They will require autonomy at later stages.
Respecting autonomy in the two cases has radically different implications.
How is cultural-national autonomy to be applied to them?
The many nations under the empire's rule enjoyed considerable autonomy in return for supplying the empire's wealth.
This undermines the autonomy of teachers, regardless of how effective they are.
Consequently, the local council should have full fiscal autonomy.
Such a culture could well lead to genuine learner autonomy in a way that enforced learner training can't.
Such a system will have a profound influence on the professional autonomy of the physician and of the autonomy of the patient.
As for autonomy and political reforms it has already been remarked that the change from the old regime was only superficial.
The greater teachers' level of autonomy in selecting their professional development opportunities, the greater the outcomes they derived.
He was looking for more information on autonomy in psychotherapy and counseling.
Oundle School didn't want to incur costly update costs and so required a solution that enabled them to retain autonomy of their website.
Anything that creates a more intertwined world without compromising autonomy, self-rule, and self-determination is good for peace.
All they claim is municipal autonomy; the right to manage their own affairs within the city walls, to fight their battles as they choose, and to follow their several ends unchecked.
But school autonomy and parental choice are not enough.
He used his influence to procure as much autonomy as possible for the province of Hanover, but was a strong opponent of the Guelph party.
How well does a CPA work as a way of granting earned autonomy?
If introduced, enterprise liability is widely expected to erode even further the autonomy of midwives and of women in childbirth.
But they have more managerial autonomy and greater personal accountability.
Had the king consented at once to the administrative autonomy of Belgium, and appointed the prince of Orange governor of the southern Netherlands, it is probable that the revolt might have been appeased.
In the by the establishment of Servian autonomy under Karageorge.
By becoming an impartial umpire in civil disputes, the state slowly developed its own institutional autonomy from the personality of the king.
I also want to briefly challenge organizations on the revolutionary left such as the SWP who are critical of feminism and women's autonomy.
The town and district of Fiume, though united with Hungary proper in respect of administration, possess a larger measure of autonomy than the other cities endowed with municipal rights.
The constitution provides for the autonomy of the municipalities in order to safeguard the permanence of representative institutions.
The opportunity for radical education reform lies in marrying autonomy and collaboration.
A considerable amount of local autonomy was allowed, and dependence cn Vienna was very slight and not irksome.
Sagasta, announced the policy of autonomy, and the new dispensation was proclaimed in Cuba in December.
Local autonomy was here carried to an extreme.
But it was the old cry of the " autonomy of the Hellenes," raised by Smyrna and Lampsacus, which ultimately brought Antiochus III.
In the 6th century an attempt was made to secure by force political autonomy for the Jews, but the exilarch who led the movement (Mar Zutra) was executed.
These urban municipalities are towns which for their local government are independent of the counties in which they are situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns.
By the terms of the Thirty Years' Truce (445 B.C.) Athens covenanted to restore to Aegina her autonomy, but the clause remained a dead letter.
It is probable, however, that he did occasionally intervene in the affairs of the city at the period when the rule of Persia had given place to autonomy; it is said that he compelled the usurper Melancomas to abdicate.
Turkey was willing to concede the fullest local autonomy, but not to abandon its sovereign rights over the island.
In 1850 autonomy was voted by the general assembly at Rio de Janeiro, and on the 1st of January 1852 the province of Amazonas was formally installed.
At the same time questions of trade, of local politics, finally of colonial autonomy, of imperial policy, had gradually, but already long since, replaced theology in leading interest.
By the patent articles of the treaty the powers agreed to secure the autonomy of Greece under the suzerainty of the sultan, but without any breach of friendly relations with Turkey.
This province enjoys to a large extent autonomy, granted by the so-called compromise of 1868.
The age of real autonomy, signalized by the supremacy of consuls in the cities, had arrived.
But besides these three, there were many other independent cities, which, though they generally followed the lead of one or other of these more powerful rivals, enjoyed complete autonomy, and were able to shift at will from one alliance to another.
The autonomy was a boost to the creative process.
In Sicily, which for centuries had enjoyed a feudal constitution modernized and Anglicized under British auspices in 1812, and where anti-Neapolitan feeling was strong, autonomy was suppressed, the constitution abolished in 1816, and the island, as a reward for its fidelity to the dynasty, converted into a Neapolitan province governed by Neapolitan bureaucrats.
Equality before the law, absolute religious toleration and local autonomy, were its salient features.
It was also he who began the struggle against the autonomy of Africa.
The aim was to give the emergency nurse practitioners autonomy to deal with minor problems, order investigations and discharge patients.
This kind of independence and autonomy lasted unchallenged until the death of Ferdinand VII.
The citizens renounced certain privileges which they had hitherto claimed, while the two other estates recognized their municipal autonomy and tacitly sanctioned their presence at the meetings of the diet, to which they had already been informally readmitted since 1508.
Though these enactments still left some autonomy to Bohemia, the country gradually lost all individuality.
During the reign of Maria Theresa, and to a greater extent during that of her son Joseph II., many changes in the internal administration of the Habsburg realm took place which all tended to limit yet further the autonomy of Bohemia.
This assembly, which was to have had full powers to create a new constitution, and which would have established complete autonomy, never met, though the election of its members took place on the 17th of May.
He did not indeed consider it feasible to reopen the question of its autonomy, but he endeavoured to remedy some of the most serious grievances of the country.
The autonomy of these vassal states has been fully recognized by the Treaty of Berlin of 1878 (art.
In 1851, when separate autonomy was granted to Victoria, New South Wales had a population of 187,243, the annual imports were £2,078,338, the exports £ 2, 399,5 80, the revenue was £575,794, and the colony contained 1 3 2, 437 horses, 1,738,965 cattle and 13,059,324 sheep.
In 1288, four years after the defeat of Meloria, Pisa ceded Sassari to Genoa; but Sassari enjoyed internal autonomy, and in 1316 published its statutes (still extant), which are perhaps in part the reproduction of earlier ones.
