Austro-hungarian sentence example
Zvornik fell before the Austro-Hungarian army in 1688, and the Turkish vali, who was still officially styled the "vali of Hungary," removed his headquarters from Banjaluka to Travnik, a more southerly, and therefore a safer capital.
These charges are not wholly unfounded; but the chief social and political evils in Bosnia and Herzegovina may be traced to historical causes operative long before the Austro-Hungarian occupation, and above all to the political ambition of the rival churches.
It is regularly visited by steamers from Trieste, Fiume, Brindisi, and other Austro-Hungarian and Italian ports, as well as by many small Greek and Turkish coasters.
About threefourths of the inhabitants are Christian Serbs, and the remainder are chiefly Moslem Albanians, with a few gipsies, Turkish officials and about 3000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers.
The national debt of Hungary alone, excluding the debt incurred jointly by both members of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, was £192,175,000 at the end of 1903.Advertisement
Beust was the only " imperial chancellor " in Austro-Hungarian history; even Metternich bore only the title of " chancellor "; and Andrassy, who succeeded Beust, styled himself " minister of the imperial and royal household and for foreign affairs."
The matter was urgent; for parliament was to meet on the 28th, and it was important that a new cabinet, acceptable to it, should be appointed before that date, or that the Houses should be prorogued pending such appointment; otherwise the delegations would be postponed and no credits would be voted for the cost of the new Austro-Hungarian " Dreadnoughts " and of the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
During the 'seventies Austro-Hungarian policy was increasingly successful in checking intercourse between the Yugosla y s of the monarchy and those outside its bounds.
This article, which was based upon a mass of incriminating documents supplied to Friedjung by the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office, had been timed to coincide with the outbreak of hostilities against Serbia, and was to have been the first of a series convicting the Serbian Government and dynasty of aggressive and even murderous designs.
Despite the Ballplatz's efforts at postponement, the trial took place in Vienna in Dec. 1909, and revealed the documents upon which Friedjung had relied, as impudent forgeries concocted by subordinate officials of the Austro-Hungarian legation in Belgrade, with the connivance of the minister, Count Forga.cs.Advertisement
The effect of the congress and of this propaganda was to hasten the disintegration in the Austro-Hungarian army, and the High Command (in a communiqué of July 27) admitted that wholesale defections of the Czechoslovaks and the Yugosla y s had.
It accepted the Brenner as a fair strategic line on the north, but argued that the Treaty of London was no longer applicable in respect of Italy's eastern frontier, since the line which it traced was designed to secure Italy against future Austro-Hungarian aggression, and AustriaHungary had by now ceased to exist.
It is also the seat of the common ministries for the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, of the foreign ambassadors and general consuls and the meeting-place, alternately with Budapest, of the AustroHungarian delegations.
The Austro-Hungarian army is dealt with under Army.
In addition to this there was another quite exceptional source of difficulties which had the most serious consequences for Austria, namely her relation with Hungary, due to the peculiar constitutional structure of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.Advertisement
Since the closing years of the 19th century the Austro-Hungarian Bank had pursued a policy which had in the main the object of making the Austrian krone a gold exchange standard.
It was decided, however, by the Austrian financial authorities that the obligation of the Austro-Hungarian Bank to convert its notes into gold on demand should remain suspended as hitherto, owing to fear lest the renewal of the obligation of the bank to cash its notes in gold should lead to a rise in the rate of interest.
Hungary, on the other hand, striving for access to the money markets of the West, desired that the obligation of the Austro-Hungarian Bank to cash its notes should be explicitly mentioned in the law, in order to make the public loans rank as easily negotiable securities on foreign bourses.
The suspension of cash payment by the Austro-Hungarian Bank was continued, but the bank was bound to provide, by every means at its disposal, that the value of its notes as quoted on foreign bourses should be permanently secured in proportion to the parity of the legal mint standard of the krone currency.
