Now he was exerting his authority in another way.
I didn't mean to sound like some kind of authority on the subject.
"Get out," she said with as much authority as she could muster.
Still, what business could survive without a person with final authority on decisions?
Even then he had begun to distrust the authority of tradition and his teachers.
He's unaccustomed to having his authority challenged.
People that dictate the rules make decisions for others with much authority.
He had neither authority nor right to ignore her emphatic command that he leave her place and remain silent about what he'd seen.
It had to be difficult to maintain any semblance of authority with a toddler clinging to his face, but he managed to do it.
Anyone in authority seemed habitually out of the office after Dean gave his name.
News and information that undermine their credibility or authority aren't so welcome either.
Her father had been the final authority, but never had she questioned her mother's authority.
It is important to respect and submit to the authority to which you are assigned to.
She had no authority to access anything and no ability to see the emerops facilities or fed facilities.
It was thus practically a committee of the larger council, and assisted the king in his judicial work, its authority being as undefined as his own.
He had the authority to modify the documents for his benefit, but he decided not to abuse his power.
He merely wanted to establish his authority, so the others would follow his lead.
After studying the car thoughtfully for a few minutes, he confidently assumed authority.
Had Giddon overstepped his authority?
Andre at least had that authority.
Jackson rose and spoke with authority.
Someone has to be head of the household - final authority.
I guess I shouldn't have said anything, but don't you realize that the way Alex treats you gives Jonathan reason to question your authority?
The O'Neills of Ulster: Their History and Genealogy, by Thomas Mathews (3 vols., Dublin, 1907), an ill-arranged and uncritical work, has little historical value, but contains a mass of traditional and legendary lore, and a number of translations of ancient poems, and genealogical tables of doubtful authority.
The county court, consisting of three commissioners elected for six years but with terms so arranged that one retires every two years, is the police and fiscal authority.
The story of Alexander's visit to Jerusalem rests on no better authority than a later Jewish romance.
It is true that our best authority, Arrian, fails to substantiate the traditional view satisfactorily; on the other hand those who maintain it urge that Arrian's interests were mainly military, and that the other authorities, if inferior in trustworthiness, are completer in range of vision.
death by Alexander in 327, whose history went up to the death of Darius, Alexander's general Ptolemy, afterwards king in Egypt, Nearchus who commanded the fleet that sailed from the Indus to the Persian Gulf, Onesicritus who served as pilot in the same fleet, Aristobulus who was with Alexander in India, Clitarchus, a contemporary, if not an eye-witness, important from the fact that his highly coloured version of the life of Alexander became the popular authority for the succeeding centuries.
(Since 1886 the Society of Arts has advo cated the Diapason Normal)1860 Authority.
It appears in early times, when Thessaly was mainly governed by a few aristocratic families, as an important city under the rule of the Aleuadae, whose authority extended over the whole district of Pelasgiotis.
He speaks as a legislator, citing no authority; but he formulates, doubtless, the ideas and perhaps the practices of the Jerusalem priesthood.
Notwithstanding the abandonment of Christianity by a large section of the population after the Turkish conquest, the authority of the sultans was never effectively established, and succeeding centuries present a record of interminable conflicts between the tribesmen and the Turks, between the Christians and the converts to Islam, or between all combined and the traditional Montenegrin enemy.
The chief authority for Madame de Longueville's life is a little book in two volumes by Villefore the Jansenist, published in 1738.
Bale is also the authority for another assertion that figures in what has been aptly termed the poet's "traditional biography," viz.
in 1296 and defended the castle of Stirling against him in 1304; but there is no authority for this genealogy.
Professor Wallace's words are "My authority for this belief is unquestionable.
In episcopacy the supreme authority is a diocesan bishop; in congregationalism it is the members of the congregation assembled in church meeting; in Presbyterianism it is a church council composed of representative presbyters.
17 The principle of ministerial parity which is fundamental in Presbyterianism is founded not merely on apostolic example but on the words of Christ Himself:" Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them.
The municipal authority in those times claimed the right to exercise a censorship over the citizens' private life.
It was felt to be a political necessity that he should return, and in 1541, somewhat reluctantly, he returned on his own terms. These were the recognition of the Church's spiritual independence, the division of the town into parishes, and the appointment (by the municipal authority) of a consistory or council of elders in each parish for the exercise of discipline.
In most cases it was insisted on as necessary that church discipline should remain with the civil authority.
"What kept these bodies apart was their separate historic origin and development, but especially the alienation caused by the ` Voluntary Controversy ' which had its roots in the difficult problems of civil law in its relation to religion, and the stumbling-block of the civil magistrate's authority in relation to the Christian conscience."
It is rough in form and the author shows no power of discriminating between important and unimportant events; yet the chronicle is an excellent authority for the history of Saxony during the reigns of the emperors Otto III.
All the public acts and judicial decisions of one province have full legal effect and authority in all the others.
In 1620 Buenos Aires was separated from the authority of the government established at Asuncion, and was made the seat of a government extending over Mendoza, Santa Fe, Entre Rios and Corrientes, but at the same time remained like the government of Paraguay at Asuncion, and that of the province of Tucuman, which had Cordoba as its capital, subject to the authority of the viceroyalty of Peru.
On the 25th of May 1810 a great armed assembly met at Buenos Aires and a provisional junta was formed to supersede the authority of the viceroy and carry on the government.
In 1835, with the title of governor and captain general, he acquired dictatorial powers, and all public authority passed into his hands.
But Urquiza was a man of different temperament from Rosas, and when he found that Buenos Aires refused to submit to his authority, he declined to use force.
At the head of each department is a prefect, a political official nominated by the minister of the interior and appointed by the president, who acts as general agent of the government and renresentative of the central authority.
The prefect supervises the execution of the laws; has wide authority in regard to policing, public hygiene and relief of pauper children; has the nomination of various subordinate officials; and is in correspondence with the subordinate functionaries in his department, to whom he transmits the orders and instructions of the government.
As the prefect in the department, so the sub-prefect in the arrondissement, though with a more limited power, is the representative of the central authority.
In each department an official collector (Trsorier payeur genral) receives the taxes and public revenue collected therein and accounts for them to the central authority in Paris.
The administrative staff includes, for the purpose of computing the individual quotas of the direct taxes, a director assisted by contrleurs in each department and subordinate to a central authority in Paris, the direction gnrale des contributions directes.
He is thus commander-in-chief, as also governor-designate for time of war, but his authority does not extend to ships belonging to organized squadrons or divisions.
purposes are provided by the department, Guinea the commune and the central authority.
Although his de facto sovereignty was confined to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a zeal beyond his years in procuring the recognition of his authority by his turbulent vassals.
The chief authority for the reign is the chronicler Flodoard.
CINQUE PORTS, the name of an ancient jurisdiction in the south of England, which is still maintained with considerable modifications and diminished authority.
It is usually stated, on the authority of Ephorus, that Pheidon of Argos established a mint in Aegina.
By one authority Amphilestes (fig.
Archelaus, Herod's successor, had far less authority than Herod, and the real power of government at Jerusalem was assumed by the Roman procurators, in the time of one of whom, Pontius Pilate, Jesus Christ was condemned to death and crucified outside Jerusalem.
In 1848, when Prussia made war on Denmark, Lauenburg was occupied at her own request by some Hanoverian troops, and was then administered for three years under the authority of the German confederation, being restored to Denmark in 1851.
18, 1, lo), or rather his best authority, King Ptolemy.
24, 27 the lower figure is given on the authority of "the last words (or acts) of David."
The heart protests against the severance of death, and claims the continuance of love's communion after death; and as man feels that love is what is most godlike in his nature, love's claim has supreme authority.
The Chinese difficulty, so far as the mining population was concerned, was solved by the exhaustion of the extensive alluvial deposits; the miners' prejudice against the race, however, still exists, though they are no longer serious competitors, and the laws of some of the states forbid any Chinese to engage in mining without the express authority in writing of the minister of mines.
The constitution, parliament and laws of each state, subject to the federal constitution, retained their authority; state rights were carefully safeguarded, and an inter-state commission was given powers of adjudication and of administration of the laws relating to trade, transport and other matters.
The president has the power to appoint assessors to advise him on technical points; and considerable powers of devolution of authority for the purpose of inquiry and report are conferred upon the court, the main object of which is to secure settlement by conciliatory methods.
The chief authority for determining whether these conditions are satisfied or not is the Federal arbitration court.
Vitellius (the father of the emperor) to restore the Roman authority in the East.
Its remoteness from the control of the authority of the German and French kings, together with its inaccessibility, gave special facilities in Lower Lorraine to the growth of a number of practically independent feudal states forming a group or system apart.
The nobility and clergy were on the side of the ducal authority; its opponents were the municipalities, especially those of Flanders.
By his ruthless suppression of revolts at Dinant and Liege he made his authority undisputed throughout the Netherlands.
Gelderland, however, which had revolted after Nancy, had Charles of Egmont for its duke, and the two bishoprics of Liege and Utrecht were no longer subject to Burgundian authority.
These great magnates, all of them Knights of the Fleece and men of peculiar weight and authority in the country, were disgusted to find that, though nominally councillors of state, their advice was never asked, and that all power was placed in the hands of the Consulta.
The prince now took up his permanent residence at Delft, and a regular government was established, in which he exercised almost dictatorial authority.
He was made commander-in-chief of both the military and naval forces with supreme authority, and in his hands was placed the final appointment to all political and judicial posts and to vacant city magistracies.
