Austrians sentence example

austrians
  • At the end of the year, when the Austrians were approaching Pesth, he asked for the mediation of Mr Stiles, the American envoy.
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  • Garibaldi and a few followers, including his devoted wife Anita, after vainly attempting to reach Venice, where the tricolor still floated, took refuge in the pine forests of Ravenna; the Austrians were seeking him in all directions, and most of his legionaries were captured and shot.
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  • On the outbreak of war in 1859 he was placed in command of the Alpine infantry, defeating the Austrians at Casale on the 8th of May, crossing the Ticino on the 23rd of May, and, after a series of victorious fights, liberating Alpine territory as far as the frontier of Tirol.
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  • On the 3rd of July he defeated the Austrians at Monte Saello, on the 7th at Lodzone, on the 10th at Darso, on the 16th at Condino, on the 19th at Ampola, on the 21st at Bezzecca, but, when on the point of attacking Trent, he was ordered by General Lamarmora to retire.
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  • In 1848 Montanelli served with the Tuscan student volunteers at the battle of Curtatone, where he was wounded and taken prisoner by the Austrians.
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  • In the frequent wars between Austria and Turkey during the i 7th and 18th centuries the Austrians captured Naissus twice (in 1689 and 1737), but were not able to retain it long.
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  • In 1794 Mannheim fell into the hands of the French, and in the following year it was retaken by the Austrians after a severe bombardment, which left scarcely a single building uninjured.
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  • In 1246 it was the scene of a victory of the Hungarians over the Austrians; and in 1486 it was taken by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, who, however, restored it to Maximilian I.
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  • The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
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  • Of the immigrant arrivals for the forty-seven years given, 1,331,536 were Italians, 4 1 4,973 Spaniards, 170,293 French, 37,953 Austrians, 35,435 British, 30,699 Germans, 25,775 Swiss, 19,521 Belgians, and the others of diverse nationalities, so that Argentina is in no danger of losing her Latin character through immigration.
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  • Like the rest of his family, he belonged to the Federalist party, and his appointment in 1889 as governor of Bohemia was the cause of grave dissatisfaction to the German Austrians.
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  • Odoacer inaugurated that long series of foreign rulersGreeks, Franks, Germans, Spaniards and Austrians who have successively contributed to the misgovernment of Italy from distant seats of empire.
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  • Milan and Mantua remained in the hands of the Austrians.
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  • The Austrians kept Milan and Tuscany.
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  • It is desirable in the first place to realize the condition of Italy at the time when the irruption of the French and the expulsion of the Austrians opened up a new political vista for that oppressed and divided people.
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  • Bona- The anathemas of the pope, the bravery of Piedmontese and Austrians, and the subsidies of Great Britain failed to keep the league of Italian princes against France intact.
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  • Early in the year 1798 the Austrians, in pursuance of the scheme of partition agreed on at Campo Formio, entered Venice and brought to an end its era of independence which had lasted some 1100 years.
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  • While Massna pursued the Austrians into their own lands at the close of I8o5, Italian forces under Eugene and Gouvion St Cyr (q.v.) held their ground against allied forces landed at Naples.
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  • Eugene Beauharnais, viceroy of the kingdom of Italy, showed both constancy and courage; but after the battle of Leipzig (October 1619, 1813) his power crumbled away under the assaults of the now victorious Austrians.
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  • The Austrians, under General Bellegarde, entered Milan without resistance; and this event precluded the restoration of the old political order.
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  • The defeat of General Pepe by the Austrians at Rieti (March 7, 1821) and the re-establishment of King Ferdinands autocratic power under the protection of Austrian bayonets were the effective assertion of this principle.
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  • The Austrians evacuated Romagna in July, but another insurrection having broken out immediately afterwards which the papal troops were unable to quell, they returned.
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  • In Rome the pope gave way to popular clamour, granting one concession after another, and on the 8th of February he publicly called down Gods blessing on Italythat Italy hated by the Austrians, whose name it had hitherto been a crime to mention.
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  • A force of Tuscan volunteers was attacked by a superior body of Austrians at Curtatone and Montanaro and defeated after a gallant resistance on the 27th of May; Charles Albert, after wasting precious time round Peschiera, which capitulated on the 3oth of May, defeated Radetzky at Goito.
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  • All Venetiaexcept the capital was thus once more occupied by the Austrians.
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  • Austrians blockaded the city on the land side.
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  • General Ramorino, disobeying his instructions, failed to prevent a corps of Austrians under Lieut.
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  • Count Serristori, the grand-ducal comiiissioner, arrived in Florence on the 4th of May 1849; the -iational guard was disbanded; and on the 25th, the Austrians inder dAspre entered Florence.
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  • After a heroic defence, conducted by Giuseppe Martinengo, Brescia was recaptured in April by the Austrians under Lieut.