One obvious sign of a crisis was the demand for loans against security from the Austro-Hungarian Bank, which was the result of the unfavourable position of investments on the bourse.Advertisement
In each of the five years, ending Dec. 31, from 1909 to 1913 the loans granted by the Austro-Hungarian Bank against securities amounted to 90, 149, 187, 355 and 311 millions of kronen successively.
On July 23 1914 the gold reserve of the Austro-Hungarian Bank amounted to 1,238 millions of kronen, its silver to 291 millions.
The debt of the Austrian State to the Austro-Hungarian Bank in direct loans made by the bank to the State amounted at the end of 1919 to 25,088 millions of kronen.
Its modern history as an independent entity begins with the dramatic collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy at the close of the World War, and the definitive proclamation of Czechoslovak independence on Oct.
The country had been brought by the Austro-Hungarian war policy to the very brink of economic and financial ruin.Advertisement
On the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy the Austrian code was adopted for the lands of the Bohemian crown and the Hungarian code for Slovakia.
The economic importance of Czechoslovakia is strikingly shown by a comparison with the rest of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
The population in 1900 was 282,071, including 43,274 Jews, and 53,056 aliens, mostly Austro-Hungarian subjects.
The Austro-Hungarian monarchy is very often called unofficially the Dual Monarchy.
Navy.-The Austro-Hungarian navy is mainly a coast defence force, and includes also a flotilla of monitors for the Danube.Advertisement
The most important place of derivation and of destination for the Austro-Hungarian trade is the German empire with about 40% of the imports, and about 60% of the exports.
The Austro-Hungarian Bank.-Common to the two states of the monarchy is the " Austro-Hungarian Bank," which possesses a legal exclusive right to the issue of bank-notes.
In the December of this year AustriaHungary indeed decisively interfered in the war between Bulgaria and Servia, for at this time Austrian influence predominated in Servia, and after the battle of Slivnitza the Austro-Hungarian minister warned Prince Alexander of Bulgaria that if he advanced farther he would be met by Austro-Hungarian as well as Servian troops.
The chief objects of the government in recent years have been to maintain Austro-Hungarian trade and influence in the Balkan states by the building of railways, by the opening of the Danube for navigation, and by commercial treaties with Rumania, Servia and Bulgaria; since the abdication of King Milan especially, the affairs of Servia and the growth of Russian influence in that country have caused serious anxiety.
Hitherto the currency had been partly in silver (gulden), the "Austrian currency " which had been introduced in 1857, currency partly in paper money, which took the form of notes issued by the Austro-Hungarian Bank.Advertisement
At the end of 1902 the Hungarian premier, Szell, concluded with the Austrian premier, Kdrber, a new customs and trade alliance comprising a joint Austro-Hungarian tariff as a basis for the negotiation of new commercial treaties with Germany, Italy and other states.
Since Hungary reserved her right to fix the conditions on which recruits should be granted, the partisans of the Magyar words of command argued that the abolition of the German words of command in the Hungarian regiments might be made such a condition, despite the enumeration in the preceding clause 11, of everything appertaining to the unitary leadership and inner organization of the joint Austro-Hungarian army as belonging to the constitutional military prerogatives of the crown.
On the 25th of January, the day before his defeat, Count Tisza had signed on behalf of Hungary the new commercial treaties concluded by the Austro-Hungarian foreign office with Germany and Italy on the basis of the Szell-Korber tariff.
The burning question of the " Magyar word of command " remained unsettled, save in so far as the fixed determination of the king-emperor had settled it; the equally important question of the renewal of the charter of the Austro-Hungarian State Bank had also formed no part of the agreement of 1907.
In March 1908 Mr Hallo laid before the Hungarian parliament a formal proposal that the charter of the Austro-Hungarian Bank, which was to expire at the end of 1910, should not be renewed; and that, in the event of failure to negotiate a convention between the banks of Austria and Hungary, a separate Hungarian Bank should be established.Advertisement
Baron Gautsch fell in April over a difference with the Poles, and his successor, Prince Konrad zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfiirst, who had taken over the reform bills, resigned also, Baron six weeks later, as a protest against the action of the crown in consenting to the enactment of a customs tariff in Hungary distinct from, though identical with, the joint Austro-Hungarian tariff comprised hi the Szell-Kdrber compact and enacted as a joint tariff by the Reichsrath.
