Authority Sentence Examples
Now he was exerting his authority in another way.
I didn't mean to sound like some kind of authority on the subject.
Still, what business could survive without a person with final authority on decisions?
Even then he had begun to distrust the authority of tradition and his teachers.
People that dictate the rules make decisions for others with much authority.Advertisement
He's unaccustomed to having his authority challenged.
It is important to respect and submit to the authority to which you are assigned to.
Anyone in authority seemed habitually out of the office after Dean gave his name.
Her father had been the final authority, but never had she questioned her mother's authority.
It had to be difficult to maintain any semblance of authority with a toddler clinging to his face, but he managed to do it.Advertisement
Had Giddon overstepped his authority?
He had neither authority nor right to ignore her emphatic command that he leave her place and remain silent about what he'd seen.
News and information that undermine their credibility or authority aren't so welcome either.
Harriman died he exercised direct authority over more than 50,000 m.
It is a most valuable authority for the events of his own times.Advertisement
The same authority tells us that he was initiated by his father in those field sports, such as hunting and hawking, which formed one of his recreations in after life.
Either as a concession to the senate, or perhaps with the idea of improving public morality, Decius endeavoured to revive the separate office and authority of the censor.
Decisions of the Commission were not reviewable by the Court unless the Commission had exceeded its authority, or had issued an unconstitutional order.
Mahommedan Babylonia (Persia) was the home of the gaonate, the central authority of religious Judaism, whose power transcended that of the secular exilarchate, for it influenced the synagogue far and wide, while the exilarchate was local.
Even then there is no appeal to authority; nothing is accepted from without.Advertisement
The Gild of the Holy Cross, founded in the 13th century for the support of poor priests and others, exercised great authority over the town for many years.
For forty years after the death of its founder it remained united under the authority of a series of grand khans chosen from among his descendants, and then it began to fall to pieces till the various fractions of it became independent khanates.
The authority thus conferred was confided exclusively to the prince, and was declared liable to modification by law in the case of his successor.
The supreme governing authority was vested in magistrates called Cosmi, answering in some measure to the Spartan Ephori, but there was nothing corresponding to the two kings at Sparta.
In accordance with authority conferred by the home-rule amendment of the state constitution, a charter, submitted by a special commission, was accepted by the citizens on July I 1913.Advertisement
The powers of a dictator were a temporary revival of those of the kings; but there were some limitations to his authority.
His military authority was confined to Italy; and his power of life and death over the citizens was at an early period limited by law.
But here as elsewhere the senate asserted its authority over the magistrates, and the view was finally held that the senate should not only suggest the need of nomination but also the name of the nominee.
The emergency office of the early and middle Republic has few points of contact, except those of the extraordinary position and almost unfettered authority of its holder, with the dictatorship as revised by Sulla and by Caesar.
In 1784 John Wesley, in disregard of the authority of the Established Church, took the radical step of appointing the Rev. Thomas Coke (1747-1814) and Francis Asbury superintendents or "bishops" of the church in the United States.
A late authority states that he was succeeded by his son Constantine, but the subsequent kings were descended from another branch of the same family.
Mysticism is not the voluntary demission of reason and its subjection to an external authority.
The use of the word "clergy" as a plural, though the New English Dictionary quotes the high authority of Cardinal Newman for it, is less rare than wrong; in the case cited "Some hundred Clergy" should have been "Some hundred of the Clergy."
It developed into a title implying jurisdiction over metropolitans, partly as a result of the organization of the empire into " dioceses," partly owing to the ambition of the greater metropolitan bishops, which had early led them to claim and exercise authority in neighbouring metropolitanates.
As these districts had originally been Afghan, they were transferred to British authority by the treaty of Gandamak in 1879, although nominally they had been handed over to Kalat forty years previously.
The influx of new ideas provoked civil war, in which the already decadent Shogunate was abolished and the authority of the Mikado restored.
Amidst such confusion the authority of the Mogul empire rapidly disappeared, but it lasted as a name till the Mutiny (1857).
With the rise of Mahommedanism occurred a sudden effervescence of the Arabs, who during some centuries threatened to impose not only their political authority but their civilization and new religion on the whole known world.
In 1809 its exclusive trading rights were taken away by Parliament, but its administrative status was thus made clearer, and when after the mutiny of 1857 it was desirable to define British authority in India there seemed nothing unnatural in declaring it to be a possession of the crown.
The authority of the City over the borough is now merely nominal.
As a lecturer, he was inferior in charm and eloquence to Brown and Stewart; the latter says that "silent and respectful attention" was accorded to the "simplicity and perspicuity of his style" and "the gravity and authority of his character."
In particular, the Roman "North Road" which ran from York through Corbridge and over Cheviot to Newstead near Melrose, and thence to the Wall of Pius, and which has largely been in use ever since Roman times, is now not unfrequently called Watling Street, though there is no old authority for it and throughout the middle ages the section of the road between the Tyne and the Forth was called Dere Street.
Except for this Ã†thelflaed's authority remained unimpaired.
For some eighteen months Ã†lfwyn seems to have wielded her mother's authority, and then, just before the Christmas of 919, Edward took Mercia into his own hands, and Ã†lfwyn was "led away" into Wessex.
Originally it seems to have denoted the coast district between the Oder and the Vistula, a territory which was at first more or less dependent on Poland, but which, towards the end of the 12th century, was ruled by two native princes, who took the title of duke about 1170 and admitted the authority of the German king in 1181.
Hence the term is applied to states in which the supreme authority is vested in a single person, the monarch, who in his own right is the permanent head of the state.
Of the former class the most conspicuous was the Holy Roman Empire; but in Europe all monarchies were, within certain limits, originally elective; and, after the introduction of Christianity, the essential condition of the assumption of sovereign power was not so much kinship with the reigning family as the "sacring" by the divine authority of the Church.
On the great subject of peace and war he supported the king's authority, and with some success.
He thus superseded Warham, who was legatus flatus, in ecclesiastical authority; and though legates a latere were supposed to exercise only special and temporary powers, Wolsey secured the practical permanence of his office.
The appeal to Rome was a natural course to be advocated by Wolsey, whose despotism over the English church depended upon an authority derived from Rome; but it was probably a mistake.
At first his work appeared as that of his master and patron, then in their joint-names; but in 1790 he began to publish on his own authority, and between that year and 1833 his name is associated with 376 papers.
All these faults make him a peculiarly unsatisfactory authority where we cannot check his statements by those of other authors.
