Axes sentence example

axes
  • Axes and choppers were plied all around.

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  • The steady chinking of ice axes could be heard echoing up and down the deep gorge.

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  • She'd thought his wall of swords, daggers, axes, and other medieval weapons were for ceremony.

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  • Shrines of the Double Axes have been found in the palace of Cnossus itself, at Hagia Triada, and in a small palace at Gournia, and many specimens of the sacred emblem occurred in the Cave Sanctuary of Dicte, the mythical birthplace of the Cretan Zeus.

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  • Near this domestic quarter was found a small shrine of the Double Axes, with cult objects and offertory vessels in their places.

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  • A crystal may be regarded as built up of primitive parallelepipeda, the edges of which are in the ratio of the crystallographic axes, and the angles the axial angles of the crystals.

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  • The oldest rocks, the gneisses and schists of the Archean period, form nearly the whole of the Central Plateau, and are also exposed in the axes of the folds in Brittany.

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  • We can distinguish (I) digestive endoderm, in the stomach, often with special glandular elements; (2) circu-, latory endoderm, in the radial and ring canals; (3) supporting endoderm in the axes of the tentacles and in the endodermlamella; the latter is primitively a double layer of cells, produced by concrescence OC-- = w.?"

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  • The main assimilating tissue, on the other hand, is under the upper epidermis, where it is well illuminated, and consists of oblong cells densely packed with chloroplasts and with their long axes perpendicular to the surface (palisade tissue).

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  • The rotation of the planets on their axes is also explained as a consequence of the nebular theory, for at the time of the first formation of the planet it must have participated in the rotation of the whole nebula, and by the subsequent contraction of the planet the speed with which the rotation was performed must have been accelerated.

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  • Moving Axes in Hydrodynamics.

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  • The sternum has no keel, and ossifies from lateral and paired centres only; the axes of the scapula and cora.coid have the same general direction; certain of the cranial bones have characters very unlike those possessed by the next order - the vomer, for example, being broad posteriorly and generally intervening between the basisphenoidal rostrum and the palatals and pterygoids; the barbs of the feathers are disconnected; there is no syrinx or inferior larynx; and the diaphragm is better developed than in other birds.'

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  • The internal force F is opposite to the direction of the magnetization, and equal to NI, where N is a coefficient depending only on the ratio of the axes.

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  • If each of these axes successively is placed parallel to the lines of force in a uniform field H, we shall have = 12 = 13=K3H, the three susceptibilities being in general unequal, though in some cases two of them may have the same value.

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  • On the other hand, the form of the third curve, with its large intercepts on the axes of H and B, denotes that the specimen to which it relates possesses both retentiveness and coercive force in a high degree; such a metal would be chosen for making good permanent magnets.

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  • Weber's theory, the molecules of a ferromagnetic metal are small permanent magnets, the axes of which under ordinary conditions are turned indifferently in every direction, so that no magnetic polarity is exhibited by the metal as a whole; a magnetic force acting upon the metal tends to turn the axes of the little magnets in one direction, and thus the entire piece acquires the properties of a magnet.

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  • The strength of the induced current is - HScosO/L, where 0 is the inclination of the axis of the circuit to the direction of the field, and L the coefficient of self-induction; the resolved part of the magnetic moment in the direction of the field is equal to - HS 2 cos 2 6/L, and if there are n molecules in a unit of volume, their axes being distributed indifferently in all directions, the magnetization of the substance will be-3nHS 2 /L, and its susceptibility - 3S 2 /L (Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, § 838).

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  • When, as in the application to rectangular or circular apertures, the form is symmetrical with respect to the axes both of x and y, S = o, and C reduces to C = ff cos px cos gy dx dy,.

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  • Let x, y, z be the co-ordinates of any particle of the medium in its natural state, and, 7 7, the displacements of the same particle at the end of time t, measured in the directions of the three axes respectively.

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  • Their weapons consisted of bow and arrows, short swords, spears and axes.

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  • Among the industries of Belfast are trade with the surrounding country, the manufacture of shoes, leather boards, axes, and sashes, doors and blinds, and the building and repairing of boats.

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  • Successive flexures or ridges are ranged in more or less parallel lines, and from between the bands of hard, unyielding rock of older formation the soft beds of recent shale have been washed out, to he carried through the enclosing ridges by rifts which break across their axes.

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  • The coefficient of expansion is constant for such metals only as crystallize in the regular system; the others expand differently in the directions of the different axes.

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  • But by Green's transformation f flpdS = f f PPdxdydz, (2) thus leading to the differential relation at every point = dy dp The three equations of equilibrium obtained by taking moments round the axes are then found to be satisfied identically.

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  • The components of velocity of the moving origin are denoted by U, V, W, and the components of angular velocity of the frame of reference by P, Q, R; and then if u, v, w denote the components of fluid velocity in space, and u', v', w' the components relative to the axes at a point (x, y, z) fixed to the frame of reference, we have u =U +u' - yR +zQ, v =V +v -zP +xR, w=W +w -xQ +yP.

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  • As an application of moving axes, consider the motion of liquid filling the ellipsoidal case 2 y 2 z2 Ti + b1 +- 2 = I; (1) and first suppose the liquid be frozen, and the ellipsoid l3 (4) (I) (6) (9) (I o) (II) (12) (14) = 2 U ¢ 2, (15) rotating about the centre with components of angular velocity, 7 7, f'; then u= - y i +z'i, v = w = -x7 7 +y (2) Now suppose the liquid to be melted, and additional components of angular velocity S21, 522, S23 communicated to the ellipsoidal case; the additional velocity communicated to the liquid will be due to a velocity-function 2224_ - S2 b c 6 a 5 x b2xy, as may be verified by considering one term at a time.

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  • Its axes measured 505 and 404 ft.

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  • An ample supply of natural gas is utilized by its manufacturing establishments; and among its manufactures are axes, lumber, foundry and machine shop products, furniture, boilers, woollen goods, glass and chemical fire-engines.

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  • Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.

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  • The above expressions for the capacity of an ellipsoid of three unequal axes are in general elliptic integrals, but they can be evaluated for the reduced cases when the ellipsoid is one of revolution, and hence in the limit either takes the form of a long rod or of a circular disk.

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  • The isothermals are approximately equilateral hyperbolas (pv= constant), with the axes of p and v for asymptotes, for a gas or unsaturated vapour, but coincide with the isopiestics for a saturated vapour in presence of its liquid.

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  • I by the whole area B"DZ'VO under the isothermal 9"D and the adiabatic DZ', bounded by the axes of pressure and volume.

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  • In the cliffs opposite the town on the south is the rock-cut church of the Madonna del Parto, developed, no doubt, out of an Etruscan tomb, of which there are many here; and close by is a rock-hewn amphitheatre of the Roman period, with axes of 55 and 44 yds., now most picturesque.

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  • The slides are kept firmly down to their bearings by the rollers r, r, r, r, attached to axes which are, in the middle, very strong springs.

