil of each carpellary scale.
In Labiate plants, as the dead-nettle (Lamium), the flowers are produced in the axil of each of the foliage leaves of the plant, and they appear as if arranged in a simple whorl of flowers.
From the axil of this leaf a tertiary floral axis a 3, ending in a flower f 3, takes origin.
In diameter, and bear in the axil a solitary, stalked, white flower, about the size and shape of the garden anemone, with six or more petals and twice as many hypogynous stamens.
Nearest to the supporting stem, becomes in course of growth turned to the anterior or lower part of the flower nearest to the bract, from whose axil it arises.
3, 4: and persists after the flowers and leaves, bearing next season's plant as a lateral shoot in the axil of a scale-leaf at its base.
The lower jaw projects more or less beyond the upper, the mental barble is small, sometimes rudimentary, the vent is below the posterior half of the first dorsal fin, and there is a dark spot in the axil of the pectoral fin.
In the male flower the receptacle is "concrescent" or inseparate from the bract in whose axil it originates.
Each male flower consists of a small scale or bract, in the axil of which are usually two, sometimes three, rarely five stamens, and still more rarely a larger number.
Another view is to regard the cone as an inflorescence, each carpellary scale being a bract bearing in its axil a shoot the axis of which has not been developed; the seminiferous scale is believed to represent either a single leaf or a fused pair of leaves belonging to the partially suppressed axillary shoot.
The leaves of successive whorls alternate with one another, and this applies also to the branches which arise in the axil of the leaf sheath.
The upper angle formed between the leaf and the stem is called its axil; it is there that leaf-buds are normally developed.
A potential branch or bud, either foliage or flower, is formed in the axil of each leaf; sometimes more than one bud arises, as for instance in the walnut, where two or three stand in vertical series above each leaf.
Flower-buds, like leaf-buds, are produced in the axil of leaves, which are called bracts.
15, 4 and 7), as investigated in English, French, Italian, and American specimens, may be briefly described as a short lateral shoot or peduncle, arising in a leaf-axil and terminating in a bluntly rounded apex, bearing numerous linear bracts enclosing a central group of appendages, some of which consist of slender pedicels traversed by a vascular strand and bearing a single terminal ovule enclosed in an integument, which forms a distal canal or micropyle.