There is general truth in what was once said by a high authority to the effect that, while there will be something dignified in the humblest Rajput, there will be something mean in the highest Mahratta.
He second wife was Joanna Bridges, said on very doubtful authority to have been a natural daughter of Charles I.
The Order was at once supreme ecclesiastical and political authority.
The clergy having thus another authority, and one moreover more canonical, to appeal to, the power of the archdeacons gradually declined; and, so far as the Roman Catholic Church is concerned, it received its death-blow from the council of Trent (1564), which withdrew all matrimonial and criminal causes from the competence of the archdeacons, forbade them to pronounce excommunications, and allowed them only to hold visitations in connexion with those of the bishop and with his consent.
In September 1888 he was elected a member of the first chamber of the Riksdag, where he attached himself to the conservative protectionist party, over which, from the first, he exercised great authority.
The mayor is elected for two years and has the powers and authority in criminal cases of a justice of the peace.
In 899, when Arnulf died, Hatto became regent of Germany, and guardian of the young king, Louis the Child, whose authority he compelled Zwentibold, king of Lorraine, an illegitimate son of Arnulf, to recognize.
When trouble arose between Conrad and Henry, duke of Saxony, afterwards King Henry the Fowler, the attitude of Conrad was ascribed by the Saxons to the influence of Hatto, who wished to prevent Henry from securing authority in Thuringia, where the see of Mainz had extensive possessions.
The duty of collecting and weighing evidence for himself was at every turn impressed upon the boy; he was taught to accept no opinion on authority.
Is it possible then to obtain unanimity as to the methods of arriving at conclusions in social and political matters, so as to secure similar agreement of opinion among the specially skilled, and similar general respect for their authority ?
It is obvious from what he says that his inner life became very different after he threw off his father's authority.
Whilst Antigonus was occupied in the west, Seleucus during nine years (311-302) brought under his authority the whole eastern part of Alexander's empire as far as the Jaxartes and Indus.
Further, as the country became more consolidated and the central government extended its authority over economic affairs, new regulations came into force, new organs of government appeared, which were sometimes in conflict, sometimes in harmony, with the existing system, and it becomes for a time far more difficult to obtain a clear view of the actual working of economic institutions.
The appeal to authority cannot be permitted in economics any more than in chemistry, physics or astronomy.
Modern economic criticism and analysis has destroyed the authority of the " old Political Economy " as a scientific system.
He was not cast in a heroic mould, and he had no desire to figure at the stake; like Cecil, and Elizabeth herself, he had a great respect for authority, and when his time came he could consistently impose authority on others.
Disputes about vestments had expanded into a controversy over the whole field of Church government and authority, and Parker died on the 17th of May, 1575, lamenting that Puritan ideas of "governance" would "in conclusion undo the queen and all others that depended upon her."
By his personal conduct he had set an ideal example for Anglican priests, and it was not his fault that national authority failed to crush the individualistic tendencies of the Protestant Reformation.
Edward hoped still to conciliate the nobles and gain Scotland by a policy of clemency to all who did not dispute his authority.
She also provoked a dangerous enemy in John Knox by her expressed contempt for a letter which he had written to her, but the first revolt against her authority arose from an attempt to establish a standing army.
The monophysite monks appealed to his authority, but could not prevent Justinian and the fifth oecumenical council at Constantinople (553) from anathematizing his teaching.
Thus, when the men of Reggio and Modena overthrew the rule of their duke, he at once accorded protection to them, as also to the inhabitants of the cities of Bologna and Ferrara when they broke away from papal authority.
The chief direct result in the life of the Egyptian people was the virtual destruction of the governing caste of the Mamelukes, the Turks finding it easy to rid themselves of their surviving chiefs and to re-establish the authority of the Sultan.
The promulgation of the Concordat (18th of April 1802) and the institution of what was in all but name a state religion tended strongly in the same direction, the authority of the priests being generally used in support of the man to whom Chateaubriand applied the epithet "restorer of the altars."
Napoleon's powers as First Consul for Life were so wide as to render much extension both superfluous and impossible; but we may note here that the senate now gained a further accession of authority at the expense of the two legislative bodies; and practically legislation rested with the emperor, who sent his decrees to the senate to be registered as senatus consulta.
Those of Bourrienne and Fouche are of doubtful authority; the latter are certainly not genuine.
According to other accounts Martigues in Provence was his birthplace, while one authority even names the Château d'Avesnes in Hainaut.
On his return, he outlined to Parliament a scheme by which the cost might be greatly reduced, mainly through the transference of authority to Arab chiefs.
Its basis is not a coercive authority imposed upon the citizens from without, but consists in the spiritual recognition, on the part of the citizens, of that which constitutes their true nature.
The aim of the work is to show, on Scriptural grounds, that sins of professing Christians are to be punished by civil authority, and not by withholding of sacraments on the part of the clergy.
John Pits 1 says, but apparently without authority, that he became a Benedictine monk.
The chief authority for the bishop's life is William de Chambre (printed in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 1691, and in Historiae Dunelmensis scriptores tres, Surtees Soc. 1839), who describes him as an amiable and excellent man, charitable in his diocese, and the liberal patron of many learned men, among these being Thomas Bradwardine, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Fitzralph, afterwards archbishop of Armagh, the enemy of the mendicant orders, Walter Burley, who translated Aristotle, John Mauduit the astronomer, Robert Holkot and Richard de Kilvington.
An enlarged edition of the latter, under the title of Exercitationes, &c., was published in 1677; but neither of these writers is of much authority.
Far better both as draughtsman and as authority was George Edwards, who in 1 743 began, under the same title as Albin, a series of plates with letterpress, which was continued by the name of Gleanings in Natural History, and finished in 1760, when it had reached seven parts, forming four quarto volumes, the figures of which are nearly always quoted with approval.4 The year which saw the works of Edwards completed was still further distinguished by the appearance in France, where little had been done since Belon's days,' in six quarto volumes, of the Ornithologie of MathurinJacques Brisson - a work of very great merit so far as it goes, for as a descriptive ornithologist the author stands even now unsurpassed; but it must be said that his knowledge, according to internal evidence, was confined to books and to the external parts of birds' skins.
Hence it is that Gmelin appears as the authority for so much of the nomenclature now in use.
Its chief drawback is that it does not give any more reference to the authority for a generic term than the name of its inventor and the year of its application, though of course more precise information would have at least doubled the size of the book.
