How to use Authorities in a sentence
There was another phone call from the state authorities as Jennifer was leaving.
What will the California authorities do?
The college authorities would not permit Miss Sullivan to read the examination papers to me; so Mr. Eugene C. Vining, one of the instructors at the Perkins Institution for the Blind, was employed to copy the papers for me in braille.
Never-the-less, the word sometimes slipped out and authorities questioned but no conclusions were reached.
Apparently that's what the authorities told the family.Advertisement
When you're sheriff you can contact all the West coast authorities and try and convince them to chase your bones.
Ecclesiastical affairs were, as a matter of course, wholly under the management of the cantonal and municipal authorities, and Zwingli was content that it should be so.
Negotiations were now opened by the government with the provincial authorities for the disarmament of the city and province of Buenos Aires, but they led to nothing.
On the side of Belgium the danger of irruption through neutral territory, which has for many years been foreseen, is provided against by the fortresses of Lille, Valenciennes and Maubeuge, but (with a view to tempting the Germans to attack through Luxemburg, as is stated by German authorities) the frontier between Maubeuge and Verdun is left practically undefended.
Proving their accuracy is up to the authorities.Advertisement
He returned to motel in mid-evening, in a car lent to him by the accommodating authorities.
Exact information in regard to the period of gestation of the female is still lacking, the length of the period being given from eighteen to twenty-two months by different authorities.
The compiler of this work, however, seems to have used a regnal list of the Bernician kings, which differed considerably from most of those found in our early authorities.
A proposal to confine the Drin to its former course by means of a dyke, and to ease the downflow of the Boyana by a canal opening navigation to Lake Scutari, has long been considered by the Turkish authorities.
Maass, De Sibyllarum indicibus (1879); C. Schultess, Die sibyllinischen Bucher in Rom (1895; with references to authorities in notes).Advertisement
Having at last got into trouble with the authorities he fled from Sicily, and visited in succession Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Rhodes - where he took lessons in alchemy and the cognate sciences from the Greek Althotas - and Malta.
On the 13th of February 1880, the minister of war, Dr Carlos Pellegrini, summoned the principal officers connected with the Tiro Nacional, General Bartolome Mitre, his brother Emilio, Colonel Julio Campos, Colonel Hilario Lagos and others, and warned them that as officers of the national army they owed obedience to the national government, and would be severely punished if concerned in any revolutionary outbreak against the constituted authorities.
In each of the governments general there is a financial controller with extensive powers who corresponds directly with the metropolitan authorities (decree of March 22, 1907)., Details and local differences hi form of government will be found under the headings of the various colonies and protectorates.
Since July 1899, when the post office in Salem was made a sub-station of that of Winston, the cities (officially two independent municipalities) have been known by postal and railway authorities as Winston-Salem.
His capabilities as a soldier have been generally recognized by competent authorities.Advertisement
Furtwangler and others, Aegina, Heiligtum der Aphaia (Munich, 1906), where earlier authorities are collected and discussed.
The assertion by the Queensland authorities that there are 50,000 aborigines in that state is a crude estimate, and may be far wide of the truth.
Other authorities suggest that it is going much too far to deny the existence of religion altogether, and instance as proof of the divinity of the supra-normal anthropomorphic beings of the Baiame class, the fact that the Yuin and cognate tribes dance around the image of Daramulun (their equivalent of Baiame) and the medicine men " invocate his name."
In 1503 a French navigator named Binot Paulmyer, sieur de Gonneville, was blown out of his course, and landed on a large island, which was claimed to be the great southern land of tradition, although Flinders and other authorities are inclined to think that it must have been Madagascar.
Some French authorities confidently put forward a claim that Guillaume le Testu, of Provence, sighted the continent in 1531.Advertisement
Driven from Strassburg by the authorities, after a short imprisonment in December 1531, he tried to make a living in 1532 as a soapboiler at Esslingen, removing in 1533 for a better market to Ulm, where (October 28, 1 534) he was admitted as a burgess.
His Weltbuch, a supplement to his Chronica, was printed at Tubingen in 1534; the publication, in the same year, of his Paradoxa at Ulm brought him into trouble with the authorities.
A privy council decree recognizing the claims of New York was issued on the 10th of July 1764, and the settlers were soon afterwards ordered to surrender their patents and repurchase the land from the proper authorities at Albany.
Dixon's Histories; Pollard's Cranmer and England under Somerset; other authorities cited in Dict.
After Lincoln was elected in 1860 he chose Seward for his secretary 1 In 1837 the vessel `"Caroline," which had been used by the Canadian insurgents, was seized by the Canadian authorities in American territory and was destroyed.
In spite of the investigations of Volkmar and Hilgenfeld, we are still somewhat in the dark as to the authorities he used.
He had made special inquiries of the authorities of the Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Hobart museums, and published questions in the newspapers, but no evidence has reached him that the eggs of Ornithorhyncus have ever been obtained except by the dissection of the mother.
Possibly the lamentable events of the campaigns of 1589 in Gex and Chablais have been applied to the ' This, at least, is the account given by Catholic authorities.
There is no doubt that under average conditions of atmospheric density, the .005 should be replaced by 003, for many independent authorities using different methods have found values very close to this last figure.
With regard to the statement that the companies had installed competitive systems and had expended capital needlessly, it was found by the Post Office authorities that in 1865 less than 2000 m.
The effect of the unsettled policy of the Post Office until 1905 and of the difficulties created by the local authorities was that the National Telephone Company was never able to do its best to develop the enterprise on the most efficient lines.
The growth of Clerical influence in France engendered a belief that Italy would soon have to defend with the sword her newly-won unity, while the tremendous lesson of the Franco-Prussian War convinced the military authorities of the need for thorough military reform.
Most of the responsibility lay with the Vatican, which had arranged the procession in the way best calculated to irritate Italian feeling, but little excuse can be offered for the failure of the Italian authorities to maintain public order.
Such rigidity of principle need not be extended to the affairs of everyday contact between the Vatican and the Italian authorities, with regard to which, indeed, a tacit modus vivendi was easily attainable.
The French authorities, under whose eyes the massacre was perpetrated, did nothing to prevent or repress it, and the mayor of Marseilles even refused to admit the wounded Italian workmen to the municipal hospital.
The authorities, however, by arresting a number of the more prominent leaders succeeded in restoring order.
For the earlier period their authorities were state and family records - above all, the annales maximi (or annales pontificum), the official chronicle of Rome, in which the notable occurrences of each year from the foundation of the city were set down by the pontifex maximus.