On the 6th of March 1454 Casimir issued a manifesto directing the incorporation of the Prussian provinces with Poland, but granting them at the same time freedom from taxation and full autonomy.
Although defeated on several occasions by the Free State forces, the mutineers were not finally dispersed until near the end of 1900, when the last remnants were reported to have crossed into German territory and surrendered their arms. In other parts of the country the state had difficulties with native chiefs, several of whom preserved their autonomy.
In the first years of Servia's autonomy under Prince Milosh, it was the residence of the prince and the seat of government (1818-1839).
Since 1870, at least, the " Church of the Province of South Africa" has secured autonomy while yet remaining a part of the Anglican Communion.
Panormus received the privileges of autonomy and immunity from taxation.
In the early part of 1918 the desire for autonomy and the favourable attitude of Kurdistan to Great Britain was becoming apparent; at Sairt, in central Kurdistan, the Kurds actually expelled the Kurdish garrison, while leaders throughout the country contrived to get into touch with the British and assure them of their friendly sentiments and desire for autonomy and final independence of Turkey.
10 1920, provided for these aspirations as follows (Section III.): (Article 62.)" A Commission sitting at Constantinople and corn posed of three members appointed by the British, French and Italian Governments respectively shall draft within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty a scheme of local autonomy for the predominantly Kurdish areas lying east of the Euphrates, south of the southern boundary of Armenia as it may be hereafter determined, and north of the frontier of Turkey with Syria and Mesopotamia, as defined in Article 27, II.
He tratlon made genuine and considerable concessions to Scottish of the feeling, guaranteeing autonomy and freedom of trade, protector Somerset.
Thanks to the political and religious unity which a common worship of the emperor and of Rome gave them, thanks to administrative centralization tempered by a certain amount of municipal autonomy, Gaul prospered throughout three centuries.
Traditional rights, differences of language, provincial autonomy, ecclesiastical assemblies, parlements, governors, intendants-vestiges of the past, or promises for the futureall jostled against and thwarted each other.
When, on the 1st of September 1859, the Austrian government issued the "Patent" which struck at the very roots of Protestant autonomy in Hungary, Tisza, at the congress of the Calvinist Church beyond the Theiss, held at Debreczen, publicly repudiated the Patent on behalf of the Calvinist laity.
In this position they enjoyed a considerable amount of autonomy, but were for the most part subject to local despots, most of whom were creatures of the Persian king.
arise from the reliance placed on a liberal conception of autonomy as the necessary justification for respecting anticipatory decision-making.
Peacocke himself has recently accepted that arguments from animal cognition do indeed force the acceptance of the Autonomy Thesis (Peacocke 2002 ).
conception of autonomy as the necessary justification for respecting anticipatory decision-making.
As against the Bolsheviks ' program demand for the right of nations to self- determination, they called for national cultural autonomy.
Evidence suggests that the desire for autonomy is leading to wasteful duplication.
falsifyrticular, his key thesis that university autonomy will inevitably be the cause of civil war is falsified by subsequent history.
Can a tiny country find its way through the web of neoliberal globalization without compromising its autonomy or social gains?
In 1404 the legendary Welsh folk hero Owain Glyndwr convened a parliament here during his military campaign for Welsh autonomy.
impinges upon the freedom and autonomy of another.
Under neo- liberalism, individuals are only allowed to exercise their own autonomy in deal-making rather than through making things.
The Statute of Autonomy fell short of the self-rule that basque nationalism demanded.
This cultural renaissance under the slogan ' away from Moscow ' became the engine of efforts to assert Ukrainian autonomy.
The Principle of Respect for Autonomy Autonomy literally means self-rule.
With the autonomy that they had been granted the lords of the Welsh Marches were able to rule supreme in their own area.
He enjoyed considerable popularity in Belgium, as well as in Holland for his affability and moderation, and in 1830, on the outbreak of the Belgian revolution, he betook himself to Brussels, and did his utmost by personal conferences with the most influential men in the Belgian capital to bring about a peaceable settlement on the basis of the administrative autonomy of the southern provinces under the house of Orange.
His policy was to establish a strong central government, and he became the head of a party known as Unitarians in contradistinction to their opponents, who were styled Federalists, their aim being to main taro to the utmost the local autonomy of the various provinces.
At the same time Josephs administration was more arbitrary, and local autonomy was to some extent curtailed.
Its fortifications were strengthened by the tyrant Nabis, but in 195 B.C. it was invested and taken by Titus and Lucius Quintius Flamininus, and, though recovered by Nabis two or three years later, was recaptured immediately after his murder (192 B.C.) by Philopoemen and Aulus Atilius and remained in the Achaean League until its dissolution in 146 B.C. Subsequently it formed the most important of the Eleutherolaconian towns, a group of twenty-four, later eighteen, communities leagued together to maintain their autonomy against Sparta and declared free by Augustus.
By the peace of Vienna, Bocskay obtained religious liberty and political autonomy, the restoration of all confiscated estates, the repeal of all unrighteous judgments and a complete retrospective amnesty for all the Magyars in royal Hungary, besides his own recognition as independent sovereign prince of an enlarged' Transylvania.
All the hypotheses about the causation of new growths seek to explain the secret of this individuality or " autonomy," as they recognize that the mystery of the origin of the great majority of tumours would be solved if we could trace how or why the tissue elements in which they develop first took on this abnormal growth.
The first league, moreover, in its later period affords the first example in recorded history of self-conscious imperialism in which the subordinate units enjoyed a specified local autonomy with an organized system, financial, military and judicial.
CONGREGATIONALISM, the name given to that type of church organization in which the autonomy of the local church, or body of persons wont to assemble in Christian fellowship, is fundamental.
This league was excommunicated by the pope, and placed under the ban of the empire almost simultaneously in 1453, whereupon it placed itself beneath the protection of its nearest powerful neighbour, the king of Poland, who (March 6, 1454) issued a manifesto incorporating all the Prussian provinces with Poland, but, at the same time, granting them local autonomy and free trade.