He also had authority to confer the protectorate of the federated provinces upon a foreign prince.
Don John made his state entry into Brussels on the 1st of May, but only to find that he had no real authority.
He supported John with all the weight of papal authority.
There is no special board of commissioners or supervisors as in most of the other states, the county authority being the assistant judges of the county court.
at Marseilles, Henry's appeal from the pope to a general council; but there seems to be no good authority for Burnet's story that Clement threatened to have him burnt alive.
When these became law, he neglected to enforce them, and on the 1 st of September 1549 he was required by the council to maintain at St Paul's Cross that the royal authority was as great as if the king were forty years of age.
If that authority falls to nothing,"he said," nothing can follow but confusion."The Presbyterians, however, now engaged in a plan for restoring the king under their own control, and by the means of a Scottish army, forced on their policy, and on the 27th of May ordered the immediate disbandment of the army, without any guarantee for the payment of arrears.
On the 31st of May 1647 Cromwell had ordered Cornet Joyce to prevent the king's removal by the parliament or the Scots from Holmby, and Joyce by his own authority and with the king's consent brought him to Newmarket to the headquarters of the army.
The great problem was to found a stable government, an authority to keep order.
He would lay hold of anything "if it had but the force of authority," rather than have none.
Opinions, no doubt, will always differ as to the wisdom or authority of the policy which brought Charles to the scaffold.
Cromwell had exhausted every expedient for arriving at an arrangement with the king by which the royal authority might be preserved, and the repeated perfidy and inexhaustible shiftiness of Charles had proved the hopelessness of such attempts.
Although the idol of his victorious army, and in a position enabling him to exercise autocratic power, he laboured unostentatiously for more than a year and a half as a member of the parliament, whose authority he supported to the best of his ability.
Cromwell had no patience with formal pedantry of this sort; and in point of strict legality "The Rump" of the Long Parliament had little better title to authority than the officers who expelled it from the House.
The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
Other attacks upon his authority were met with the same resort to force.
Instead, however, of proceeding with the work of practical legislation, accepting the Instrument of Government without challenge as the basis of its authority, the parliament immediately began to discuss and find fault with the constitution and to debate about "Fundamentals."
"It has been hitherto," Cromwell said, "a matter of, I think, but philosophical discourse, that a great place, a great authority, is a great burthen.
by ecclesiastical authority, and during his whole life Siger was exposed to persecution both from the Church and from purely philosophic opponents.
One authority refers to him as Flavian.
He never lost an opportunity, whether in the pulpit or on the platform, of pressing on his hearers that the greatest future for Canada lay in unity with the rest of the British Empire; and his broad statesman-like judgment made him an authority which politicians of all parties were glad to consult.
In the 15th century power was at last concentrated in the Baglioni family, who, though they had no legal position, defied all other authority.
He died on the 2nd of July 1816, having occupied his latter years in the composition and revision of an autobiography (published in 1817), which, with all its egotism and partiality, is a valuable work, and the chief authority for his life.
But so great was his popularity that the court was decidedly worsted in the contest, and the emperor's authority maLerially shaken.
Closely analogous to the action of the state in the cases referred to is the action taken by municipal authorities with the authority of the legislature in competing with or superseding private companies for the supply of electric light, gas, water, tramways and other public services..
International service regulations have been drawn up which possess equal authority with the convention and constitute what may be regarded as the law relating to international telegraphy.
A Dominican, Leandro Alberti (Descrizione d'Italia, 1550), states that they were originally nine in number, and an independent authority, Antonio Concioli (Statuta civitatis Eugubii, 1673), states that two of the nine were taken to Venice in 1540 and never reappeared.
This history, in the composition of which Pollio received assistance from the grammarian Ateius Praetextatus, was used as an authority by Plutarch and Appian (Horace, Odes, ii.
According to this authority Jovinian in 388 was living at Rome the celibate life of an ascetic monk, possessed a good acquaintance with the Bible, and was the author of several minor works, but, undergoing an heretical change of view, afterwards became a self-indulgent Epicurean and unrefined sensualist.
Though the territorial authority of the papal see was practically abolished in 1870, the fact that Rome is the seat of the administrative centre of the vast organization of the church is not without significance to the nation.
Libels, insults, &c., resistance to public authority, offences against good customs, thefts and frauds, have increased; assaults are nearly stationary.
In Naples, the Camorra and in Sicily, the Mafia are secret societies whose power of resistance to authority is still not inconsiderable.
The same revolution vested supreme authority in a non-resident and inefficient autocrat, whose title gave him the right to interfere in Italian affairs, but who lacked the power and will to rule the people for his own or their advantage.
The parcels into which the Lombards had divided the peninsula remained thus virtually unaltered, except for the new authority acquired by the see of Rome.
The cities, exposed to pillage by Huns in the north and Saracens in the south, and ravaged on the coast by Norse pirates, asserted their right to enclose themselves with walls, and taught their burghers the use of arms. Within the circuit of their ramparts, the bishops already began to exercise authority in rivalry with the counts, to whom, since the days of Theodoric, had been entrusted the government of the Italian burghs.
The last king of the quasi-Italian succession, Berengar II., marquis of Ivrea (951961), made a vigorous effort to restore the authority of the regno; and had he succeeded, it is not impossible that now at the last moment Italy might have become an independent nation.
The central authority of Pavia had always been weak; the regno had proved insufficient to combine the nation.
We have seen how the cities enclosed themselves with walls, and how the bishops defined their authority against that of the counts.
Under the imperial rule of Lothar the Saxon (1125-1137) and Conrad the Swabian (1138I I 52), these civil wars increased in violence owing to the absence of authority.
Frederick placed judges of his own appointment, with the title of podest, in all the Lombard commu1ies; and this stretch of his authority, while it exacerbated his foes, forced even his friends to join their ranks against him.
Invariably a foreigner, elected for a year with power of life and death and control of the armed force, but subject to a strict account at the expiration of his office, the podest might be compared to a dictator invested with limited authority.
authority, coinciding as it did with the practical elimination of the empire from Italian affairs, gave a long period of comparative independence to the nation.
Rienzis revolution in Rome (3471354), and hi~ establishment of a republic upon a fantastic basis, half classical half feudal, proved the temper of the times; while the rise of dynastic families in the cities of the church, claiming the title of papal vicars, but acting in their own interests, Tb weakened the authority of the Holy See.
Charles V., it must be remembered, achieved his conquest and confirmed his authority far less as emperor than as the heir of Castile and Aragon.
Meanwhile Spanish fanaticism, the suppression of the Huguenots in France and the Catholic policy of Austria combined to strengthen their authority as pontiffs.
He accepte that office because, as he frankly informed the deputies, he ha(found no one who for his services rendered to his country his authority with the people and his separation from part~
During eight years (1806-1814) the chief places of the island had been garrisoned by British troops; and the commander of the force which upheld the tottering rule of Ferdinand at Palermo naturally had great authority.
After the retirement of the British troops in 1814 the constitution lapsed, and the royal authority became once more absolute.
In Rome the popes authority weakened day by day, and disorder increased.
the 18th Pius invited Roman the armed intervention of France, Austria, Naples Republk~ and Spain to restore his authority.
cif Italian influence to a part of northern Somaliland and to the Benadir coast, had, with the support of France and Russia, completed his preparations for asserting his authority as independent ruler of Ethiopia.
crushed, in order that the imperial authority and the superiority of Shoan over Tigrin arms might be the more strikingly asserted.
Livy regards him as a less trustworthy authority than Fabius Pictor, and Niebuhr considers him the first to introduce systematic forgeries into Roman history.
The same authority tells us that he was initiated by his father in those field sports, such as hunting and hawking, which formed one of his recreations in after life.
He set practically no limits to the ecclesiastical authority of kings; they were as fully the representatives of the church as the state, and Cranmer hardly distinguished between the two.
What the modern empiricist needs is a rational bond uniting the individual with the community or with the aggregate of individuals - a rational principle distinguishing high pleasures from low, sanctioning benevolence, and giving authority to moral generalizations drawn from conditions that are past and done with.
In the past John had evidently stretched his authority and seized lands over which others had really the right of wardship.
Far more extensive was the territory under the spiritual authority of the archbishop which included the bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun, and after 1777 also those of Nancy and St Die.
Supported by the great authority of Haller, the doctrine of evolution, or development, prevailed throughout the whole of the 18th century, and Cuvier appears to have substantially adopted Bonnet's later views, though probably he would not have gone all lengths in the direction of " emboitement."
Here it is used, in the limited sense defined by an American Court, as " the authority by which judicial officers take cognizance of and decide causes."
Such authority in the minds of lay Roman lawyers who first used this word " jurisdiction " was essentially temporal in its origin and in its sphere.
Coercive temporal authority over their bodies or estates could only be given by concession from the temporal prince.
Moreover, even spiritual authority over members of the Church, i.e.
On the revival of the Western Empire, however, Charlemagne, in the beginning of the 9th century, under the mistaken belief that he was following the authority of Constantine I.
Theodosius began the system of giving secular authority to Church tribunals.
Certain enactments of later Saxon times in England have been sometimes spoken of as though they united together the temporal and spiritual jurisdictions into one mixed tribunal deriving its authority from the State.
Van Espen says: " The whole right of appeal to the Roman pontiff omisso medio had undoubtedly its origin in this principle, that the Roman pontiff is ordinary of ordinaries, or, in other words, has immediate episcopal authority in all particular churches, and this principle had its own beginning from the False Decretals."