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  • The former contrivances consist essentially of levers or cams with toothed surfaces or gripping shoes mounted upon transverse axes attached to the sides of the cage, whose function is to take hold of the guides and support the cage in the event of its becoming detached from the rope.

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  • The opposite axes are connected with springs which are kept in compression by tension of the rope in drawing but come into action when the pull is released, the side axes then biting into wooden guides or gripping those of steel bars or ropes.

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  • The pattern is that of a true sight, that is to say, the base plate is capable of movement about two axes, one parallel to and the other at right angles to the axis of the gun, and has cross spirit-levels and a graduated elevating drum and independent deflection scale, so that compensation for level of wheels can be given and quadrant elevation.

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  • Hence the area of an ellipse whose axes are 2a and 2b is Trab; and the volume of an ellipsoid whose axes are 2a, 2b and 2c is t rabc. The area of a strip of an ellipse between two lines parallel to an axis, or the volume of the portion (frustum) of an ellipsoid between two planes parallel to a principal section, may be found in the same way.

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  • In the case of the briquette the position of the foot of the ordinate u is expressed by co-ordinates x, y, referred to a pair of axes parallel to a pair of sides of the base of the briquette.

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  • This value of 0 is the same for all parabolas which pass through D and E and have their axes at right angles to KL.

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  • To extend these methods to a briquette, where the ordinate u is an algebraical function of x and y, the axes of x and of y being parallel to the sides of the base, we consider that the area of a section at distance x from the plane x = o is expressed in terms of the ordinates in which it intersects the series of planes, parallel to y=o, through the given ordinates of the briquette (§ 44); and that the area of the section is then represented by the ordinate of a trapezette.

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  • These coils are placed with their axes at right angles to one another, and at the point where the axes intersect a small pivoted needle of soft iron is placed, carrying a longer index needle moving over a scale.

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  • Their axes were made of tough stones, sawn from the block and ground to the fitting shape.

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  • They bought practically all of what is now Essex county from the Indians for "fifty double hands of powder, one hundred bars of lead, twenty axes, twenty coats, ten guns, twenty pistols, ten kettles, ten swords, four blankets, four barrels of beer, ten pairs of breeches, fifty knives, twenty horses, eighteen hundred and fifty fathoms of wampum, six ankers of liquor (or something equivalent), and three troopers' coats."

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  • In the simplest case, that of uniform translation, these components of the gradient will each be constant throughout the region; at a distant place in free aether where there is no motion, they must thus be equal to -u,-v,-w, as they refer to axes moving with the matter.

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  • We may now, as is somewhat the more natural course in the terrestrial application, take axes (x,y,z) which move with the matter; but the current must be invariably defined by the flux across surfaces fixed in space, so that we may say that relation (i) refers to a circuit fixed in space, while (ii) refers to one moving with the matter.

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  • In south Oran they determine the principal axes of the mountain ranges.

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  • Stone axes, remains of carved stone pillars similar to those of Easter Island, and skeletons with a pearl-mussel beneath the head have been found in the island, though it was uninhabited when discovered by Philip Carteret in 1767.

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  • When the currents flow through the two coils, forces are brought into action compelling the coils to set their axes in the same direction, and these forces can be opposed by another torque due to the control of a spiral spring regulated by moving a torsion head on the instrument.

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  • Copper was known to them, and it is possible that they knew how to make cutting instruments from it, but they generally used stone axes, hammers and picks, and their most dangerous weapon was a war-club into which chips of volcanic glass were set.

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  • The mountains rapidly grow wider and higher northward, by taking on new complications of structure and by including large basins between the axes of uplift, tintil in northern Colorado and Utah a complex of ranges has a breadth of 300 m., and in Colorado alone there are 40 summits over 14,000 ft.

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  • The generality of treatment is indeed remarkable; he gives as the fundamental property of all the conics the equivalent of the Cartesian equation referred to oblique axes (consisting of a diameter and the tangent at its extremity) obtained by cutting an oblique circular cone in any manner, and the axes appear only as a particular case after he has shown that the property of the conic can be expressed in the same form with reference to any new diameter and the tangent at its extremity.

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  • While it is throughout essentially a mountainous country, very complicated in its orographic features and interlocking river systems, two principal mountain axes form its ruling features - the Rocky Mountains proper, above referred to, and the Coast Ranges.

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  • Proposition 14 shows how to draw an ellipse through five given points, and Prop. 15 gives a simple construction for the axes of an ellipse when a pair of conjugate diameters are given.

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  • This arrangement is not very convenient, as it is difficult to protect the mirror from accidental displacement, so that the angle between the geometrical and magnetic axes may vary.

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  • The axis of the magnet is horizontal and at the same level as the mirror magnet, while when the central division of the scale B appears to coincide with the vertical cross-wire of the telescope the axes of the two magnets are at right angles.

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  • What is known as the method of sines is used, for since the axes of the two magnets are always at right angles when the mirror magnet is in its zero position, the ratio M/H is proportional to the sine of the angle between the magnetic axis of the mirror magnet and the magnetic - = meridian.

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  • Hence, when the microscopes are adjusted so as to coincide with the points of the dipping needle a, the axes of the two needles must be at right angles.

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  • The discovery of the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarized light, though it did not lead to such important practical applications as some of Faraday's earlier discoveries, has been of the highest value to science, as furnishing complete dynamical evidence that wherever magnetic force exists there is matter, small portions of which are rotating about axes parallel to the direction of that force.

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  • The strike of these folds is usually east and west and roughly parallel to the axes of elevation of the plateau.

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  • Every river which rises in Tibet washes down sands impregnated with gold, and it has been proved that this gold is not the product of intervening strata, but must have existed primarily in the crystalline rocks of the main axes of upheaval.

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  • It is usual to take three axes at right angles to each other to represent pressure, temperature and the composition of the variable phase..

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  • The "tangential arcs" (T) were explained by Young as being caused by the thin plates with their axes horizontal, refraction taking place through alternate faces.

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  • The axes will take up any position, and consequently give rise to a continuous series of parhelia which touch externally the inner halo, both above and below, and under certain conditions (such as the requisite altitude of the sun) form two closed elliptical curves; generally, however, only the upper and lower portions are seen.

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  • The axis P N is made of varnished glass, and so are the axes that join the three plates with the brass axis N 0.

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  • Crystals exhibit pyroelectrical characters, since they possess four uniterminal triad axes of symmetry.

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  • Other objects found in the graves are small flint knives, stone axes, flint and lumps of pyrites for obtaining fire, and, in the womens graves, hand-mills for grinding corn.

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  • Flint axes were made in imitation of metal in the XIIth Dynasty (9).

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  • Fighting Weapons.The battle-axe has been described above with axes.

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  • On extending his inquiry to other aelotropic crystals he observed a similar variation, and was thus led, in 1825, to the discovery that aelotropic crystals, when heated, expand unequally in the direction of dissimilar axes.

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  • In the following year he discovered the change, produced by change of temperature, in the direction of the optic axes of selenite.

