Authorship and Date.
For discussion of his authorship of the Lancelot cf.
And as all the writings bear the marks of a single authorship it has been assumed, especially by Denifle, that "the Friend of God" is a literary creation of Merswin and that the whole collection of literature is the work of Merswin (and his school), tendencyliterature designed to set forth the ideals of the movement to which he had given his life.
vi., 1900), a plea for Ramsay's authorship of the known text; also W.
There are strong arguments against Robert Wedderburn's authorship, as maintained by Laing and others.
The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
As regards doctrine, the work is exhaustive; but it is diffuse, obscure, and occasionally selfcontradictory, as might be expected in a work which consists of a number of unconnected paragraphs of various authorship and date.
But it seems improbable that the question of authorship will ever be satisfactorily settled.
He infers, from these facts, that there is no sure evidence for the authorship of the fourth and fifth treatises.
Cyprian, although inspired by lofty notions of the prerogatives of the church, and inclined to severity of opinion towards heretics, and especially heretical dissentients from the belief in the divine authorship of the episcopal order and the unity of Christendom, was leniently disposed towards those who had temporarily fallen from the faith.
The contents are as varied as the authorship, and, most of the Rowley.
Though the fact of his authorship of the "Alice" books was well known, he invariably stated, when occasion called for such a pronouncement, that "Mr Dodgson neither claimed nor acknowledged any connexion with the books not published under his name."
These liturgical notes make extremely probable the supposition that the poem has been taken from some collection like that of our present book of Psalms, probably on the ground of the authorship asserted by the superscription there attached to it.
1) and other ancient writers assign them to the authorship of Leucius Charinus.
Indeed it is easier to explain some of the differences between the Acts and St Paul's Epistles on this assumption than on that of authorship by a writer who would have felt more dependent upon the information which might be gathered from those Epistles, and who would have been more likely to have had a collection of them at hand, if his work was composed c. A.D.
At that time I eagerly absorbed everything I read without a thought of authorship, and even now I cannot be quite sure of the boundary line between my ideas and those I find in books.
His first work was an inquiry into the authorship of the Commentary on St Paul's Epistles and the Treatise on Biblical Questions, ascribed to Ambrose and Augustine respectively.
In the same year there appeared in Danzig an anonymous satire, Pope a Metaphysician (Pope ein Metaphysiker), the authorship of which soon transpired.
The authorship of an anonymous work, Squitinio della libertd Veneta, published at Mirandola in 1612, has been attributed to him.
Antonius Gnipho, and Ateius Praetextatus to the authorship have been supported by modern scholars.
So in Scotland, Thomas Erskine and Thomas Chalmers - the latter in contradiction to his earlier position - hold that the doctrine of salvation, when translated into experience, furnishes " internal evidence " - a somewhat broader use of the phrase than when it applies merely to evidence of date or authorship drawn from the contents of a book.
As regards the John mentioned in the Apocalypse, he is now identified by a majority of critics with John the Presbyter, and further the trend of criticism is in favour of transferring all the Johannine writings to him, or rather to his school in Asia Minor.2 For an independent discussion of the authorship of the Fourth Gospel, see JOHN, GOSPEL OF ST.
The authorship of the Letters of Junius has been assigned to Francis on a variety of grounds (see JuNlus).
His principal single production, representing his scholarly method and conservative conclusions, was The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel: External Evidences (1880; second edition, by J.
Thayer, with other essays, 1889), originally a lecture, and in spite of the compression due to its form, up to that time probably the ablest defence, based on external evidence, of the Johannine authorship, and certainly the completest treatment of the relation of Justin Martyr to this gospel.
The evidence in favour of Gauden's authorship rests chiefly on his own assertions and those of his wife (who after his death sent to her son John a narrative of the claim), and on the fact that it was admitted by Clarendon, who sould have had means of being acquainted with the truth.
But it is contended that the work was in existence at Naseby, 1 and testimony to Charles's authorship is brought forward from various witnesses who had seen Charles himself occupied with it at various times during his imprisonment.
Doubt was thrown on Charles's authorship in Milton's Eikonoklastes (1649), which was followed almost immediately by a royalist answer, The Princely Pelican.
He eloquently advocated Charles's authorship. Since he wrote in 1829, some further evidence has been forthcoming in favour of the Naseby copy.
325) regards Mr Doble's articles in the Academy (May and June 1883) as finally disposing of Charles's claim to the authorship, but this is by no means the attitude of other recent writers.
The Solomonic authorship has long since been given up: the historical setting of the work and its atmosphere - the silent assumption of monotheism and monogamy, the nonnational tone, the attitude towards kings and people, the picture of a complicated social life, the strain of philosophic reflection - are wholly at variance with what is known of the 10th century B.C. and with the Hebrew literature down to the 5th or 4th century B.C. The introduction of Solomon, the ideal of wisdom, is a literary device of the later time, and probably deceived nobody.
The treatises are nearly all anterior to the 7th century, and most appear to belong to the 3rd and 4th centuries; some are the work of authentic authors like Zosimus and Synesius, while of others, such as profess to be written by Moses, Democritus, Ostanes, &c., the authorship is clearly fictitious.
No doubt of the Pauline authorship was expressed in ancient times; nor is there any lack of early use by writers who make no direct quotation, to raise doubts as to the genuineness of the epistle.
Among the most important points in which the ideas and implications of Ephesians suggest an authorship and a period other than that of Paul are the following: (a) The union of Gentiles and Jews in one body is already accomplished.
As to the canonicity and apostolic authorship of the Johannine Apocalypse no doubts were ever entertained in the West; indeed an Apocalypse of Peter was still retained in the canon in the 3rd century.
The authorship of the writings ascribed to him in several biographical notices rests on no better authority than the apocryphal statements of Thomas Dempster.
4 a maintainer of the Johannine authorship of the Fourth Gospel; in connexion with this thesis he was one of the first to argue for the early date and non-apostolic authorship of the Apocalypse.
The first, on the 27th of June 1906, affirmed, with some significant but unworkable reservations, the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch; and the second (29th of May 1907) strenuously maintained the Apostolic Zebedean authorship of the fourth Gospel, and the strictly historical character of the events and speeches recorded therein.