It was, for the time, determined that the archbishop might himself, in virtue of his legatine authority, entertain complaints from other dioceses in first instance, but that this legatine jurisdiction was not included in the ordinary jurisdiction of his official principal, even if the archbishop had so willed it in his commission.
In India the metropolitan of Calcutta and the bishops of Madras and Bombay have some very limited jurisdiction which is conferred by letters patent under the authority of the statutes 53 Geo.
The Austrian bishops, however, maintain their tribunals for spiritual purposes, and insist that such things as divorced vinculo must be granted by their authority (Aichner, Compendium juris ecclesiastici, pp. 551-553).
"I have often noted," writes John Taylor, the water-poet, in his Jack a Lent (1620), "that if any superfluous feasting or gormandizing, paunch-cramming assembly do meet, it is so ordered that it must be either in Lent, upon a Friday, or a fasting: for the meat does not relish well except it be sauced with disobedience and comtempt of authority."
that the local authority, before granting a licence, " shall take into consideration whether, in the neighbourhood, the reasonable requirements of the public are satisfied with regard to the purchase of poisonous substances, and also any objections they may receive from the chief officer of police, or from any existing vendors of the substances to which the application relates."
The price of the drugs and the tariff for dispensing prescriptions is fixed by government authority.
Mysticism is often the expression of a revolt against authority, but in Luria's case mysticism was not divorced from respect for tradition.
Jerome (the authority for the date of his death) calls him Pythagoricus et magus.
The Gild of the Holy Cross, founded in the 13th century for the support of poor priests and others, exercised great authority over the town for many years.
Names of other Persian tribes, partly of very doubtful authority, are given by Strabo xv.
Epiphanes, who at the end of his reign restored once more the authority of the empire in Babylonia, Susiana and Persis; perhaps a battle, in which the satrap Numenius of Mesene (southern Babylonia) defeated the Persians on the shore of Carmania on sea and land (Plin.
From the periplus of the Erythraean Sea 33-37 we learn that their authority extended over the shores of Carmania and the opposite coasts of Arabia.
Either as a concession to the senate, or perhaps with the idea of improving public morality, Decius endeavoured to revive the separate office and authority of the censor.
In consequence of the freedom with which in this work he attacked the abuse of authority in philosophy, he lost his professorial chair.
Next year (92) he went as propraetor of Cilicia with special authority from the senate to make Mithradates VI.
The legend that the admiral was a Roman Catholic has no authority.
After the death of his mother in 1463, and of her principal supporter, James Kennedy, bishop of St Andrews, two years later, the person of the young king, and with it the chief authority in the kingdom, were seized by Sir Alexander Boyd and his brother Lord Boyd, while the latter's son, Thomas, was created earl of Arran and married to the king's sister, Mary.
Having undertaken the government in person, the king received the submission of the powerful earl of Ross, and strengthened his authority in other ways.
His keenly logical intellect, and his impatience of authority where it clashed with his own convictions, quite unfitted him for that unquestioning obedience which the Church demanded.
In the same year he published Ober die Freiheit der Wissenschaft, in which he maintained the independence of science, whose goal was truth, against authority, and reproached the excessive respect for the latter in the Roman Church with the insignificant part played by the German Catholics in literature and philosophy.
A conference of Catholic savants, held in 1863 under the presidency of Dellinger, decided that authority must be supreme in the Church.
In estimating the work of one who stands at the head of the religious and legal institutions of Israel, it is necessary to refrain from interpreting the traditions from a modern legal standpoint or in the light of subsequent ideas and beliefs for which the sources themselves give no authority.
During his brief reign he set on foot some domestic reforms, and sought to revive the authority of the senate, but, after a victory over the Goths in Cilicia, he succumbed to hardship and fatigue (or was slain by his own soldiers) at Tyana in Cappadocia.
For a comprehensive use of the term "ecclesiastical writers" he has the authority of Jerome, who enumerates among them 4 such heresiarchs or leaders of schism as Tatian, Bardaisan, Novatus, Donatus, Photinus and Eunomius.
Can any authority be claimed for their teaching or their exegesis, other than that which belongs to the best writers of every age.
The English reformers realized this fact; and notwithstanding their insistence on the unique authority of the canon of Scripture, their appeal to the fathers as representatives of the teaching of the undivided Church was as wholehearted as that of the Tridentine divines.
As observed above, it was the duty of the teachers to show the connexion of practical rules with the written Law, the more so since the Sadducees rejected the authority of the oral law as such.
In the Geonic period there came into prominence the sect of the Karaites (Bene migra, " followers of the Scripture", the Protestants of Judaism, who rejected rabbinical authority, basing their doctrine and practice exclusively on The g P Y ICaraltes.
In the East, Joseph Karo (Qaro) wrote his Beth Yoseph (Venice, 1550), a commentary on the Tur, and his Shulhan `Arukh (Venice, 1564) an halakhic work like the Tur, which is still a standard authority.
He was able to restore Roman authority in the major part of the papal states, and in 1398 put an end to the republican liberties of the city itself.
In the first, the Periplus of the Outer Sea, in two books, in which he proposed to give a complete description of the coasts of the eastern and western oceans, his chief authority is Ptolemy; the distances from one point to another are given in stades, with the object of rendering the work easier for the ordinary student.
According to this authority, Gaul was at that time divided among three peoples, more or less distinct from one another, the Aquitani, the Gauls, who called themselves Celts, and the Belgae.
Serajevo is the seat of the provincial government, of a Roman Catholic bishop, an Orthodox metropolitan, the highest Moslem ecclesiastical authority or Reis-el-ulema, and the supreme court.
His whole system of government, his 2 This view of Ranulf Flambard's work, which on Freeman's authority superseded the older view, which attributed the feudal organization of England to the Conqueror himself, was subjected to a destructive criticism by Mr J.
His favourite pursuits were scientific, and his authority on all questions of practical science was referred to by the senate of Venice.
The Old-English laws point out ways by which the churl might rise to thegn's rank, and in the centuries during which the change went on we find mention - complaining mention - both in England and elsewhere, at the court of Charles the Simple and at the court of 'Ethelred, of the rise of new men to posts of authority.
One editor of his De Consolatione, Bertius, thinks that he bore the praenomen of Flavius, but there is no authority for this supposition.
Wealth, popularity and power tend to dethrone the authority of reason and to pervert the soul from the natural to the artificial.
Nature according to him is purely physical; it has no purpose, no will, no laws imposed by extraneous authority, no supernatural ethical sanction.
We should note, however, that even a liberal orthodoxy, while saying nothing about infallibility, is pledged to the essential authority of the Bible; it cannot e.g.
Catholic apologetics must further give a central position to Church authority, which Roman Catholics explicitly define as infallible; but this position too is debated in a late section of their system.
- It will be seen that apologetics by no means reissued unchanged from the long period of authority.
Christian Evidences - the strong probability of the resurrection of Christ and the consequent authority of his teaching.
No Protestant, of course, can agree with Roman Catholic theology that (supernatural) faith is an obedient assent to church authority and the mysteries it dictates.
In ethics he anticipated much of the teaching of Tolstoy; in doctrine he often appealed to the authority of Wycliffe; and in some of his views it is possible to trace the influence of the Waldenses.
At the synod of Reichenau (1495), they rejected the authority of Peter of Chelcic, and accepted the Bible as their only standard of faith and practice.
They taught the Apostles' Creed, rejected Purgatory, the worship of saints and the authority of the Catholic Church, practised infant baptism and confirmation, held a view on the Sacrament similar to that of Zwingli, and, differing somewhat from Luther in their doctrine of justification by faith, declared that true faith was "to know God, to love Him, to do His commandments, and to submit to His will."
At the head of the Church was a body of ten elders, elected by the synod; this synod consisted of all the ministers, and acted as the supreme legislative authority; and the bishops ruled in their respective dioceses, and had a share in the general oversight.
Aquinas.) Duns Scotus strongly upheld the authority of the church, making it the ultimate authority on which that of Scripture depends.
The self-government of the mirs and volosts is, however, tempered by the authority of the police commissaries (stanovoi) and by the power of general oversight given to the nominated " district committees for the affairs of the peasants."
The principal ecclesiastical authority is the Holy Synod, the head of which, the Procurator, is one of the council of ministers and exercises very wide powers in ecclesiastical matters.
From the Molokani the Dukhobortsi, in England better known as Doukhobors, are distinguished by their subordination of the Scriptures to the authority of the " inner light."
Both the Molokani and the Dukhobortsi deny the authority of the civil government as such, and object on principle to military service.
It had to be divided, therefore, into a number of independent principalities, but it continued to be loosely held together by the dynastic sentiment of the descendants of Rurik and by the patriarchal authority - a sort of patria potestas - of the senior member of the family, called the grand-prince, who ruled in Kiev, " the mother of Russian cities."
In these circumstances, the traditional authority of the grand-prince, never very great, rapidly declined, and the complicated law of succession, never scrupulously respected, was gradually replaced by " the good old rule, the simple plan, that he should take who has the power, and he should keep who can."
sought to share as boyars the princes' authority.
For forty years after the death of its founder it remained united under the authority of a series of grand khans chosen from among his descendants, and then it began to fall to pieces till the various fractions of it became independent khanates.
The grand khan was the lord paramount or suzerain of the Russian princes, and he had the force required for making his authority respected.
dent, and in creating for themselves an uncontrolled 1462- monarchical authority.