Two supplementary parts were issued in 1835 and 1840 respectively, and the work for many years deservedly maintained the highest position as the authority on European ornithology-indeed in England it may almost without exaggeration be said to have been nearly the only foreign ornithological work known; but, as could only be expected, grave defects are now to be discovered in it.
Like Gloger, Sundevall in his ideal system separated the true passerines from all other birds, calling them Volucres; but he took a step further, for he assigned to them the highest rank, wherein nearly every recent authority agrees with him; out of them, however, he chose the thrushes and warblers to stand first as his ideal " Centrum " - a selection which, though in the opinion of the present writer erroneous, is still largely followed.
Yet it is said, on good authority, that Nitzsch had the patience so to manipulate the skins of many rare species that he was able to ascertain the characters of their pterylosis by the inspection of their inside only, without in any way damaging them for the ordinary purpose of a museum.
Justin is a most valuable authority for the life of the Christian Church in the middle of the 2nd century.
In 1198, on the election of Enrico Dandolo, the aristocracy carried their policy one step farther, and by the promissione ducale, or coronation oath, which every doge was required to swear, they acquired a powerful weapon for the suppression of all that remained of ancient ducal authority.
The chief county authority is the board of commissioners of three members elected for terms of two years.
The chief township authority is the board of trustees of three members, elected by popular vote for two years.
He also published several sermons, and Considerations on the Nature and Extent of the Legislative Authority of the British Parliament (1774), sometimes attributed to Benjamin Franklin.
Physical science, if there was anything deserving that name, was cultivated, not by experiment in the Aristotelian way, but by arguments deduced from premises resting on authority or custom.
His De Conciliorum Auctoritate was welcomed at Rome as exalting the papal authority.
In spite of this very limited reception the Formula Concordiae has always been reckoned with the five other documents as of confessional authority.
The stronger current of modern authority is in favour of the landlords and not in favour of restricting the meaning of covenants of this class.
Watt's exhaustive work on Wild and Cultivated Cotton Plants of the World (1907) is the latest authority on the subject; and his views on some debated points have been incorporated in the following account.
The president of the order, whose office was elective and who enjoyed the dignity for life, had supreme authority among them.
The real founder of the house, however, was Robert the Strong, who received from Charles the Bald, king of the Franks, the countships of Anjou and Blois, and who is sometimes called duke, as he exercised some military authority in the district between the Seine and the Loire.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
On the other hand, it must be admitted that the Church did not, after the first struggle between Dagobert and Baldwin I., actively oppose by any hierarchical pretensions the authority of the crown.
Until about 1840 the authority followed for its history was naturally the great work of William of Tyre.
But about 5840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges proved, that Albert of Aix was not a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more contemporary authorities used.
He is the primary authority for the First Crusade.
His account of the First Crusade itself is poor (he was absent at Edessa during its course), but otherwise he is an excellent authority.
His book thus begins to be a real authority only from the date of the Second Crusade onwards; but the perfection of his form (for he is one of the greatest stylists of the middle ages) and the prestige of his position conspired to make his book the one authority for the whole history of the first century of the Crusades.
Of these the Byzantine authority, the Alexiad of Anna Comnena, is most important, partly from the position of the authoress, partly from the many points of contact between the Byzantine empire and the crusaders.
For the Second Crusade the primary authority in the West is the work of Odo de Deuil, De profectione Ludovici VII regis Francorum in Orientem.
It is from the Second Crusade that William of Tyre, representing the attitude of the Franks of Jerusalem, begins to be a primary authority; while on the Mahommedan side a considerable authority emerges in Ibn Athir.
The various continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned represent the opinion of the native Franks (which is hostile to Richard I.); while in Nicetas, who wrote a history of the Eastern empire from 1118 to 1206, we have a Byzantine authority who, as Professor Bury remarks, "differs from Anna and Cinnamus in his tone towards the crusaders, to whom he is surprisingly fair."
For the Fourth Crusade the primary authority is Villehardouin's La Conquete de Constantinople, an official apology for the diversion of the Crusade written by one of its leaders, and concealing the arcana under an appearance of frank naïveté.
They appear to have recognized the paramount authority of a family descended from a chief named Monaheng.
Native laws and customs were interfered with as little as possible and the authority of the chiefs - all members of the Moshesh family - was maintained.
Under Moktadir, and his successorsMoutamin and Mostain, the Cid remained for nearly eight years, fighting their battles against Mahommedan and Christian, when not engaged upon his own, and being admitted almost to a share of their royal authority.
Dr Shepherd's Life of Poggio Bracciolini (1802) is a good authority on his biography.
The record of Hadrian's journeys 1 through all parts of the empire forms the chief authority for the events of his life down to his final settlement in the capital during his last years.
He attached little importance to mere ecclesiastical tradition or authority, and none to the voice of majorities, even when sanctioned by the decree of a pope.
Judicially it was under the authority of the parlement of Bordeaux; for financial purposes it was part of the generalite of Montauban.
Early in the 6th century it passed under the authority of the Franks, and in the 9th century was part of the Frankish kingdom of Aquitaine.
This work, and especially certain notes added by the translator, gave great offence to the advocates of unlimited papal authority, and three separate memorials were presented asking for its repression.
In 1887 Bismarck appealed to the pope to use his authority to order the Centre to support the military proposals of the government.
There is no good authority for the renderings "collectors of maxims," "collections of maxims."
Our sole authority for their existence is Philo in his treatise De Vita Contemplativa.
The treatises attributed to Geber, in fact, appear to be original works composed not earlier than the 13th century and fathered on Jaber in order to enhance their authority.
In 747 a synod of the Frankish bishops sent to Rome a formal statement of their submission to the papal authority.
The chief authority is the Vita Lanfranci by Milo Crispin, who was precentor at Bec and died in 1149.
It dates unquestionably from a period when the Frankish authority was very strong in Bavaria, when the dukes were vassals of the Frankish kings.
But, always ready to obey authority, Ignatius was able to disarm any charges that, now and at other times, were brought against him.
There are certain instances in his life which, taken by themselves, show a hardness in treating individuals who would not obey; but as a rule, he tempered his authority to the capacity of those with whom he had to deal.
It may be pointed out, however, that the story which represents him as boasting of his ability to make a better world than this is of late authority.
These faults are of less importance during the period when Greek and Roman writers notice the affairs of Britain; but they become more serious when, as is the case from nearly the beginning of the 5th century to the date of his death, Gildas's brief narrative is our only authority for most of what passes current as the history of our island during those years.