22-27): true inspiration was limited to the apostolic age, and universal acceptance by the church was required as a proof of apostolic authorship. Under the action of such principles apocryphal books tended to pass into the class of spurious and heretical writings.
An astronomical work, called the Surya-siddhanta (" knowledge of the Sun "), of uncertain authorship and probably belonging to the 4th or 5th century, was considered of great merit by the Hindus, who ranked it only second to the work of Brahmagupta, who flourished about a century later.
The details of the tradition of authorship show considerable variation; according to the Talmudic view Adam is author of the Sabbath psalm, xcii., and Melchizedek of Ps.
1, but it certainly has a much wider meaning; and indeed in some cases the idea of authorship is out of the question, for the psalms ascribed to the Korahites can scarcely have been supposed to be the joint composition of that body.
Now we have seen that the 5 prefixed to n-'p 'p cannot refer to authorship; we seem therefore shut up to one of two alternatives, either the psalms inscribed 's?
We have endeavoured to show that the ascription " to David " in these groups did not originally denote authorship by David, and that, notwithstanding the subscription of Ps.
It is, however, probable that the title soon came to be understood of David's authorship, with the result that further notes were added indicating the situation in David's life to which the psalms appeared to be appropriate.
Now that the ascription " to David " was understood of David's authorship before the time of the LXX.
The existence of a tradition in the last three centuries before Christ as to the authorship of any book is (to those acquainted with the habits of thought of that age) of but little critical moment; the Sopherim, i.e.
Even if, by a bold assumption, we grant the unity of authorship, it is plain upon the face of it that the chapters in question cannot have been composed at the same time or under the same circumstances; literary and artistic unity is wholly wanting.
He was a good palaeographer, and excelled in textual criticism, in examination of authorship, and other such matters, while his vast erudition and retentive memory made him second to none in interpretation and exposition.
The original story was probably contained in an old epic poem called Mcvuas 7roeiats, the authorship of which was ascribed to Prodicus of Phocaea.
The question of the authorship cannot, however, be decided without considering the internal evidence, the interpretation of which in the case of the Third Gospel and the Acts (the other writing attributed to Luke) is a matter of peculiar interest.
This linguistic evidence, which is of quite unusual force, has never yet been fairly faced by those who deny Luke's authorship of Acts.
They are closely related in origin, style, diction and thought, and occupy so distinct a place in these respects that the Pauline authorship of them has been much questioned.
It contains nothing distinctly Christian, and it contains nothing of great value; therefore its authorship is a matter of little consequence.
The authorship of the epistles is in many cases a matter of subordinate importance; at least for Protestants or for those surrendering Bible infallibility, which Rome can hardly do.
HEBREW RELIGION (I) Introductory.-To trace the history of the religion of the Hebrews is a complex task, because the literary sources from which our knowledge of that history is derived are themselves complex and replete with problems as to age and authorship, some of which have been solved according to the consensus of nearly all the best scholars, but some of which still await solution or are matters of dispute.
A Passion History compiled out of Homeric verses, which Zonaras attributed to Eudocia, is perhaps of different authorship.
The latter was that to which Hippocrates belonged, and where he gave instruction; and accordingly it may be taken that works of this school, when not obviously of a different date, are Hippocratic in doctrine if not in actual authorship.
1); and both are marked, broadly speaking throughout, though in some parts much more strongly than in others, by stylistic characteristics which we may conveniently call "Lucan" without making a premature assumption as to the authorship.
Ioo, as is commonly assumed by critics who reject the authorship by Luke.
Scott]), but there seems no reason to ascribe to him with Clement Walker the authorship of Sprigge's Anglia Rediviva.
cannot be assigned to the same authorship. The hopes of the Messiah are confined to the former, and a somewhat different eschatology underlies the two works.
are of different authorship from each other and from the main work iii.
448-457, and a strong article by Kohler on the Jewish authorship of the book in the Jewish Encyclopedia, ii.
most writers are in favour of Christian authorship; but not so Geffcken (ed.
Among the works treating of the authorship, sources and place of origin of the poems, the most important are the following: E.
Lucke's Journal(1819-18 20, 182 2), one on the origin and composition of the Sibylline Oracles "- Ober die Entstehung and Zusammensetzung der Sibyllinischen Orakel," and another on the authorship and design of the Book of Daniel, "Uber Verfasser and Zweck des Buches Daniel."
His views on questions of Old Testament criticism were "advanced" in his own day; for on all the disputed points concerning the unity and authorship of the books of the Old Covenant he was opposed to received opinion.
So far as the results of criticism are still uncertain with regard to the age and authorship of any of these, Ewald's conclusions must of course be regarded as unsatisfactory.
The attempts made during the 19th century to disprove the Pauline authorship now possess merely an historic interest, nor have the various hypotheses of more or less extensive interpolation won any serious support.
The objections to Paul's authorship on the score of style and grammar are finally set aside by the philologist Ngeli in Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus 1905), pp. 80-82.
The case against the Pauline authorship was stated most fully by F.
For the authorship see APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE, sect.
The authorship of Dionysius was doubted by many of the early middleage commentators and grammarians, and in modern times its origin has been attributed to the oecumenical college founded by Constantine the Great, which continued in existence till 730.
More conservative views as to authorship are taken by Driver and G.
judgment to be also a prophet of comfort; but the internal evidence of composite and (in whole or part) later authorship must outweigh the traditional attachment of these passages to a MS. containing the work of Micah.
to suffer prejudice from critical conditions as to their date and authorship.
See also On the Authorship of the First Hundred Numbers of the Edinburgh Review (1895), by W.
With few exceptions all the known events of Defoe's life are connected with authorship. In the older catalogues of his works two pamphlets, Speculum Crapegownorum, a satire on the clergy, and A Treatise against the Turks, are attributed to him before the accession of James II., but there seems to be no publication of his which is certainly genuine before The Character of Dr Annesley (1697).
The Memoirs of Captain Carleton (1728) were long attributed to Defoe, but the internal evidence is strongly against his authorship. They have been also attributed to Swift, with greater probability VII.