He took precautions, however, against any of the dead or moribund principalities being resuscitated, and punished with merciless severity any attempt to resist or undermine his authority.
From the ecclesiastics Basil likewise insisted on unquestioning obedience, and he did not hesitate to depose by his own authority a metropolitan who was at that time the highest dignitary of the Russian Church.
Only once during this period did the young tsar come forward and assert his authority.
Thus apparently he asserted his authority, but in reality, being only thirteen years old, he was a mere puppet in the hands of one of the opposition factions, who wished to oust their rivals, and for the next four years the misgovernment of the nobles went on as before.
Here, about 1590, was founded an independent military colony called the Setch, the members of which, recognizing no authority but that of their own elected officers, lived by fishing, hunting and making raids on the Tatars, and were always ready to assist their less fortunate countrymen in resisting Polish aggression.
Polish proprietors settled in large numbers on the Cossack territory, and great efforts were made, with the assistance of the Jesuits, to bring the Orthodox population under papal authority.
Without his assent and blessing no important decisions were taken, all state documents emanating from the highest authority bore his signature, and he was regarded, both in the official world and by the xxru.
All political authority was in the hands of turbulent nobles who quarrelled among themselves, who were always inclined to submit the questions at issue to the arbitrament of arms, and who did not scruple to invite foreign powers to intervene on their behalf.
Instead of a wellorganized army of the modern type there was merely an undisciplined militia composed almost exclusively of irregular cavalry; and the national defences as a whole were so weak that, in the opinion of such a competent authority as Maurice of Saxony, the country might easily be conquered by a regular army of 48,000 men.
The organs of government seemed paralysed by the repudiation of the principle on which their authority was based, and the empire to be in danger of falling into complete anarchy.
- The history of Russia, especially that of the last few years, has formed the subject of a vast number of works, of very varying authority, in many languages.
Soloviev's history, from the earliest times to 1774, is based throughout on original investigation of sources, and therefore, though inferior to Karamzin's work as literature, is incomparably superior to it in authority.
In those parts of the continent of Europe where railways are owned and administered by state authority, the necessity for such agreements is frankly admitted.
without any legislative authority is the little mountain railway from Llanberis to the summit of Snowdon, which was made by the owner of the land through which it passes.
railway, and to work the line when completed without interference, it is essential that the authority of parliament should be obtained.
It should be noted that although the inspecting officer may in his report make any recommendations that he may think fit with a view to guarding against any similar accident occurring in the future, no power is given to the Board of Trade, or to any other authority, to compel any railway company to adopt such recommendations.
Most of them had power to impose schedules of maximum rates; practically all of them had authority to prescribe rates upon complaint of shippers; and they could all seek the aid of the courts to enforce their decrees.
For its enforcement, it created an Interstate Commerce Commission of five members, with powers of investigation, and with authority to issue remedial orders upon complaint and after hearing.
Many of them, beginning only with powers of recommendation, had obtained a large extension of authority.
Decisions of the Commission were not reviewable by the Court unless the Commission had exceeded its authority, or had issued an unconstitutional order.
The Federal government, having authority in railway matters only when interstate traffic is affected, gathers statistics and publishes them; but in the airing of causes-the field in which the British Board of Trade has been so useful-nothing so far has been done except to require written reports monthly from the railways.
The Union Pacific railroad was a military necessity to the United States if the authority of the national government was to be maintained in the Far West.
The American railways do not have to face this situation; but, after a long term of years, when they were allowed to do much as they pleased, they have now been brought sharply to book by almost every form of constituted authority to be found in the states, and they are suffering from increased taxation, from direct service requirements, and from a general tendency on the part of regulating authorities to reduce rates and to make it impossible to increase them.
But the general tendency to regulate rates by authority of the state has apparently rendered unnecessary the old plan of rate regulation through competition, even if it had not been demonstrated often and again that this form of regulation is costly for all concerned and is effective only during rare periods of direct conflict between companies.
Harriman died he exercised direct authority over more than 50,000 m.
This law, however, did not serve in practice to secure so general a use of power brakes on freight trains as was thought desirable, and another act was passed in 1903 to give the Interstate Commerce Commission authority to prescribe what should be the minimum number of power-braked cars in each train.
During his short reign Calixtus strengthened the authority of the papacy in southern Italy by military expeditions, and restored several buildings within the city of Rome.
Elizabeth required Grindal to suppress the "prophesyings" or meetings for discussion which had come into vogue among the Puritan clergy, and she even wanted him to discourage preaching; she would have no doctrine that was not inspired by her authority.
Strype's Life of Grindal is the principal authority; see also Dict.
It contains a mass of information as to the life and customs of the early Arabs, and is the most valuable authority we have for their pre-Islamic and early Moslem days.
p. 300, the only authority; and Cranmer himself only knew of it a fortnight of ter.
In ecclesiastical law, the contempt of the authority of an ecclesiastical court is dealt with by the issue of a writ de contumace capiendo from the court of chancery at the instance of the judge of the ecclesiastical court; this writ took the place of that de excommunicato capiendo in 1813, by an act of George III.
The assertion in the " Declaration of Rights " that " no power exists in the people of this or any other state of the Federal Union to dissolve their connexion therewith or perform any act tending to impair, subvert, or resist the supreme authority of the government of the United States," is a result of the drafting of the instrument during the Civil War.
About 1290 it first passed into the hands of Obizzo d'Este, and the authority of the Este family was after many vicissitudes more formally recognized in 1409.
- The most important authority for the history of Ravenna is Bishop Agnellus, who wrote, about 840, the Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis.
His work is closely connected with the Oseney Annals, which are printed parallel with his work by Luard, but from 1258 to 1278 Wykes is an independent authority.
When in 1401 he was restored, he delegated his authority in the province, where he was still hated, to Bernard d'Armagnac. In 1396 he negotiated a truce with Richard II.
The fundamental position of the work is that all legislative as well as all paternal power is derived from God, and that the authority of every law resolves itself into His.
baron of Dungannon, if Shane would submit to her authority and that of her deputy.
The feud did not long survive Shane's return to Ireland, where he quickly re-established his authority, and in spite of Sussex renewed his turbulent tribal warfare against the O'Donnells and others.
verbalis, from verbum, word), in French law, a detailed authenticated account drawn up by a magistrate, police officer, or other person having authority of acts or proceedings done in the exercise of his duty.
In the other half of the monarchy (the so-called Cisleithan) this was not possible, and the authority and influence of the emperor were even increased by the contrast with the weaknesses and failures of the parliamentary system.
The elders of these groups possessed some influence, and tended to form an aristocracy, which took the lead in social life, although their authority generally depended merely upon custom.
Individual leaders in times of stress acquired a recognized supremacy, and, once a tribe outstripped the rest, the opportunities for continued advance gave further scope to their authority.
Driver's essay in Hogarth's Authority and Archaeology; cf.
It was only after a bitter experience that the kingship was no longer regarded as a divine gift, and traditions have been revised in order to illustrate the opposition to secular authority.
The book of Kings gives the standpoint of a later Judaean writer, but Josiah's authority over a much larger area than Judah alone is suggested by xxiii.
The naïve impression that each period of history was handled by some more or less contemporary authority is not confirmed by a criticism which confines itself strictly to the literary evidence.
Hyrcanus could not entertain the proposal that he should resign the sacred office to which he owed much of his authority.
But it is quite clear that Vitellius was concerned to reconcile the Jews to the authority of Rome.
The new Catholicism was promulgated by authority and accepted with deference.
In spite of all this Josephus held his ground and by force or craft put down those who resisted his authority.
of Jamnia (Jabne Yebneh) had been raised to this dignity a century before, and, as members of the house of Hillel and thus descendants of David, the patriarchs enjoyed almost royal authority.
Mahommedan Babylonia (Persia) was the home of the gaonate, the central authority of religious Judaism, whose power transcended that of the secular exilarchate, for it influenced the synagogue far and wide, while the exilarchate was local.
But the day of medieval intolerance had passed, and in 1867 the new constitution " abolished all disabilities on the ground of religious differences," though anti-Semitic manipulation of the law by administrative authority has led to many instances of intolerance.
The chief rabbi, who is the ecclesiastical head of the United Synagogue, has also a certain amount of authority over the provincial and colonial Jewries, but this is nominal rather than real.
In the early middle ages the title prelate was applied to secular persons in high positions and thence it passed to persons having ecclesiastical authority.
In medieval ecclesiastical usage the term might be applied to almost any person having ecclesiastical authority; it was very commonly given to the more dignified clergy of a cathedral church, but often also to ordinary priests charged with the cure of souls and, in the early days of monasticism, to monastic superiors, even to superiors of convents of women.
A good example of the dependence of prelacy on jurisdiction is found in those religious orders, such as the Dominicans, where authority is strictly elective and temporary.
As for Gramont, he had "no conception of the exigencies of this regime; he remained an ambassador accustomed to obey the orders of his sovereign; in all good faith he had no idea that this was not correct, and that, himself a parliamentary minister, he had associated himself with an act destructive of the authority of parliament."
The authority thus conferred was confided exclusively to the prince, and was declared liable to modification by law in the case of his successor.
The supreme governing authority was vested in magistrates called Cosmi, answering in some measure to the Spartan Ephori, but there was nothing corresponding to the two kings at Sparta.
In accordance with authority conferred by the home-rule amendment of the state constitution, a charter, submitted by a special commission, was accepted by the citizens on July I 1913.