C. Licinius Macer (died 66), who has been called the last of the annalists, wrote a voluminous work, which, although he paid great attention to the study of his authorities, was too rhetorical, and exaggerated the achievements of his own family.
All these authorities had now legally established Roman Catholicism as the national faith, and Cranmer had no logical ground on which to resist.
However the authorities had been informed of the plot, probably by one of the conspirators named George Edwards; officers appeared upon the scene and arrested some of the conspirators; and although Thistlewood escaped in the confusion he was seized on the following day.
Raynaudus's authorities, in favour of the recognition of a natural theology and against it, do not, so far as the present writer has been able to consult them, use the expression.
The judicial authorities requested a rescript from the emperor Aurelian for the decision of the cause.
The episcopal judgment was to be equivalent to that of the emperor and irreversible, and the civil authorities were to see to its execution.
The story of the administrative development of the Church in the 5th century is mainly the story of the final emergence and constitution of the great " patriarchates," as authorities superior to metropolitans and provincial synods.
It consists of a small number of bishops and priests nominated by the tsar, and is assisted by a " procurator," who is a layman, who explains to it the limits of its jurisdiction and serves as the medium of communication between it and the autocrat and secular authorities.
These four Nikayas, sixteen volumes in all, are the main authorities for the doctrines of early Buddhism.
The Pali books written in Ceylon, Burma and Siam will be our best and oldest, and in many respects our only, authorities for the sociology and politics, the literature and the religion, of their respective countries.
His ashes (according to some authorities, his body) were taken to Rome.
It is remarkable for its fluorescence, which in the opinion of some authorities adds to its beauty.
The amber of Sicily seems not to have been recognized in ancient times, for it is not mentioned by local authorities like Diodorus Siculus.
The pharmacists were divided into two classes, the stationarii, who sold simple drugs and non-magisterial preparations at a tariff determined by competent authorities, and the confectionarii, whose business it was to dispense scrupulously the prescriptions of medical men; all pharmaceutical establishments were placed under the surveillance of the college of medicine.
According to Suetonius (Caesar, 56), many authorities considered Oppius to have written the histories of the Spanish, African and Alexandrian wars which are printed among the works of Caesar.
One of the chief problems the association wished to solve was that of the exist ence and course of the river Niger, which was believed by some authorities to be identical with the Congo.
The ancient authorities for Sulla and his time are his Life by Plutarch (who made use of the Memoirs); Appian, Bell.
There is little doubt that Sulla also was implicated; Sallust does not mention it, but other authorities definitely assert his guilt.
Here he was confronted by his first wife or victim, Anne Thorssen, whose claims he satisfied by the gift of a ship and promises of an annuity, and on his identity becoming known he was sent by the authorities to Copenhagen, where he arrived on the 30th of September.
He acted in the same spirit a few months later, when (about July 1839), understanding that the authorities intended to prevent the despatch of emigrants to New Zealand, he hurried them off on his own responsibility, thus compelling the government to annex the country just in time to anticipate a similar step on the part of France.
At the same time the burghers of Graaff Reinet also rebelled against the Cape authorities, who were powerless to suppress the insurrectionary movement.
Owing to the comparatively scanty number of harmful mammalian types, the birds play a considerable part in this large region, and some authorities consider its avifauna the richest in the world.
We see in them the thought of the ancient Church taking shape in the minds of her bishops and doctors; and in many cases they express the results of the great doctrinal controversies of their age in language which leaves little to be desired.6 Authorities.
Abrabanel often quotes Christian authorities, though he opposed Christian exegesis of Messianic passages.
This is a codification of halakhcth, based on all the authorities then known, some of them now lost.
In his Me'or t Enayim (Mantua, 1573) Dei Rossi endeavoured to investigate Jewish history in a scientific spirit, with the aid of non-Jewish authorities, and even criticizes Talmudic and traditional statements.
The colour of amethyst is usually attributed to the presence of manganese, but as it is capable of being much altered and even discharged by heat it has been referred by some authorities to an organic source.
But he has carefully consulted the best authorities, and his work and that of Livy are the only connected and detailed extant accounts of early Roman history.
The inhabitants of this region are wild and inhospitable and utterly beyond the control of the Turkish authorities, and navigation of the river between Korna and Suk-esh-Sheiukh is unsafe owing to the attacks of armed pirates.
Under Midhat Pasha, governor-general of Bagdad from 1866 to 1871, an attempt was made by the Turkish authorities to establish regular steam navigation on the Euphrates.
There is considerable diversity among authorities as to his name.
During 1910 the natives in the Cape Palmas district were at open warfare with the Liberian authorities.
The cruel persecutions instituted by the authorities with a view to securing conformity increased the number and fanaticism of the schismatics and heretics, and created among them a widespread belief that the reign of Antichrist, foretold in the Apocalypse, was at hand.
The local institutions were assimilated to those of the purely Russian provinces; the use of the Russian language was made obligatory in the administration, in the tribunals and to some extent in the schools; the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was encouraged by the authorities, whilst the other confessions were placed under severe restrictions; foreigners were prohibited from possessing landed property; and in some provinces administrative measures were taken for making the land pass into the hands of Orthodox Russians.
In view of this contingency the Russian and French military authorities studied the military questions in common, and the result of their labours was the preparation of a military convention, which was finally ratified in 1894.
He then allowed the military authorities to push forward in the direction of Afghanistan, until in March 1885 an engagement took place between Russian and Afghan forces at Panjdeh.
The authorities began to exhibit something of their old spirit.
The province produces much wheat, barley, rice, millet, cotton, but the authorities every now and then prohibiting the export of cereals, the people generally sow just as much as they think will suffice for their own wants.
Operation by private companies, under specific provisions of the government authorities with regard to the method of its exercise, has been the policy consistently carried out in France, and less systematically and consistently in other countries under the domination of the Latin race.
Even in matters like public safety it is by no means certain that government authorities will do so well as private ones.
The company therefore promotes a bill, which is considered first by select committees of the two houses of parliament, and afterwards by the two houses themselves, during which period it faces the opposition, if any, of rival concerns, of local authorities and of hostile landowners.
The American railways do not have to face this situation; but, after a long term of years, when they were allowed to do much as they pleased, they have now been brought sharply to book by almost every form of constituted authority to be found in the states, and they are suffering from increased taxation, from direct service requirements, and from a general tendency on the part of regulating authorities to reduce rates and to make it impossible to increase them.
For the illumination of large stations by night electric arc lamps are frequently employed, but some authorities favour high-pressure incandescent gas-lighting.