The authorship of this work has, however, been disputed, on the ground that the style is distinctly superior to that of the Historia.
Recent discoveries have made it practically certain that there existed, prior to the extant romances, a collection of short episodic poems, devoted to the glorification of Arthur's famous nephew and his immediate kin (his brother Ghaeris, or Gareth, and his son Guinglain), the authorship of which was attributed to a Welshman, Bleheris; fragments of this collection have been preserved to us alike in the first continuation of Chretien de Troyes Perceval, due to Wauchier de Denain, and in our vernacular Gawain poems. Among these "Bleheris" poems was one dealing with Gawain's adventures at the Grail castle,where the Grail is represented as non-Christian, and present s features strongly reminiscent of the ancient Nature mysteries.
The authorship of the work by which Languet is best known has been disputed.
The authorship of Languet was supported by Peter Bayle (for reasons stated in the form of a supplement to the Dictionnaire) and confirmed by practically all later writers.
But the phrases of the creed seem to have needed sharpening 1 The first person who doubted the authorship seems to have been Joachim Camerarius, 1551, who was so fiercely attacked in consequence that he omitted the passage from his Latin edition.
The Greek of Jude is also such as to exclude the idea of authorship in Palestine by an unschooled Galilean, at an early date in church history.
by Holtzmann, Julicher, Weiss, Zahn, Davidson, Salmon, Bacon and the standard Commentaries of Meyer and Holtzmann, the International (Bigg) and other series, contain discussions of authorship and date.
When they all went, in October-December 1568, to York and London to accuse their queen - and before that, in their proclamations - they contradicted themselves freely and frequently; they put in a list of dates which made Mary's authorship of Letter II.
In it he collected with great fulness and discussed with marked moderation the arguments against Johannine authorship. This called forth a number of replies.
He sets his face against innovation in such matters as the accepted authorship of canonical writings, verbal inspiration, and the treatment of persons and events in the Old Testament as types of the New.
His reputation among Protestants was at the time so bad that he was charged with the authorship of the treatise De tribus impostoribus, as well as with having carried his alleged approval of polygamy into practice.
On 26th February, a letter, enclosing a sheet of the printed book, and revealing the secret of its authorship, was written from Geneva by Guillaume H.
10.58), and in Irenaeus, who defends the apostolic authorship of the Revelation of John (Haer.
397-418) that no church writer in the West subsequently except Jerome seriously called in question the authorship of our book.
255) wrote a moderate and effective criticism, in which he rejects the hypothesis of the Cerinthian authorship and urges that it was not written by the apostle, on the ground of its difference in language, style and contents from the other Johannine writings.
the latest critics have assigned either an earlier date or a different authorship.
The chief ground for resorting to pseudonymous authorship in Judaism was that the belief in prophecy was lost among the people.
If the writer of the Fourth Gospel was the Apostle John, then the difficulties for the assumption of an apostolic authorship of the Apocalypse become well-nigh insuperable.
Nay more, the difficulties attending on the assumption of a common authorship of the Gospel and Apocalypse, independently of the question of the apostolic authorship of the Gospel, are practically insuperable.
by a growing body of critics, the hypothesis of a common authorship can hardly be sustained.
Again, while the Gospel and the Epistle of John show marks of agreement which suggest a common authorship, the Apocalypse differs widely from both in its ideas and in its way of expressing them; we miss in it the frequent references to ` life,' ` light,' ` truth,' ` grace ' and ` love ' which are characteristic of the Apostle and find ourselves in a totally different region of thought..
His passion for the stage completely engrossed him; he tried his hand both at dramatic criticism and at dramatic authorship. His first dramatic piece, Lethe, or Aesop in the Shades, which he was thirty-seven years later to read from a splendidly bound transcript to King George III.
(His claim to the authorship of the song to Lovely Peggy is still sub judice.
Alcuin attributes the authorship of the Latin form - the Gloria in Excelsis - to St Hilary of Poitiers (died 367).
The authorship of the others is unknown.
And it will finally consider the questions of its origin and authorship.
Thus the recent defenders of the apostolic authorship, the Unitarian James Drummond (1903), the Anglican William Sanday (1905), the Roman Catholic Theodore Calmes (1904), can tell us, the first, that " the evangelist did not aim at an illustrative picture of what was most characteristic of Jesus "; the second, that " the author sank into his own consciousness and at last brought to light what he found there "; the third, that " the Gospel contains an entire theological system," " history is seen through the intervening dogmatic development," " the Samaritan woman is.
Irenaeus's testimony is the earliest and admittedly the strongest we possess for the Zebedean authorship; yet, as Calmes admits, " it cannot be considered decisive."
But Irenaeus was at most fifteen when thus frequenting Polycarp; writes thirty-five to fifty years later in Lyons, admitting that he noted down nothing at the time; and, since his mistaken description of Papias as " a hearer of John " the Zebedean was certainly reached by mistaking the presbyter for the apostle, his additional words " and a companion of Polycarp " point to this same mistaken identification having also operated in his mind with regard to Polycarp. In any case, the very real and important presbyter is completely unknown to Irenaeus, and his conclusion as to the book's authorship resulted apparently from a comparison of its contents with Polycarp's teaching.
- See also the independent discussion, under REVELATION, BOOK OF, of the authorship of that work.
Jean (1904) indicates how numerous are the admissions as to the book's character and the evidences for its authorship, made by intelligent Roman Catholic apologists with Rome's explicit approbation.
Dr James Drummond's Inquiry into the Character and Authorship of the Fourth Gospel (1903) does not, by its valuable survey of the external evidence, succeed in giving credibility to the eyewitness origin of such a book as this is admitted to be.
Of the authorship of Chronicles we know only what can be determined by internal evidence.
The authorship of the tracts has been attributed to several persons: to Penry himself, who however emphatically denied it and whose acknowledged works have little resemblance in style to those of Martin, to Job Throckmorton, and to Henry Barrow.
See, for list and full titles of the tracts, related documents, and discussion of the authorship, E.