In 1568 John Josseline, secretary to Archbishop Parker, issued a new edition of it more in conformity with manuscript authority; and in 1691 a still more carefully revised edition appeared at Oxford by Thomas Gale.
It is readily understood why men imbued with the authority of tradition should prosecute the search for a substance which would confer unlimited wealth upon the fortunate discoverer.
The highest English authority on Wagner is his friend Dannreuther, whose article in Grove's Dictionary is classical.
Fisher was summoned (13th of April) to take the oath prescribed by the Act of Succession, which he was ready to do, were it not that the preamble stated that the offspring of Catherine were illegitimate, and prohibited all faith, trust and obedience to any foreign authority or potentate.
Antigonus never succeeded in reaching Macedonia, although his son Demetrius won Athens and Megara in 307 and again (304-302) wrested almost all Greece from Cassander; nor did Antigonus succeed in expelling Ptolemy from Egypt, although he led an army to its frontier in 306; and after the battle of Gaza in 312, in which Ptolemy and Seleucus defeated Demetrius, he had to see Seleucus not only recover Babylonia but bring all the eastern provinces under his authority as far as India.
Like the old Roman people, the Macedonian people under arms had acted especially in the transference of the royal authority, conferring or confirming the right of the new chief, and in cases !of the capital trials of Macedonians.
Where it is a case of delegating some part of the supreme authority, as when Seleucus I.
The values recognized in the great Hellenistic courts and the Greek world generally imposed their authority upon the dynasties of barbarian origin.
Its teaching as to the name of God, which claimed to be based on the authority of such eminent saints as St.
She would favour them, but on the distinct condition that nothing was to be done to weaken the bonds of authority.
He allied himself with his brother Richard and with William Pitt in forcing their feeble chief to give them promotion by rebelling against his authority and obstructing business.
George Grenville, their Friends and Contemporaries, were published at London in 1852, and afford the chief authority for his life.
Up to the year 1139 he follows closely the history written by his predecessor, Prior Richard; thenceforward he is an independent though not a very valuable authority.
Thus the two great houses of Orsini and Colonna, who had long fought for predominance in Rome and often flouted the pope's authority, were subjugated, and a great step achieved towards consolidating the Borgia's power.
Walsingham is the main authority for the history of England during the reigns of Richard II., Henry IV.
They also contended that the ministry should possess no official authority or pastoral prerogative, but should merely carry into effect the decisions of majorities in the different meetings.
It never again obtained a footing there; for, although, late in the middle ages, the book of Revelation - by what means we cannot tell - did recover its authority, the Church was by that time so hopelessly trammelled by a magical cultus as to be incapable of fresh developments.
After a royalist insurrection in 1655, a proclamation was issued announcing that persons suspected of Roman Catholicism would be required to take an oath abjuring the papal authority and transubstantiation.
But his Red River expedition, March - May 1864, forced upon him by superior authority, was a complete failure.
From this time onward the Indian government exercised considerable influence on the Somali coast, but British authority was not definitely established, and in 18J4 Richard Burton's expedition was attacked at Berbera.
He was one of the first of his countrymen to recognize and come under the influence of German thought and speculation, and, amidst an exaggerated alarm of German heresy, did much to vindicate the authority of the sounder German critics.
But in the meantime much might be done towards further mitigating the evils of slavery, especially by impressing on master and slave their relative duties and controlling their behaviour towards one another by the exercise of an independent moral authority.
In parts where European authority remained weak, as in the hinterland of the Portuguese province of Angola and the adjacent regions of Central Africa, native potentates continued to raid their neighbours, and from this region many labourers were (up to 1910) forcibly taken to work on the cocoa plantation in St Thomas.
The authorship of the writings ascribed to him in several biographical notices rests on no better authority than the apocryphal statements of Thomas Dempster.
He wore an air of authority yet never lacked address, or "assumed anything to himself above his contemporaries."
The story of the destruction of the library by the Arabs is first told by Bar-hebraeus (Abulfaragius), a Christian writer who lived six centuries later; and it is of very doubtful authority.
As to cultivation of the plant in Europe, according to Strabo the Romans obtained the papyrus plant from Lake Trasimene and other lakes of Etruria, but this statement is unsupported by any other ancient authority.
He calls himself most frequently manthran (" prophet"), ratu (" spiritual authority"), and saoshyant ("` the coming helper" - that is to say, when men come to be judged according to their deeds).
The mode of representation is always conventional, the treatment of the subject no less than its choice being dictated by an authority to which the artist was compelled to bow.
With the moral and ecclesiastical decay of the papacy in the 9th and 10th centuries much of its territorial authority slipped from its grasp; and by the middle of the I ith century its rule was not recognized beyond Rome and the immediate vicinity.
Outer columns of upper molars similar, the hinder ones not flattened; ridges of lower molars oblique or directly transverse, a third ridge to the last molar in the earlier forms. The Lophiodontidae, which date from the Eocene, come very close to Hyracotherium in the horse-line; and it is solely on the authority of American palaeontologists that the division of these early forms into equoids and tapiroids is attempted.
It laid stress, not on external authority, as did the Jewish law, but on individual experience and inward meditation.
Thus so late as 1819, when the legislature ordered the compilation of such parts of King Alfonso's Siete Partidas (the most common authority in the colony) as were considered in force, this compilation filled a considerable volume.
Lamothe Cadillac. ..1713-1716Sieur de Bienville, acting governor.1716-1717De l'Epinay..1717-1718Sieur de Bienville.1718-17241 Terms of actual service in Louisiana; Gayarre is the authority for the French and Spanish period.
But again all final authority was reserved to the captain-general.
Spanish authority ceased on the 1st of January 1899, and was followed by American " military " !rule (January 1, 1899 - May 20, 1902).
The classification in question was drawn up by an international committee of eminent mathematicians, and thus has the highest authority.
The patriarch of Constantinople is the nominal head of the Orthodox priesthood; but by an arrangement concluded in 1879, his authority was delegated to the Austrian emperor, in exchange for a revenue equal to the tribute previously paid by the clergy of the provinces; and his nominations for the metropolitanate of Serajevo, and the bishoprics of Dolnja Tuzla, Banjaluka and Mostar require the imperial assent.
In 1376 Tvrtko was crowned as "Stephen I., king of Bosnia, Servia, and all the Sea-coast," although Lazar retained his own title and a diminished authority.
Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate military caste, headed by 48 kapetans - landholders exercising unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service of their sovereign.
But the entire financial authority resided in the sultan as keeper, by right, of the fortune of his subjects.