Towards the end of 1901 a departmental committee of the Board of Trade was formed to consider the Light Railways Act, and in 1902 the president of the Board of Trade (Mr Gerald Balfour) stated that as a result of the deliberations of this committee, a new bill had been drafted which he thought would go very far to meet all the reasonable objections that had been urged against the present powers of the local authorities.
They pointed out that while during the first five years the act was in force there were 315 applications for orders, during the second five years there were only 142 applications, and that proposals for new lines had become less numerous owing to the various difficulties in carrying them to a successful completion and to the difficulty of raising the necessary capital even when part of it was provided with the aid of the state and of the local authorities.
They expressed the opinion that an improvement could be effected enabling the construction of many much-needed lines by an amendment of some of the provisions of the Light Railways Act, and by a reconsideration of the conditions under which financial or other assistance should be granted to such lines by the state and by local authorities.
They are under the control of the Post and Telegraph department, the state issuing loans to encourage the undertakings; the authorities in the provinces and communes also give support in various ways, and under various conditions, to public bodies or private persons who desire to promote or embark in the industry.
Similarly, the same authorities decide for themselves the conditions under which the public roads may be used, and the precautions for public safety, all subject to the confirmation of the imperial government.
He had arranged for his passage in a Chinese junk, when he was again attacked by fever, and died on December 2nd, or, according to some authorities, November 27th, 1552.
He worked, therefore, upon more assured ground; his sifting of authorities was more thorough and his method less restricted.
Moreover, the authorities on whom he relied have had to be corrected since in many points of detail in the light of later archaeological research.
Biography and authorities cited; Henry VIII.
Again, many of the authorities which he used have been edited in superior texts.
An independent local government was formed a week later, and this lasted for several months, until the Utah authorities intervened.
The baptistery adjacent to the cathedral was, according to Ricci, originally part of the Roman baths, converted to a Christian baptistery by the Archbishop Neon (449-452), though according to other authorities it is a Christian building dating from before A.D.
Biography, with authorities there collected; lives in Wood's Athenae Oxonienses (Bliss), iv.
For authorities see Acta Diurna.
Her beauty and virtues are praised by all ancient authorities.
He and they were frequently condemned by Protestant ecclesiastical and political authorities, especially by the government of Wurttemberg.
Experiments in protection on a larger scale, and under more ordinary conditions, have been carried out with equal success by Professor Celli and other Italian authorities.
Koch has suggested that the disinfection of malarial persons by quinine would have the desired effect, but other authorities of greater experience do not consider it practicable.
In 1578 he was created baron of Clogher and earl of Clanconnell for life; but on the outbreak of rebellion in Munster his attitude again became menacing, and for the next few years he continued to intrigue against the English authorities.
His career was marked by unceasing duplicity, at one time giving evidence of submission to the English authorities, at another intriguing against them in conjunction with lesser Irish chieftains.
Theological writers were not in the least prepared to question the worth of the marvellous descriptions of creatures that were current in the schools on the faith of authorities vaguely known as "the history of animals," "the naturalists," and "the naturalist" in the singular number (Ouo-coMyos).
As yet our authorities do not permit us to follow them to Egypt with any certainty, but the Psalms of Solomon express the mind of one who survived to see Pompey the Great brought low.
But at least the book remains an indispensable storehouse of references to ancient and modern authorities.
According to the census taken in 1881, the complete publication of which was interdicted by the Turkish authorities, the population of the island was 279,165, or 35.78 to the square kilometre.
A long series of insurrections - those of 1821, 1833, 1841, 1858, 1866-1868, 1878, 1889 and 1896 may be especially mentioned - culminated in the general rebellion of 1897, which led to the interference of Greece, the intervention of the great powers, the expulsion of the Turkish authorities, and the establishment of an autonomous Cretan government under the suzerainty of the sultan.
The regular authorities sent from Constantinople were wholly unable to control the excesses of the janissaries, who exercised without restraint every kind of violence and oppression.
The sultan's reply was couched in the vaguest terms, and the Cretans were ordered to render unquestioning obedience to the authorities.
An attack made by the Moslems of Candia on the British garrison of that town, with the connivance of the Turkish authorities, brought home to the powers the necessity of removing the Ottoman troops, and the last Turkish soldiers quitted the island on the 14th of November 1898.
On the 27th of April 1899 a new autonomous constitution was voted by a constituent assembly, and in the following June the local administration was handed over to Cretan officials by the international authorities.
Hamilton's Colonial Mobile (Boston and New York, 1898), and the Colonization of the South (Philadelphia, 1904) are standard authorities for the French and English periods (1699-1781).
In 1907 there was a serious clash between the state authorities and the Federal judiciary, arising from an act of the legislature of that year which fixed the maximum railway fare at 21 cents a mile and imposed enormous fines for .its violation.
The hostility of the Maryland authorities, however, eventually drove him into exile in Delaware, where he remained quietly, but not in idleness, for two years.
The gloom and harshness of these Spanish mystics are absent from the tender, contemplative spirit of Francois de Sales (1567-1622); and in the quietism Fof Mme Guyon (1648-1717) and Miguel de Molinos (1627-1696) there is again a sufficient implication of mystical doctrine to rouse the suspicion of the ecclesiastical authorities.
Others are relics of an earlier geological period, when land areas 1 Authorities differ in their methods and results of computation of these and other similar measurements.
Of the two divisions (Kara Kirghiz and Kassak Kirghiz) into which the Kirghiz tribes are divided by Russian authorities, the Kassak Kirghiz is the more closely allied to the Mongol type; the Kara Kirghiz, who are found principally in the valleys of the Tian-shan and Altai mountains, being unmistakably Turkish.
The most recent authorities are of opinion that the Kolarians and Dravidians represent a single physical type; but, whatever the historical explanation may be, they certainly have different languages and show different stages of civilization.
Any general statement as to the debt owed by early European civilizations to western Asia would at present be premature, for though important discoveries have been made in Crete and Babylonia the best authorities are chary of positive conclusions as to the relations of Cretan civilization to Egypt and Babylonia.
Some authorities hold that Egyptian civilization came from Babylonia, and that the so-called Hamitic languages are older and less specialized members of the Semitic family.
Some authorities hold that Peruvian civilization had no connexion with the north and was an entirely indigenous product, but Kechua is in structure not unlike the agglutinative languages of central and northern Asia.
The Dutch authorities who had inscribed on his death certificate the name of Charles Louis de Bourbon, duc de Normandie (Louis XVII.) permitted his son to bear the name de Bourbon, and when the family appealed in 1850-1851, and again in 1874, for the restitution of their civil rights as heirs of Louis XVI.
He first sent Mme de Nehra to Paris to make peace with the authorities, and then returned himself, hoping to get employment through an old literary collaborateur of his, Durival, who was at this time director of the finances of the department of foreign affairs.