The powers of a dictator were a temporary revival of those of the kings; but there were some limitations to his authority.
His military authority was confined to Italy; and his power of life and death over the citizens was at an early period limited by law.
But here as elsewhere the senate asserted its authority over the magistrates, and the view was finally held that the senate should not only suggest the need of nomination but also the name of the nominee.
The emergency office of the early and middle Republic has few points of contact, except those of the extraordinary position and almost unfettered authority of its holder, with the dictatorship as revised by Sulla and by Caesar.
One authority says of the crowd which gathered there: "They had the hair of their heads very few of them longer than their ears, whereupon it came to pass that those who usually with their cries attended at Westminster were by a nickname called Roundheads."
In 1784 John Wesley, in disregard of the authority of the Established Church, took the radical step of appointing the Rev. Thomas Coke (1747-1814) and Francis Asbury superintendents or "bishops" of the church in the United States.
A late authority states that he was succeeded by his son Constantine, but the subsequent kings were descended from another branch of the same family.
No distinction is drawn, indeed, between what is reached by reason and what is given by authority; the two are immediately identical for Erigena.
Mysticism is not the voluntary demission of reason and its subjection to an external authority.
Even then there is no appeal to authority; nothing is accepted from without.
1895) is the great authority on ant-guests and associates.
The use of the word "clergy" as a plural, though the New English Dictionary quotes the high authority of Cardinal Newman for it, is less rare than wrong; in the case cited "Some hundred Clergy" should have been "Some hundred of the Clergy."
It developed into a title implying jurisdiction over metropolitans, partly as a result of the organization of the empire into " dioceses," partly owing to the ambition of the greater metropolitan bishops, which had early led them to claim and exercise authority in neighbouring metropolitanates.
As these districts had originally been Afghan, they were transferred to British authority by the treaty of Gandamak in 1879, although nominally they had been handed over to Kalat forty years previously.
The influx of new ideas provoked civil war, in which the already decadent Shogunate was abolished and the authority of the Mikado restored.
Amidst such confusion the authority of the Mogul empire rapidly disappeared, but it lasted as a name till the Mutiny (1857).
With the rise of Mahommedanism occurred a sudden effervescence of the Arabs, who during some centuries threatened to impose not only their political authority but their civilization and new religion on the whole known world.
In 1809 its exclusive trading rights were taken away by Parliament, but its administrative status was thus made clearer, and when after the mutiny of 1857 it was desirable to define British authority in India there seemed nothing unnatural in declaring it to be a possession of the crown.
The authority of the City over the borough is now merely nominal.
As a lecturer, he was inferior in charm and eloquence to Brown and Stewart; the latter says that "silent and respectful attention" was accorded to the "simplicity and perspicuity of his style" and "the gravity and authority of his character."
In particular, the Roman "North Road" which ran from York through Corbridge and over Cheviot to Newstead near Melrose, and thence to the Wall of Pius, and which has largely been in use ever since Roman times, is now not unfrequently called Watling Street, though there is no old authority for it and throughout the middle ages the section of the road between the Tyne and the Forth was called Dere Street.
Except for this Ã†thelflaed's authority remained unimpaired.
For some eighteen months Ã†lfwyn seems to have wielded her mother's authority, and then, just before the Christmas of 919, Edward took Mercia into his own hands, and Ã†lfwyn was "led away" into Wessex.
Ã†thelflaed and her husband wielded almost kingly authority, and the royal title is often given them by the chroniclers.
Originally it seems to have denoted the coast district between the Oder and the Vistula, a territory which was at first more or less dependent on Poland, but which, towards the end of the 12th century, was ruled by two native princes, who took the title of duke about 1170 and admitted the authority of the German king in 1181.
Hence the term is applied to states in which the supreme authority is vested in a single person, the monarch, who in his own right is the permanent head of the state.
Of the former class the most conspicuous was the Holy Roman Empire; but in Europe all monarchies were, within certain limits, originally elective; and, after the introduction of Christianity, the essential condition of the assumption of sovereign power was not so much kinship with the reigning family as the "sacring" by the divine authority of the Church.
On the great subject of peace and war he supported the king's authority, and with some success.
President Jackson responded with a proclamation denying the right of nullification, and asked Congress for authority to collect the revenue in South Carolina by force if necessary.
about 14 9 0); but his earliest definite appearance in the records is as junior bursar of Magdalen College in 1498-1499, and senior bursar in 1 499150o, an office he was compelled to resign for applying funds to the completion of the great tower without sufficient authority (W.
He thus superseded Warham, who was legatus flatus, in ecclesiastical authority; and though legates a latere were supposed to exercise only special and temporary powers, Wolsey secured the practical permanence of his office.
The appeal to Rome was a natural course to be advocated by Wolsey, whose despotism over the English church depended upon an authority derived from Rome; but it was probably a mistake.
At first his work appeared as that of his master and patron, then in their joint-names; but in 1790 he began to publish on his own authority, and between that year and 1833 his name is associated with 376 papers.
All these faults make him a peculiarly unsatisfactory authority where we cannot check his statements by those of other authors.
There is general truth in what was once said by a high authority to the effect that, while there will be something dignified in the humblest Rajput, there will be something mean in the highest Mahratta.
He second wife was Joanna Bridges, said on very doubtful authority to have been a natural daughter of Charles I.
The Order was at once supreme ecclesiastical and political authority.
The clergy having thus another authority, and one moreover more canonical, to appeal to, the power of the archdeacons gradually declined; and, so far as the Roman Catholic Church is concerned, it received its death-blow from the council of Trent (1564), which withdrew all matrimonial and criminal causes from the competence of the archdeacons, forbade them to pronounce excommunications, and allowed them only to hold visitations in connexion with those of the bishop and with his consent.
In September 1888 he was elected a member of the first chamber of the Riksdag, where he attached himself to the conservative protectionist party, over which, from the first, he exercised great authority.
The mayor is elected for two years and has the powers and authority in criminal cases of a justice of the peace.
In 899, when Arnulf died, Hatto became regent of Germany, and guardian of the young king, Louis the Child, whose authority he compelled Zwentibold, king of Lorraine, an illegitimate son of Arnulf, to recognize.
When trouble arose between Conrad and Henry, duke of Saxony, afterwards King Henry the Fowler, the attitude of Conrad was ascribed by the Saxons to the influence of Hatto, who wished to prevent Henry from securing authority in Thuringia, where the see of Mainz had extensive possessions.
The duty of collecting and weighing evidence for himself was at every turn impressed upon the boy; he was taught to accept no opinion on authority.
Is it possible then to obtain unanimity as to the methods of arriving at conclusions in social and political matters, so as to secure similar agreement of opinion among the specially skilled, and similar general respect for their authority ?
It is obvious from what he says that his inner life became very different after he threw off his father's authority.
upon the duty incumbent upon all thinkers to investigate for themselves rather than to accept the authority of others.
Whilst Antigonus was occupied in the west, Seleucus during nine years (311-302) brought under his authority the whole eastern part of Alexander's empire as far as the Jaxartes and Indus.
Further, as the country became more consolidated and the central government extended its authority over economic affairs, new regulations came into force, new organs of government appeared, which were sometimes in conflict, sometimes in harmony, with the existing system, and it becomes for a time far more difficult to obtain a clear view of the actual working of economic institutions.
The appeal to authority cannot be permitted in economics any more than in chemistry, physics or astronomy.
Modern economic criticism and analysis has destroyed the authority of the " old Political Economy " as a scientific system.
He was not cast in a heroic mould, and he had no desire to figure at the stake; like Cecil, and Elizabeth herself, he had a great respect for authority, and when his time came he could consistently impose authority on others.
Disputes about vestments had expanded into a controversy over the whole field of Church government and authority, and Parker died on the 17th of May, 1575, lamenting that Puritan ideas of "governance" would "in conclusion undo the queen and all others that depended upon her."
By his personal conduct he had set an ideal example for Anglican priests, and it was not his fault that national authority failed to crush the individualistic tendencies of the Protestant Reformation.
Edward hoped still to conciliate the nobles and gain Scotland by a policy of clemency to all who did not dispute his authority.
She also provoked a dangerous enemy in John Knox by her expressed contempt for a letter which he had written to her, but the first revolt against her authority arose from an attempt to establish a standing army.
The monophysite monks appealed to his authority, but could not prevent Justinian and the fifth oecumenical council at Constantinople (553) from anathematizing his teaching.
Thus, when the men of Reggio and Modena overthrew the rule of their duke, he at once accorded protection to them, as also to the inhabitants of the cities of Bologna and Ferrara when they broke away from papal authority.
The chief direct result in the life of the Egyptian people was the virtual destruction of the governing caste of the Mamelukes, the Turks finding it easy to rid themselves of their surviving chiefs and to re-establish the authority of the Sultan.
The promulgation of the Concordat (18th of April 1802) and the institution of what was in all but name a state religion tended strongly in the same direction, the authority of the priests being generally used in support of the man to whom Chateaubriand applied the epithet "restorer of the altars."
Napoleon's powers as First Consul for Life were so wide as to render much extension both superfluous and impossible; but we may note here that the senate now gained a further accession of authority at the expense of the two legislative bodies; and practically legislation rested with the emperor, who sent his decrees to the senate to be registered as senatus consulta.
Those of Bourrienne and Fouche are of doubtful authority; the latter are certainly not genuine.
According to other accounts Martigues in Provence was his birthplace, while one authority even names the Château d'Avesnes in Hainaut.