In March 1897 the floating debt was calculated by a financial authority in the Fortnightly Review to amount to upwards of £TJ5,000,000, which might be compressed to £T25,000,000 since a large proportion was certainly composed of salaries in arrear and other items of a similar kind which the government would never, under any circumstances, make good.
High authority in Constantinople put the true amount of the floating debt in1910-1911at the amount previously estimated, viz.
In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
Property of an individual who has abandoned Ottoman nationality without legal authority so to do does not pass to heirs, whether Ottoman or foreign, but devolves to the state if legal authority has been granted the government under which the foreign heirs live must have accepted the protocol above cited.
Though Yahsha Bey, grandson of Mahommed Karaman Oghlu, had declared himself the successor of the Seljukian sultans, the princes of Aidin, Sarukhan, Menteshe, Kermian, Hamid, Tekke and Karassi declined to recognize his authority, and considered themselves independent, each in his own dominions.
He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
Torgud was now summoned to Constantinople to answer for piracies committed on the friendly galleys of Venice; but he sailed instead to Morocco, and there for two years defied the sultan's authority.
The title of vizier was borne by six or seven persons simultaneously; the grand vizier was the chief of these and exercised supreme authority, being invested with the sultan's signet.
The highest dignitaries of the ecclesiastical class were at first the kazaskers, or military judges, of Europe and Asia; later the office of Sheikh-ul-Islam was created as the supreme authority in matters relating to the Church and the sacred law.
Sultan Mahmud now devoted himself to breaking the overgrown power of the local governors, which had for many years practically annihilated that of the central authority.
In virtue of this judgment of the supreme legal authority, and with the aid of the fleet, Abd-ul-Aziz was deposed, being shortly afterwards found dead, apparently by his own hand.
More serious than any of these local disturbances was the counter-revolution in Constantinople itself, which began with the revolt of Kiamil Pasha, the grand vizier, against - the authority of the committee of union and progress.
These belong to the new or European school, which, in spite of the bitter opposition of the partisans of the old Oriental system, has succeeded, partly through its own inherent superiority and partly through the talents and courage of its supporters, in expelling its rival from the position of undisputed authority which it had occupied for upwards of five hundred years.
The authority of the cardinals, who were the only persons judicially invested with the right of electing the pope, emerged from the crisis through which the church had just passed in far too feeble and contested a condition to carry by its own weight the general assent.
At this moment the Prussians were actually on parade and ready to move off to attack, but just then the " evil genius " of the Prussian army, von Massenbach, an officer of the Headquarter Staff, rode up and claiming to speak with the authority of the king and commander-in-chief, induced Hohenlohe to order his troops back to camp. Of all this Napoleon saw nothing, but from all reports he came to the conclusion that the whole Prussian army was actually in front of him, and at once issued orders for his whole army to concentrate towards Jena, marching all night if need be.
Besides these, there are the religious heads of the community; especially the nakib and Jewish high priest, who possess an undefined and extensive authority in their own communities.
Turkish authority over the pashalic was again restored in the first part of the 19th century.
Herodotus is practically our only trustworthy authority.
Castren are still the best authority on the Samoyedes.
In 1884 another treaty was signed by the king, confirming and extending French influence, and reducing the royal authority to a shadow, but in view of the discontent aroused by it, its provisions were not put in force till several years later.
Marsilius denies, not only to the pope, but to the bishops and clergy, any coercive jurisdiction or any right to pronounce on their own authority excommunications and interdicts, or in any way to impose the observation of the divine law.
The clergy, thus deprived of its wealth, privileges and jurisdiction, is further to be deprived of independence, for the civil power is to have the right of appointing to benefices, &c. The supreme authority in the church is to be the council, but a council summoned by the emperor.
Sacerdotal benedictions are not indeed sacraments - means of grace ordained by Christ himself, but sacramentals (sacramenta minora) ordained by the authority of the Church and exercised by the priests, as the plenipotentiaries of God, in virtue of the powers conferred on them at their ordination; "that whatever they bless may be blessed, and whatever they consecrate may be consecrated."
The second of these brings the act of benediction into contact with the principle of consecration; for by the formal blessing by the duly constituted authority persons, places and things are consecrated, i.e.
Though the giving of blessings as a sacerdotal function is proper to the whole order of priests, particular benedictions have, by ecclesiastical authority, been reserved for the bishops, who may, however, delegate some of them; i.e.
She was recognized as an authority on several subjects, especially on Russian coinage.
The exclusion of the handicraftsmen from the Rath led, early in the 15th century, to a rising of the craft gilds against the patrician merchants, and in 1410 they forced the latter to recognize the authority of a committee of 48 burghers, which concluded with the senate the so-called First Recess; there were, however, fresh outbursts in 1458 and 1483, which were settled by further compromises.
The story in picturesque fashion makes Patrick challenge the royal authority by lighting the Paschal fire on the hill of Slane on the night of Easter Eve.
On his return he founded the church and monastery of Armagh, the site of which was granted him by Daire, king of Oriel, and it is probable that the see was intended by him to be specially connected with the supreme ecclesiastical authority.
Clovis made his authority recognized over the other Salian tribes (whose kings dwelt at Cambrai and other cities), and put an end to the domination of the Ripuarian Franks.
Thirty years after the Ridsdale judgment, the ritual confusion in the Church of England was worse than ever, and the old ideal expressed in the Acts of Uniformity had given place to a desire to sanctify with some sort of authority the parochial "uses" which had grown up. In this respect the dominant opinion in the Church, intent on compromise, seems to have been expressed in the Report presented in 1908 to the convocation of the province of Canterbury by the sub-committee of five bishops appointed to investigate the matter, namely, that under the Ornaments Rubric the vestments prescribed in the first Prayer Book of Edward VI.
In 1841 he published The Seaman's Friend, republished in England as The Seaman's Manual, which was long the highest authority on the legal rights and duties of seamen.
He brought out in 1865 an edition of Wheaton's International Law, his notes constituting a most learned and valuable authority on international law and its bearings on American history and diplomacy; but immediately after its publication Dana was charged by the editor of two earlier editions, William Beach Lawrence, with infringing his copyright, and was involved in litigation which was continued for thirteen years.
These articles, which contain the essence of the Hussite doctrine, were rejected by Sigismund, mainly through the influence of the papal legates, who considered them prejudicial to the authority of the Roman see.
At Prague a demagogue, the priest John of Zelivo, for a time obtained almost unlimited authority over the lower classes of the townsmen; and at Tabor a communistic movement (that of the so-called Adamites) was sternly suppressed by Zizka.