The work was characterized by the great pains taken to ascertain the true authorship of hymns which were either anonymous or attributed to those who had not composed them, and by a like effort to exclude all variations grafted on the ' In 1867 he founded an association for the improvement of legal education, in the hope of bringing about the establishment or the restoration of "a general school of law in London on a scale worthy of the importance of the law and of the resources of the Inns of Court."
Wright in the Biographia Britannica literaria (London, 1842), who ascribes the life to a monk of St Neots; but the latest scholarship regards it as the work of Asser, although all the difficulties which surround the authorship have not been removed.
To this period belong the famous Junius Letters, with the authorship of which Sackville was erroneously credited.
It will be observed that we get this double-sided authorship in many Polish writers.
He then read for the bar, but turned to astronomy and authorship instead, and in 1865 published an article on the "Colours of Double Stars" in the Cornhill Magazine.
Even rarer than these rare perceptions of the evidence of the quasi-historical books to their origin are such half-perceptions of the literary origin of the prophetical books as is betrayed by Ibn Ezra, who appears to question the Isaianic authorship of Is.
Carlstadt again definitely denied the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch on the ground that Moses could not have written the account of his own death and yet that Deut.
His Pentateuchal criticism is limited by the tradition of Mosaic authorship: but even within these limits he achieves much.
The change in the former period with regard to a single point, which is however typical of many, is briefly summed up by Dr Cheyne: " In 1880 it was still a heresy to accept with all its consequences the plurality of authorship of the Book of Isaiah; in 1890 to a growing school of churchstudents this has become an indubitable fact " (Origin of the Psalter, xv.).
By 1906 this plurality of authorship had become almost a commonplace of the market.
No discovery has yielded any direct testimony as to the authorship of any book of the Bible, or as to the mode or date of its composition.
The Alexandrian critics attributed to him the authorship of four plays previously assigned to Aristophanes.
1817, 8vo, sought to fix the authorship of the celebrated letters on Hugh Boyd.
The authorship of this version is doubtful, being by some scholars attributed to King Alfred (d.
The Wycliffite authorship of the Commentaries on the Gospels, on which the learned editors base their argument, is, however, unsupported by any evidence beyond the fact that the writer of the Prologue to Matthew urges in strong language " the propriety of translating Scripture for the use of the laity."
For a different view as to the authorship of the Wycliffite versions, see F.
The authorship of the poem was much debated, and it.
General histories of the war are mainly of American authorship, such as: George Bancroft's History of the United States (Boston, 1883-1885) which, in spite of minor errors of fact and judgment, will remain standard; J.
College de la Trinite at Lyons,attacked him in his Quintil Horatian (Lyons, 1551), the authorship of which was commonly attributed to Charles Fontaine.
In modern times the controversy as to the genuineness of the document has been succeeded by a debate scarcely less lively as to its date, its authorship and place of origin.
Still less safe is it to ascribe the authorship of the forgery to any particular pope on the ground of its style; for papal letters were drawn up in the papal chancery and the style employed there was apt to persist through several pontificates.
Although, however, we may concede that such great works as the Metaphysics, the Politics and the logical writings did not receive their present form from Aristotle himself, that concession does not deprive Aristotle of the authorship, but only of the arrangement of those works.
A - Z) are common to the two treatises, and by the consequent question whether, on the hypothesis of different authorship, the common books, as we may style them, were written for the Nicomachean by Aristotle, or for the Eudemian Ethics by Eudemus, or some by one and some by the other author.
This is too fine a distinction to found a difference of authorship. Beneath it, and behind the curious hesitation which in dealing with mysteries Aristotle shows between the divine and the human, his three moral treatises agree that wisdom is a science of things divine, which the Nicomachean Ethics (vi.
Twelve speeches of the kind (Pliny's included), eight of them by famous Gallic rhetoricians (Claudius Mamertinus, Eumenius, Nazarius, Drepanius Pacatus) and three of anonymous authorship, have been collected under the title of Panegyrici veteres latini (ed.
They include most of the collects on Saints' Days, for which, though no direct evidence of authorship is as yet forthcoming, Cranmer is probably responsible, and certain other collects, such as that for the Royal Family (Archbishop Whitgift); that for the high court of parliament (Archbishop Laud); that for all conditions of men (Bishop Gunning), &c.
In the case of the second and third there are indications, though slight ones, that he held the view of their composition and authorship which was common from the last quarter of the century onwards (see Mark, Gospel Of, and Luke, Gospel oF), but he has made the largest use of our first Gospel.
And it is, indeed, difficult to suppose that agreement on this subject between different portions of the Church could have manifested itself at this time in the spontaneous manner that it does, except as the consequence of traditional feelings and convictions, which went back to the early part of the century, and which could hardly have arisen without good foundation, with respect to the special value of these works as embodiments of apostolic testimony, although all that came to be supposed in regard to their actual authorship cannot be considered proved.
96 (I Clement), had nothing to contribute to the question of authorship except the negative opinion that it was not by Paul (Euseb.
Since then the current of opinion has set irrevocably against any form of Pauline authorship. Its type of thought is quite unique.
Among these last may be noted his argument against the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, his views as to the manner in which the five books were composed, his opinions (singularly free for the time in which he lived) on the subject of inspiration in general, and particularly as to the inspiration of Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles.
Gefangenschaft des Paulus, p. 46 seq.), which is absolutely essential to the Pauline authorship of the pastorals.
James, The Genuineness and Authorship of the Pastoral Epistles (1906).
St Basil's claim to the authorship of the Rules and other ascetical writings that go under his name, has been questioned; but the tendency now is to recognize as his at any rate the two sets of Rules.
144) is attributed to his authorship. He married (I) Christina, daughter of Sir Thomas Barnardiston, and (2) Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Grey, marquess of Dorset, by whom he had two daughters.
These three "Farmer's Letters" - a fourth was advertised but apparently was never published - were forcible presentations of the pro-British claim,, written in a plain, hard-headed style; their authorship was long in question, but it is certain that Seabury claimed them in England in 1783 when he was seeking episcopal consecration.
At the same time he claimed the authorship of a letter, not signed by the Westchester farmer, which under the title An Alarm to the Legislature of the Province of New York (1775) discussed the power of this the only legal political body in the colony.