On his return, he outlined to Parliament a scheme by which the cost might be greatly reduced, mainly through the transference of authority to Arab chiefs.
Its basis is not a coercive authority imposed upon the citizens from without, but consists in the spiritual recognition, on the part of the citizens, of that which constitutes their true nature.
(3) The Ganzivra (" treasurer") or bishop, the highest dignitary, is chosen from the whole body of the Tarmidas after a variety of tests, and possesses unlimited authority over the clergy.
The aim of the work is to show, on Scriptural grounds, that sins of professing Christians are to be punished by civil authority, and not by withholding of sacraments on the part of the clergy.
John Pits 1 says, but apparently without authority, that he became a Benedictine monk.
The chief authority for the bishop's life is William de Chambre (printed in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 1691, and in Historiae Dunelmensis scriptores tres, Surtees Soc. 1839), who describes him as an amiable and excellent man, charitable in his diocese, and the liberal patron of many learned men, among these being Thomas Bradwardine, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Fitzralph, afterwards archbishop of Armagh, the enemy of the mendicant orders, Walter Burley, who translated Aristotle, John Mauduit the astronomer, Robert Holkot and Richard de Kilvington.
An enlarged edition of the latter, under the title of Exercitationes, &c., was published in 1677; but neither of these writers is of much authority.
Far better both as draughtsman and as authority was George Edwards, who in 1 743 began, under the same title as Albin, a series of plates with letterpress, which was continued by the name of Gleanings in Natural History, and finished in 1760, when it had reached seven parts, forming four quarto volumes, the figures of which are nearly always quoted with approval.4 The year which saw the works of Edwards completed was still further distinguished by the appearance in France, where little had been done since Belon's days,' in six quarto volumes, of the Ornithologie of MathurinJacques Brisson - a work of very great merit so far as it goes, for as a descriptive ornithologist the author stands even now unsurpassed; but it must be said that his knowledge, according to internal evidence, was confined to books and to the external parts of birds' skins.
Hence it is that Gmelin appears as the authority for so much of the nomenclature now in use.
Its chief drawback is that it does not give any more reference to the authority for a generic term than the name of its inventor and the year of its application, though of course more precise information would have at least doubled the size of the book.
Two supplementary parts were issued in 1835 and 1840 respectively, and the work for many years deservedly maintained the highest position as the authority on European ornithology-indeed in England it may almost without exaggeration be said to have been nearly the only foreign ornithological work known; but, as could only be expected, grave defects are now to be discovered in it.
Like Gloger, Sundevall in his ideal system separated the true passerines from all other birds, calling them Volucres; but he took a step further, for he assigned to them the highest rank, wherein nearly every recent authority agrees with him; out of them, however, he chose the thrushes and warblers to stand first as his ideal " Centrum " - a selection which, though in the opinion of the present writer erroneous, is still largely followed.
Yet it is said, on good authority, that Nitzsch had the patience so to manipulate the skins of many rare species that he was able to ascertain the characters of their pterylosis by the inspection of their inside only, without in any way damaging them for the ordinary purpose of a museum.
taken altogether, ornithology was declared by Sundevall, undoubtedly a man who had a right to speak with authority, to have made greater progress than had been achieved since the days of Cuvier.
1 Indeed, the study of this memoir, limited though it be in scope, could not fail to convince any one that it proceeded from the mind of one who taught with the authority derived directly from original knowledge, and not from association with the scribes - a conviction that has become strengthened as, in a series of successive memoirs, the stores of more than twenty years' silent observation and unremitting research were unfolded, and, more than that, the hidden forces of the science of morphology were gradually brought to bear upon almost each subject that came under discussion.
Justin is a most valuable authority for the life of the Christian Church in the middle of the 2nd century.
To achieve their object, a double line of conduct was imposed upon them: they had to absorb the powers of the doge, and also to deprive the people of the voice they possessed in the management of state affairs by their presence in the concione or general assembly of the whole community, which was still the fountain of all authority.
In 1198, on the election of Enrico Dandolo, the aristocracy carried their policy one step farther, and by the promissione ducale, or coronation oath, which every doge was required to swear, they acquired a powerful weapon for the suppression of all that remained of ancient ducal authority.
The chief county authority is the board of commissioners of three members elected for terms of two years.
The chief township authority is the board of trustees of three members, elected by popular vote for two years.
He also published several sermons, and Considerations on the Nature and Extent of the Legislative Authority of the British Parliament (1774), sometimes attributed to Benjamin Franklin.
Physical science, if there was anything deserving that name, was cultivated, not by experiment in the Aristotelian way, but by arguments deduced from premises resting on authority or custom.
These are, authority, custom, the opinion of the unskilled many, and the concealment of real ignorance with pretence of knowledge.
His De Conciliorum Auctoritate was welcomed at Rome as exalting the papal authority.
In spite of this very limited reception the Formula Concordiae has always been reckoned with the five other documents as of confessional authority.
The stronger current of modern authority is in favour of the landlords and not in favour of restricting the meaning of covenants of this class.
Extensive powers of entering into such leases have been given by statute to trustees subject to the authority of the Court (Trusts [Scotland] Act 1867, s.
Watt's exhaustive work on Wild and Cultivated Cotton Plants of the World (1907) is the latest authority on the subject; and his views on some debated points have been incorporated in the following account.
The president of the order, whose office was elective and who enjoyed the dignity for life, had supreme authority among them.
The real founder of the house, however, was Robert the Strong, who received from Charles the Bald, king of the Franks, the countships of Anjou and Blois, and who is sometimes called duke, as he exercised some military authority in the district between the Seine and the Loire.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
It is a most valuable authority for the events of his own times.
The more important local authorities throughout the country have made regulations under the powers conferred upon them by the Petroleum Acts, with the object of regulating the " keeping, sale, conveyance and hawking " of petroleum products having a flash-point below 73° F., and the Port of London authority, together with other water-way and harbour authorities in the United Kingdom, have their own by-laws relating to the navigation of vessels carrying such petroleum.
On the other hand, it must be admitted that the Church did not, after the first struggle between Dagobert and Baldwin I., actively oppose by any hierarchical pretensions the authority of the crown.
Until about 1840 the authority followed for its history was naturally the great work of William of Tyre.
But about 5840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges proved, that Albert of Aix was not a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more contemporary authorities used.
He is the primary authority for the First Crusade.
His account of the First Crusade itself is poor (he was absent at Edessa during its course), but otherwise he is an excellent authority.
His book thus begins to be a real authority only from the date of the Second Crusade onwards; but the perfection of his form (for he is one of the greatest stylists of the middle ages) and the prestige of his position conspired to make his book the one authority for the whole history of the first century of the Crusades.
Of these the Byzantine authority, the Alexiad of Anna Comnena, is most important, partly from the position of the authoress, partly from the many points of contact between the Byzantine empire and the crusaders.
For the Second Crusade the primary authority in the West is the work of Odo de Deuil, De profectione Ludovici VII regis Francorum in Orientem.
It is from the Second Crusade that William of Tyre, representing the attitude of the Franks of Jerusalem, begins to be a primary authority; while on the Mahommedan side a considerable authority emerges in Ibn Athir.
The primary Anglo-Norman authority is the Carmen Ambrosii, or, as it is called by M.
The various continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned represent the opinion of the native Franks (which is hostile to Richard I.); while in Nicetas, who wrote a history of the Eastern empire from 1118 to 1206, we have a Byzantine authority who, as Professor Bury remarks, "differs from Anna and Cinnamus in his tone towards the crusaders, to whom he is surprisingly fair."
For the Fourth Crusade the primary authority is Villehardouin's La Conquete de Constantinople, an official apology for the diversion of the Crusade written by one of its leaders, and concealing the arcana under an appearance of frank naïveté.
They appear to have recognized the paramount authority of a family descended from a chief named Monaheng.
Native laws and customs were interfered with as little as possible and the authority of the chiefs - all members of the Moshesh family - was maintained.
Under Moktadir, and his successorsMoutamin and Mostain, the Cid remained for nearly eight years, fighting their battles against Mahommedan and Christian, when not engaged upon his own, and being admitted almost to a share of their royal authority.
Dr Shepherd's Life of Poggio Bracciolini (1802) is a good authority on his biography.
As a geometer he is classed by Eudemus, the greatest ancient authority, among those who "have enriched the science with original theorems, and given it a really sound arrangement."
The record of Hadrian's journeys 1 through all parts of the empire forms the chief authority for the events of his life down to his final settlement in the capital during his last years.
He attached little importance to mere ecclesiastical tradition or authority, and none to the voice of majorities, even when sanctioned by the decree of a pope.
Judicially it was under the authority of the parlement of Bordeaux; for financial purposes it was part of the generalite of Montauban.
Early in the 6th century it passed under the authority of the Franks, and in the 9th century was part of the Frankish kingdom of Aquitaine.
This work, and especially certain notes added by the translator, gave great offence to the advocates of unlimited papal authority, and three separate memorials were presented asking for its repression.
In 1887 Bismarck appealed to the pope to use his authority to order the Centre to support the military proposals of the government.
There is no good authority for the renderings "collectors of maxims," "collections of maxims."
Our sole authority for their existence is Philo in his treatise De Vita Contemplativa.
Lucius, Die Therapeuten and ihre Stellung), and accepted in England, to the effect that the De Vita Contemplativa is not a work of Philo's at all, but a forgery put forward about the end of the 3rd century and intended to procure the authority of Philo's name for the then rising monasticism of the Church.