(See Ethics; Kant.) Though the term "autonomy" in its fullest sense implies entire freedom from causal necessity, it can also be used even in determinist theories for relative independence of particular conditions, theological or conventional.
There was no oversight as we were a privately held company with full autonomy.
States which enjoy complete autonomy as to internal affairs, but which are more or less subject to other states as to foreign relations.
Ketteler, who had adopted Lutheranism during a visit to Germany in 1553, now professed the Augsburg Confession, and became the first duke of a new Protestant duchy, which he was to hold as a fief of the Polish crown, with local autonomy and absolute freedom of worship. The southern provinces of the ancient territory of the Order, Courland and Semgallen, had first been ceded on the 24th of June 1559 to Lithuania on similar conditions, the matter being finally adjusted by the compact of March 1562.
Profiting by the feebleness of Matthias' successor Vladislav, they extorted concessions which secured to them a practical autonomy.
But by this time the autonomy of the Armenian church was thoroughly established.
unable to consider with equanimity the loss of the autonomy of their group and its reduction to the level of a special division of the fungi.
As a writer Cattaneo was learned and brilliant, but far too bitter a partisan to be judicious, owing to his narrowly republican views; his ideas on local autonomy were perhaps wise, but, at a moment when unity was the first essential, inopportune.
It was generally understood that H Lord Carnarvon, who had been made viceroy of ome Ireland, had been in communication with Parnell; that Lord Salisbury was aware of the interviews which had taken place; and it was whispered that Lord Carnarvon was in favor of granting some sort of administrative autonomy to Ireland.
He was successful not only in the field but in his diplomacy, and by 1817 Servia had regained autonomy under the suzerainty of the sultan.
That autonomy was placed on an international basis by the treaty of Adrianople, concluded between Turkey and Russia in 1829.
In compliance with that treaty the sultan by the Hatti-Sherif of 1830 formally granted full autonomy to the Serbs, retaining at the same time Turkish garrisons in the Servian fortresses.
His political programme was that the law should be respected as the supreme will in the country, that Servia's political autonomy should be jealously guarded, and every encroachment on the part of the suzerain power should be resented and rebuffed.
In an endeavour to break with the tradition that the colonies existed only for the benefit of Portugal the Lisbon Government in 1914 granted them a measure of autonomy.
Another autonomy measure was introduced and Senhor Norton de Mattos was again (Oct.
Accordingly, when in 1845 the civil power in the canton of Vaud interfered with the church's autonomy, he led a secession which took the name of L'Eglise libre.
Ibadan is the capital of one of the Yoruba states and enjoys a large measure of autonomy.
He respected the existing institutions of the conqueredterritory so far as to leave its autonomy in domestic affairs intact; but delegated his own sovereignty, and especially the control of foreign affairs and war, to a governor known as the ban (q.v.).
The Croats preserved their local autonomy, the use of their language for official purposes, their elected diet and other ancient institutions, but Hungarian control was represented by the ban.
Austrian supremacy lasted until 1867; no ban was appointed, and owing to the suspension of local autonomy from 1850 to 1860 this period is known as "the ten years of reaction."
As far as possible in local affairs, each of the native races is granted autonomy, the dominion of the Hova over the other tribes being abolished.
After the introduction of the constitution of February 1861, Galicia gained a larger degree of autonomy than any other province in the Austrian empire.
This, and the resentment felt at the loss of their autonomy when they were incorporated with the rest of Spain in 1833, account for the strong support given by many Navarrese to the Carlist cause.
In 531 the Thuringians in the centre of Germany were brought into subjection by his eldest son, King Theuderich, and about the same time the Bavarians were united to the Franks, though preserving a certain autonomy.
autonomy which is complete within its own limits.
But like the Amphictyonic league in Greece, the Ionic was rather of a sacred than a political character; every city enjoyed absolute autonomy, and, though common interests often united them for a common political object, they never formed a real confederacy like that of the Achaeans or Boeotians.
The social context clearly constrains the teacher's freedom of choice and action, restricting the ambit of the teacher's autonomy.
billionaire founder of Autonomy.
communityable communities: empowering communities to develop their independence and autonomy whilst making and maintaining links to the wider society.
Autonomy Sarah is exercising her preference not to have a child affected by cystic fibrosis.
This is simply the rebel expressing his/her displeasure at their own lack of autonomy.
Emmanuel Kant brought the enlightenment to its head by insisting on the moral autonomy of man.
Indeed, it's already drawn the attention - and the cash - of Dr. Mike Lynch, the billionaire founder of Autonomy.
At this point beneficence has run riot and autonomy is paid scant heed.
Human emancipation and autonomy are the objectives behind the sociological imagination.
This would allow local offices greater autonomy to speak on, and deal with, local issues without undue interference from the central body.
monstrous tyranny and denies their autonomy.
We just hope Autonomy isn't going to become a vendor that invents acronyms in order to remain newsworthy?
medical paternalism is being replaced by an emphasis on autonomy, with adequate information for patients to decide.
respecting autonomy in the two cases has radically different implications.
The focus of our courses includes economic self sufficiency, citizenship, personal autonomy and relationships.
That is why this autonomy is called national and not territorial.
The practical autonomy which the Gheg mountaineers enjoy has been won by a prolonged and successful resistance to Turkish domination; as a rule they pay no taxes, they are exempt from the conscription, they know nothing of the Ottoman law, and the few Turkish officials established amongst them possess no real authority.
Existing civilizations were respected, a considerable degree of autonomy was granted, and every effort made to raise the moral and economic status of the natives.
At first a part of the population were content with Austrian rule, which provided an honest and efficient administration; but the rigid system of centralization which, while allowing the semblance of local autonomy, sent every minute question for settlement to Vienna; the severe police metho4ls; the bureaucracy, in which the best appointments were usually conferred on Germans or Slays wholly dependent on Vienna, proved galling to the people, and in view of the growing disnffection the country was turned into a vast armed camp. In Modena Duke Francis proved a cruel tyrant.