These extracts, the authorship of which was not publicly avowed, were known as the Wolfenbiitteler Fragmente.
But (with the possible exception of the first) none of these treatises are of Gregorian authorship. See the discussions in Migne, Lau and Dudden.
i.; an anonymous Vita Gregorii (of English authorship) belonging to the monastery of St Gall, discovered by Ewald and published by F.
With regard to the testimony of Acts, the only question, since Harnack admits the Lucan authorship,' is whether Luke is describing the organization of the Church as it existed at the time of the events recorded or reflecting the arrangements which prevailed at the time when the book was written.
The authorship of the brilliant novel The Breadwinners (1883) is now certainly attributed to him.
About the same time also Mersenne sent to Descartes, as if they came from a friend in England, another set of objections which Hobbes had to offer on various points in the scientific treatises, especially the Dioptrics, appended by Descartes to his Discourse on Method in 1637; to which Descartes replied without suspecting the common authorship of the two sets.
The critical decision as to the authorship of the Geography must settle the question for the History also.
In addition to the lost Annals, Dionysius was from the time of Assemani until 1896 credited with the authorship of another important historical work - a Chronicle, which in four parts narrates the history of the world from the creation to the year 774-77 5 and is preserved entire in Cod.
But while in all cases the suggestion of Clement's authorship came ultimately from his prestige as writer of the genuine Epistle of Clement (see Clement I.), both (3) and (4) were due to this idea as operative on Syrian soil; (5) is a secondary formation based on (3) as known to the West.
He is credited with the authorship of a chronicle covering the period 12 591306; this has been disputed, but the work is printed under his name by Riley.
Of late years doubts have been raised as to Alfred's authorship of the Bede translation.
The authorship of the latter has been much disputed; but probably they also are by Alfred.
Its church (13th and 16th centuries) is interesting only for the possession of two masterpieces of sculpture of uncertain authorship, executed approximately between 1490 and 1550.
He won the admiration of Albert Gallatin and others by his powerful support of the movement in 1811 to recharter the Bank of the United States; he earned the condemnation of posterity by his authorship in 1820 of the four-years-term law, which limited the term of service of thousands of public officials to four years, and did much to develop the " spoils system."
Works are extant in papyri and on temple walls, treating of geography, astronomy, ritual, myths, medicine, &c. It is probable that the native priests would have been ready to ascribe the authorship or inspiration, as well as the care and protection of all their books of sacred lore to Thoth, although there were a goddess of writing (Seshit), and the ancient deified scribes Imuthes and Amenophis, and later inspired doctors Petosiris, Nechepso, &c., to be reckoned with; there are indeed some definite traces of such an attribution extant in individual cases.
The coincidence may be held to account in some measure for the traditional association of a Lobeira with the authorship of Amadis de Gaula; but, though curious, it warrants no definite conclusion being drawn from it.
In the former group Stanley would, without doubt or hesitation, have placed all questions connected with Episcopal or Presbyterian orders, or that deal only with the outward forms or ceremonies of religion, or with the authorship or age of the books of the Old Testament.
In favour of the authorship of Lucilius are the facts that he was a friend of Seneca and acquainted with his writings; that he had for some time held the office of imperial procurator of Sicily, and was thus familiar with the locality; that he was the author of a poem on Sicilian subjects.
Kruczkiewicz, Poema de Aetna Monte (1883, in which the ancient view of the authorship of Virgil is upheld); L.
Apart from the titles (which are not authoritative) the difference of style in the various sections indicates difference of authorship. There is, indeed, a certain unity of thought in the book; throughout it inculcates cardinal social virtues, such as industry, thrift, discretion, truthfulness, honesty, chastity, and in general it assumes wisdom to be the guiding principle of life.
The supposition of a Solomonic authorship for Proverbs is excluded by the whole colouring of the book, in which monotheism and monogamy are assumed, without discussion, to be generally accepted, while in Solomon's time and by Solomon's self the worship of many gods and the taking of more than one wife were freely practised, without rebuke from priest or prophet.
Reappointed to the next Congress, he signalized his service by the authorship of the Declaration of Independence (q.v.).
It is now, however, practically certain that it was of composite authorship and that the earlier part of it was compiled about 530, three centuries before the time of Anastasius.
He published anonymously (though without succeeding in concealing the authorship) An Address to the People of New York, in vindication of the constitution; and in the state convention at Poughkeepsie he ably seconded Hamilton in securing its ratification by New York.
In 1756 he graduated as doctor in theology, and began authorship with a theological treatise.
An attempt has been made to dispute James's authorship of the poem, but the arguments elaborated by J.
Brown (The Authorship of the Kingis Quair, Glasgow, 1896) have been convincingly answered by Jusserand in his Jacques Ier d'Ecosse fut-il poete ?
Authorship. - External evidence, which is relatively early and widespread (e.g.
It must be noted too that evidence for his authorship of the third Gospel counts also for Acts.
If, then, the traditional Lucan authorship is to be doubted, it must be on internal evidence only.
trans., London, 1907), to which reference may be made for all matters connected with Lucan authorship; comp. also R.
Most scholars admit that the " we " narrative is that of a personal companion of Paul, who was probably none other than Luke, in view of his traditional authorship of Acts.
- The question of authorship is largely bound up with that as to the quality of the contents as history.
Particularly is this so as regards the question of authorship. As Harnack observes (Lukas der Arzt, p. 24), the" miraculous " or supernormal ele ment is hardly, if at all, less marked in the " we " sections, which are substantially the witness of a companion of Paul (and where efforts to dissect out the miracles are fruitless), than in the rest of the work.
Thucydides, who quotes this passage to show the ancient character of the Delian festival, seems to have no doubt of the Homeric authorship of the hymn.
No legend claims for Miletus even a visit from Homer, or a share in the authorship of any Homeric poem.
authorship which is so common with other " Cyclic " poems. How has this come about?
It was inevitable that later writers should speculate about the authorship of such a law, and that it should be attributed with more or less confidence to Solon or Peisistratus or Hipparchus.
But the original nucleus and parts of the incidents may be the work of a single great poet, and yet other episodes may be of different authorship, wrought into the structure of the poem in later times.