The treatises attributed to Geber, in fact, appear to be original works composed not earlier than the 13th century and fathered on Jaber in order to enhance their authority.
In 747 a synod of the Frankish bishops sent to Rome a formal statement of their submission to the papal authority.
The chief authority is the Vita Lanfranci by Milo Crispin, who was precentor at Bec and died in 1149.
It dates unquestionably from a period when the Frankish authority was very strong in Bavaria, when the dukes were vassals of the Frankish kings.
But, always ready to obey authority, Ignatius was able to disarm any charges that, now and at other times, were brought against him.
There are certain instances in his life which, taken by themselves, show a hardness in treating individuals who would not obey; but as a rule, he tempered his authority to the capacity of those with whom he had to deal.
It may be pointed out, however, that the story which represents him as boasting of his ability to make a better world than this is of late authority.
These faults are of less importance during the period when Greek and Roman writers notice the affairs of Britain; but they become more serious when, as is the case from nearly the beginning of the 5th century to the date of his death, Gildas's brief narrative is our only authority for most of what passes current as the history of our island during those years.
In 1568 John Josseline, secretary to Archbishop Parker, issued a new edition of it more in conformity with manuscript authority; and in 1691 a still more carefully revised edition appeared at Oxford by Thomas Gale.
It is readily understood why men imbued with the authority of tradition should prosecute the search for a substance which would confer unlimited wealth upon the fortunate discoverer.
de Marignac, a noted worker in this field, delivered by Cleve, a high authority on this subject, before the London Chemical Society (J.
The highest English authority on Wagner is his friend Dannreuther, whose article in Grove's Dictionary is classical.
Fisher was summoned (13th of April) to take the oath prescribed by the Act of Succession, which he was ready to do, were it not that the preamble stated that the offspring of Catherine were illegitimate, and prohibited all faith, trust and obedience to any foreign authority or potentate.
Antigonus never succeeded in reaching Macedonia, although his son Demetrius won Athens and Megara in 307 and again (304-302) wrested almost all Greece from Cassander; nor did Antigonus succeed in expelling Ptolemy from Egypt, although he led an army to its frontier in 306; and after the battle of Gaza in 312, in which Ptolemy and Seleucus defeated Demetrius, he had to see Seleucus not only recover Babylonia but bring all the eastern provinces under his authority as far as India.
Like the old Roman people, the Macedonian people under arms had acted especially in the transference of the royal authority, conferring or confirming the right of the new chief, and in cases !of the capital trials of Macedonians.
Where it is a case of delegating some part of the supreme authority, as when Seleucus I.
Such a provincial authority is described as 7ri TWv 7rp0665wv in the inscription of Eriza (Bull.
The values recognized in the great Hellenistic courts and the Greek world generally imposed their authority upon the dynasties of barbarian origin.
178); or it might be organized and maintained by royal authority.
Its teaching as to the name of God, which claimed to be based on the authority of such eminent saints as St.
She would favour them, but on the distinct condition that nothing was to be done to weaken the bonds of authority.
He allied himself with his brother Richard and with William Pitt in forcing their feeble chief to give them promotion by rebelling against his authority and obstructing business.
George Grenville, their Friends and Contemporaries, were published at London in 1852, and afford the chief authority for his life.
Up to the year 1139 he follows closely the history written by his predecessor, Prior Richard; thenceforward he is an independent though not a very valuable authority.
Thus the two great houses of Orsini and Colonna, who had long fought for predominance in Rome and often flouted the pope's authority, were subjugated, and a great step achieved towards consolidating the Borgia's power.
Walsingham is the main authority for the history of England during the reigns of Richard II., Henry IV.
The maps issued by this authority include one of southern Sweden, 1:100,000, another of northern Sweden, 1:200,000, and a general map on a scale of 1:1,000,000.
They also contended that the ministry should possess no official authority or pastoral prerogative, but should merely carry into effect the decisions of majorities in the different meetings.
It never again obtained a footing there; for, although, late in the middle ages, the book of Revelation - by what means we cannot tell - did recover its authority, the Church was by that time so hopelessly trammelled by a magical cultus as to be incapable of fresh developments.
After a royalist insurrection in 1655, a proclamation was issued announcing that persons suspected of Roman Catholicism would be required to take an oath abjuring the papal authority and transubstantiation.
Jones; Authority and the Light Within and other works by Edw.
But his Red River expedition, March - May 1864, forced upon him by superior authority, was a complete failure.
resolved to resist this supremacy, though he did not dare openly to repudiate a very widespread doctrine considered by many to be the actual foundation of the authority of the popes before the schism.
From this time onward the Indian government exercised considerable influence on the Somali coast, but British authority was not definitely established, and in 18J4 Richard Burton's expedition was attacked at Berbera.
3, which is the oldest literary authority which enjoins these two great commands.
He was one of the first of his countrymen to recognize and come under the influence of German thought and speculation, and, amidst an exaggerated alarm of German heresy, did much to vindicate the authority of the sounder German critics.
But in the meantime much might be done towards further mitigating the evils of slavery, especially by impressing on master and slave their relative duties and controlling their behaviour towards one another by the exercise of an independent moral authority.
In parts where European authority remained weak, as in the hinterland of the Portuguese province of Angola and the adjacent regions of Central Africa, native potentates continued to raid their neighbours, and from this region many labourers were (up to 1910) forcibly taken to work on the cocoa plantation in St Thomas.
The authorship of the writings ascribed to him in several biographical notices rests on no better authority than the apocryphal statements of Thomas Dempster.
He wore an air of authority yet never lacked address, or "assumed anything to himself above his contemporaries."
The story of the destruction of the library by the Arabs is first told by Bar-hebraeus (Abulfaragius), a Christian writer who lived six centuries later; and it is of very doubtful authority.
As to cultivation of the plant in Europe, according to Strabo the Romans obtained the papyrus plant from Lake Trasimene and other lakes of Etruria, but this statement is unsupported by any other ancient authority.
He calls himself most frequently manthran (" prophet"), ratu (" spiritual authority"), and saoshyant ("` the coming helper" - that is to say, when men come to be judged according to their deeds).
Their funerals were as much under the protection of the law, which not only invested the tomb itself with a sacred character, but included in its protection the area in which it stood, and the cella memoriae or chapel connected with it, as those of their heathen fellow-citizens, while the same shield would be thrown over the burial-clubs, which, as we learn from Tertullian 2 Cicero is our authority for the burial of Marius, and for Sulla's being the first member of the Gens Cornelia whose dead body was burnt (De Legg.
The mode of representation is always conventional, the treatment of the subject no less than its choice being dictated by an authority to which the artist was compelled to bow.
With the moral and ecclesiastical decay of the papacy in the 9th and 10th centuries much of its territorial authority slipped from its grasp; and by the middle of the I ith century its rule was not recognized beyond Rome and the immediate vicinity.
recognized the papal authority over the whole tract from Radicofani in Tuscany to the pass of Ceperano on the Neapolitan frontier - the exarchate of Ravenna, the Pentapolis, the March of Ancona, the bishopric of Spoleto, Matilda's personal estates, and the countship of Brittenoro; but a good deal of the territory thus described remained for centuries an object of ambition only on the part of the popes.
Outer columns of upper molars similar, the hinder ones not flattened; ridges of lower molars oblique or directly transverse, a third ridge to the last molar in the earlier forms. The Lophiodontidae, which date from the Eocene, come very close to Hyracotherium in the horse-line; and it is solely on the authority of American palaeontologists that the division of these early forms into equoids and tapiroids is attempted.
It laid stress, not on external authority, as did the Jewish law, but on individual experience and inward meditation.
It is in keeping with their whole point of view that they claim no divine inspiration for themselves: they speak with authority, but their authority is that of reason and conscience.
Thus so late as 1819, when the legislature ordered the compilation of such parts of King Alfonso's Siete Partidas (the most common authority in the colony) as were considered in force, this compilation filled a considerable volume.
Lamothe Cadillac. ..1713-1716Sieur de Bienville, acting governor.1716-1717De l'Epinay..1717-1718Sieur de Bienville.1718-17241 Terms of actual service in Louisiana; Gayarre is the authority for the French and Spanish period.
But again all final authority was reserved to the captain-general.
Spanish authority ceased on the 1st of January 1899, and was followed by American " military " !rule (January 1, 1899 - May 20, 1902).
The classification in question was drawn up by an international committee of eminent mathematicians, and thus has the highest authority.
Stanton, Place of Authority in Religion, pp. 167 ff.; A.
The patriarch of Constantinople is the nominal head of the Orthodox priesthood; but by an arrangement concluded in 1879, his authority was delegated to the Austrian emperor, in exchange for a revenue equal to the tribute previously paid by the clergy of the provinces; and his nominations for the metropolitanate of Serajevo, and the bishoprics of Dolnja Tuzla, Banjaluka and Mostar require the imperial assent.
This event illustrates the three dominant characteristics of Bosnian history: the strength of the aristocracy; the corresponding weakness of the central authority, enhanced by the lack of any definite rule of inheritance; and the supreme influence of religion.
In 1376 Tvrtko was crowned as "Stephen I., king of Bosnia, Servia, and all the Sea-coast," although Lazar retained his own title and a diminished authority.
Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate military caste, headed by 48 kapetans - landholders exercising unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service of their sovereign.
But the entire financial authority resided in the sultan as keeper, by right, of the fortune of his subjects.