Its provisions, held by some to be so unduly favourable to Russia as to justify the question whether she had not been victorious in the war, were as follows: Russia abandoned all pretensions to exercise a protectorate over the Christians in Turkey, or to an exclusive right of interference in the Danubian principalities, to which Bessarabia was restored; the navigation of the Danube was made free and placed under the supervision of an international commission; the Black Sea was closed to warships, while open to the commercial flags of all countries; the Asiatic frontier between the two empires remained unchanged; Turkey was admitted to the concert of Europe, and all the contracting parties agreed to respect her independence and the integrity of her territory; moreover, the provisions of the Tanzimat were reaffirmed in a fresh decree of the sultan, which was incorporated in the treaty, and further provided for a large measure of local autonomy for the Christian communities.
Yugoslavia consists of the former independent Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro; the triune Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia (of which the first two enjoyed special autonomy under the Kingdom of Hungary, and sent 40 delegates from their own Parliament in Zagreb to that of Budapest, while the third was one of the 17 provinces of the Austrian Empire, with a local diet at Zara); parts of the Banat, Backa and Baranja (which were integral portions of Hungary proper); Slovenia (consisting of portions of Carniola, Carinthia, Styria and Istria, each holding a position in Austria analogous to Dalmatia); and Bosnia-Herzegovina (which was from 1878 to 1918 under the joint administration of Austria and Hungary and had its own diet since 1910).
The foreign tyrants fall; the lordship of Assyria and Egypt has an end; the autonomy and martial power of the nation are restored.
To judge only by the negative evidence of the decree of Aristoteles which records the terms of alliance of the second confederacy (below), we gather that in the later period at least of the first league's history the Athenians had interfered with the local autonomy of the allies in various ways - an inference which is confirmed by the terms of "alliance" which Athens imposed on Erythrae, Chalcis and Miletus.
Russinia (Sub-Carpathian Russia) is granted the widest possible autonomy compatible with the integrity of the Czechoslovak Republic. The Chamber of Deputies is elected for six years, the Senate for eight.
This, superseding the autonomy severally enjoyed by the towns and cities since the middle ages (see COMMUNE), aimed at welding the citizens, who had hitherto been divided into classes and gilds, into one corporate whole, and giving them all an active share in the administration of public affairs, while reserving to the central authorities the power of effective control.
Here it is proposed to trace the steps by which Egypt, after having been brought to a state of bankruptcy, passed through a period of great stress, and finafly attained prosperity atid a large measure of financial autonomy.
The nobility and the majority of the Riksdag supported John, however, in his endeavours to unify the realm, and Charles had consequently (1587) to resign his pretensions to autonomy within his duchy; but, fanatical Calvinist as he was, on the religious question he was immovable.
But he met with opposition from the turbulent nobility and the clergy, who had been deprived of many privileges, and he failed to conciliate the communes, which were oppressed by taxes and beginning to aspire to autonomy.
- The Uniat Churches in Asia and Africa occupy a peculiar position in so far as Rome has recognized the traditional rights of the patriarchates (see, e.g., Leo XIII.'s encyclical Praeclara gratulationis of June 1894), and they therefore enjoy almost complete autonomy; thus the patriarchs nominate their own suffragans and have the right to summon synods for specific purposes (see Patriarch).
In these ways, they can be part of a larger world economy without sacrificing much autonomy.
Voluntary acceptance of shared practices is not a surrender of autonomy.
There will, of course, be inevitable clashes between global standards and local diversity, between autonomy and surrendering sovereignty.
From an early age, I remember being told about the importance of education and how it provided freedom, respect and autonomy.
In adolescence, there is a marked desire to establish your own autonomy and identity.
In some instances those developers are fully integrated into the publisher; in other cases they are left as separate business units with a fair amount of autonomy.
During toddlerhood, children often begin to assert their need for autonomy by challenging their parents.
It is important that parents recognize that this behavior is normal for the toddler, and the healthy development of independence is promoted by a parent-child relationship that provides support for the child's developing sense of autonomy.
Overemphasis on control, autonomy, and independence: Some anorexics come from achievement-oriented families that stress physical fitness and dieting.
Conflicts during these years between parental control versus personal autonomy may lead to increased lying to preserve a sense of separation and power from parents, teachers, and other authority figures.
Some of these dimensions of personality include level of reality testing and judgment, control and regulation of drives, defenses, conflicts, and level of autonomy.
For most adolescents, establishing a sense of autonomy, or independence, is as important a part of the emotional transition out of childhood as is establishing a sense of identity.
During adolescence, there is a movement away from the dependency typical of childhood toward the autonomy typical of adulthood.
It deals with Learning Autonomy or Shame (Will).
Forcing children to perform activities they are afraid to do destroys, rather than builds, autonomy and self-confidence.
"Self-Esteem and Health: Autonomy, Self-Esteem, and Health are Linked Together."
The parents' goal, Wiseman counsels, is to "encourage autonomy so the child learns to empower themselves at whatever level they can handle."
It is usually possible to give these children a certain sense of autonomy by having them help choose the time out location (when they are not angry) and allowing them to take themselves there.
The healthy toddler years are characterized by the struggle for autonomy as the child develops a sense of personhood separate from the parent.
Loss of control from binding contract limits autonomy.
Today, gift certificates can be purchased in for form of gift cards that allow the card holder the autonomy of choosing the gift they want from a select list of stores and cards can be purchased in the denomination of your choice.
treats of the autonomy of reason in the moral life; Pss.
Another writer draws these distinctions: (a) a state connected by protectorship with another previously enjoyed autonomy; the vassal state did not; (b) the protected state retains its nationality and its internal administration; the vassal state acquires a distinct nationality; (c) the establishment of a protectorate modifies few of the institutions of the protectorate state except as to foreign relations; the establishment of a suzerainty changes the institutions of the vassal state; (d) the protected state exercises its internal sovereignty a peu pres pleinement; the vassal state remains subordinate in several respects; (e) while the protected state has the right to be assisted in case of war by the protecting state, but is not bound to defend the latter, the vassal state is bound to aid its suzerain (Tchomacoff, De la Souverainete, p. 53) See also Hachenburger, De la Nature juridique du protectorat.