His authority was recognized by the Utraquist nobles, the citizens of Prague, and the more moderate Taborites, including Zizka.
However, it is evident from the letters of appanage, dated April 1771, in favour of the count of Provence, how many functions of public authority an appanaged person still held.
The laws were recited before the pope and confirmed by his authority, upon which Howel and his companions returned home."
The accessory divaricators are, according to the same authority, a pair of small muscles which have their ends attached to the ventral valve, one on each side of the median line, a little behind the united basis of the adductors, and again to the extreme point of the cardinal process.
The function of these muscles, according to the same authority, is not only that of erecting the shell; they serve also to attach the peduncle to the shell, and thus effect the steadying of it upon the peduncle.
Where no statute applies to the case, the doctrines of the canon law may still be of authority.
The alake exercises little authority apart from his council, the form of government being largely democratic. Revenue is chiefly derived from tolls or import duties.
They sometimes settled officially and of their own authority the share of certain taxpayers, and, though this was sometimes done as a favour, it was often a measure of justice.
The chief authority for his life is the portion of Livy dealing with the history of the period.
Autour consists of seven letters, on the origin and aim of L'Evangile et l'Eglise; on the biblical question; the criticism of the Gospels; the Divinity of Christ; the Church's foundation and authority; the origin and authority of dogma, and on the institution of the sacraments.
Its powers were increased and its constitution varied in 1864, 1866 (till which year the jurisdiction of the river above Staines was under a large body of commissioners), and 1894, but the creation of the Port of London Authority (see London) limited its jurisdiction.
Montrose, on the other hand, wished to bring the king's authority to bear upon parliament to defeat this object, and offered him the support of a great number of nobles.
It had indeed been alleged, on Clarendon's authority, that he proposed to murder Hamilton and Argyll; but this is in all probability only one of Clarendon's many blunders.
Believers in law have put their trust in authority or logic; while believers in disposition chiefly look to our instinctive faculties - conscience, common-sense or sentiment.
But common-sense and conscience are quite as definite guides as logic or authority; and there seems no good reason for refusing to give the name of casuistry to their operations.
It was subdivided into six provinces, which were placed under the authority of the praetorian prefect of Africa.
The Austrasian mayors of the palace succeeded in enforcing their authority in the western as well as in the eastern part, and in re-establishing to their own advantage the unity of the Frankish kingdom.
His treatises De mensura astrolabii and De utilitatibus astrolabii (to be found, on the authority of Salzburg MSS., in Pez, Thesaurus anecdotorum novissimus, iii.) being the first contributions of moment furnished by a European to this subject, Hermann was for a time considered the inventor of the astrolabe.
One of his dissertations was a defence of the antiquity and divine authority of the vowel-points in Hebrew.
His scholarship still moved in the old traditional lines, and he was also much exercised by religious scruples, the conflict of an independent mind with that submission to authority at the expense of reason encouraged by the Lutheranism in which he had been trained.
Gilbert himself absolutely disregarded authority, and accepted nothing at second-hand.
Already Wycliffe had declared that " whatever book is in the Old Testament besides these twentyfive (Hebrew) shall be set among the apocrypha, that is, without authority or belief."
In 1864 he was appointed, by Sella, secretary-general of finance, and after being created senator in 1865, acquired considerable fame as a financial authority.
In this respect international arbitration differs from civil arbitration, since a private arbitrator cannot delegate his office without express authority.
To group (a) belong territorial differences in regard to ownership of land and rights of fishing at sea; to group (b) belong pecuniary claims in respect of acts wrongfully done to one or more subjects of one state by, or with the authority of, another state.
His power was reduced in the 6th century, when he was deprived of his authority over the Orient diocese, and became civil governor of Syria Prima, retaining his "respectable" rank.
Every petty Italian prince, from the pope downwards, created them for love or money; and, in the absence of any regulating authority, the title was also widely and loosely assumed, while often the feudal title passed with the sale of the estate to which it was attached.
Mithras, identified with Sol Invictus at Rome, thus became the giver of authority and victory to the imperial house.
In the first group are found Infinite Time, or Cronus; Tellus and Atlas supporting the globe, representing the union of Earth and Heaven; Oceanus; the Fates; Infinite Time giving into the hand of his successor Ormazd the thunderbolt, the symbol of authority; Ormazd struggling with a giant of evil - the Mithraic gigantomachy.
The Amazon plain is heavily forested and has a slope of less than one inch to the mile within Brazilian territory - one competent authority placing it at about one-fifth of an inch per mile.
It has authority, however, to review the acts and laws of state governments and to decide upon their constitutionality.
In historical literature Brazil has produced one writer of high standing - Francisco Adolpho Varnhagen (Visconde de Porto Seguro), whose Historia Geral do Brazil is a standard authority on that subject.
The judicial and financial functions in each province were vested in the Ouvidor, whose authority in the college of finance was second only to that of the governor.
Over these persons the Jesuits had no authority; and it was not until the arrival of the first bishop of Brazil in 1552, that anything like an efficient check was imposed upon them.
The Jesuits from the first moment of their landing in Brazil had constituted themselves the protectors of the natives, and though strenuously opposed by the colonists and ordinary clergy, had gathered the Indians together in many aldeas, over which officials of their order exercised spiritual and temporal authority.
An insulting decree was passed in the Cortes, ordering the prince Dom Pedro to come to Europe, which filled the Brazilians with alarm; they foresaw that without a central authority the country would fall back to its former colonial state subject to Portugal.
Before the end of 1823 the authority of the new emperor and the independence of Brazil were undisputed throughout the whole country.
Occasional political outbreaks occurred, but none of very serious nature except in Rio Grande do Sul, where a long guerrilla warfare was carried on against the imperial authority.
Second in authority was placed General Floriano Peixoto, an officer also under heavy obligations to the deposed monarch, as indeed were nearly all of those who took active part in the conspiracy.
Of the measures which William took to consolidate his authority we have many details; but the chronological order of his proceedings is obscure.
Under the Lombards the civil government was in the hands of a gastaldo, under the Carolingians of a count, whose authority, by slow degrees and a course of events similar to what took place in other Italian communes, gave way to that of the bishop, whose power in turn gradually diminished and was superseded by that of the consuls and the commonwealth.
But the appetite for power of the "less people" and the dregs of the populace was whetted rather than satisfied by the installation of the riformatori in the principal posts of authority.