Further, the want of smoothness and unity which is visible in this part of the Iliad may be due to other causes than difference of date or authorship. A national poet such as the author of the Iliad cannot always choose or arrange his matter at his own will.
The king's habit of mingling with the peasantry secured for him a large amount of popularity, and probably led many to ascribe to him the authorship of poems describing scenes in peasant life, Christis Kirk on the Grene, The Gaberlunzie Man and The Jolly Beggar.
PLAGIARISM, an appropriation or copying from the work of another, in literature or art, and the passing off of the same as original or without acknowledgment of the real authorship or source.
Regarding his authorship of a work on the Jews (utilized by Josephus in Contra Apionem), it is conjectured that portions of the Aiywnrrtath were revised by a Hellenistic Jew from his point of view and published as a special work.
Manuals, treatises and series in single or collective authorship. - C. P. Tiele, Outlines of the History of Religion, tr.
The tradition of Jeremiah's authorship cannot be traced higher than the Septuagint version.
This, however, is not enough to prove identity of authorship; and the following considerations militate strongly against the tradition.
But, finding that it would be impossible to keep the authorship secret, owing to the numerous hands through which parts of the book had already passed, Spinoza determined to keep his manuscript in his desk for the present.
It is said that, though he was a pupil of Ammonius, he was at first a Christian, and he has been credited with the authorship of a commentary on the Mosaic Cosmogony in eight books, dedicated to Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, and edited by Balthasar Corderius in 1630.
He started authorship with a book of verse in 1888, after which time he led a reaction against realism and pessimism, and has turned back to a rich romantic idealism in his novels of Endymion (1889) and Hans Alienus (1892), and in his stories (1897) of the time of Charles XII.
But the opposite view, that not a single word in the book can lay claim to the authorship of Zoroaster, also appears on closer study too sweeping.
He also left behind him three collections of sermons, a number of letters, some hymns and the famous Imitatio Christi (though his authorship of this has been disputed).
He regarded many books of the Old Testament as spurious, questioned the genuineness of 2 Peter and Jude, denied the Pauline authorship of Timothy and Titus, and suggested that the canonical gospels were based upon various translations and editions of a primary Aramaic gospel.
Ngeli (Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus, 1905, pp. 85 seq.), whose opinion is all the more significant on this point that he refuses to admit any linguistic features adverse to the Pauline authorship of the other epistles.
The representative of this tendency, Chrysippus, addressed himself to the congenial task of assimilating, developing, systematizing the doctrines bequeathed to him, and, above all, securing them in their stereotyped and final form, not simply from the assaults of the past, but, as after a long and successful career of controversy and polemical authorship he fondly hoped, from all possible attack in the future.
ff., only mentions one altar, and though in its present form the chapter exhibits marks of later authorship, these marks form no part of the original account, but are clearly the work of a later editor.
Blount adopted and expanded Hobbes's arguments against the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch; and, mainly in the words of Burnet's Archeologiae philosophicae, he asserts the total inconsistency of the Mosaic Hexaemeron with the Copernican theory of the heavens, dwelling with emphasis on the impossibility of admitting the view developed in Genesis, that the earth is the most important part of the universe.
Proofs of its Pauline authorship are led fully by Zahn (Einleitung in das N.T.
Samuel Foxe's authorship is disputed, with much show of reason, by Dr S.
That view is based on these works of fiction, of uncertain date and authorship, which seem to have been worked over by several hands in the interest of diverse forms of belief.
Modern criticism naturally made the superscription its startingpoint, endeavouring first to explain the contents of the writing on this theory of authorship, but generally reaching the conclusion that the two do not agree.
Other critics regard the very language alone as fatal to such a theory of date, authorship and circle addressed.
95-120) implied by the literary contacts of James of course precludes authorship by the Lord's brother, though this does not necessarily prove the superscription later still.
15) shows merely that our Lord was referring to the work by its commonly accepted title, and implies no authoritative utterance with regard to its date or authorship. Our Lord simply made use of an apt quotation from a well-known work in order to illustrate and give additional force to his own prediction.
The similitudes are undoubtedly of different authorship from the rest of the book, and certain portions of the book are derived from the Book of Noah.
seems to be of a different date and authorship from the rest.
Date and Authorship. - The book was probably written between 30 B.C. and A.D.
Sarpi never acknowledged his authorship, and baffled all the efforts of the prince de Conde to extract the secret from him.
But its authorship, as well as the sentiments accompanying it, created a favourable view of Mr Hofmeyr's attitude.
It is agreed on all sides that the last stanza, attributing the authorship to Halbsuter of Lucerne, "as he came back from the battle," is a very late addition.
It will be observed that these make no claim to apostolic authorship; but otherwise their origin is like that of the rest, unless indeed, as has been suggested, they represent the work of an actual Roman synod.
These, however, stand on an entirely different footing, since they are simply collections of existing documents, and no attempt is made to claim apostolic authorship for them.
Indeed, both in France and Spain he was credited with the authorship of the project.
He revived previous doubts as to the direct Pauline origin of the Epistle to the Hebrews, called in question Peter's authorship of the first epistle, and referred the second epistle to the end of the 2nd century.
It is noteworthy that the problems of Hexateuchal criticism are gradually changing their character, as one after another of the main contentions of Biblical scholars regarding the date and authorship of the Hexateuch passes out of the list of debatable questions into that of acknowledged facts.
This tardiness in authorship is a significant fact in his life, in harmony with his tempered wisdom.
After his return to England in 1689 Locke emerged through authorship into European fame.
Benedictus has been credited with the authorship of the Gesta Henrici on the ground that his name appears in the title of the oldest manuscript.
The question of authorship has been discussed by Sir T.
There is a break in his work at the year 1177, where the earliest manuscript ends; but the reasons which have been given to prove that the authorship changes at this point are inconclusive.