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  • They have been thrown into many folds, the long axes of which run in a general north-easterly direction.

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  • The Danes were specially renowned for their axes; but about the sword the most of northern poetry and mythology clings.

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  • The simplest equation to the parabola is that which is referred to its axis and the tangent at the vertex as the axes of co-ordinates, when it assumes the form y 2 = 4ax where as = semilatus rectum; this may be deduced directly from the definition.

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  • An equation of similar form is obtained when the axes of co-ordinates are any diameter and the tangent at the vertex.

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  • In crystallography, the regular or ordinary dodecahedron is an impossible form since the faces cut the axes in irrational ratios; the "pentagonal dodecahedron" of crystallographers has irregular pentagons for faces, while the geometrical solid, on the other hand, has regular ones.

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  • The peculiar form of the tube is eminently suited for rigid preservation of the relative parallelism of the axes of the two telescopes, so that,;i the image of a certain selected star is retained on the intersection of two wires of the micrometer, by means of the driving clock, aided by small corrections given by the observer in right ascension and declination (required on account of irregularity in the clock movement, error in astronomical adjustment of the polar axis, or changes in the star's apparent place produced by refraction), the image of a star will continue on the same spot of the photographic film during the whole time of exposure.

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  • The driving circle was greatly increased in diameter and placed at the upper end of the polar axis, and both the polar and declination axes were made much stronger in proportion to the mass of the instrument they were designed to carry.

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  • They then meet a small plane mirror supported at the point of intersection of the polar and declination axes, whence they are reflected down through the hollow polar axis as shown in fig.

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  • When the angular momentum is too great for the usual spheroidal form to persist, this gives place to an ellipsoid with three unequal axes; this is succeeded by a pear-shaped form.

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  • The graves at Hallstatt were partly inhumation partly cremation; they contained swords, daggers, spears, javelins, axes, helmets, bosses and plates of shields and hauberks, brooches, various forms of jewelry, amber and glass beads, many of the objects being decorated with animals and geometrical designs.

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  • The weapons and axes are mostly iron, a few being bronze.

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  • The flat axes are distinguished by the side stops and in some cases the transition from palstave to socketed axe can be seen.

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  • Quaternions (as a mathematical method) is an extension, or improvement, of Cartesian geometry, in which the artifices of co-ordinate axes, &c., are got rid of, all directions in space being treated on precisely the same terms. It is therefore, except in some of its degraded forms, possessed of the perfect isotropy of Euclidian space.

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  • Hamilton, still keeping prominently before him as his great object the invention of a method applicable to space of three dimensions, proceeded to study the properties of triplets of the form x+iy+jz, by which he proposed to represent the directed line in space whose projections on the co-ordinate axes are x, y, z.

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  • Also, everything relating to change of systems of axes, as for instance in the kinematics of a rigid system, where we have constantly to consider one set of rotations with regard to axes fixed in space, and another set with regard to axes fixed in the system, is a matter of troublesome complexity by the usual methods.

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  • Here the symmetry points at once to the selection of the three principal axes as the directions for i, j, k; and it would appear at first sight as if quaternions could not simplify, though they might improve in elegance, the solution of questions of this kind.

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  • Mercury and Venus were also studied, and he concluded that these planets rotated on their axes in the same time as they revolved about the sun; but these views are questioned.

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  • At each step there is a gain in itccu racy and comprehensiveness; and the conviction is cherishei that some system of rectangular axes exists with respeci to which the Newtonian scheme holds with all imaginabb accuracy.

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  • Moving axes of reference.

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  • If the origin of rectangular axes fixed in the lamina be shifted through a space whose projections on the original directions of the axes are X, u, and if the axes are simultaneously turned through an angle e, the coordinates of a point of the lamina, relative to the original axes, are changed from x, y to X+x cos ey sin e, u+x sin e+y cos e, or X + x ye, u + Xe + y, ultimately.

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  • The force at A1 may be replaced by its components Xi, Yi, parallei to the co ordinate axes; that at A1 by V1 its components X2, Yf, and so on.

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  • Now suppose that a body receives first a positive rotation a about OA, and secondly a positive rotation e3 about OB; and let A, B be the intersections of these axes with a sphere described about 0 as centre.

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  • The composition of finite rotations about parallel axes is, a particular case of the preceding; the radius of the sphere is now infinite, and the triangles are plane.

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  • Successive half-turns about parallel axes a, b are equivalent to a translation measured by double the distance between these axes in the direction from a to 1,.

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  • Successive halfturns about intersecting axes a, b are equivalent to a rotation about the common perpendicular to a, b at their intersection, Of amount equal to twice the acute angle between them, in the direction from a to b.

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  • Successive half-turns about two skew axes a, b are equivalent to a twist about a screw whose axis is the common perpendicular to a, b, the translation being double the shortest distance, and the angle of rotation being twice the acute angle between a, b, in the direction from a to b.

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  • If AB, AC represent infinitesimal rotations about intersecting axes, the consequent displacement of any point 0 in the plane BAC will be at right angles to this plane, and will be represented by twice the sum of the areas OAB, OAC, taken with proper signs.

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  • It is easily inferred as a limiting case, or proved directly, that two infini tesimal rotations a, j3 about c u parallel axes are equivalent to a ..._ -- - -

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  • We will briefly notice the case of two degrees, which involves an interesting generalization of the method (already explained) of compounding rotations about intersecting axes.

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  • We examine first the case where the axes of the two screws are at right angles and intarsect.

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  • We take these as axes of x and y; then if f, n be the component rotations about them, we have -

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  • In the first place, a cyhindroid can be constructed so as to have its axis coincident with the common perpendicular to the axes of the two given screws and to satisfy thi-ee other conditions, for the position of the centre, the parameter, and the orientation about the axis are still at our disposal.

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  • Hence we can adjust these so that the surface shall contain the axes of the two given screws as generators, and that the difference of the corresponding pitches shall have the proper value.

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  • It follows that when a body has two degrees Of freedom it can twist about any one of a singly infinite system of screws whose axes lie on a certain cylindroid.

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  • Hence a couple of moment G, whose axis has the direction (1, m, n) relative to a right-handed system of rectangular axes, FIG.

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  • The formula (16) expresses that the squared radius of gyration about any axis (Ox) exceeds the squared radius of gyration about a parallel axis through G by the square of the distance between the two axes.

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  • It appears from (24) that through any assigned point 0 three rectangular axes can be drawn such that the product of inertia with respect to each pair of co-ordinate planes vanishes; these are called the principal axes of inertia at 0.

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  • The squares of the radii of gyration about the principal axes at P may be denoted by k,i+k32, k,f + ki2, k12 + k,2 hence by (32) and (35), they are rfOi, r2Oi, r20s, respectively.

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  • To find the relations between the moments of inertia about different axes through any assigned point 0, we take 0 as origin.

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  • A, B, C are the moments of inertia about the co-ordinate axes, and F, G, H are the products of inertia with respect to the pairs of co-ordinate planes.