They henceforth became the dependent allies of, Athens (see Delian League), though still retaining their autonomy, which they preserved until the peace of Antalcidas in 387 B.C. once more placed them as well as the other Greek cities in Asia under the nominal dominion of Persia.
The somatic cells represent communities or republics, as it were, which we name organs and tissues, but each cell possesses a certain autonomy and independence of action, and exhibits phenomena which are indicative of vitality.
Still, it must be borne in mind that this alleged autonomy of action is said to be founded upon an erroneous supposition, on the supposition that each cell is structurally, and it may be said functionally, separated from those in its neighbourhood.
Moreover in 1910 the natives were granted a measure of local autonomy; their chiefs were - for the first.
The Testimony of the King of Martyrs concerning His Kingdom (1729) is a classic repudiation of erastianism and defence of the spiritual autonomy of the church under Jesus Christ.
became Johanan ben Zakkai's successor, and rendered immense service in the strengthening and reintegration of Judaism, which had been deprived of its former basis by the destruction of the Temple and by the entire loss of its political autonomy.
On the death of the bishop Mar Athanasius Matthew in 1877, litigation began as to his successor; it lasted ten years, and the decision (since reversed) was given against the party that held by the Nestorian connexion and the habitual autonomy of the Malabar church in favour of the supremacy of the Jacobite patriarch of Antioch.
The fatal result of conflict between town autonomy and territorial power had been taught in Flanders.
It contains also the highest judicial, financial, military and administrative official authorities of Austria, and is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Vienna enjoys autonomy for communal affairs, but is under the control of the governor and the Diet of Lower Austria, while the election of the chief burgomaster requires the sanction of the sovereign, advised by the prime minister.
This caused great dissatisfaction among the Indians, who shortly afterwards revolted; and on the 28th of January 1860 Great Britain and Nicaragua concluded the treaty of Managua, which transferred to Nicaragua the suzerainty over the entire Caribbean coast from Cape Gracias a Dios to Greytown, but granted autonomy to the Indians in the more limited Mosquito Reserve (the area described above).
After enjoying almost complete autonomy for fourteen years, the Indians voluntarily surrendered their privileged position, and on the 10th of November 1894 their territory was formally incorporated in that of the republic of Nicaragua, as the department of Zelaya.
Gladstone was implored to withdraw them, or substitute a resolution in favour of Irish autonomy; but he resolved to press at least the Home Rule Bill to a second reading.
After forty-three years of autonomy under Macedonian suzerainty it became the capital of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who adorned it with palace, temples and theatres.
The result was that, in the cases of Naxos and Thasos, for instance, the league's resources were employed not against the Persians but against recalcitrant Greek islands, and that the Greek ideal of separate autonomy was outraged.
The natural result of all these causes was that a feeling of antipathy rose against Athens in the minds of those to whom autonomy was the breath of life, and the fundamental tendency of the Greeks to disruption was soon to prove more powerful than the forces at the disposal of Athens.
With the support of Persia an agreement was made by a congress at Sparta on the basis of the autonomy of the cities, Amphipolis and the Chersonese being granted to Athens.
It consisted of two thousand delegates who demanded autonomy for the four governments of Vilna, Kovno, Grodno and Suvalki under a Diet at Vilna to be elected by universal, direct, equal and secret franchise.
This measure, applied by Russian officials, was designed against the Poles and the Lithuanian Nationalists alike, for not even the Progressives who favoured autonomy for Poland contemplated its grant to Lithuania.
Justina at Padua (1421), afterwards called the Cassinese, departed altogether from the old lines, setting up a highly centralized government, after the model of the Italian republics, whereby the autonomy of the monasteries was destroyed, and they were subjected to the authority of a central governing board.
This sacrifice of local autonomy was in a measure prepared for by an earlier centralizing movement proper to the churches themselves, whereby those in certain areas met in conference or " synod " to formulate a common policy on local problems. Such inter-church meetings cannot be traced back beyond the latter half of the 2nd century, and were purely ad hoc and informal, called to consider specific questions like Montanism and Easter observance.
Thus far, however, synods were still compatible with local autonomy and so with Congregationalism.
While its principle of congregational autonomy has been gaining ground in the more centralized systems, Another disability, acutely felt by all Nonconformists, created by the act of 1662, viz.
Meanwhile, without giving up the main principle of the autonomy of the local church, they have developed in various ways an active disposition to co-operate as a united religious body.
All his other claims to renown, however, sink into insignificance when compared with his work as the reviver of Jewish hopes for a restoration to political autonomy.
In Thaba'nchu a petty Barolong state enjoyed autonomy up to 1884, and the majority of the Barolong are found in that district and the adjoining district of Bloemfontein.
There are states which possess some attributes of sovereignty, but no others; states possessing internal autonomy, but not externally independent; states which are more or less under the influence of others.
States which have complete independence, complete autonomy, external and internal, and which are recognized in international law as sovereign states.
This programme met with a cool reception; the Poles by now were expecting a new organization from the Peace Congress; the Southern Sla y s desired union with those of their race in Hungary also; the Czechs opposed the division of the administrative commission into two parts; they did not want autonomy for their nation, but incorporation of the German Bohemians in their State, and refused all negotiations.
A realization that the continuation of independent and rival corporations retarded growth eventually led to a compromise by which the two were united as two wards of the same village in 1839, the autonomy of each being still recognized by an odd arrangement whereby each maintained practically independent management of its finances and affairs.
17 the Austrian Emperor Charles issued a manifesto offering the various nationalities of his empire a measure of autonomy on the basis of an Austrian federation.
The National Central Council of the Ruthenians, which met on May 8 1919 at Uzhorod, their capital, unanimously adopted a resolution approving of incorporation with Czechoslovakia, on special terms of autonomy.