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  • The assembly voted: Venice resists the Austrians at all costs, and the citizens and soldiers, strengthened by the arrival of volunteers from all parts of Italy, including Pepe, who was given the chief command of the defenders, showed the most splendid devotion in their hopeless task.
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  • All reasonable men were now convinced that the question of the ultimate form of the Italian government was secondary, and that the national efforts should be concentrated on the task of expelling the Austrians; the form of government could be decided afterwards.
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  • The Lombard republicans had been greatly weakened by the events of 1848, but Mazzini still believed that a bold act by a few revolutionists would make the people rise en masse and expel the Austrians.
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  • There it was agreed that France should supply 200,000 men and Piedmont 100,000 for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, that Piedmont should be expanded into a kingdom of North Italy, that central Italy should form a separate kingdom, on the throne of which the emperor contemplated placing one of his own relatives, and Naples another, possibly under Lucien Murat; the pope, while retaining only the Patrimony of St Peter (the Roman province), would be president of the Italian confederation.
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  • At the same time the Austrians evacuated the Legations and Cardinal Milesi, the papal representative, departed.
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  • The question of the cession of Nice and Savoy had not been raised; for the emperor had not fulfilled his part of the bargain, that he would drive the Austrians out of Italy, since Venice was yet to be freed.
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  • He served in the army as marechal-de-camp under Luckner and Lafayette, but was accused of treason on the 15th of August 17 9 2, fled the country, and was imprisoned by the Austrians.
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  • The Hungarians defeated the Austrians at Gyongybs on the 3rd of April 1849.
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  • During the revolution of 1848-1849, Eger was remarkable for the patriotic spirit displayed by its inhabitants; and it was here that the principal campaigns against the Austrians were organized.
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  • Pop. (1900) 2752; (1905, state census) 533 2, of whom 2975 were foreign-born, including 1145 Finns, 676 Austrians and 325 Swedes.
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  • In 1878 it was seized by the Austrians, under Baron Philippovic.
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  • The French under Jourdan were defeated by the Austrians under the Archduke Charles near Amberg in 1796.
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  • It came in time to enable him to share in the operations of the French army against the Austrians that led to the battle of Dego, north of Savona (21st of September), a success largely due to his skilful combinations.
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  • Massena's triumph at Zurich (September 25th-26th, 1799) paralysed the Second Coalition; and, though the Austrians continued to make progress along the Italian riviera, the French Republic was in little danger on that side so long as it held Switzerland.
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  • The Austrians, abandoning the nearer Lido entrance to the lagoons, resolved to deepen and keep open the Malamocco entrance.
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  • The Turks were defeated here in 1492 by Maximilian I., and an engagement between the Austrians and the French took place here on the 21st of August 1813.
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  • During the popular movements of 1831 Marie Louise had to take refuge with the Austrian garrison at Piacenza; on the restoration of her rule by the Austrians its character deteriorated, Parma becoming an outwork of the Austrian empire.
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  • Here, on the 20th of April 1809, Napoleon gained a signal victory over the Austrians under the Archduke Louis and General Hiller.
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  • The construction of carriage-roads, wholly neglected by the Turks, was carried, out on a large scale by the Austrians.
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  • After five days' siege the Austrians were driven out, and Zapolya was reinstated on the throne of Hungary.
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  • At the end of August he appeared before Budapest, the siege of which had already been raised by the defeat of the Austrians; the infant John Sigismund was carried into the sultan's camp, and the queen-mother, Isabella, was peremptorily ordered to evacuate the royal palace, though the sultan gave her a diploma in which he swore only to retain Budapest during the minority of her son.
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  • The campaign of 1552 was disastrous for the Austrians; the Turks, under the command of Ahmed Pasha, defeated them at Szegedin and captured in turn Veszprem, Temesvar, Szolnok and other places.
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  • This was the signal for a general coalition against Turkey; Venice, Poland and the pope allied themselves with the Austrians; Russia, Tuscany and Malta joined in the attack.
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  • One after another the Hungarian forts were captured by the Austrians; the Venetians were equally successful in Greece and the Morea; the Russians pressed on the Crimea, and Sobieski besieged Kamenets.
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  • At first eminently successful, he drove the Austrians across the Danube, recapturing Nish, Vidin, Semendria and Belgrade; repulses were also inflicted on the Venetians and the Russians.
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  • The successes of the Turks were not maintained, the Austrians inflicting on them a crushing defeat at Slankamen, where Mustafa Kuprili was killed, and driving them from Hungary.
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  • Near Peterwardein a great battle was fought, in which the Austrians completely routed the Turks; pursuing their advantage they took Temesvar and overran the Banat; in 1717 they captured Belgrade, the Turks retreating to Adrianople.
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  • In spite of this initial success, however, the campaign proved disastrous to the Austrians; and France, which had meanwhile come to terms with the emperor, endeavoured to mediate a peace in conjunction with Sweden and Holland.
