Avicenna sentence example
But amid his restless study Avicenna never forgot his love of enjoyment.
Under him Avicenna read the Isagoge of Porphyry and the first propositions of Euclid.
Avicenna's chief reward for this service was access to the royal library of the Samanids (q.v.), well-known patrons of scholarship and scholars.
At the age of twenty-two Avicenna lost his father.
Avicenna seems to have declined the offers of Mahmud the Ghaznevid, and proceeded westwards to Urjensh in the modern Khiva, where the vizier, regarded as a friend of scholars, gave him a small monthly stipend.Advertisement
Avicenna himself was at this season stricken down by a severe illness.
Finally, at Jorjan, near the Caspian, he met with a friend, who bought near his own house a dwelling in which Avicenna lectured on logic and astronomy.
Avicenna was even raised to the office of vizier; but the turbulent soldiery, composed of Kurds and Turks, mutinied against their nominal sovereign, and demanded that the new vizier should be put to death.
Avicenna, however, remained hidden for forty days in a sheik's house, till a fresh attack of illness induced the amir to restore him to his post.
On the death of the amir Avicenna ceased to be vizier, and hid himself in the house of an apothecary, where, with intense assiduity, he continued the composition of his works.Advertisement
His bouts of pleasure gradually weakened his constitution; a severe colic, which seized him on the march of the army against Hamadan, was checked by remedies so violent that Avicenna could scarcely stand.
It was mainly accident which determined that from the 12th to the 17th century Avicenna should be the guide of medical study in European universities, and eclipse the names of Rhazes, Ali ibn al-Abbas and Avenzoar.
About loo treatises are ascribed to Avicenna.
The best-known amongst them, and that to which Avicenna owed his European reputation, is the Canon of Medicine; an Arabic edition of it appeared at Rome in 1593 and a Hebrew version at Naples in 1491.
Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent.Advertisement
For Avicenna's life, see Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, translated by McG.
The Aristotelian school in Islam did not speak with one voice upon the question; Avicenna declared the soul immortal, but Averroes assumes only the eternity of the universal intellect.
It shows considerable knowledge of Greek and Arabic thought (Avicenna).
His son Moses, who died about the end of the 13th century, translated the rest of Maimonides, much of Averroes, the lesser Canon of Avicenna, Euclid's Elements (from the Arabic version), Ibn al-Jazzar's Viaticum, medical works of IIunain ben Isaac (Johannitius) and Razi (Rhazes), besides works of less-known Arabic authors.
This anonymous writer,' he says, acquired his learning by teaching others, and adopted a dogmatic tone, which has caused him to be received at Paris with applause as the equal of Aristotle, Avicenna, or Averroes.Advertisement
The Arabic chroniclers record the names of many other writers on alchemy, among the most famous being Rhazes and Avicenna.
The chief of these, at least so far as regards the influence which they exerted on medieval philosophy, were Avicenna, Avempace and Averroes.
Robert Recorde in his Whetstone of Witte (1557) uses the variant algeber, while John Dee (1527-1608) affirms that algiebar, and not algebra, is the correct form, and appeals to the authority of the Arabian Avicenna.
Among his own countrymen the fame and position of Abulcasis were soon eclipsed by the greater name of Avicenna.
Avicenna has always been regarded as the chief representative of Arabian medicine.Advertisement
As in the case of Galen, the formal and encyclopaedic character of Avicenna's works was the chief cause of his popularity and ascendancy, though in modern times these very qualities in a scientific or medical writer would rather cause him to become more speedily antiquated.
In the long list of Arabian medical writers none can here be mentioned except the great names of the Hispano-Moorish school, a school both philosophically and medically antagonistic to that of Avicenna.
His chief work, Al-Teysir (facilitatio), is thought to show more practical experience than the writings of Avicenna, and to be less based upon dialectical subtleties.
Gerard of Cremona, a physician of Toledo (1114-1187), made translations, it is said by command of Barbarossa, from Avicenna and others.
Thus was the campaign opened against the medieval and Arabian writers, till finally Greek medicine assumed a predominant position, and Galen took the place of Avicenna.Advertisement
He began his lectures at Basel by burning the books of Avicenna and others; he afterwards boasted of having read no books for ten years; he protested that his shoe-buckles were more learned than Galen and Avicenna.
Unfortunately the success of Avicenna seems to have led to the neglect of much of his work.
Avicenna also makes some acute physiognomical remarks in his De animalibus, which was translated by Michael Scot about 1270.
They were in German, not in Latin; they were expositions of his own experience, of his own views, of his own methods of curing, adapted to the diseases that afflicted the Germans in the year 1527, and they were not commentaries on the text of Galen or Avicenna.
In the years1872-1878the Afghan Jamal ud-Din, a professor in the Azhar mosque at Cairo, attempted to read Avicenna with his scholars, and to exercise them in things that went beyond theology, bringing, for example, a globe into the mosque to explain the form of the earth.Advertisement
A great part of his writings, particularly on jurisprudence and astronomy, as well as essays on special logical subjects, prolegomena to philosophy, criticisms on Avicenna and Alfarabius (Farabi),remain in manuscript in the Escorial and other libraries.