Thus he was obliged, in 1525, to grant local autonomy to the province of Prussia instead of annexing it; he was unable to succour his unfortunate nephew, Louis of Hungary, against the Turkish peril; he was compelled to submit to the occupation of one Lithuanian province after the other by the Muscovites, and look on helplessly while myriads of Tatars penetrated to the very heart of his domains, wasting with fire and sword everything they could not carry away with them.
Ranck, Boonesborough: Its Founding, Pioneer Struggles, Indian Experiences, Transylvania Days and Revolutionary Annals (1901), and The Centenary of Kentucky (1892), containing an address, " The State of Kentucky: Its Discovery, Settlement, Autonomy and Progress in a Hundred Years," by Reuben T.
His jealousy for the political autonomy of Canada was noticeable in his attitude at the Colonial conference held at the time of King Edward's coronation, and marked all his diplomatic dealings with the mother country.
At first inclined to conservatism, he afterwards became an exponent of the mediating theology (Vermittelungs-theologie), and ultimately a liberal theologian and advanced critic. Associating himself with the "German Protestant Union" (Deutsche Protestanten-verein), he defended the community's claim to autonomy, the cause of universal suffrage in the church and the rights of the laity.
but the autonomy which had been denied them under Aurelius was maintained to the end, that is to say, up till the Mahommedan conquest.
All of them, even down to the metropolitan sees of Milan and Aquileia, practised a certain degree of autonomy, and in the 6th century this developed into what is called the Schism of the Three Chapters.
The Churches of England and Germany, founded, far from all traditions of autonomy, by Roman legates, tendered their obedience voluntarily.
Even in the cities, the seats of the episcopal power, the reformation encouraged the attempts at revolt or autonomy which tended everywhere to diminish that power.
Since the middle of the 12th century the party of The Papacy P munici al autonomy and indeed, the whole of the and the Y European middle classes, who wished to shake off ofCommune Rome.
The papacy, however, encountered serious obstacles, at first at the very centre of the papal empire, at Rome, where the pope had to contend with the party of communal autonomy for ten years before being able to secure the mastery at Rome.
Elected to the Municipal Council of Paris in 1879, he declared in favour of communal autonomy and joined with Henri Rochefort in demanding the erection of a monument to the Communards; but after his election to the Chamber of Deputies for the 5th arrondissement of Paris in 1881 he gradually veered from the extreme Radical party to the Republican Union, and identified himself with the cause of colonial expansion.
But the island appears to have always enjoyed the advantage of autonomy, probably on account of its sacred character, and even in the time of Pliny it ranked as a free state.
The states retained their autonomy except in those matters which were expressly transferred to the imperial authorities; the princes retained their sovereignty; .the king of Prussia, though he now took the title of German emperor, was only primus inter pares; he was president of the confederation, but had no suzerainty over the other princes..
A further fact of great prospective importance was the immigration, after an abortive rising against the Turks, of some 30,000 Slav and Albanian families into Slavonia and southern Hungary, where they were granted by the emperor Leopold a certain autonomy and the recognition of the Orthodox religion.
The Poles wished to gain as much autonomy as they could for their own province, but they had no interest in opposing the centralization of other parts; they were satisfied if Austria would surrender the Ruthenes to them.
Sparta could not only rely on voluntary co-operation but could undermine Athenian influence by posing as the champion of autonomy.
This outrageous demand was followed by three others - that the Athenians should (I) withdraw from Potidaea, (2) restore autonomy to Aegina, and (3) withdraw the embargo on Megarian commerce.
Upon the refusal of all these demands Sparta finally made the maintenance of peace contingent upon the restoration by Athens of autonomy to all her allies.
Even in the case of civitates stipendiariae (tribute-paying states), municipal autonomy, subject indeed to interference on the part of the Roman governor, was allowed to go on.
The old catchword, " autonomy of the Hellens," was still heard and indeed was solemnly proclaimed by Nero at the Isthmian games of A.D.
But during the first centuries of the Christian era, this municipal autonomy, by a process which can only be imperfectly traced in detail, decayed.
At the end of the 3rd century there was a circle of enthusiastic phil-hellenes among the Roman aristocracy, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, who in Rome's name proclaimed the autonomy of the Greeks at the Isthmian games of 196.
The provisions of the London Convention did not exhaust the restrictions placed upon the Egyptian government in respect of financial autonomy.
Under this arrangement each part of the monarchy was to have local autonomy, with a common constitution for common affairs.
As against the Church of Rome, with its system of rigid centralization, the Anglican Church represents the principle of local autonomy, which it holds to be once more primitive and more catholic. In this respect the Anglican communion has developed on the lines defined in her articles at the Reformation; but, though in principle there is no great difference between a church defined by national, and a church defined by racial boundaries, there is an immense difference in effect, especially when the race - as in the case of the English - is itself ecumenical.
Thus the constituent parts of the Anglican communion gradually acquire autonomy: missionary jurisdictions develop into organized dioceses, and dioceses are grouped into provinces with canons of their own.
But the most complete autonomy does not involve isolation.
Transylvania lost every vestige of autonomy, and was fully and completely incorporated with Hungary.
In 1902 a movement in favour of local autonomy was repressed by Spanish troops.
The documents of the Portuguese expedition of the 16th century and other Ethiopian records show that all the country north of the Mareb enjoyed relative autonomy under a vassal of the Ethiopian emperor.
In 1860 Garibaldi summoned him to Naples to take part in the government of the Neapolitan provinces, but he would not agree to the union with Piedmont without local autonomy.
The revolt of the Greeks (1821) put this claim to the test; by the treaty of Adrianople (1829) Russia stipulated for their autonomy as part of the price of peace, but the powers assembled in conference at London refused to recognize this settlement, and the establishment of Greece as an independent kingdom (1832) was really aimed at the pretensions and the influence of Russia.
Guinea has a considerable measure of autonomy and a separate budget.
But the triumph by its completeness ensured new conflicts; from the disorder of the middle ages arose states which ultimately asserted complete autonomy, and in like fashion new intellectual powers came forth which ultimately established the independence of the sciences.