He does not appear at this time to have been seriously punished, and at the beginning of 1401 he is found in London, where his preaching again attracted the notice of the ecclesiastical authorities.
Hence he must always be rigorously checked where other authorities exist arid used with caution where he is our sole informant.
Loserth gives a bibliography of authorities dealing with the history of the Order on pp. 131, 365 and 567-8.
It is compulsory on owners to notify the authorities as to the existence of scab amongst their sheep. By the Diseases of Animals Act (1903) powers to prescribe the dipping of sheep, irrespective of the presence or otherwise of sheep scab, were conferred upon the Board of Agriculture.
Pleuro-pneumonia in Great Britain was dealt with by the local authorities up to the year 1890.
Between 1879 and 1892 inclusive, administration with regard to swine fever was entrusted to local authorities.
The development of the powers of the central government has been less than that of the functions of local governing authorities.
Local governing authorities now discharge economic functions of enormous importance and complexity, involving sums of money larger than sufficed to run important states a generation ago.
Here we may notice that the perpetuation of the republic by means of the armed forces tended to exalt the army at the expense of the civil authorities.
From every dispute which he had with the central authorities at Paris he emerged victorious; and he took care to assure his ascendancy by sending presents to the Directors, large sums to the nearly bankrupt treasury and works of art to the museums of Paris.
The relations between national and local authorities fluctuated considerably during the Directory; and it is noteworthy that the constitution of December 1799 placed local administration merely under the control of ministers at Paris.
This was left to the local authorities, and led to little result.
He placed himself at the disposal of the military authorities and was sent to France as a major in the Grenadier Guards.
Some authorities consider this total to be too small, and extend the number to io,000,000.
Despite strenuous opposition by the monastic orders, he obtained in 1528 a licence from the authorities to preach anywhere within the canton of Bern.
It is a tradition that, this work not being favourably regarded by the authorities of the Paris Museum, its draughtsman and author were refused closer access to the specimens required, and had to draw and describe them through the glass as they stood on the shelves of the cases.
His liberalism in politics having brought him into conflict with the university authorities of Giessen, he exchanged that university for GÃ¶ttingen in 1816, and three years later received a chair at the new university of Bonn, where he established the art museum and the library, of which he became the first librarian.
Giacomo afterwards had one of the bravos murdered, but the other was arrested by the Neapolitan authorities and confessed everything.
In this table measurements of price movements stated both absolutely and as percentages of price levels are given, because authorities have expressed doubts as to whether the former or the latter might be expected to remain constant, other things being equal, when price rose.
In 1886 Harnack was called to Marburg; and in 1888, in spite of violent opposition from the conservative section of the church authorities, to Berlin.
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
The Crusades - a movement which engaged all Europe and brought the East into contact with the West - must necessarily be studied not only in the Latin authorities of Europe and of Palestine, but also in Byzantine, Armenian and Arabic writers.
But about 5840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges proved, that Albert of Aix was not a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more contemporary authorities used.
In writing his account of the First Crusade, von Sybel accordingly based himself on the three contemporary Western authorities - the Gesta Francorum, Raymond of Agiles, and Fulcher.
Taking the Western authorities for the First Crusade separately, one may divide them, in the light of von Sybel's work, into four kinds - the accounts of eye-witnesses; later compilations based on these accounts; semi-legendary and legendary narratives; and lastly, in a class by itself, the "History" of William of Tyre, who is rather a scientific historian than a chronicler.
The Third Crusade was narrated in the West from very different points of view by Anglo-Norman, French and German authorities.
The minor authorities for the Fifth Crusade have been collected by Rohricht, in the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin for 1879 and 1882; the ten valuable letters of Oliver, bishop of Paderborn, and the Historia Damiettina, based on these letters, have also been edited by Rohricht in the Westdeutsche Zeitschrift per Geschichte and Kunst (1891).
The Sixth Crusade, that of Frederick II., is described in the chronicle of Richard of San Germano, a notary of the emperor, and in other Western authorities, e.g.
For the Crusades of St Louis the chief authorities are Joinville's life of his master (whom he accompanied to Egypt on the Seventh Crusade), and de Nangis' Gesta Ludovici regis.
Von Sybel's Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges contains a full study of the authorities for the First Crusade; while the prefaces to Hagenmeyer's editions of the Gesta and of Ekkehard are also valuable.
In response to this request, the British authorities decided to take over Basutoland, and a proclamation of annexation was issued on the 12th of March 1868.
Since 1884 he had been a loyal supporter of the imperial authorities, being unwavering in his adherence in critical times.
Huber, Muller, and Ferdinand Wolf are among the leading authorities in the history and literature of the Cid.
The chief ancient authorities for his life are Horace (Odes with Scholia), Dio Cassius, Tacitus (Annals), Suetonius (Augustus).
Since 1890 much has been done by the national Government, aided in many cases by the local authorities and by private enterprise, to improve the harbours and to extend the limits of river navigation.
No until the last decade of the 17th century did the Spanish authorities attempt to extend the settlements beyond the east coast.
In 1776, the Minorcans of New Smyrna refused to work longer on the indigo plantations; and many of them removed to St Augustine, where they were protected by the authorities.
The American government asked the Spanish authorities of East Florida to permit an American occupation of the country in order that it might not be seized by Great Britain and made a base of military operations.
Opposition from a master potter of the district, who threatened to put the Conventicle Act in force, was overcome, but more serious difficulties were presented by the antagonism of the Wesleyan Methodist circuit authorities.
Skeat's Malay Magic (London, 1900) is a compilation of all the writings on the subject of Malay superstitions by the best authorities and contains considerable original matter.
Manget's Bibliotheca chemica curiosa (1702), are confused productions, written in an allegorical style, but full of phrases and even pages taken literally from the Greek alchemists, and citing by name various authorities of Greek alchemy.
See also the authorities cited in the articles on WILLIAM I.
This interesting historical monument was demolished by the Greek authorities in 1874, notwithstanding the protests of Penrose, Freeman and other scholars.
Biography and authorities there collected; Five Stuart Princesses, ed.
Herodotus says nothing of a difference in shape, but most authorities regard the form M, which with the value of s is practically confined to Doric areas, as being san.
The reforms proved a failure, mainly owing to the tacit opposition of the Turkish authorities, the insufficient powers attributed to the European officials, the racial feuds and the deplorable financial situation.
Government at the same time, as an Oriental despotism understands it, often has little in view but the gathering in of the tribute and compulsion of the subjects to personal service in the army or in royal works, and if satisfied in these respects will leave much independence to the local authorities.