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  • When referred to its principal axes, the equation of the quadric takes the form Axi+By2+Czi=M.

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  • The directions of these axes are determined by the property (24), and therefore coincide with those of the principal axes of inertia at 0, as already defined in connection with the theory of plane quadratic moments.

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  • Obviously OV is parallel to the tangent to the path atP, and its magnitude is ds/dt, where s is the arc. If we project OV on the co-ordinate axes (rectangular or oblique) in the usual manner, the projections u, v, w are called the component velocities parallel to the axes.

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  • Take rectangular axes, of which Oz coincides with the axis of rotation.

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  • The relation between these axes may be expressed by means of the momental ellipsoid at 0.

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  • The equation of the latter, referred to its principal axes, being as in II (41), the co-ordinates of the point J where it is met by the instantaneous axis are proportional to p, q, r, and the direction-cosines of the normal at J are therefore proportional to Ap, Bq, Cr, or X, u, v.

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  • The resulting Z+R equations are not as a rule easy of application, owing to the fact that the moments and products of inertia A, B, C, F, G, H are not constants but vary in conse- 0 quence of the changing orientation of the body with respect to the co-ordinate axes.

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  • Take, for example, the case of a sphere rolling on a plane; and let the axes Ox, Oy be drawn through the centre parallel to the plane, so that the equation of the latter is 1=cf.

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  • Let a be the radius of the rolling sphere, c that of the spherical surface which is the locus of its centre, and let x, y, I be the co-ordinates of this centre relative to axes through 0, the centre of the fixed sphere.

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  • If p, q, r be the component angular velocities about the principal axes at 0, we have (Ap+B2q+C,2)/r = (Ap+Bq1+Cr2)/2T, (3) each side being in fact equal to unity.

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  • The ratio of the axes of the ellipse is sec a, the longer axis being in the plane of 0.

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  • Moving A xes of ReferenceFor the more general treatment of the kinetics of a rigid body it is usually convenient to adopt a system of moving axes.

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  • In order that the moments and products of inertia with respect to these axes may be constant, it is in general necessary to suppose them fixed in the solid.

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  • The moving axes Ox, Oy, 01 form a rigid frame of reference whose motion at time t may be specified by the three component angular velocities p, q, r.

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  • Now consider a system of fixed axes Ox, Oy, Oz chosen so as to coincide at the instant I with the moving system Ox, Oy, Os.

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  • If we now apply them to the case of a rigid body moving about a fixed point 0, and make Ox, Oy, Oz coincide with the principal axes of inertia at 0, we have X, u, v=Ap, Bq, Cr, whence A (B C) qr = L,

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  • These equations are due to Euler, with whom the conception of moving axes, and the application to the problem of free rotation, originated.

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  • When, in any problem, the values of u, v, w, p, q, r have been determined as functions of t, it still remains to connect the moving axes with some fixed frame of reference.

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  • This solution, taken by itself, represents a motion in which each particle of the system (since its displacements parallel to Cartesian co-ordinate axes are linear functions of the qs) executes a simple vibration of period 21r/u.

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  • Let yr be the linear velocity of the point E fixed in the plane of axes AOB.

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  • Application to a Pair of TurnIng Fseces.Let ai, a2 be the angular velocities of a pair of turning pieces; Of, Oi the angles which their line of connection makes with their respective planes of rotation; Ti, r2 the common perpendiculars let fall from the line of connection upon the respective axes of rotation of the pieces.

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  • That, when both pieces rotate, their axes, and all their points of contact, lie in the same plane.

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  • That the angular velocities of a pair of turning pieces in rolling contact must be inversely as the perpendicular distances of any pair of points of contact from the respective axes.

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  • That for a pair of turning pieces with parallel axes, and for a turning piece and a shifting piece, the line of contact is straight, and parallel to the axes or axis; and hence that the rolling surfaces are either plane or cylindrical (the term cylindrical including all surfaces generated by the motion of a straight line parallel tO itself).

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  • Cylindrical Wheels and Smooth Racks.In designing cylindrical wheels and smooth racks, and determining their comparati* motion, it is sufficient to consider a section of the pair of pieces made by a plane perpendicular to the axis or axes.

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  • The points where axes intersect the plane of section are called centres; the point where the line of contact intersects it, the poini of contact, or pitch-point; and the wheels are described as circular, elliptical, &c., according to the forms of their sections made by that plane.

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  • The axes will not be parallel, nor will they intersect each other.

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  • The pitch-circles of a pair of circular toothed wheels are sections of their pitch-surfaces, made for spur-wheels (that is, for wheels whose axes are parallel) by a plane at right angles to the axes, and for bevel wheels by a sphere described about the common apex.

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  • The ordinary position of a pair of endless screws is with their axes at right angles to each other.

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  • Ci, C1 are the axes of the two parallel shafts; Di, D2 two disks facing each other, fixed on the ends of the two shafts FIG.

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  • Oldhams coupling may be used with advantage where the axes of the shafts are intended to be as nearly in the same straight line as is possible, but where there is some doubt as to the practibility I or nermanency of their exact continuity.

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  • The length L of an endless belt connecting a pair of pulleys whose effective radii are r,, r,, with parallel axes whose distance apart is c, is given by the following formulae, in each of which the first term, containing the radical, expresses the length of the straight parts of the belt, and the remainder of the formula the length of the curved parts.

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  • That condition is / fulfilled by a pair of con- B ?-D tinuous cones generated by - \ the revolution of two straight 2 / lines inclined opposite ways to -, their respective axes at equal angles.

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  • Let r1 be the radius of the large end of each, ri that of the small end, r, that of the middle; and let Ii be the sagitta, measured perpendicular to the axes, of the arc by whose revolution each of the conoids is generated, or, in other words, the bulging of the conoids in the middle of their length.

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  • The effect of the link is to maintain the distance between the axes of those pins invariable; hence the common perpendicular of the axes of the pins is the line of connection, and its extremities may be called the connected points.

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  • The axes of rotation of a pair of turning pieces connected by a link are almost always parallel, and perpendicular to the line of connection n which case the angular velocity ratio at any instant is the recipocal of the ratio of the common perpendiculars let fall from the me of connection upon the respective axes of rotation.

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  • The velocity of the other connected point at such an instant is null, unless it also reaches a dead-point at the same instant, so that the line of connection is in the plane of the two axes of rotation, in which case the velocity ratio is indeterminate.

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  • Coupling of Parallel Axes.Two or more parallel shafts (such as those of a locomotive engine, with two or more pairs of driving wheels) are made to rotate with constantly equal angular velocities by having equal cranks, which are maintained parallel by a coupling-rod of such a length that the line of c000exion is equal to the distance between the axes.

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  • Let 0 be the point of intersection of the axes OCf, 0C2,

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  • Let the axis Ai carry a wheel of N1 teeth, driving a wheel of ni teeth on the axis Ai, which carries also a wheel of N2 teeth, driving a wheel of 113 teeth on the axis A3, and so on; the numbers of teeth in drivers being denoted by Ns, and in followers by ns, and the axes to which the wheels are fixed being denoted by numbers.