In ancient Greece the most striking tendency of political development was the maintenance of separate city states, each striving for absolute autonomy, though all spoke practically the same language and shared to some extent in the same traditions, interests and dangers.
This centrifugal tendency is most marked in the cases of the more important states, Athens, Sparta, Argos, Corinth, but Greek history is full of examples of small states deliberately sacrificing what must have been obvious commercial advantage for the sake of a precarious autonomy.
It was a step characteristic of his love for extreme and dramatic action, but it added to the dissensions between him and those who wished only for autonomy under the old dynasty, and his enemies did not scruple to accuse him of aiming at the crown himself.
A Roman Catholic tribe, occupying an inaccessible district, they have hitherto defeated every effort of the Turks to encroach on their autonomy.
Three small communities of Presbyterians maintain a separate autonomy in Ireland, viz.
Causes of friction still remained, but they did not develop into open quarrels, for Mitre was content to leave Urquiza in his province of Entre Rios, and the other administrators (caudillos) in their several governments, a large measure of autonomy, trusting that the position and growing commercial importance of Buenos Aires would inevitably tend to make the federal capital the real centre of power of the republic. In 1865 the Argentines were forced into war with Paraguay through the overbearing attitude of the president Francisco Solano Lopez.
He supported the claims of Bohemia to a full autonomy; he strongly attacked both the February constitution and the Ausgleich with Hungary; what he desired was a common parliament for the whole empire based on a settlement with each one of the territories.
Up to that year some of the regions of the kingdom, such as Tuscany, continued to have a kind of autonomy; but by the laws of the 20th of March the whole country was divided into 69 provinces and 8545 communes.
allied himself with Liudprand, the Lombard king, threw off allegiance to Byzantium, and established the autonomy of Rome.
Not to mention Venice, which has not yet entered the Italian community, and remains a Greek free city, Genoa and Pisa were rapidly rising into ill-defined autonomy.
For some time Tsar Alexius hesitated, because he knew that intervention could entail a war with Poland, but after consulting a National Assembly on the subject, he decided to take Little Russia under his protection, and in January 1654 a great Cossack assembly ratified the arrangement, on the understanding that a large part of the old local autonomy should be preserved.
Akerman, by which the autonomy of Moldavia,Walachia and Servia was confirmed, free passage of the straits was secured for merchant ships and disputed territory on the Asiatic frontier was annexed, and in July 1827 he signed with England and France the treaty of London for the solution of the Greek question by the mediation of the Powers.
In the former there had been a fusion between the Radicals, supporters of the autonomy of Poland and a federal constitution for the empire, and the Independence party (Osvobozhdenya) formed by political exiles at Paris in 1903, the fusion taking the name of Constitutional Democrats, known (from a word-play on the initials K.D.) as " Cadets."
A conference between the three powers was thereupon held at Berlin, and a treaty was executed by those powers and by Samoa, on the 14th of June 1889, by virtue of which the independence and autonomy of the islands were guaranteed, Malietoa was restored as king, and the three powers constituted themselves practically a protectorate over Samoa, and provided a chief justice and a president of the municipality of Apia, to be appointed by them, to aid in carrying out the provisions of the treaty.
- Cretan constitutional history may be said to date from 1868, when, after the suppression of an insurrection which had extended over three years, the Turkish government consented to grant a certain measure of autonomy to the island.
Meantime Cretan autonomy had been proclaimed (loth March).
In 1877 the provincial deputation was re-established, but it was not until 1895 that the home government attempted, far too late, to enact a series of adequate reform measures, and in November 1897 followed this by a grant of autonomy.
These, no doubt, possessed municipal autonomy with the ordinary organization of the Greek state; to what extent they were formally and regularly controlled by the provincial authorities we do not know; Pithon, the satrap of the Indian province is specially described as sent "in colonias in Indis conditas" (Just.
the rank of city (muy noble, muy Leal, y muy valerosa ciudad, " most noble, most loyal, and most valiant city"), a privilege which involved some measure of autonomy.
Intervention by the United States seemed probable, but did not come, and after alternations in the fortunes of war, Martinez Campos in January 1878 secured the acceptance by the rebels of the convention (pacto) of Zanjon, which promised amnesty for the war, liberty to slaves in the rebel ranks, the abolition of slavery, reforms in government, and colonial autonomy.
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
Its terms were: the confirmation of the Treaty of Bucharest and the opening of the navigation of the Black Sea to the Russian flag; a stipulation that the hospodars of Walachia and Moldavia should be elected by the boyars for seven years, their election being confirmed by the Porte which, however, had no power to dismiss them without the concurrence of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople; finally, Servia's autonomy was recognized, and, save in the fortresses, no Mussulman might reside there.
The immediate local result was the institution, by a reglement,' signed at Constantinople on the 6th of September 1864, of autonomy for the Lebanon under a Christian governor appointed by the powers with the concurrence of the Porte, an arrangement which has worked satisfactorily until the present day.
The diplomacy of Europe had been searching in vain since the autumn Accession of 1875 for the means of inducing Turkey to institute of Abd-u1- effective administrative reforms and to grant to Hamid 11., its European provinces that autonomy which now 1876.
The new city was strongly fortified and figured prominently in the struggle for independence, and also in the various revolutions which have convulsed the republic. Its political autonomy dates from 1836, when it was made a coast department.
The internal organization of the city, too, was rendered more stable by the new constitution of 1270, and the recognition in 1292 of the complete internal autonomy of the city by the count of Schauenburg.
They are very tenacious of their independence, but accepted without opposition the establishment of a British protectorate, which, while putting a stop to inter-tribal warfare, slave-raiding and human sacrifices, and exercising control over the working of the laws, left to the people executive and fiscal autonomy.
A lieutenant-general was appointed as representative of his authority; the council of the balia was reconstituted with twenty members chosen by the duke; the consistory and the general council were left in existence but deprived of their political autonomy.
He sought the establishment of a Czech kingdom which should include Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and in his zeal for Czech autonomy he even entered into an alliance with the Conservative nobility and with the extreme Catholics.