Some authorities hold that Walsingham himself only wrote the section between 1377 and 1392, but this view is controverted by James Gairdner in his Early chroniclers of Europe (1879).
Wagner's Lehrbuch (Hanover, 1908, pp. 241-252) refers to numerous authorities who deal fully with the whole question of measurement.
The position of all the places mentioned was supposed to have been determined by trustworthy authorities.
Maps on that scale of a great part of Africa, Asia and America have been published by British, French, German and United States authorities.
A notable event in the history of the protectorate was the co - operation of the Italian authorities in the campaigns against the Mullah Abdullah.
The relations of the above authorities are too complicated to be treated of here in detail, but they are represented on the subjoined diagram.
The authorities of Chandernagore are subject to the jurisdiction of the governor-general of Pondicherry, to whom is confided the general government of all the French possessions in India.
Even under Theodosius the combats of the amphitheatre were permitted, if not encouraged, by the state authorities; these sports were still expected from the candidates for public honours.
A well-conceived series of measures of reform was accordingly proposed to the colonial authorities.
Yet by the connivance of the local administrative authorities 54,000 Africans continued to be annually imported.
See authorities for history of EGYPT.
After hiding for some days in the Wicklow mountains Emmet repaired to the house of a Mrs Palmer at Harold's Cross, in order to be near the residence of John Philpot Curran, to whose daughter Sarah he had for some time been secretly attached, and with whom he had carried on a voluminous correspondence, afterwards seized by the authorities at her father's house.
It has given rise to a false idea that he lived to a great age; some medieval authorities making him ninety when he died.
The commentary by Saumaise in his Plinianae exercitationes (1689) is indispensable; best edition by Mommsen (1895), with valuable introduction on the MSS., the authorities used by Solinus, and subsequent compilers.
During his residence in Berwick, Henry commenced his History of Great Britain, written on a new plan; but, owing to the difficulty of consulting the original authorities, he did not make much progress with the work until his removal to Edinburgh in 1768.
Another equally erroneous idea was that these vast burialplaces of the early Christians remained entirely concealed from the eyes of their pagan neighbours, and were constructed not only without the permission of the municipal authorities but without their cognizance.
Considerable difference of opinion exists with regard to the best classification of the family, some authorities including most of the species in the typical genus Rhinoceros, while others recognize quite a number of sub-families and still more genera.
When war broke out, October 1899, Milner rendered the military authorities "unfailing support and wise counsels," being, in Lord Roberts's phrase "one whose courage never faltered."
Pennsylvania in 1842 (16 Peters 539), that state authorities could not be forced to act in fugitive slave cases, but that national authorities must carry out the national law, was followed by legislation in Massachusetts (1843), Vermont (1843), Pennsylvania (1847) and Rhode Island (1848), forbidding state officials to help enforce the law and refusing the use of state gaols for fugitive slaves.
The board has no administrative or executive power, but makes annual inspections of all public charitable, correctional or reformatory institutions, all private institutions which receive aid from, or are used by municipal or parochial authorities, and all private asylums for the insane; and reports annually to the governor on the actual condition of the institutions.
The rivalry of these two state governments, clashes of arms, the recognition by the Federal authorities of the radical Republican government (Pinchback and Kellogg, successively governors) followed.
In the name of the state he exercises a certain administrative control over the local authorities, such as the conseil general, the mayors and the municipal councils.
The local authorities were divided among themselves by bitter feuds - the ecclesiastical against the civil, the ayuntamiento against the governors, the administrative officers among themselves; brigandage, mutinies and intestinal struggles disturbed the peace.
The first Cuban congress met on the 5th of May 1902, prepared to take over the government from the American military authorities, which it did on the 10th of May.
He was not so fortunate in 1849, when he underwent a year's durance for resistance to the authorities of Dusseldorf during the troubles of that stormy period.
Thus the telegraph posts along a certain road have a space-order very obvious to our senses; but they have also a time-order according to dates of erection, perhaps more important to the postal authorities who replace them after fixed intervals.
A consultative assembly, composed of the highest ecclesiastical authorities, together with i 2 popular representatives, also met at Serajevo.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, the state authorities seized the United States Arsenal at Fayetteville, which contained 37,000 muskets and a complete equipment for a battery of light artillery.
Every village or town district has a kind of mayor (mukhtar) appointed by election and approved by the official provincial authorities, and a " council of ancients " whose members are elected directly.
The official authorities provide lists of all the taxes to be collected to the tahsildars, who hand them, against formal receipt, to the kabz-i-mals.
The latter are bound to pay in to the local authorities all sums collected in five days in town districts, and in fifteen days in villages, if under 1500 piastres; sums of 1500 piastres and over are paid in at once.
The tahsildars check the accounts of the kabz-i-mals, and, if they discover peculation, send them at once to be dealt with by the chief official authorities of the Gaza (department); all the electors of a mukhtar are, ipso facto, joint sureties for him.
If the tax-payer declines to pay his due, he is brought before the proper authorities by the tahsildar; if he persists in his refusal, all his goods, except those indispensable for his dwelling and the pursuit of his trade, are sold by auction, without recourse to a judgment by tribunal.
The first class contains such revenues as the emlak verghi-si (duty on realty), `ashar (tithes), temettu (professional tax), &c. In all such cases the taxable values are fixed by a commission of experts, sometimes chosen by the tax-payers themselves, sometimes by the official authorities; in all cases both tax-payers and authorities are represented on the commissions, whose decisions may be appealed against, in last resort, to the council of state at Constantinople, whose decision is final.
Explosives are under the control of the local authorities.
If payments due to the government are not made within two months of due date, the mines may be seized by the authorities and sold to the highest bidder.
The troubles arising from this cause and from greater energy in the collection of taxes led the Armenians in outlying and mountainous districts to rise against the authorities.
Its acceptance was however the signal for a series of massacres in almost every town of importance throughout Asia Minor, which there is but too strong evidence for suspecting were committed with the connivance of the authorities, and in which upwards of 200,000 persons are computed to have perished.
This iron is considered by several of the first authorities"on the subject to be of meteoric origin,' but no evidence hitherto given seems to prove decisively that it cannot be telluric. That the nodules found were lying on gneissic rock, with no basaltic rocks in the neighbourhood, does not prove that the iron may not originate from basalt, for the nodules may have been transported by the glaciers, like other erratic blocks, and will stand erosion much longer than the basalt, which may long ago have disappeared.
He was "a journalist before the days of journalism, a traveller before that of travelling, a critic of authorities before that of political oppositions."