We use the term "domination" rather than "signory" inasmuch as, strictly speaking, Petrucci was never lord of the state, and left its established form of government intact; but he exercised despotic authority in virtue of his strength of character and the continued increase of his personal power.
A lieutenant-general was appointed as representative of his authority; the council of the balia was reconstituted with twenty members chosen by the duke; the consistory and the general council were left in existence but deprived of their political autonomy.
The keys, as he believed, were entrusted to the church as a whole, and from the church as a whole the " ministers of the word and sacraments " are to derive their institution and authority.
The case first came under consideration when Cardinal Pole returned to England early in Mary's reign with legatine authority for reconciling the realm to the Holy See.
The poem appears, on the authority of Laing, to have been printed at the press of Chepman & Myllar about 1508, but the fragments which Laing saw are not extant.
In 1837 Gardiner was given authority by the British government to exercise jurisdiction over the traders.
They, however, refused to acknowledge Gardiner's authority, and from the Cape government he received no support.'
In 1866 the borders of the colony were extended on the southwest by the annexation of part of Kaffraria that had formerly been under the sway of the Pondo chief Faku, who found himself unable to maintain his authority in a region occupied by many diverse tribes.
Bishop Colenso (q.v.), condemned in 1863 on a charge of heresy, ignored the authority of the court of South African bishops and was maintained in his position by decision of the Privy Council in England.
Thereupon the Natal ministry resigned, giving as their reason the importance of maintaining the authority of the colonial administration at a critical period, and the constitutional question involved in the interference by the imperial authorities in the domestic affairs of a self-governing colony.
But in 1909 an act was passed which placed native affairs in the hands of four district commissioners, gave to the minister for native affairs direct executive authority and created a council for native affairs on which non-official members had seats.
The uncertain authority of these statements, and the plausibility of the preceding explanation, have caused philologists to accept the derivation from al and jabara.
Robert Recorde in his Whetstone of Witte (1557) uses the variant algeber, while John Dee (1527-1608) affirms that algiebar, and not algebra, is the correct form, and appeals to the authority of the Arabian Avicenna.
In the fully developed episcopal system the bishop sums up in his own person the collective powers of the Church in his diocese, not by delegation of these powers from below, but by divinely bestowed authority from above.
The power of the collective episcopate to maintain Catholic unity was disproved long before it was overshadowed by the centralized authority of Rome; before the Reformation, its last efforts to assert its supremacy in the Western Church, at the councils of Basel and Constance, had broken down; and the religious revolution of the 16th century left it largely discredited and exposed to a double attack, by the papal monarchy on the one hand and the democratic Presbyterian model on the other.
The financial authority estimates what additional amount beyond revenue is required for the expenses of administration, and levies a rate to meet it.
Next to the poor rate came that for highways, and other special rates have been authorized from time to time, as for police, education, public lighting, cemeteries, libraries, sanitary purposes, &c. To distinguish the rate the name of the precepting authority is frequently added or the purpose for which it is levied specified, as county rate, watch rate, &c. The valuation list of a parish is the basis on which the poor rate is levied.
The future constitution was to be established after the conclusion of peace by a constituent assembly, which " will be the source and consummation of all authority in the State."
The central authority in Austria was steadily breaking down, and the food crisis was rendered still more acute by the widespread formation of " Green Cadres " - well organized armed bands which held positions in the mountains and defied capture.
On the 28th (the same day on which the Czechoslovak Republic was born in Prague) the military command in Zagreb handed over its authority to the National Council, and next day the diet proclaimed the independence of Croatia from Hungary, and assumed control of Fiume.
Yielding to the unanimous desire of the other delegates, Pasic officially requested the Entente to recognize the Zagreb Council as the supreme authority in the ex-Austro-Hungarian provinces, and Trumbic as its accredited representative in the West, until unification could be completed.
The Allies, so far from attempting to restore order, withdrew their forces and allowed their authority to be flouted.
The greater part of its body is covered by a pattern of acanthus leaves, but on the shoulder is a frieze showing nomads breaking in wild mares, our chief authority for Scythian costume.
On the whole,it may be said that his position in this question as to the rights of the papal see over foreign metropolitans resembled that of his great predecessor Hincmar, to whose authority he constantly appeals.
The Witwatersrand municipalities are for certain purposes combined into one authority, and representatives of these municipalities, together with representatives of the chamber of mines, compose the Rand water board.
Up to 1845 Potgieter continued to exercise authority over the Boer communities on both sides of the Vaal.
The administrative authority was to be vested in a president, aided by an executive council.
He lost heart, and actually suggested to White the surrender of Ladysmith, believing this to be inevitable and desiring to cover White's responsibility in that event with his own authority; but White replied that he did not propose to surrender, and the cabinet at home, aware of Buller's despondency, appointed Field Marshal Lord Roberts to the supreme command, with MajorGeneral Lord Kitchener as his chief of staff.
Signs of weakness were now apparent, and as a result Louis Botha, acting with the authority of Schalk Burger, the representative of President Kruger, opened negotiations with Kitchener.
The forces destined to maintain his authority in Asia had been entrusted by Bayezid to his three sons, Ahmed, Corcud and Selim; and the sultan's declining years were embittered by their revolts and rivalry.
The tradition, dating from the 15th century and supported by the weighty authority of the Strassburg historian Karl Schmidt (Nicolaus von Basel, Vienna, 1866), identified him with Nicholas, but is now discredited by all scholars.
The Anglican Church, while still commemorating many of the Catholic saints, has not, since the Reformation, admitted any new names to the authoritative list, with the single exception of that of King Charles I., whose "martyrdom" was celebrated by authority from the Restoration until the year 1859.
Specialists may here and there improve on a statement or a theory, but it will always remain a great authority, a monument of patient and exhaustive research of intellectual power, and f ripe and disciplined judgment.
The embodiment of political and religious supremacy displayed in the high priest's authority, clothing and symbols can only reflect exilic or rather post-exilic conditions.'
The powers of the executive, direct and implied, are very broad and permit the exercise of much absolute authority.
The Federal District is the seat of federal authority, "and consists of a small territory surrounding Caracas and La Guaira, known in the territorial division of 1904 as the West district, and the island of Margarita and some neighbouring islands, known as the East district.
One of the clauses of the reformed constitution accords belligerent rights to all persons taking up arms against the state authority, provided they can show that their action is the outcome of political motives.
To overcome it he at length obtained authority (June 15th) to order the army of the Elbe into Saxony, and on the 18th the Prussians entered Dresden, the Saxons retiring along the Elbe into Bohemia; and on the same day the news that the Austrian main body was marching from Olmiitz towards Prague arrived at headquarters.
