Available-energy Sentence Examples
In accordance with the principles of energetics, any change which involves a decrease in the total available energy of the system will tend to occur, and thus the necessary and sufficient condition for the production of electromotive force is that the available energy of the system should decrease when the current flows.
This process involves a decrease in the available energy of the system, for the dissolution of zinc gives out more energy than the separation of copper absorbs.
It is necessary to observe that the condition for change in a system is that the total available energy of the whole system should be decreased by the change.
Thus in the Daniell cell the dissolution of copper as well as of zinc would increase the loss in available energy.
In order that positively electrified ions may enter a solution, an equivalent amount of other positive ions must be removed or negative ions be added, and, for the process to occur spontaneously, the possible action at the two electrodes must involve a decrease in the total available energy of the system.Advertisement
Now a well-known relation connects the available energy of a reversible system with the corresponding change in its total internal energy.
Hence we get the equation Ee = Le +Te (dE/dT) or E = L+T(dE/dT), as a particular case of the general thermodynamic equation of available energy.
In the latter case, the tendency of the metal to dissolve in the more dilute solution is greater than its tendency to dissolve in the more concentrated solution, and thus there is a decrease in available energy when metal dissolves in the dilute solution and separates in equivalent quantity from the concentrated solution.
An electromotive force is therefore set up in this direction, and, if we can calculate the change in available energy due to the processes of the cell, we can foretell the value of the electromotive force.
Once more we see that it is the total impending change in the available energy of the system which controls the electromotive force.Advertisement
The war demanded both in Germany and France the sacrifice of all available energy and public spirit; while the Kulturkampf, by bringing into relief the question of the external existence of the Church, thrust all internal dogmatic interests and problems completely into the background.
It is certain then that when dissolution occurs the available energy of the whole system is decreased by the process, while when equilibrium is reached and the solution is saturated the available energy is a minimum.
When a variable quantity is at a minimum a slight change in the system does not affect its value, and therefore, when a solution is saturated, the increase in the available energy of the liquid phase produced by dissolving in it some of the solid must be equal to the decrease in the available energy of the solid phase, caused by the abstraction from the bulk of that part dissolved.
Equilibrium requires that the available energy and therefore the area of contact should be a minimum, as is demonstrated in Plateau's beautiful experiment, where a large drop of oil is placed in a liquid of equal density and a perfect sphere is formed.
The theoretical form of the freezing point diagrams when solid solutions are present depends on the relation between the available energy and the composition in the two phases.Advertisement
But the elucidation of the complicated phenomena of solid solutions would have been impossible without the theoretical knowledge deduced from the principle of available energy.
From this and other evidence it has been shown that the first thin shower in open vessels is produced by the accidental presence of tiny crystals obtained from the dust of the air, while the second dense shower marks the point of spontaneous crystallization, where the decrease in total available energy caused by solidification becomes greater than the increase due to the large surface of contact between the liquid and the potentially existing multitudinous small crystals of the shower.
The available energy A is the work which may be gained from the system by a small reversible isothermal operation with an osmotic cylinder, that is Pdv.
In his Worlds in the Making (1908), an English translation of Das Werden der Welten (1907), he combated the generally accepted doctrine that the universe is tending to what Clausius termed Weirmetod through exhaustion of all sources of heat and motion, and suggested that by virtue of a mechanism which maintains its available energy it is self-renovating, energy being "degraded" in bodies which are in the solar state, but "elevated" or raised to a higher level in bodies which are in the nebular state.
When the plates are connected together by means of a wire, no current flows, and no appreciable amount of zinc dissolves, for the dissolution of zinc would involve the separation of potassium and a gain in available energy.Advertisement
The equation of available energy (see Energetics) A=U+ TdA/dT may be applied to this problem.
Meritose may be used as a sucrose substitute or a readily available energy source in sports drinks, isotonic drinks and baby foods.