Father Fitzherbert, who is described as "a person of excellent parts, a notable politician, and of graceful behaviour and generous spirit," wrote many controversial works, a list of which is given in the article on him by Mr Thompson Cooper in the Dictionary of National Biography, together with authorities for his life.
Cuesta, during the advance up the valley of the Tagus, was to occupy the pass of Banos on the left flank; the Spanish authorities were to supply provisions, and Venegas was to be at Arganda, near Madrid, by the 22nd or 23rd of July; but none of these arrangements were duly carried out, and it was on this that the remainder of the campaign turned.
The Portuguese and Spanish authorities were neglecting the payment and supply of their troops.
The bed of the great river maintains a fairly constant position between its extreme banks, but the channels within that bed are so constantly shifting as to require close supervision on the part of the navigation authorities; so much detritus is carried down as to form a perpetually changing series of obstructions to steamer traffic.
Tomlinson, The Prayer Book, Articles and Homilies (1897), a polemical work from the Protestant point of view, but scholarly and based on a mass of contemporary authorities to which references are given; the bishop of Exeter, The Ornaments Rubric (London, 1901), a pamphlet.
Up to the year 1862 not only was the fortress of Belgrade garrisoned by Turkish troops, but the Danubian slope of the town was inhabited by Turks, living under a special Turkish administration, while the modern part of the town (the plateau of the ridge and the western slope) was inhabited by Servians living under their own authorities.
Some authorities think that the " God-fearers " of some of the Psalms and of the New Testament were these limited proselytes.
The chief authorities for Willibrord's life are Alcuin's Vita Willibrordi, both in prose and in verse, and Bede's Hist.
The publication of A Journal written during an Excursion in Asia Minor (London, 1839) roused such interest that Lord Palmerston, at the request of the British Museum authorities, asked the British consul at Constantinople to get leave from the sultan to ship a number of the Lycian works of art.
The law on the subject of simony was long regarded as unsatisfactory by the authorities of the church.
The long straight lines of works which stretched to the plateau of the Michelsberg and formed the outworks of the main fortress on the left bank of the Danube were purchased in 1900 by the municipal authorities, in order to be levelled and laid out in streets for the extension of the town in this direction.
The Church authorities were this time not slow to act.
And the Church policy, as old as the times of Constantine, to crush utterly the man who brings more problems and pressure than the bulk of traditional Christians can, at the time, either digest or resist with a fair discrimination, seemed to the authorities the one means to save the very difficult situation.
In ancient times it was disputed whether the original was the work of Praxiteles or Scopas, and modern authorities are not agreed as to its identity with the group mentioned by Pliny.
The difficulties in the way of solving it are very great, and up to the present time the best authorities are not agreed as to the result, the effect of half a century of research having been merely to reduce the uncertainty within continually narrower limits.
The second includes definitions of technical terms in common use, together with so much of the elementary theory as is necessary for understanding the experimental work described in subsequent portions of the article; a number of formulae and results are given for purposes of reference, but the mathematical reasoning by which they are obtained is not generally detailed, authorities being cited whenever the demonstrations are not likely to be found in ordinary textbooks.
Additional authorities are quoted by Lloyd, loc. cit.
The statements in ancient authorities as to the changes in the number of the equites during the regal period are very confusing; but it is regarded as certain that Servius Tullius found six centuries in existence, to which he added twelve, making,' eighteen in all, a number which remained unchanged throughout the republican ' period.
Authorities cited by numbers in the text.-1.
In due course the Jewish authorities were forced to draw up a canon or book of sacred scriptures, and mark them off from those which claimed to be such without justification.
Some authorities, however, as for instance Gibbon, have supposed them to refer to the same person.
He soon left Paris for Toulouse, which in turn he was forced to leave owing to the hostility of the city authorities, aroused by his violent assertion of university rights.
The two English authorities, Robert Southey's History of Brazil, covering the colonial period, and John Armitage's History of Brazil, covering the period between the arrival of the Braganza family (1808) and the abdication of Dom Pedro I.
Republican movements now began to spread, to suppress which the authorities made use of the Portuguese remaining in the country; and the disposition of the emperor to consider these as his firmest supporters much influenced the course of his government and his future destiny.
It was openly suggested in the journals to reform the constitution by turning Brazil into independent federal provinces, governed by authorities popularly elected, as in the United States.
Admiral Mello made an unsuccessful attack on the town of Rio Grande, and then sailed to Buenos Aires, there surrendering the rebel squadron to the Argentine authorities, by whom it was immediately delivered to the Brazilian government.
Early in 1895 murmurings and disorderly conduct against the authorities began to take place in the military school at Rio de Janeiro, which had always been a hotbed of intrigue.
The second difficulty was the war waged by religious fanatics under the leadership of Antonio Maciel, known as " Conselheiro," against the constituted authorities of Brazil.
As early as 729 - some authorities fix the date a hundred and fifty years before - the Culdees possessed a monastery at Dunkeld, which was converted into a cathedral by David I.
When they withdrew, the British tribes reasserted their sway, and some authorities go so far as to suggest that Arthur was one of their kings.
The monument, which was damaged during the war of 1899-1902, was restored by the British authorities.
Roman authorities have from the beginning and throughout consistently repudiated orders given according to the Edwardine ordinal.
On the other hand, there are elements in the poem which show that it is not entirely the work of a poor crowder; and these (notably references to historical and literary authorities, and occasional reminiscences of the literary tricks of the Scots Chaucerian school) have inclined some to the view that the text, as we have it, is an edited version of the minstrel's rough song story.
Unfortunately, however, the brilliant epoch of the alliance of Liberalism and Catholicism, represented on its literary side by Chateaubriand and by Lamartine, to whose poetic school Herculano had belonged, was past, and fanatical attacks and the progress of events drove this former champion of the Church into conflict with the ecclesiastical authorities.
He appears to have been coldly received by the authorities, who were even unable to ascertain the nature of Chaka's embassy.
On this occasion the authorities were more hostile than before to the Natal pioneers, for they confiscated the schooner on the ground that it was unregistered and that it came from a foreign port.
It was not until their hand was forced by the occupation of the interior by Dutch farmers that the Cape authorities at length intervened.
Thereupon the Natal ministry resigned, giving as their reason the importance of maintaining the authority of the colonial administration at a critical period, and the constitutional question involved in the interference by the imperial authorities in the domestic affairs of a self-governing colony.
Nothing further was done in Natal up to the establishment of the Union of South Africa, when all questions specially or differentially affecting Asiatics were withdrawn from the competence of the provincial authorities.
On the other hand, the Summists 1 occupied themselves merely in the systematizing of authorities.