During his residence in Wales a hyper-Calvinistic work entitled A Body of Divinity; or the Sum and Substance of the Christian Religion, was published under his name by John Downham; and, although he repudiated the authorship in a letter to the editor, stating that the manuscript from which it was printed was merely a commonplace-book into which he had transcribed the opinions of Cartwright and other English divines, often disapproving of them and finding them dissonant from his own judgment, yet it has been persistently cited ever since as Usher's genuine work, and as lending his authority to positions which he had long abandoned, if he ever maintained them.
This book was long the storm-centre of Pentateuchal criticism, orthodox scholars boldly asserting that any who questioned its Mosaic authorship reduced it to the level of a pious fraud.
But Biblical facts have at last triumphed over tradition, and the non-Mosaic authorship of Deuteronomy is now a commonplace of criticism.
It was long supposed to mean the whole of our present Deuteronomy; indeed, it is on that supposition that the traditional view of the Mosaic authorship is based.
The inference as to diversity of authorship is much more conclusive when difference of standpoint can be proved, cf.
For an exhaustive detailed study has revealed many signs of diversity of authorship which combine to show that the book is due to the incorporation of older material in two main redactions; one deeply imbued with the language and thought of Deuteronomy itself (D), the other of the post-exilic priestly circle (P) which gave the Pentateuch its present form.
In 1270 Etienne Tempier, bishop of Paris, supported by an assembly of theologians, anathematized thirteen propositions bearing the stamp of Arabian authorship; but in 1277 the same views and others more directly offensive to Christians and theologians had to be censured again.
of the Septuagint, the language and style of the book are incompatible with his authorship. So also is the circumstance that 2 Macc., which forms the basis of 4 Macc., was unknown to Josephus.
But as the narrative is only exact in details down to the death of Frederick William, the great elector, in 1688, and as all prophecies of the period subsequent to that time were falsified by events, the poem came to be regarded as a compilation and the date of its authorship placed about the year 1684.
A share in the composition, if not the sole authorship, of the books published under the name of the author of the Whole Duty of Man has been attributed to Allestree (Nichols's Anecdotes, ii.
For Allestree's authorship of the Whole Duty of Man, see Rev. F.
Oehler admitted the composite authorship of the Pentateuch and the Book of Isaiah, and did much to counteract the antipathy against the Old Testament that had been fostered by Schleiermacher.
It is utilized for the history of David, to whom its authorship is attributed.
97 f.) broke new ground by suggesting in 1899 that the writer was Isaac, a converted Jew, writer of a tract on the Trinity and Incarnation, who was exiled to Spain in 378-380 and then relapsed to Judaism, but he afterwards abandoned this theory of the authorship in favour of Decimus Hilarianus Hilarius, proconsul of Africa in 377.
The authorship of twelve of them is uncertain, and has been the subject of much controversy between partisans of Hamilton and Madison.
239), almost the only source of information regarding the epic cycle; on the question of authorship, see Christ § 637, and Sandys, p. 379; also D.
The controversy as to the underlying elements of the Nibelung legend extends to the question of the authorship and construction of the poem itself.
1 Bartsch and others ascribe its authorship, with much plausibility, to an Austrian knight of the race of Kiirenberg, the earliest of the courtly lyric poets, whose lyrics are written in the Nibelung strophe.
He still pursued his quiet round of lecturing and authorship, and contributed from time to time papers to the literary journals.
It consists of several parts, which cohere so badly that we are obliged to assume plurality of authorship.
The evidence for a fourfold authorship is strong though not convincing.
- As there are undoubtedly conflicting elements in the book, it is possible to assume either a diversity of authorship or a diversity of sources.
A short summary may here be given of the grounds on which the present writer has postulated a diversity of authorship. If the letter to the tribes in captivity (lxxviii.
The present writer (Apocalypse of Baruch, 1896, pp. liii.-lxvii.), after submitting the book to a fresh study, has come to the following conclusions: - The book is of Pharisaic authorship and composed of six independent writings - A', A 2, A3, 131713 2, 133.
are of different authorship from the rest of the book and belong to the earlier date.
On the other hand, if we assume unity of authorship, it seems impossible to arrive at finality on the chronological relations of these two works.
Be sure to attribute authorship of the posting to the posting party.
apostolic authorship was made.
ascriptions of authorship vary.
authorship of the Pentateuch are false.
authorship of the book to provide its rugged realism.
authorship of a literary text.
authorship of certain libelous letters.
authorship of articles arising from dissertation studies.
This might explain why Disraeli never did acknowledge authorship of the book.
Another Edinburgh novel for which James Hogg strongly implies female authorship.
In the second century the bias was very strongly in the direction of attributing Apostolic authorship to documents accepted into the Canon.
Notes: Details above replicate Corvey 2nd edn, where ' Advertisement ' indicates female authorship.
Colman, having departed to Covent Garden, for some years claimed the sole authorship of the play.
But it is not only on the merits of the argument that I personally accept the Lucan authorship of the Gospel and Acts.
And for Matthew's Gospel the claim of apostolic authorship was made.
There are passages (of disputed authorship, as we have seen) that suggest the possibility of repentance and restoration.
The divine authorship of the Bible does not alter our procedure at all.
Where there is joint authorship, copyright expiry is based on the last author to die.
authorship analysis work.
Notes: The letter was written in response to Scott's public avowal of his authorship of the Waverley novels.
It may be possible to apply textual analysis systems to attempt to identify commonality of authorship.
denial of authorship of an incriminating document: a letter, or an entry in a diary.
incriminater cases that involved denial of authorship of an incriminating document: a letter, or an entry in a diary.
multivariate statistics proved useful in order to detect which plays were likely to be products of multiple authorship.
pseudonymous authorship may be related to the participants ' relationships to the British Government.
quagmire of issues about authorship, editing, context and reception.
self-reflexive process, an interrogation of authorship within the image.
Still, whose reputation as a serious churchman cannot be easily reconciled with the buffoonery of A Ryght Pithy, Pleasaunt and merle Comedie: Intytuled Gammer Gurtons Nedle, was first credited with its authorship by Isaac Reed in his edition (1782) of Baker's Biographia dramatica.
A commission was given him as adjutant-general in the French army, which he hoped might protect him from the penalty of treason in the event of capture by the English; though he himself claimed the authorship of a proclamation said to have been issued by the United Irishmen, enjoining that all Irishmen taken with arms in their hands in the British service should be instantly shot; and he supported a project for landing a thousand criminals in England, who were to be commissioned to burn Bristol and commit any other atrocity in their power.