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  • Supposing all the wheels to be in outside gearing, then, as each elementary combination reverses the direction of rotation, and as the number of elementary combinations m 1 is one less than the number of axes rn it is evident that if m is odd the direction of rotation is preserved, and if even reversed.

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  • It is often a question of importance to determine the number of teeth in a train of wheels best suited for giving a determinate velocity ratio to two axes.

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  • It was shown by Young that, to do this with the least total number of teeth, the velocity ratio of each elementary combination should approximate as nearly as possible to 3.59., This would in many cases give too many axes; and, as a useful practical rule, it may be laid down that from 3 to 6 ought to be the limit of the velocity ratio of an elementary combination in wheelwork.

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  • Adding the centres corresponding to these several axes to the figure, it will be seen that there are six centres in connection with the four-bar chain of which four are permanent and two are instantaneous or virtual centres; and, further, that whatever be the configuration of the chain these centres group themselves into three sets of three, each set lying on a straight line.

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  • The virtual centres 0,-,, O,i are at the respective axes of the wheels r and 1, and the centre O,-i divides the line through these two points externally in the ratio of the train of wheels.

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  • The origins of these four plane co-ordinate systems may be collinear with the axis of the optical system; and the corresponding axes may be parallel.

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  • The optical characters are interesting, because of the striking crossed dispersion of the optic axes, of which phenomenon borax affords the best example.

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  • Throughout this vast space of elevated plateau and mountain face geologists now trace a system of main chains, or axes, extending from the Hindu Kush to Assam, arranged in approximately parallel lines, and traversed at intervals by main lines of drainage obliquely.

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  • Interspersed between these main geological axes are many other minor ridges, on some of which are peaks of great elevation.

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  • Nearly Ioo stone implements were excavated - axes, hammer axes, stone hammers and mauls - which, according to Dr Gowland, who superintended the work, had been used not only for breaking the rude blocks into regular forms, but also for working down their faces to a level or curved surface.

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  • This twisting is in a great measure owing to the manner in which the bones of the wing are twisted upon themselves, and the spiral nature of their articular surfaces - the long axes of the joints always intersecting each other b FIG.

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  • If the wings were not driven at a high speed, and if they were not eccentrics made to revolve upon two separate axes, they would of necessity be large cumbrous structures; but large heavy wings would be difficult to work, and what is worse, they would (if too large), instead of controlling the air, be controlled by it, and so cease to be flying organs.

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  • The flexibility and elasticity of the kite formed by the natural wing are rendered necessary by the fact that the wing, as already stated, is practically hinged at its root and along its anterior margin, an arrangement which necessitates its several parts travelling at different degrees of speed, in proportion as they are removed from the axes of rotation.

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  • The vertical axes are surmounted by two parachutes, and the body of the machine is furnished with an engine, propeller, rudders and an extensive aeroplane.

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  • In the south midlands of England there are two main ranges of hills, with axes roughly parallel.

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  • The cartesian equation, referred to the fixed diameter and the tangent at B as axes may be expressed in the forms x= a6, y=a(I -cos 0) and y-a=a sin (x/afir); the latter form shows that the locus is the harmonic curve.

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  • A, B, C, D, successive series of axes, the last bearing aerial culms. Much reduced.

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  • The two bracts are, however, on different axes, one secondary to the other, and cannot therefore be parts of one whorl of organs.

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  • The entire spikelet, or single flowers, are transformed into small-leaved shoots which fall from the axes and readily root in the ground.

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  • The pyro-electric characters of quartz are closely connected with its peculiar type of symmetry and especially with the three uniterminal dyad axes.

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  • It is to be noticed here that the axes of co-ordinates may be any two lines at right angles to each other whatever; and that the equation of a curve will be different according to the selection of the axes of co-ordinates; but the order is independent of the axes, and has a determinate value for any given curve.

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  • The well-known theorem as to radical axes may be stated as follows.

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  • Similarly, if we have a curve U= o derived from the curve u = o in a manner independent of the particular axes of co-ordinates, then from the transformed equation u' = o deriving in like manner the curve U' = o, the two equations U= o, U' = o must each of them imply the other; and when this is so, U will be a covariant of u.

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  • The " exceedingly irregularly rounded, low-pointed mountains and hills covered by dense forests " (Hill) are Antillean, not Andean, and lie at right angles to the axes of the systems of North and South America.

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  • At the outset, the position of each body, considered as a material particle, is defined by reference to a system of co-ordinate axes, and not by any verbal description.

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  • Such a form we all know to be that of the earth and of the planets rotating on their axes.

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  • The proper share of each in bringing about this memorable result is not easy to apportion, since they freely imparted and profited by one another's advances and improvements; it need only be said that the fundamental proposition of the invariability of the planetary major axes laid down with restrictions by Laplace in 1773, was finally established by Lagrange in 1776; while Laplace in 1784 proved the subsistence of such a relation between the eccentricities of the planetary orbits on the one hand, and their inclinations on the other, that an increase of either element could, in any single case, proceed only to a very small extent.

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  • The Papuans are mostly ignorant of iron, but work skilfully with axes of stone or tridacna shell and bone chisels, cutting down trees 20 in.

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  • The principal constituent ranges are accompanied by another set of ranges which break away from the main axes in a westerly or even in a north-westerly direction.

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  • The north-west highlands of Donegal and the Ox Mountains, with their axes of folding running north-east and south-west, invite comparison with the great chain of Leinster, but also with the Grampians and the backbone of Scandinavia.

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  • All across Ireland, from the Ballyhoura Hills on the Cork border to the southern shore of Belfast Lough, slaty and sandy Silurian beds appear in the axes of the anticlinal folds, surrounded by Old Red Sandstone scarps or Carboniferous Limestone lowlands.

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  • Of the primitive axes of Africa few traces remain.

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  • Metrical relations between the axes, eccentricity, distance between the foci, and between these quantities and the co-ordinates of points on the curve (referred to the axes and the centre), and focal distances are readily obtained by the methods of geometrical conics or analytically.

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  • By varying the position of R other points can be found, and, since the curve is symmetrical about both the major and minor axes, it is obvious that any point may be reflected in both the axes, thus giving 3 additional points.

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  • That this is not a necessary characteristic of light was discovered by Christian Huygens, who found that, whereas a stream of sunlight in traversing a rhomb of spar in any but one direction always gives rise to two streams of equal brightness, each of these emergent streams is divided by a second rhomb into two portions having a relative intensity dependent upon the position with respect to one another of the principal planes of the faces of entry into the rhombs - the planes through the axes of the crystals perpendicular to the refracting surfaces.

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  • In conformity with the form of the path, the light is said to be elliptically polarized, rightor left-handedly as the case may be, and the axes of the elliptic path are determined by the planes of maximum and minimum polarization of the light.

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  • In the case of a biaxal plate perpendicular to the bisector of the acute angle between the optic axes, the curves of constant retardation are approximately Cassini's ovals, and the lines of like polarization are equilateral hyperbolae passing through the points corresponding to the optic axes.