Nominalism was at first met by the opposition of the church and the constituted authorities.
The work shows extreme diligence, and scrupulous care in the use of authorities.
Earlier in that year he claimed for the public the right of printing an account of the debates in parliament, and after a protracted struggle between the ministerial majority and the civic authorities, the right was definitely established.
Here he found a warm friend in Dobrovsky, whose good relations with the Austrian authorities shielded him from the hostility shown by the government to students of Slav subjects.
Palacky, though entirely national and Protestant in his sympathies, was careful to avoid an uncritical approbation of the Reformers' methods, but his statements were held by the authorities to be dangerous to the Catholic faith.
Hoffer, a German professor of history at Prague, edited the historical authorities for the period in a similar sense in his Geschichte der hussitischen Bewegung in Bohmen.
From henceforth the military and civil authorities, as represented by Kossuth and Gdrgei, were hopelessly out of sympathy with each other, and the breach widened till all effective co-operation became impossible.
The Uralian travels of Anthony Reguly (1843-1845), and the philological labours of Paul Hunfalvy and Joseph Budenz, may be said to have established it, and no doubt has been thrown on it by recent research, though most authorities regard the Magyars as of mixed origin physically and combining Turkish with Finno-Ugric elements.
The local authorities proceeded to carry this out with a zeal due to long suffering, and the ruined medieval chateaus of France still bear witness to the action of Richelieu.
The pope still addresses his fellow-bishops as "venerable brothers"; but from the Roman Catholic Church the fraternal union of coequal authorities, which is of the essence of episcopacy, has vanished; and in its place is set the autocracy of one.
During the late summer the authorities in Vienna and Budapest keenly debated rival plans for solving the southern Slav question - in every case, however, in accordance with Austrian or Hungarian rather than Yugoslav interests.
This arrangement, however, never really came into force, for the simple reason that telegraphic communications between the West and Serbia were hopelessly irregular, and that events continued to move, with the advance of the Serbian army and civil authorities from the South and of the Italians from the West.
Polypi (including the Coelentera of later authorities and the Polyzoa).
Sometimes, also, he gives proof of some knowledge of Hebrew and supplements his scriptural authorities, which include I Esdras, from general Greek histories.
One of the chief authorities for the last years of Retz is Madame de Sevigne, whose connexion he was by marriage.
The semi-military organization of these divisions, which existed under the South African republic, has been abolished, and field-cornets, who are nominated by the provincial government, are purely civil officials charged with the registration of voters, births and deaths, the maintenance of public roads, &c. The chief local authorities are the municipal bodies, many " municipalities " being rural areas centred round a small town.
Within a few weeks of the signing of the convention Pretorius had asked the British authorities to close the " lower road " to the interior, that is the route through Bechuanaland, opened up by Moffat, Livingstone and other missionaries.
The Boers now cast about to find a man who should have the necessary ability, as they said, to negotiate on equal terms with the British authorities should any future dispute arise.
From that day the role of the Natal Field Force was changed from that of a mobile field army into that of a garrison, and two days later it was completely isolated, but not before General French had succeeded in escaping south by train, and the naval authorities had been induced by Sir George White's urgent appeals to send into the town a naval brigade with a few guns of sufficient range and calibre to cope with the heavy position artillery which Joubert was now able to bring into action against the town.
The relief of Kimberley was indeed urgent, for dissensions between Rhodes and the military authorities had become acute.
Notwithstanding the remonstrances of the Indian government, the imperial authorities could not effectively intervene; a self-governing colony (in which whites alone possessed the franchise) must be allowed to take its own course.
After 1828 the Laos became entirely subject to Siam, and were governed partly by khiao, or native hereditary princes, partly by mandarins directly nominated by the Bangkok authorities.
The Latin preface to the first series enumerates some of iElfric's authorities, the chief of whom was Gregory the Great, but the short list there given by no means exhausts the authors whom he consulted.
Whether Xenophanes was a monotheist, whose assertion of the unity of God suggested to Parmenides the doctrine of the unity of Being, or a pantheist, whose assertion of the unity of God was also a declaration of the unity of Being, so that he anticipated Parmenides - in other words, whether Xenophanes's teaching was purely theological or had also a philosophical significance - is a question about which authorities have differed and will probably continue to differ.
On the whole, modern authorities assign Pheidon to the first half of the 7th century.
In April 1895 the long-standing dispute as to the boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela was brought to a crisis by the action of the Venezuelan authorities in arresting Inspectors Barnes and Baker, of the British Guiana police, with a few of their subordinates, on the Cuyuni river, the charge being that they were illegally exercising the functions of British officials in Venezuelan territory.
Official nominees are as a rule returned without any opposition, the details of the voting having been previously arranged by the local authorities in conformity with instructions from headquarters.
In the days of the old German empire no fewer than thirty-five different tolls were levied between Melnik and Hamburg, to say nothing of the special dues and privileged exactions of various riparian owners and political authorities.
Crispi was compelled to resign office, although the judicial authorities upheld the invalidity of his early marriage, contracted at Malta in 1853, and ratified his subsequent union with Signora Barbagallo.
The ensuing Rudini cabinet lent itself to Cavallotti's campaign, and at the end of 1897 the judicial authorities applied to the chamber for permission to prosecute Crispi for embezzlement.
But this version implies that Megara was founded before Syracuse, which is contrary to all other authorities.
But which are to be regarded as the "genuine works" is still uncertain, and authorities are conflicting.
Boerhaave attached great importance to the study of the medical classics, but rather treated them historically than quoted them as canonical authorities.
An enormous accumulation of lunatics of all sorts and degrees seems to have paralysed public authorities, who, at vast expense in buildings, mass them more or less indiscriminately in barracks, and expect that their sundry and difficult disorders can be properly studied and treated by a medical superintendent charged with the whole domestic establishment, with a few young assistants under him.
It was probably abhorrence of such measures that converted Thomas Reynolds from a conspirator to an informer; at all events, by him and several others the authorities were kept posted in what was going on, though lack of evidence producible in court delayed the arrest of the ringleaders.
Lyons' The Physiography of the River Nile and its Basin (Cairo, 1906), and the authorities quoted in those works.
The efforts of the river authorities are being directed to the deepening and improvement of the navigable channel from the sea to Strassburg, the low-water depths aimed at being TO ft.
His advocacy of anti-slavery principles, then frowned upon by the Methodist authorities, aroused opposition, and eventually resulted in his trial for heresy and the revocation of his licence.