EPISTLE TO THE COLOSSIANS, the twelfth book of the New Testament, the authorship of which is ascribed to the Apostle Paul.
But thus " idle " though he may have been as a " student," he already meditated authorship. In the first long vacation - during which he, doubtless with some sarcasm, says that " his taste for books began to revive " - he contemplated a treatise on the age of Sesostris, in which (and it was characteristic) his chief object was to investigate not so much the events as the probable epoch of the reign of that semi-mythical monarch, whom he was inclined to regard as having been contemporary with Solomon.
The authorship of the Lancelot proper, on the other hand, is invariably ascribed to Walter Map (see MAP), the chancellor of Henry II., but so also are the majority of the Arthurian prose Romances.
Its author is usually known as pseudo-Callisthenes, although in the Latin translation by Julius Valerius Alexander Polemius (beginning of the 4th century) it is ascribed to a certain Aesopus; Aristotle, Antisthenes, Onesicritus and Arrian have also been credited with the authorship. There are also Syrian, Armenian and Slavonic versions, in addition to four Greek versions (two in prose and two in verse) in the middle ages (see Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur, 18 97, p. 8 49).
As a great part of the charm of the book lies in the unconscious record of the collector's own character, the establishment of Holkot's authorship would materially alter its value.
are of uncertain date and authorship, and moreover are often so vague and mystical that they are of doubtful scientific value, beyond reflecting the tendencies of the age.
The question of the authorship of Ephesians is less important to the student of the history of Christian thought than in the case of most of the Pauline epistles, because of the generalness of tone and the lack of specific allusion in the work.
On the other hand, some words characteristic of Paul's use appear (notably &6, five times), and the most recent and careful investigation of Paul's vocabulary (Nageli, W ortschatz der paulinischen Briefe, 1905) concludes that the evidence speaks for Pauline authorship. (3) Certain phrases have aroused suspicion, for instance, "the devil" (vi.
The view which denies the Pauline authorship of Ephesians has to suppose the existence of a great literary artist and profound theologian, able to write an epistle worthy of Paul at his best, who, without betraying any recognizable motive, presented to the world in the name of Paul an imitation of Colossians, incredibly laborious and yet superior to the original in literary workmanship and power of thought, and bearing every appearance of earnest sincerity.
It is true that the preposition " to " O may denote authorship, as it does apparently in Isaiah xxxviii.
This pessimism and want of faith limited and defined the form in which religious enthusiasm should manifest itself, and prescribed as a condition of successful effort the adoption of pseudonymous authorship. The apocalyptic writer, therefore, professedly addressed his book to future generations.
are decidedly of Jewish authorship, and probably xi.
Internal evidence makes this ascription impossible, nor does the epistle itself lay any claim to such authorship. Lightfoot, indeed, suggests that its author was "some unknown namesake" of the famous Barnabas: but it is simpler to suppose that it was fathered upon the latter by the Alexandrian Church, ready to believe that so favourite a writing was of apostolic origin.
In 1867 her majesty had started in authorship by publishing The Early Days of the Prince Consort, compiled by General Grey; in 1869 she gave to the world her interesting and simply written diary entitled Leaves from the Journal of our Life in the Highlands, and in 1874 appeared the first volume of The Life and Letters of the Prince Consort (2nd vol.
His fame is due to his authorship of the most influential Kabbalist work, the Zohar (see Kabbala), which was attributed to Simon b.
The list of his other works, including his three erudite contributions to the question of authorship of the Imitatio Christi, will be found in C. Toussaint's scholarly article in A.
Owing to the ferocity and brutality of the attacks upon Justinian, the authenticity of the Anecdota has often been called in question, but the claims of Procopius to the authorship are now generally recognized.
Bury (who agrees with Ranke in rejecting the authorship of Procopius) A History of the Later Roman Empire (1889), vol.
(Dissertations: for Alfred's authorship, Wichmann, Anglia, xi.
During the 16th century there was some discussion about the authorship of the Liber, and for some time it was thought to be the work of an Italian monk, Anastasius Bibliothecarius (d.
But the record of miracle as such cannot prejudice the question of authorship. Even the form in which the gift of Tongues at Pentecost is conceived does not tell against a companion of Paul, since it may have stood in his source, and the first outpouring of the Messianic Spirit may soon have come to be thought of as unique in some respects, parallel in fact to the Rabbinic tradition as to the inauguration of the Old Covenant at Sinai (cf.
Implicit reliance can no longer be necessarily placed upon the reputed authorship or editorship of a work; yet, although many of the views of medieval Jews in this respect prove to be erroneous (e.g.
on the authorship of the Zohar; see Kabbalah), they may sometimes preserve the recollection of a fact which only needs restatement (e.g.
The Roman d'Eneas (c. 1160, or later), of uncertain authorship (attributed by some to Benoit de Sainte-More), the first French poem directly imitated from the Aeneid, is a fairly close adaptation of the original.
The authorship of the letter has never been disclosed or proved, but all evidence seems to point to Tresham, and to the probability that he had some days before warned Monteagle and agreed with him as to the best means of making known the plot and preventing its execution, and at the same time of giving the conspirators time to escape (see Tresham, Francis).
For fifteen years he did all in his power to correct the mistake, and finally wrote to The Times to disclaim the authorship. (See Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.
At first he was content to furnish information from which the works of Pennant and Barrington largely profited; but gradually the ambition of separate authorship developed from a suggestion thrown out by the latter of these writers in 1770.
In the book cited above Professor Souter also discusses the authorship of the Quaestiones Veteris et Novi Testamenti, which the MSS.
170-171) that Ewald and Ryle assumed identity of authorship. But their points of divergence are so weighty (see op. cit.
I did not study nor analyze them--I did not know whether they were well written or not; I never thought about style or authorship.
Naturally, this idea is tangled in a quagmire of issues about authorship, editing, context and reception.
The former I take to indicate a self-reflexive process, an interrogation of authorship within the image.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.