In March 1897 the floating debt was calculated by a financial authority in the Fortnightly Review to amount to upwards of £TJ5,000,000, which might be compressed to £T25,000,000 since a large proportion was certainly composed of salaries in arrear and other items of a similar kind which the government would never, under any circumstances, make good.
High authority in Constantinople put the true amount of the floating debt in1910-1911at the amount previously estimated, viz.
and may not move any tobacco from the place where they cultivate it without the regie's express authority.
In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
There are two classes of vakuf: (a) Land so declared either directly by the sovereign or in virtue of imperial authority; (b) lands transformed by their proprietors from mulk into vakuf.
Property of an individual who has abandoned Ottoman nationality without legal authority so to do does not pass to heirs, whether Ottoman or foreign, but devolves to the state if legal authority has been granted the government under which the foreign heirs live must have accepted the protocol above cited.
Though Yahsha Bey, grandson of Mahommed Karaman Oghlu, had declared himself the successor of the Seljukian sultans, the princes of Aidin, Sarukhan, Menteshe, Kermian, Hamid, Tekke and Karassi declined to recognize his authority, and considered themselves independent, each in his own dominions.
He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
Torgud was now summoned to Constantinople to answer for piracies committed on the friendly galleys of Venice; but he sailed instead to Morocco, and there for two years defied the sultan's authority.
The title of vizier was borne by six or seven persons simultaneously; the grand vizier was the chief of these and exercised supreme authority, being invested with the sultan's signet.
The highest dignitaries of the ecclesiastical class were at first the kazaskers, or military judges, of Europe and Asia; later the office of Sheikh-ul-Islam was created as the supreme authority in matters relating to the Church and the sacred law.
Sultan Mahmud now devoted himself to breaking the overgrown power of the local governors, which had for many years practically annihilated that of the central authority.
In virtue of this judgment of the supreme legal authority, and with the aid of the fleet, Abd-ul-Aziz was deposed, being shortly afterwards found dead, apparently by his own hand.
More serious than any of these local disturbances was the counter-revolution in Constantinople itself, which began with the revolt of Kiamil Pasha, the grand vizier, against - the authority of the committee of union and progress.
These belong to the new or European school, which, in spite of the bitter opposition of the partisans of the old Oriental system, has succeeded, partly through its own inherent superiority and partly through the talents and courage of its supporters, in expelling its rival from the position of undisputed authority which it had occupied for upwards of five hundred years.
was next required to renounce his rights, and this he did, with as much independence as dignity, through a legate, who previously convoked the council in the name of his master, and thus in some sort gave it the necessary confirmed authority.
The authority of the cardinals, who were the only persons judicially invested with the right of electing the pope, emerged from the crisis through which the church had just passed in far too feeble and contested a condition to carry by its own weight the general assent.
At this moment the Prussians were actually on parade and ready to move off to attack, but just then the " evil genius " of the Prussian army, von Massenbach, an officer of the Headquarter Staff, rode up and claiming to speak with the authority of the king and commander-in-chief, induced Hohenlohe to order his troops back to camp. Of all this Napoleon saw nothing, but from all reports he came to the conclusion that the whole Prussian army was actually in front of him, and at once issued orders for his whole army to concentrate towards Jena, marching all night if need be.
Besides these, there are the religious heads of the community; especially the nakib and Jewish high priest, who possess an undefined and extensive authority in their own communities.
Turkish authority over the pashalic was again restored in the first part of the 19th century.
48) speaks of was not a pastoral staff, but the symbol of authority over the papal palace, with which by its transference he was invested.
The pastoral staff, as its name implies, symbolizes the pastoral office and authority, a symbolism already known to Isidore of Seville (De ecclesiast.
cap. 2), though it is likely that Eusebius had no other authority than the works of Clement.
de Foucauld, Reconnaissance au Maroc 1883-1884 (Paris, 1888, almost the sole authority for the geography of the Atlas; his book gives the result of careful surveys, and is illustrated with a good collection of maps and sketches); Hooker, Ball and Maw, Marocco and the Great Atlas (London, 1879, a most valuable contribution, always scientific and trustworthy, especially as to botany and geology); Joseph Thomson, Travels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco (London, 1889, valuable geographical and geological data); Louis Gentil, Mission de Segonzac, &c. (Paris, 1906; the author was geologist to the 1905 expedition); Gerhard Rohlfs, Adventures in Morocco (London, 1874); Walter B.
Herodotus is practically our only trustworthy authority.
Castren are still the best authority on the Samoyedes.
In 1884 another treaty was signed by the king, confirming and extending French influence, and reducing the royal authority to a shadow, but in view of the discontent aroused by it, its provisions were not put in force till several years later.
Marsilius denies, not only to the pope, but to the bishops and clergy, any coercive jurisdiction or any right to pronounce on their own authority excommunications and interdicts, or in any way to impose the observation of the divine law.
The clergy, thus deprived of its wealth, privileges and jurisdiction, is further to be deprived of independence, for the civil power is to have the right of appointing to benefices, &c. The supreme authority in the church is to be the council, but a council summoned by the emperor.
Sacerdotal benedictions are not indeed sacraments - means of grace ordained by Christ himself, but sacramentals (sacramenta minora) ordained by the authority of the Church and exercised by the priests, as the plenipotentiaries of God, in virtue of the powers conferred on them at their ordination; "that whatever they bless may be blessed, and whatever they consecrate may be consecrated."
The second of these brings the act of benediction into contact with the principle of consecration; for by the formal blessing by the duly constituted authority persons, places and things are consecrated, i.e.
Though the giving of blessings as a sacerdotal function is proper to the whole order of priests, particular benedictions have, by ecclesiastical authority, been reserved for the bishops, who may, however, delegate some of them; i.e.
She was recognized as an authority on several subjects, especially on Russian coinage.
and hence an argument has been drawn against the authority of the relation.
The exclusion of the handicraftsmen from the Rath led, early in the 15th century, to a rising of the craft gilds against the patrician merchants, and in 1410 they forced the latter to recognize the authority of a committee of 48 burghers, which concluded with the senate the so-called First Recess; there were, however, fresh outbursts in 1458 and 1483, which were settled by further compromises.
and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian.
The story in picturesque fashion makes Patrick challenge the royal authority by lighting the Paschal fire on the hill of Slane on the night of Easter Eve.
On his return he founded the church and monastery of Armagh, the site of which was granted him by Daire, king of Oriel, and it is probable that the see was intended by him to be specially connected with the supreme ecclesiastical authority.
Clovis made his authority recognized over the other Salian tribes (whose kings dwelt at Cambrai and other cities), and put an end to the domination of the Ripuarian Franks.
release from ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and authority to become a secular priest.
The "persecution" had meanwhile produced its natural result: the use of the forbidden vestments rapidly spread; and since there was no central authority left competent to command obedience, every incumbent - intrenched in his freehold as a "corporation sole" - became a law unto himself.
The attitude of the first group needs no comment: it makes every priest the arbiter of what is or is not "Catholic," and is destructive of that principle of definite authority which is the very foundation of Catholicism.
It runs: "And here it is to be noted that such ornaments of the church and of the ministers thereof at all times of their ministration shall be retained and be in use, as was in the Church of England by the authority of parliament in the second year of the reign of King Edward VI."
In the Act, however, these words were added: "until other order shall be therein taken by the authority of the Queen's Majesty, with the advice of the Commissioners appointed and authorized under the Great Seal of England, for causes ecclesiastical, or of the Metropolitan."
The authority of the Advertisements, indeed, was and is disputed; but their lordships in their judgment pointed out that they were accepted as authoritative by the canons of 1603 (Can.
24 and 58), and argued convincingly that the revisers of the Prayer Book in 1662, in restoring the Tomlinson (The Prayer Book, Articles and Homilies, p. 122 seq.) argues that this was a "fraud rubric" inserted without authority, and utterly perverting the meaning of the proviso in the Act of Uniformity.
But apart from the fact that the authority of the Privy Council, as not being a "spiritual" court, is denied by many of the clergy, no one claims that its decisions are irreversible in the light of fresh evidence.
Thirty years after the Ridsdale judgment, the ritual confusion in the Church of England was worse than ever, and the old ideal expressed in the Acts of Uniformity had given place to a desire to sanctify with some sort of authority the parochial "uses" which had grown up. In this respect the dominant opinion in the Church, intent on compromise, seems to have been expressed in the Report presented in 1908 to the convocation of the province of Canterbury by the sub-committee of five bishops appointed to investigate the matter, namely, that under the Ornaments Rubric the vestments prescribed in the first Prayer Book of Edward VI.
In 1841 he published The Seaman's Friend, republished in England as The Seaman's Manual, which was long the highest authority on the legal rights and duties of seamen.
He brought out in 1865 an edition of Wheaton's International Law, his notes constituting a most learned and valuable authority on international law and its bearings on American history and diplomacy; but immediately after its publication Dana was charged by the editor of two earlier editions, William Beach Lawrence, with infringing his copyright, and was involved in litigation which was continued for thirteen years.
These articles, which contain the essence of the Hussite doctrine, were rejected by Sigismund, mainly through the influence of the papal legates, who considered them prejudicial to the authority of the Roman see.
At Prague a demagogue, the priest John of Zelivo, for a time obtained almost unlimited authority over the lower classes of the townsmen; and at Tabor a communistic movement (that of the so-called Adamites) was sternly suppressed by Zizka.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.