He now obtained a settled home for many years, and, taught by his numerous brushes with the authorities, he began and successfully carried out that system of keeping out of personal harm's way, and of at once denying any awkward responsibility, which made him for nearly half a century at once the chief and the most prosperous of European heretics in regard to all established ideas.
This situation was at last put an end to by the city authorities, who probably felt that they were not playing a very creditable part.
Some authorities regard Medea as a lunar divinity, but the ancient conception of her as a Thessalian sorceress is probably correct.
The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.
With a further view to uniformity it has certain powers of supervision and control over local authorities, and can make by-laws respecting construction of local sewers, sanitary conveniences, offensive trades, slaughter-houses and dairies,, and prevention of nuisances outside the jurisdiction of local authorities.
The Council may also act in cases of default by the local authorities, or may make representations to the Local Government Board respecting such default, whereupon the Board may direct the Council to withhold payment due to the local authority under the Equalization of Rates Act 1894.
The sanitary authorities are concerned only with the supervision of house drainage, and the construction and maintenance of local sewers discharging into the main system.
The local sanitary authorities carry out the provisions of the Infectious Diseases (Notification and Prevention) Acts, which for London are embodied in the Public Health (London) Act 1891.
As regards administration,Lord Llandaff's Commission recommended the creation Metro- of a Water Trust, and in 1902 the Metropolis Water Act constituted the Metropolitan Water Board to purchase politan and carry on the undertakings of the eight companies, Water and of certain local authorities.
Public baths and washhouses are provided by local authorities under various acts between 1846 and 1896, which have been adopted by all the borough councils.
At the close of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century a large number of electric light companies came into existence, and some of the metropolitan borough councils, and local authorities within Greater London, also undertook the supply.
The brigade was confined to the central part of the metropolis; for the rest, the parochial authorities had charge of protection from fire.
The administrative authorities of cemeteries for the county are the borough councils and the City Corporation and private companies.
It includes a museum containing ancient documents and specimens of articles seized by the customs authorities.
Besides these authorities, the London County Council, the Board of Trade, the Admiralty, the Metropolitan and City Police, police of riparian boroughs, Kent and Essex Fisheries Commissioners, all the dock companies and others played some part in the government and public services of the port.
The vestries so elected for the twenty-two larger parishes were constituted the local authorities.
The vestries and district boards became the authorities for local drainage, paving, lighting, repairing and maintaining streets, and for the removal of nuisances, &c.
Further, every precept sent by an authority in London for the purpose of obtaining money (these authorities include the London County Council, the receiver of the Metropolitan Police, the Central Unemployed Body and the Boards of Guardians) which has ultimately to be raised out of a rate within a borough is sent direct to the council of the borough instead of filtering through other authorities before reaching the overseers.
The metropolitan borough councils make one general rate, which includes the amount necessary to meet their own expenditure, as well as to meet the demands of the various precepting authorities.
Under the Local Government Act 1888, the London County Council makes grants to boards of guardians, sanitary authorities and overseers in London in respect of certain services.
Besides the annual expenditure of the various authorities large sums have been borrowed to defray the cost of works of a permanent nature.
Metropolitan borough councils have to obtain the sanction of the Local Government Board to loans for baths, washhouses, public libraries, sanitary conveniences and certain other purposes under the Public Health Acts; for cemeteries the sanction of the Treasury is required, and for all other purposes that of the London County Council; poor law authorities, the metropolitan asylums board, the metropolitan water board and the central (unemployed) body require the sanction of the Local Government Board the receiver for the metropolitan police district that of the Home Office, and the London County Council that of parliament and the Treasury.
During the troubles of the 15th century the authorities had seen the necessity of paying more attention to the security of the gates and walls of the city, and when Thomas Nevill, son of William, Lord Fauconberg, made his attack upon London in 1471 he experienced a spirited resistance.
C. Molteno, and the authorities cited under Natal.
The proclamation of the king's daughter Isabella as heiress was almost the occasion of an armed conflict between him and the naval authorities at Ferrol, who were partisans of the constitutional cause.
He was put on half pay by the new authorities and ordered to live under police observation at Pamplona.
Vertical interval British front /ine before authorities, an almost indispensable preliminary to the undertaking of warlike operations against Constantinople and the Bosporus by fighting forces coming from the west.
The Ottoman authorities were moreover known to have given much attention to the problem of mine-fields especially adapted to the peculiar conditions existing within the Dardanelles; and the development which had taken place in this particular form of defence was such as to render the task of a fleet which should try to force the passage a more difficult one than it would have been a few years earlier.
The Turkish authorities, it may be mentioned, 4 Lemnos was a Greek possession having been ceded to Greece as the result of the Balkan War of 1912-3.
As Turkish detachments watching this strip of coastline were known to number only about 2,000 men - the Ottoman authorities never contemplating a hostile landing in force in the locality - the design was to put most of the attacking troops ashore during the night of the 6th-7th as a surprise, and that they should then push on at once and master a range of hills 4 or 5 m.
All this time winter was drawing nearer and nearer and the need for a prompt decision was becoming more urgent, but the authorities in London lost another fortnight before, on Dec. 8, they at last sent instructions to Monro to evacuate Suvla and Anzac while retaining a grip on Helles.
The responsible authorities on the spot perceived that the process of gradually removing the huge accumulations of impedimenta that were massed about the landing-places and of reembarking the troops must take place during the dark hours and step by step, every effort being made to keep the Turks unaware of what was in progress.
The naval authorities had been busy assembling and organizing the available small craft in anticipation of the operation that appeared to be imminent, and jetties damaged in the Nov.
As the staff fully foresaw, the enemy would exert greater vigilance than had been the case while the withdrawals had been in progress from the northern areas, these having given the Ottoman authorities warning of what was likely to happen.
Most authorities on the art of war agree that the collapse of the Entente in this memorable campaign was primarily due to the abortive naval effort to force the Dardanelles.
By most authorities the possibility of an advance in force from the north, even under the most favourable conditions, is considered to be exceedingly small; but the tracks and passes of the Hindu Kush are only impracticable so long as they are left as nature has made them.
Burmese, which was spoken by 7,006,495 people in the province in 1901, is a monosyllabic language, with, according to some authorities, three different tones; so that any given syllable may have three entirely different meanings only distinguishable by the intonation when spoken, or by accents or diacritical marks when written.
There are, however, very many weighty authorities who deny the existence of tones in the language.
See NILE and the authorities there quoted, especially Sir William Garstin's Report upon the Basin of the Upper Nile, Egypt, No.
Guru Arjan, who was in charge of the great Sikh temple at Amritsar, received copious offerings and became a man of wealth and influence, while the sixth guru became a military leader, and was frequently at warfare with the Mogul authorities.