In these positions he acquired a great reputation as a firm and skilful diplomatist, and on the retirement of Count Kalnoky in May 1895 was chosen to succeed him as Austro-Hungarian minister for foreign affairs.
In November 1897, when the Austro-Hungarian flag was insulted at Mersina, he threatened to bombard the town if instant reparation were not made, and by his firm attitude greatly enhanced Austrian prestige in the East.
In commerce and industry Budapest is by far the most important town in Hungary, and in the former, if not also in the latter, it is second to Vienna alone in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.
It is the meeting-place, alternately with Vienna, of the Austro-Hungarian delegations, and it was elected to an equality with Vienna as a royal residence in 1892.Advertisement
He felt, too, that even if the plan were as successful as Conrad claimed it would be, its effect on the general course of the war would not be sufficiently important to warrant the risk taken in detaching a strong German force for the enterprise itself, or for replacing Austro-Hungarian divisions in the east if the actual attack should be left to Germany's ally.
The quality of the bulk of the Austro-Hungarian wines has been improved of late years, principally owing to the endeavours of the respective governments to introduce scientific and modern methods among the wine-farmers.
In 1895, the foreigners included in the Chilean population numbered 72,812, of which 42,105 were European, 29,687 American, and 1020 Asiatic, &c. According to nationality there were 8269 Spanish, 7809 French, 7587 Italian, 7049 German, 6241 British, 1570 Swiss, 1490 Austro-Hungarian, 13,695 Peruvian, 7531 Argentine, 6654 Bolivian, 701 American (U.S.), 797 Chinese.
Comparing the average of the period 1896-1900 with the total for 1904, British trade showed an increase of 33%, Austro-Hungarian of nearly 60%, Germany of 130%, Italian of 98%, French of 8%, and Belgian of nearly 33%.
His views on Balkan questions strongly influenced Count Andrassy, the Austro-Hungarian minister for foreign affairs.Advertisement
After the Russo-Turkish War of 1878 he went to Philippopolis as Austro-Hungarian envoy extraordinary on the International Eastern Rumelian Commission.
Despite American competition and Austro-Hungarian tariffs the export of swine remains the principal branch of Servian commerce.
From 1843 in 1868 the Servian government undertook the carriage of letters in Servia itself, while the Austro-Hungarian consulate in Belgrade forwarded correspondence to and from central and western Europe.
By this declaration Servia abandoned all its demands as against Austria-Hungary, while the Austro-Hungarian foreign minister made simultaneously a public declaration that the Dual Monarchy harboured no unfriendly designs against Servia.
Wonder at the grand secessionist and art nouveau architecture which betrays the Austro-Hungarian heyday of the port, Croatia's third largest city.
He now made Beust, Bismarcks Saxon antagonist, the head of his government, as the result of whose negotiations with Dek the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was agreed upon.
But the Austro-Hungarian government, profiting by the weakness of Russia after the war with Japan, and aware that the proclamation of Bulgarian independence was imminent, had already decided to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina, in spite of the pledges given at Berlin, and although the proposal was unpopular in Hungary.
The action of the Supreme Council in Paris in prescribing the frontier line of the secret treaty of London as the line of occupation under the Austro-Hungarian armistice was keenly resented by the Yugosla y s as a breach with Wilsonian principles.
The present constitution of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy (see Austria) is based on the Pragmatic Sanction of the emperor Charles VI., first promulgated on the 19th of April 1713, whereby the succession to the throne is settled in the dynasty of Habsburg-Lorraine, descending by right of primogeniture and lineal succession to male heirs, and, in case of their extinction, to the female line, and whereby the indissolubility and indivisibility of the monarchy are determined; is based, further, on the diploma of the emperor Francis Joseph I.