1860) which proposed to prop up the crazy common state with the shadow of a constitution and to grant some measure of local autonomy to Hungary, subject always to the supervision of the imperial council (Reichsrath).
A trial of strength took place between him and Mr de Justh, the champion of the extreme demands in the matter of Hungarian financial and economic autonomy; on the 7th of November rival banquets were held, one at Mako, Justh's constituency, over which he presided, one at Budapest with Kossuth in the chair; the attendance at each foreshadowed the outcome of the general meeting of the party held at Budapest on the 11th, when Kossuth found himself in a minority of 46.
Within certain limits Croatia's autonomy was respected, but so far from Zagreb being consulted, the terms of the new settlement were in effect dictated from Budapest and only submitted pro forma to a carefully " packed " Croatian Diet, after the bargain between Budapest and Vienna had already made of them an accomplished fact.
An attempt on his life by the student Jukic (June 8) was followed by still more reactionary measures, and on July 11 the autonomy of the Serbian orthodox church in Slavonia and Hungary was also suspended.
Further causes for alarms were the secret meeting between General Smuts and Count Mensdorv, to discuss a separate peace between Austria and the Entente (Dec. 1917) and the public pronouncements of President Wilson and Mr. Lloyd George in favour of " autonomy " for the subject races, instead of the independence held out to them by the Allied pronouncement of Jan.
30) naturally rendered the nationalities indisposed to concessions, and the Austrian Premier's admission that national autonomy was now inevitable was icily received.
The Austrian Government being largely dependent upon the parliamentary aid of the Poles, could not stand out against them much on account of the far-reaching autonomy of the Galician Territorial Government.
It was not till March 1918 that the Seidler Government decided upon a programme of national autonomy as a basis for administrative reform, which was, however, never carried into effect.
Politically the organization of the state on the fundamental principle of national autonomy was to follow; he hoped to get round the nationalist obstacles in Bohemia by a rearrangement of districts with local delimitation according to nationality.
1 Hussarek again gave the Reichsrat a chance; he recognized expressly the right of the peoples to free self-determination, adopted the standpoint of national autonomy, championed Polish independence, and announced the union of all the Southern Sla y s of Austria by constitutional means.
On the other hand, it is likely that these unions lacked the characteristic of federation in that the units could hardly be described as having any sovereign power: at the most they had some municipal autonomy as in the case of the Cleisthenic demes.
But these unions, at all events in historic times, were mainly concerned with religion, and the authority of the councils did not seriously affect the autonomy of the individual states.
The remarkable federation of the Dominion of Canada which was thus originated presented the unique feature of a federal union of provinces practically exercising sovereign rights in relation to all local self-government, and sustaining a constitutional autonomy, while cherishing the colonial relationship to Great Britain.
In the meantime the Presbyterians, who had been officially recognized in Virginia under the Toleration Act in 1699, and had been guaranteed religious autonomy in the Valley by Governor Gooch in 1738, had sent missionaries into the border counties of eastern Virginia.
it was taken by Sapor (Shapur) II., and became the capital of an autonomous province of the Sassanian Empire, until it fell into the hands of the Arabs (c. 640), under whom it regained its autonomy.
Emigration was estimated at about three thousand every year before 1898, but it largely increased then owing to Russian encroachments on Finnish autonomy.
In the time of Constantine, in return for assistance against the Bosporans and the native tribes, it regained its autonomy and received special privileges.
Thus, political autonomy is self-government in its widest sense, independence of all control from without.
Local autonomy is a freedom of self-government within a sphere marked out by some superior authority; e.g.
municipal corporations in England have their administrative powers marked out for them by acts of parliament, and in so far as they govern themselves within these limits exercise local autonomy.
Administrative or constitutional autonomy, such as exists in the British colonies, implies an extent of self-government which falls short only of complete independence.
Though the term "autonomy" in its fullest sense implies entire freedom from causal necessity, it can also be used even in determinist theories for relative independence of particular conditions, theological or conventional.
The prince of Gwynedd henceforth considered himself as a sovereign, independent, but owing a personal allegiance to the king of England, and it was to obtain a recognition of his rights as such that Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, " the Great," consistently strove under three English kings, and though his resources were small, it seemed for a time as though he might be able by uniting his countrymen to place the recognized autonomy of Gwynedd on a firm and enduring basis.
Without infringement of local autonomy and local conditions, a common system of drill, equipment, training and staff administration was agreed on as essential, and to that end the general staff in London was to evolve into an "imperial general staff."
The essential point was that they enjoyed a separate legalized organization (autonomy).
Thus from the fall of the Samanidsto the invasion of the Mongols five or at most six important dynasties held sway over Persia, while some forty small dynasties enjoyed a measure of local autonomy.
In 353, however, Caere took up arms against Rome out of friendship for Tarquinii, but was defeated, and it is probably at this time that it became partially incorporated with the Roman state, as a community whose members enjoyed only a restricted form of Roman citizenship, without the right to a vote, and which was, further, without internal autonomy.
As Charles Leonard's manifesto stated, the reformers as a body, desired to maintain the autonomy of the Transvaal and the republican form of government; Rhodes wished the revolution to be accomplished under the British flag.'
The result of the war was especially disastrous to Thebes, as the general settlement of 387 stipulated the complete autonomy of all Greek towns and so withdrew the other Boeotians from its political control.
Before 1223 their courts had received autonomy in civil and criminal jurisdiction; their chief rabbi was appointed by the king and entitled to use the royal arms on his seal.
The Republican programme also included the separation of Church and State, and the concession of local autonomy (on federal lines, if possible) to the provinces and colonies of Portugal.
On the other hand, it is the glory of the Achaean league to have combined city autonomy with an organized central administration, and in this way to have postponed the entire destruction of Greek liberty for over a century.
His championship of the rights of the laity and his belief in the autonomy of the church led him to advocate the separation of church and state.
After its liberation in 479 Chios joined the Delian League and long remained a firm ally of the Athenians, who allowed it to retain full autonomy.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.