The larger commentary was an innovation of Averroes; for Avicenna, copied by Albertus Magnus, gave under the rubrics furnished by Aristotle works in which, though the materials.
Some of the works, however, with which he has been credited (including the Theoria or Theorica planetarum, and the versions of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine - the basis of the numerous subsequent Latin editions of that well-known work - and of the Almansorius of Abu Bakr Razi) are probably due to a later Gerard, of the 13th century, also called Cremonensis but more precisely de Sabloneta (Sabbionetta).
This writer undertook the task of interpreting to the Latin world some of the best work of Arabic physicians, and his translation of Avicenna is said to have been made by order of the emperor Frederic II.
In the eastern provinces the chief names of Arabian philosophy are those known to the Latin schoolmen as Alkindius, Alfarabius, Avicenna and Algazel, or under forms resembling these.Advertisement
His paraphrases of Aristotle formed the basis on which Avicenna constructed his system, and his logical treatises produced a permanent effect on the logic of the Latin scholars.
Unquestionably the most illustrious name amongst the Oriental Moslems was Avicenna (980-1037).
In logic Avicenna starts from distinguishing between the isolated concept and the judgment or assertion; from which two primitive elements of knowledge there is artificially generated a complete and scientific knowledge by the two processes of definition and syllogism.
These suggestions formed the basis of Avicenna's doctrine.
The place of Avicenna amongst Moslem philosophers is seen in the fact that Shahrastani takes him as the type of all, and that Ghazali's attack against philosophy is in reality almost entirely directed against Avicenna.Advertisement
Avicenna's theory of the process of knowledge is an interesting part of his doctrine.
The stages of this process to the acquisition of mind are generally enumerated by Avicenna as four; in this part he follows not Aristotle, but the Greek commentator.
In several points Avicenna endeavoured to give a rationale of theological dogmas, particularly of prophetic rule, of miracles, divine providence and immortality.
Thus Avicenna, like his predecessors, tried to harmonize the abstract forms of philosphy with the religious faith of his nation.
These grades in the main resemble those given by Avicenna.Advertisement
Bacon, placing him beside Aristotle and Avicenna, recommends the study of Arabic as the only way of getting the knowledge which bad versions made almost hopeless.
It was not till about the middle of the 12th century that under the patronage of Raymond, archbishop of Toledo, a society of translators, with the archdeacon Dominicus Gundisalvi at their head, produced Latin versions of the Commentaries of Avicenna, and Ghazali, of the Fons Vitae of Avicebron, and of several Aristotelian treatises.
Avicenna was put in charge of a tutor, and his precocity soon made him the marvel of his neighbours, - as a boy of ten who knew by rote the Koran and much Arabic poetry besides.
When the library was destroyed by fire not long after, the enemies of Avicenna accused him of burning it, in order for ever to conceal the sources of his knowledge.
But the pay was small, and Avicenna wandered from place to place through the districts of Nishapur and Mer y to the borders of Khorasan, seeking an opening for his talents.
Meanwhile, he had written to Abu Ya`far, the prefect of Isfahan, offering his services; but the new amir of Hamadan getting to hear of this correspondence, and discovering the place of Avicenna's concealment, incarcerated him in a fortress.
When the storm had passed Avicenna returned with the amir to Hamadan, and carried on his literary labours; but at length, accompanied by his brother, a favourite pupil, and two slaves, made his escape out of the city in the dress of a Sufite ascetic. After a perilous journey they reached Isfahan, and received an honourable welcome from the prince.
But the Canon of Avicenna is distinguished from the Al-Hawi (Continens) or Summary of Rhazes by its greater method, due perhaps to the logical studies of the former, and entitling him to his surname of Prince of the Physicians.
The larger, Al-Shifa' (Sanatio), exists nearly complete in manuscript in the Bodleian library and elsewhere; part of it on the De Anima appeared at Pavia (1490) as the Liber Sextus Naturalium, and the long account of Avicenna's philosophy given by Shahrastani seems to be mainly an analysis, and in many places a.
Elaborate doctrines of emanation, largely based on Neoplatonic ideas, are also propounded by some of the Arabic philosophers, as by Farabi and Avicenna.
According to the great Avicenna and Maimonides, faith and the highest reason are sure to coincide (see Arabian Philosophy).
He corresponded with Ibn Sind (see Avicenna), and the answers of the latter are still preserved in the British Museum.
Avicenna's view of the universal may be compared with that of Abelard, which calls it " that whose nature it is to be predicated of several," as if the generality became explicit only in the act of predication, in the sermo or proposition, and not in the abstract, unrelated form or essence.
Moderate and compliant with the popular religion as Alfarabius and Avicenna had always been, as compared with their Spanish successor, they had equally failed to conciliate the popular spirit, and were classed in the same category with the heretic or the member of an immoral sect.
On the birth of Avicenna's younger brother the family migrated to Bokhara, then one of the chief cities of the Moslem world, and famous for a culture which was older than its conquest by the Saracens.
The remaining ten or twelve years of Avicenna's life were spent in the service of Abu Ya`far 'Ala Addaula, whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns.
The medical literature of this period is extremely voluminous, but essentially second-hand, consisting mainly of commentaries on Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna and others, or of compilations and compendia still less original than commentaries.