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  • This state of things may, however, be considerably departed from if the axes of optical symmetry of the crystal are different for the various colours.

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  • When the rings are coloured symmetrically with respect to two perpendicular lines the acute bisectrix and the plane of the optic axes are the same for all frequencies, and the colour for which the separation of the axes is the least is that on the concave side of the summit of the hyperbolic brushes.

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  • Crossed, inclined and horizontal dispersion are characterized respectively by a distribution of colour that is symmetrical with respect to the centre alone, the plane of the optic axes, and the perpendicular plane.

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  • With a biaxal plate perpendicular to the optic axis in the diagonal position, the hyperbolic brush becomes an hyperbolic line and the rings are expanded or contracted on its concave side, with a positive plate, according as the plane of the optic axes is parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the quarter-wave plate, the reverse being the case with a negative plate.

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  • Again, a system of rings, similar to those of an uniaxal plate perpendicular to the axis, may be produced with a glass cylinder by transmitting heat from its surface to its axes by immersion in heated oil, and glass that has been raised to a red heat and then cooled rapidly at its edges gives in polarized light an interference pattern of a regular form dependent upon the shape of the contour.

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  • When the light is circularly polarized or circularly analysed, a single plate gives two mutually enwrapping spirals, and similar spirals in circularly polarized light are obtained with plates of an active biaxal crystal perpendicular to one of the optic axes.

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  • Its axes are 951and 79 yds., and it is in the main cut in the rock, though some parts of it are built with concrete.

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  • The first book deals with the generation of the three conics; the second with the asymptotes, axes and diameters; the third with various metrical relations between transversals, chords, tangents, asymptotes, &c.; the fourth with the theory of the pole and polar, including the harmonic division of a straight line, and with systems of two conics, which he shows to intersect in not more than four points; he also investigates conics having single and double contact.

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  • The fourteen-month term is an immediate result of the fact that the axes of rotation and figure of the earth do not strictly coincide, but make with each other a small angle of which the mean value is about o 15".

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  • In describing a branching inflorescence, it is common to speak of the rachis as the primary floral axis, its branches as the secondary floral axes, their divisions as the tertiary floral axes, and so on; thus avoiding any confusion that might arise from the use of the terms rachis, peduncle and pedicel.

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  • Here f is the termination of the primary axis, and this flower expands first, while the other flowers are developed centrifugally on separate axes.

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  • H the secondary floral axes give rise to tertiary ones, the raceme is branching, and forms a panicle, as in Yucca gloriosa.

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  • When the axis is so shortened that the secondary axes arise from a common point, and spread out as radii of nearly equal length, each ending in a single flower or dividing again in a similar radiating manner, an umbel is produced, as in fig.

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  • From the primary floral axis a the secondary axes come off in a radiating or umbrella-like manner, and end in small umbels b, which are called partial umbels or umbellules.

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  • A cymose inflorescence is an inflorescence where the primary floral axis before terminating in a flower gives off one or more lateral unifloral axes which repeat the process - the development being only limited by the vigour of the plant.

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  • The floral axes are thus centrifugally developed.

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  • At its base two leaves are produced, in each of which arise secondary axes t' t', ending in single flowers, and at the base of these axes a pair of opposite leaves is produced, giving rise to tertiary axes 1" t", ending in single flowers, and so on.

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  • When the axes become very much shortened, the arrangement is more complicated in appearance, and the nature of the inflorescence can only be recognized by the order of opening of the flowers.

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  • But on examination it is found that there is a central flower expanding first, and from its axis two secondary axes spring bearing solitary flowers; the expansion is thus centrifugal.

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  • In addition to the dichasial form there are others where more than two lateral axes are produced from the primary floral axis, each of which in turn (From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.) FIG.

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  • Juncus, where numerous lateral axes arising from the primary axis grow very strongly and develop in an irregular manner.

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  • In the uniparous cyme a number of floral axes are successively developed one from the other, but the axis of each successive generation, instead of producing a pair of bracts, produces only one.

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  • The basal portion of the consecutive axes may become much thickened and arranged more or less in a straight line, ns and thus collectively form an apparent or false axis or sympodium, and the inflorescence thus simulates a raceme.

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  • The false axis, a b c d, is formed by successive generations of unifloral axes, the flowers being arranged along one side alternately and in a double row; had the bracts been developed they would have formed a similar double row on the opposite side of the false axis; the whole inflorescence is represented as curved on itself.

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  • In this case the axes are not arranged in two rows along one side of the false axis, but are placed at regular intervals, so as to form an elongated spiral round it.

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  • Helicoid Cyme (axes forming a spiral).

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  • These main Stigmarian axes may be 2 to 3 ft.

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  • The morphology of Stigmaria has been much discussed; possibly the main axes, which do not agree perfectly either with rhizomes or roots, may best be regarded as comparable with the rhizophores of Selaginellae; they have also been compared with the embryonic stem, or protocorm, of certain species of Lycopodium; the homologies of the appendages with the roots of recent Lycopods appear manifest.

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  • Binocular Instruments for Range-finding.-For measuring purposes binocular telescopes with parallel axes are the only types employed.

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  • The cliffs bulged out over much of this area so from the catwalk and path above, most of the time, they were unable to see the bottom of the gorge and only a portion of the ice, although the voices of the climbers and the sound of their axes could be heard.

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  • The troops lacked ice axes, glycol antifreeze had to be flown in, the tank engines refused to start.

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  • It literally revolves around and around, using aphorisms about war and cons as axes upon which the movie almost physically rotates.

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  • The earliest bronze axes are very like stone celts in form.

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  • The correlation coefficient between adjacent pairs of axes can be viewed by clicking an axis with the right mouse button.

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  • The only restriction is that the atomic coordinates are given in Angstroms on arbitrary orthogonal axes.

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  • The principal axes of the thermal ellipsoid can be obtained from the U values via a principal axes transformation.

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  • Flight measurements from accelerometers and rate gyros provide airplane motion characteristics relative to axes fixed within the airframe.

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  • The corresponding refractive indices are the lengths of these axes.

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  • As well as knives, the weapons surrendered to the 43 police forces across England and Wales include machetes, meat cleavers and axes.

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  • An uncommon and exciting discovery was that of a small hoard of bronze metalwork comprising a decorated bracelet and two axes.

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  • How it affects ice axes is somewhat muddy, given that the actual standard to be adopted is still only provisional.

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  • Depending on the test specification, vibration tests may be carried out on a single axis or three mutually perpendicular axes.

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  • A pair of identical quartz crystals with axes arranged mutually perpendicular would be required with output signals added to produce a beat frequency.

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  • The default clipping rectangle is the plot window, the area enclosed within the axes of the most recent plot.

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  • Logged Oden, guide our ships, our axes spears and swords!

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  • To make things easier it can be rotated into the principal stress tensor by a suitable change of axes.