Direct opponents or repudiators of the authority of Hippocrates were rare, all generally appealing to his authority.
His attempt at reform, which was taken to be, as in effect it was, a revolt against the authority of the Arabian masters, led to his expulsion from Paris, and the formal prohibition by the parliament of his method.
These discoveries not only weakened or destroyed the respect for authority in matters of science, but brought about a marked tendency to mechanical explanations of life and disease.
The result of this was not to eliminate dogma from medicine, though it weakened the authority of the old dogma.
From this time forth the reign of canonical authority in medicine was at an end, though the dogmatic spirit long survived.
His work, entitled Observations on the Diseases of an Army, was translated into many European languages and became the standard authority on the subject.
Thus it was, partly because the habit of acceptance of authority, waning but far from extirpated, dictated to the clinical observer what he should see; partly because the eye of the clinical observer lacked that special training which the habit and influence of experimental verification alone can give, that physicians, even acute and practised physicians, failed to see many and many a symptomatic series which went through its evolutions conspicuously enough, and needed for its appreciation no unknown aids or methods of research, nor any further advances of pathology.
The intelligent classes have become far better educated in the laws of health, and less disposed to quackery; the less intelligent are better cared for and protected by municipal and central authority.
He addresses him as an equal; he expresses sympathy with the prominent part he played in public life, and admiration for his varied accomplishments, but on his own subject claims to speak to him with authority.
He followed the policy of his predecessors in enforcing the royal authority over the nobles, but the machinery of a centralized government strong enough to hold nobility in check increased the royal expenditure, to meet which Charles had recourse to doubtful financial expedients.
Among his numerous publications are The Light Invisible, By What Authority?, The King's Achievement, Richard Raynal, Solitary, The Queen's Tragedy, The Sentimentalists, Lord of the World.
The Heralds' College or College of Arms, the official authority in matters of armorial bearings and pedigrees, occupies a building in Queen Victoria Street, City, erected subsequently to the great fire (1683).
The company's management did not give satisfaction, and the use of the telephone was consequently restricted in the metropolis, when in 1898 a Select Committee on Telephones reported that " general immediate and effective " competition by either the government or local authority was necessary to ensure efficient working.
The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.
The Council may also act in cases of default by the local authorities, or may make representations to the Local Government Board respecting such default, whereupon the Board may direct the Council to withhold payment due to the local authority under the Equalization of Rates Act 1894.
Hospitals.-The Metropolitan Asylums Board, though established in 1867 purely as a poor-law authority for the relief of the sick, insane Metro- and infirm paupers, has become a central hospital authority for infectious diseases, with power to receive into politan its hospitals persons, who are not paupers, suffering from Asylums fever, smallpox or diphtheria.
County Council have certain powers and duties of sanitary authority for the purpose of epidemic regulations.
For many years proposals to amalgamate the working of the companies and displace them by a central public authority were put forward from time to time.
The County Council was created a local education authority, and given control of secular education in both board and voluntary schools.
The recommendations of the Commission included the creation of a single controlling authority to take over the powers of the Thames Conservancy Watermen's Company, and Trinity House and the docks of the companies already detailed.
This authority, it was advised, should consist of 40 members, of whom II should be nominated by the London County Council and 3 by the Corporation of the City (supposing these bodies to accept certain financial responsibilities proposed in the direction of river improvements), 5 by the governors of the Bank of England from the mercantile community, 2 by the London Chamber of Commerce, and I each by the Admiralty, Board of Trade and Trinity House.
The Thames Conservancy also offered itself as the public authority.
The Port of London Authority, as constituted by the act of 1908, is a body corporate consisting of a chairman, vice-chairman, 17 members elected by payers of dues, wharfingers and owners of river craft, I member elected by wharfingers exclusively, and To members appointed by the following existing bodies - Admiralty (one); Board of Trade (two); London County Council (two from among its own members and two others); City Corporation (one from among its own members and one other); Trinity House (one).
The Board of Trade and the County Council must each, under the act, consult with representatives of labour as to the appointment of one of the members, in order that labour may be represented on the Port Authority.
The undertakings of the three dock companies mentioned above were transferred to and vested in the Port Authority, an equivalent amount of port stock created under the act being issued to each.
The Port Authority has full powers to authorize construction works.
The Port Authority fixes the port rates, which, however, must not in any two consecutive years exceed one-thousandth part of the value of all imports and exports, or a three-thousandth of the value of goods discharged from or taken on board vessels not within the premises of a dock.
The authority has powers to borrow money, but for certain purposes in this connexion, as in other matters, it can only act subject to the approval of the Board of Trade.
The Metropolitan Board of Works was also given certain powers of supervision over the vestries and district boards, and superseded the commissioners of sewers as authority for main drainage.
By an act of the same session it became the central authority for the administration of the Building Acts, and subsequently had many additional powers and duties conferred upon it.
Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).
Further, every precept sent by an authority in London for the purpose of obtaining money (these authorities include the London County Council, the receiver of the Metropolitan Police, the Central Unemployed Body and the Boards of Guardians) which has ultimately to be raised out of a rate within a borough is sent direct to the council of the borough instead of filtering through other authorities before reaching the overseers.
It needs some temerity to differ from so great an authority as Dr Guest, but it strikes one as surprising that, having accepted the fact of a bridge made by the Britons, he should deny that these Britons possessed a town or village in the place to which he supposes that Aulus Plautius retired.
Round holds that the office of Justiciar was created by Henry I.'s charter, and as he was the chief authority in the city this somewhat takes off from the value of the privilege of appointing sheriffs.
A claim has been set up for Thomas Legge, mayor for the second time in 1354, that he was the first lord mayor, but there is positively no authority whatever for this claim, although it is boldly stated that he;was createdlord mayor by Edward III.
Recognizing that slavery was a state institution, with which the Federal government had no authority to interfere, he contended that slavery could only exist by a specific state enactment, that therefore slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories was unlawful and should be abolished, that the coastwise slave-trade in vessels flying the national flag, like the international slave-trade, should be rigidly suppressed, and that Congress had no power to pass any act which in any way could be construed as a recognition of slavery as a national institution.
Such roads in England for the most part either are of immemorial antiquity or have been created under the authority of an act of parliament.
Over the headman, whose authority may extend to more than one kraal, is the tribal chief, and above the tribal chief was the king, whose authority is now exercised by a British commissioner.