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  • Its manufactures consist chiefly of cotton checks, canvas, hats, candle wicks, axes, spades and sickles.

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  • It has now been placed on the x and y axes, with the angle q measured from the horizontal x-axis.

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  • Thus it has a real centre, two foci, two directrices and two vertices; the transverse axis, joining the vertices, corresponds to the major axis of the ellipse, and the line through the centre and perpendicular to this axis is called the conjugate axis, and corresponds to the minor axis of the ellipse; about these axes the curve is symmetrical.

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  • Referred to the centre this becomes Ax e +2Hxy+By 2 +C =o; and if the axes of coordinates be the principal axes of the curve, the equation is further simplified to Ax e - By 2 = C, or if the semi-transverse axis be a, and the semiconjugate b, 'x' 2 /a 2 - y 2 /b 2 = I.

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  • Any attempt to interfere with these directions, by placing the seedlings in abnormal positions, is frustrated by the seedlings themselves, which change their direction of growth by bringing about curvatures of the different parts of their axes, so that the root soon grows vertically downward again and the stem in the opposite direction.

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  • To emphasize the superiority of this imperium over that of the consuls, the dictator might be preceded by twenty-four lictors, not by the usual twelve; and, at least in the earlier period of the office, these lictors bore the axes, the symbols of life and death, within the city walls.

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  • The tumulus, which is crowned with a chapel, was excavated by Rene Galles in 1862; and the contents of the sepulchral chamber, which include several jade and fibrolite axes, are preserved in the museum at Vannes.

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  • The acute bisectrix of the optic axes never deviates from the normal to the basal plane by more than a degree or two, hence a cleavage flake of mica will always show an optic figure in convergent light when placed on the stage of a polarizing microscope.

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  • The diet of 1497 passed most of its time in constructing, and then battering to pieces with axes and hammers, a huge wooden image representing the ministers of the crown, who were corrupt enough, but immovable, since they regularly appeared at the diet with thousands of retainers armed to the teeth, and openly derided the reforming endeavours of the lower gentry, who perceived that something was seriously wrong, yet were powerless to remedy it.

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  • If the equation of this line, referred to new coordinate axes in the plane area, is written xcos a+y sin a - h=o, (3) R = f f p(h - x cos a - y sin a)dxdy, (4) zR= f fpx(h - xcos a - y sin a)dxdy, (5) yR = f f py(h - x cos a - y sin a)dxdy.

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  • In the Eulerian notation u, v, w denote the components of the velocity q parallel to the coordinate axes at any point (x, y, z) at the time t; u, v, w are functions of x, y, z, t, the independent variables; and d is used here to denote partial differentiation with respect to any one of these four independent variables, all capable of varying one at a time.

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  • It is convenient to introduce the function =log =log (Q / q) + 01 (4) so that the polygon representing 12 conformally has a boundary given by straight lines parallel to the coordinate axes; and then to determine S2 and w as functions of a variable u (not to be confused with the velocity component of q), such that in the conformal representation the boundary of the and w polygon is made to coincide with the real axis of u.

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  • Construct a small cylinder inside the gas, having dS as base and edges such that the projections of each on the coordinate axes are udt, vdt, wdt.

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  • In 1630 the Dutch West India Company granted the island to Michael Pauw as a part of his patroonship of Pavonia, and it was bought at this time from the Indians for "some duffels, kettles, axes, hoes, wampum, drilling awls, jew's harps, and divers other small wares"; but before Pauw had established a settlement upon it he sold his title back to the company.

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  • The axes i are now free; the outer lamellae of the outer gill-plates (er) still adhere by concrescence to the mantle-skirt, whilst the inner lamellae of the inner gill-plates meet one another and fuse by concrescence at In the lateral view of the animal with reflected mantle-skirt and gill-plates, the line of concrescence of the inner lamellae of the inner gill-plates is readily seen; it is marked as in fig.

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  • The cartesian equation to a parabola which touches the coordinate axes is 1 / ax+'1 / by= i, and the polar equation when the focus is the pole and the axis the initial line is r cos 2 6/2 = a.

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  • If A = B = C, the momental ellipsoid becomes a sphere; all axes through 0 are then principal axes, and the moment of inertia is the same for each.

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  • The whole of the foregoing reasonings are applicable, not merely when acm and bbb are actual cylinders, but also when they are the osculating cylinders of a pair of cylindroidal surfaces of varying curvature, A and B being the axes of curvature of the parts of those surfaces which are in contact for the instant under consideration.

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  • Trains of Wheelwork.Let A1, A2, A3, &c., A,,,_1, A,,, denote a series of axes, and aj, a1, a3, &c., a,,,1, a,,, their angular velocities.

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  • As representatives of magistrates who possessed the imperium, they carried the fasces and axes in front of them (see Fasces).

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  • The examination of dispersion of the optic axes in biaxal crystals (see Refraction, § Double) may be conveniently made with a plate perpendicular to the acute bisectrix placed in the diagonal position for light of mean period between a crossed polarizer and analyser.

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  • Any solid or liquid transparent medium of lenticular form, having either one convex and one flat surface or two convex surfaces whose axes are coincident, may serve as a " magnifier," the essential condition being that it shall refract the rays which pass through it so as to cause widely diverging rays to become either parallel or but slightly divergent.

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  • In the helicoid cyme there is also a false axis formed by the basal portion of the separate axes, but the flowers are not placed in a double row, but in a single row, and form a spiral or helix round the false axis.

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  • Logged Oden, guide our ships, our axes spears and swords !

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  • The four stepper axes provide pulse and direction outputs at up to 500kHz.

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  • Progress continues in developing new techniques to match image curves over arbitrary viewpoints for extracting symmetry axes and recognition.

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  • Axes IE5 knows only the abbreviated syntax for axis and node test.

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  • The range for the y and z axes and any of the individual limits may be omitted.

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  • For a more wicked design choice, check out their assortment of battle axes, flails, maces, and crossbows.

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  • Battle axes were part of a knight's standard arsenal, and their long handles made them useful in confrontations on foot and horseback.

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  • They provide medieval replica weaponry, armor, and collectibles includes daggers, spears, axes, shields, and helmets.

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  • You choose from huge Great Swords that swoop overhead, spears that reach out directly in front of you, axes, and even guns.

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  • The Vah Shir Berserker is good with throwing axes but weak in his fighting style as he focuses on dealing damage more than evading it.

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  • Certain weapon items like crowbars, shovels, fire axes and sledgehammers will also help you access blocked off areas.

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  • When Kratos starts out in God of War, he wields a pair of axes that have actually been seared into his flesh by a pair of chains that run up the length of his arms.

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  • There have been reports of voices heard in the house, as well as apparitions of ghostly men with axes.

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  • Buckskin and cotton shirts, cocked hats, beaver-skins, cowhide, moccasins, boots, long stockings, knee breeches, jackets, belt knives, axes, clubs, handguns, and blades were merely some components in their motley of outfits.

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  • The honor guard may carry ceremonial fire axes in a nod to the traditional piece of equipment carried by firefighters dating from the 1800's to today.

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  • The problem of the curves is solved by their reduction to a problem of straight lines; and the locus of any point is determined by its distance from two given straight lines - the axes of co-ordinates.

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  • If the asymptotes be perpendicular, or, in other words, the principal axes be equal, the curve is called the rectangular hyperbola.

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  • The geometry of the rectangular hyperbola is simplified by the fact that its principal axes are equal.

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  • Referred to the asymptotes as axes the general equation becomes xy 2 obviously the axes are oblique in the general hyperbola and rectangular in the rectangular hyperbola.

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  • Later, the axis branches by the formation of new growing-points, and in this way the complex system of axes forming the body of the ordinary vascular plant is built up. In the flowering plants the embryo, after developing up to a certain point, stopf growing and rests, enclosed within the seed.

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  • Complete scenes of worship in which libations are poured before the Sacred Axes are, moreover, given on a fine painted sarcophagus found at Hagia Triada.

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  • The chest is of limestone coated with stucco, adorned with life-like paintings of offertory scenes in connexion with the sacred Double Axes of Minoan cult.

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  • The platy minerals have also a perfect cleavage parallel to their flat surfaces, while the fibrous species often have two or more cleavages following their long axes; hence a schistose rock may split not only by separation of the mineral plates from one another but also by cleavage of the parallel minerals through their substance.

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  • If a current is passed through the fixed coil and movable coil in series with one another, the movable coil tends to displace itself so as to bring the axes of the coils, which are normally at right angles, more into the same direction.

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  • To reduce these figures to a common standard, so that the volumes shall contain equal numbers of molecules, the notion of molecular volumes is introduced, the arbitrary values of the crystallographic axes (a, b, c) being replaced by the topic parameters' (x, ?i, w), which are such that, combined with the axial angles, they enclose volumes which contain equal numbers of molecules.

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  • In the article Crystallography the nature and behaviour of twinned crystals receives full treatment; here it is sufficient to say that when the planes and axes of twinning are planes and axes of symmetry, a twin would exhibit higher symmetry (but remain in the same crystal system) than the primary crystal; and, also, if a crystal approximates in its axial constants to 'a higher system, mimetic twinning would increase the approximation, and the crystal would be pseudo-symmetric.

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  • Ammonium iodide assumes cubic forms with perfect cubic cleavage; tetramethyl ammonium iodide is tetragonal with perfect cleavages parallel to {100} and {o01} - a difference due to the lengthening of the a axes; tetraethyl ammonium iodide also assumes tetragonal forms, but does not exhibit the cleavage of the tetramethyl compound; while tetrapropyl ammonium iodide crystallizes in rhombic form.

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  • The plane of the optic axes may be either perpendicular or parallel to the plane of symmetry of the crystal, and according to its position two classes of mica are distinguished.

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  • In the theory of surfaces we transform from one set of three rectangular axes to another by the substitutions 'X=' by+ cz, Y = a'x + b'y + c'z, Z =a"x+b"y-l-c"z, where X 2+Y2+Z2 = x2+ y2+z2.

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  • Or, instead of looking upon a linear substitution as replacing a pencil of lines by a projectively corresponding pencil retaining the same axes of co-ordinates, we may look upon the substitution as changing the axes of co-ordinates retaining the same pencil.

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  • As new axes of co-ordinates we may take any other pair of lines through the origin, and for the X, Y corresponding to x, y any new constant multiples of the sines of the angles which the line makes with the new axes.

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  • If now the nti c denote a given pencil of lines, an invariant is the criterion of the pencil possessing some particular property which is independent alike of the axes and of the multiples, and a covariant expresses that the pencil of lines which it denotes is a fixed pencil whatever be the axes or the multiples.

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  • The cases of greatest practical importance are those of a sphere (which is an ellipsoid with three equal axes) and an ovoid or prolate ellipsoid of revolution.

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  • If the magnetization is parallel to the major axis, and the lengths of the major and minor axes are 2a and 2C, the poles are situated at a distance equal to 3a from the centre, and the magnet will behave externally like a simple solenoid of length 3a.

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  • There are, however, always three principal axes at right angles to one another along which the magnetization and the force have the same direction.

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  • Then they took their guns, their axes, anything they could find, and hurried out.

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  • One part of it dispersed and waded knee-deep through the snow into a birch forest to the right of the village, and immediately the sound of axes and swords, the crashing of branches, and merry voices could be heard from there.

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  • The collection was made up of Shipton's newly purchased, barely used, ice climbing gear, ropes, ice axes, pitons and various garments.

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  • The distance between the centres of the two spectrographs shall be equal to the distance between the optical axes of the two viewing microscopes.

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  • The whole district of Casas Grandes is further studded with artificial mounds, from which are excavated from time to time large numbers of stone axes, metates or corn-grinders, and earthern vessels of various kinds.

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  • This gives access to a whole series of halls and private rooms (halls " of the Colonnades," " of the Double Axes," " Queen's Megaron" with bath-room attached and remains of the fish fresco, " Treasury " with ivory figures and other objects of art), together with extensive remains of an upper storey.

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  • When crystals are present they generally have their long axes parallel to the fluxion.

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  • Thus what have been called seminvariants are not all of them invariants for the general substitution, but are invariants for the particular substitution xl = X11 + J-s12, X 2 = 112 Again, in plane geometry, the most general equations of substitution which change from old axes inclined at w to new axes inclined at w' =13 - a, and inclined at angles a, l3 to the old axis of x, without change of origin, are x-sin(wa)X+sin(w -/3)Y sin w sin ' _sin ax y sin w a transformation of modulus sin w' sin w' The theory of invariants originated in the discussion, by George Boole, of this system so important in geometry.

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  • Orthogonal System.-In particular, if we consider the transformation from one pair of rectangular axes to another pair of rectangular axes we obtain an orthogonal system which we will now briefly inquire into.

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  • A wire or rod in this condition is said to be circularly magnetized; it may be regarded as consisting of an indefinite number of elementary ring-magnets, having their axes coincident with the axis of the wire and their planes at right angles to it.

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  • According to this theory the molecules of any magnetizable substance are little permanent magnets the axes of which are, under ordinary conditions, disposed in all possible directions indifferently.

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  • If V denote the potential, F the resultant force, X, Y, Z, its components parallel to the co-ordinate axes and n the line along which the force is directed, then - sn = F, b?= X, - Sy = Y, -s Surfaces for which the potential is constant are called equipotential surfaces.

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  • The hyperbola which has for its transverse and conjugate axes the transverse and conjugate axes of another hyperbola is said to be the conjugate hyperbola.

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  • If the leaf of Mini osa or Desmodium be examined, it will be seen that at the base of each leaflet and each leaf, just at the junction with the respective axes, is a swelling known as a pulvinus.

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  • This quarter of the palace shows the double axe sign constantly repeated on its walls and pillars, and remains of miniature wall-paintings showing pillar shrines, in some cases with double axes stuck into the wooden columns.

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