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  • But the Ottomans, though the negotiations continued throughout 1738, were in no hurry to come to terms; for the tide of war had turned against both Austrians and Russians; Ochakov and Kinburn were recaptured; and the victorious Turks crossed the Danube and penetrated far into the Banat.
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  • The Turks drove back the Austrians from Mehadia and overran the Banat (1789); but in Moldavia Romanzov was successful and captured Jassy and Khotin.
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  • Selim, the late sultan's nephew, who succeeded, made strenuous preparations for continuing the war, but his generals were incompetent and his army mutinous; expeditions for the relief of Bender and Akkerman failed, Belgrade was taken by the Austrians, Izmail was captured by Suvorov, and the fall of Anapa completed the series of Turkey's disasters.
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  • On the 26th of September, its deployment beyond the mountains was complete, and as Napoleon did not know of Mack's intention to stay at Ulm and had learned that the Russian advance had been delayed, he directed his columns by the following roads on the Danube, between Donauworth and Ingolstadt, so as to be in a position to intervene between the Austrians and the Russians and beat both in detail.
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  • Actually the French at this moment were suffering the most terrible distress - up to the Danube they had still found sufficient food for existence, but south of it, in the track of the Austrians, they found nothing.
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  • On the south bank, owing to better natural drainage and a drier subsoil, movement was fairly easy, but the Austrians found it almost impossible.
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  • The road now lay completely open, but the Austrian columns had so opened out owing to the state of the roads that the leading troops could not pursue their advantage - Dupont rallied and the Austrians had actually to fall back towards Ulm to procure food.
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  • The defeat at Elchingen on the 14th of October sealed the fate of the Austrians, though Mack was still determined to endure a siege.
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  • The Peninsular War called for large forces of the old Grande Arsnee and for a brief period Napoleon directed operations in person; and the Austrians took advantage of the dissemination and weakness of the French forces in Germany to push forward their own preparations with renewed energy.
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  • The position of assembly was excellently chosen, but unfortunately the Austrians took the initiative.
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  • At this moment Davout was entering Regensburg with his leading troops, the remainder still some marches in rear, and it was evident that the whole concentration could no longer be carried out before the Austrians would be in a position to intervene.
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  • Napoleon, who had personally taken part in the fighting of the previous day, and followed the pursuit as far as Landshut, whence he had despatched Massena to follow the retreating Austrians along the Isar, seems to have realized about 3 A.M.
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  • Had the Austrians possessed mobility equal to that of the French the latter should have been overwhelmed in detail, but whilst the French covered 17 and 19 m.
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  • It seemed as if nothing could save the Austrians from complete disaster, but at the critical moment the emperor, yielding to the protestations of his corps commanders, who represented the excessive fatigue of their troops, stopped the pursuit, and the archduke made the most of his opportunity to restore order amongst his demoralized men, and crossed to the north bank of the Danube during the night.
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  • Surprise, of course, was out of the question, but the Austrians did not attempt to dispute the passage, their object being to allow as many French as they felt they could deal with to pass over and then to fall on them.
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  • The great battle at this place, fought on the 5th and 6th of July, ended in the retirement of the Austrians.
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  • Aware of the growing feeling against war in France, Napoleon had determined to make his allies not only bear the expenses of the coming campaign, but find the men as well, and he was so far master of Europe that of the 363,000 who on the 24th of June crossed the Niemen no Iess than two-thirds were Germans, Austrians, Poles or Italians.
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  • Meanwhile on the extreme French right Schwarzenberg and his Austrians had drifted away towards their own frontier,.
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  • Blucher with about 95,000 Russians and Prussians was about Breslau, and Schwarzenberg, with nearly 180,000 Austrians and Russians, lay in Bohemia.
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  • Dresden was the last great victory of the First Empire, By noon on the 27th August the Austrians and Russians were completely beaten and in full retreat, the French pressing hard behind them, but meanwhile Napoleon himself again succumbed G Beereri B eip \ ii g?
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  • Then hearing that the Austrians had counter-marched and were again moving towards Dresden, he hastened back there, concentrated as many men as could conveniently be handled, and advanced beyond Pirna and KOnigstein to meet him.
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  • But the Austrians had no intention of attacking him, for time was now working on their side and, leaving his men to starve in the exhausted district, the emperor again returned to Dresden, where for the rest of the month he remained in an extraordinary state of vacillation.
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  • But on the 4th of February Blucher, chafing at this inaction, obtained the permission of his own sovereign to transfer his line of operations to the valley of the Marne; Pahlen's corps of Cossacks were assigned to him to cover his left and maintain communication with the Austrians.
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  • Marmont and Mortier with what troops they could rally took up a position on Montmartre heights to oppose them, but seeing further resistance to be hopeless they gave way on the 31st of March, just as Napoleon, with the wreck of the Guards and a mere handful of other detachments, was hurrying across the rear of the Austrians towards Fontainebleau to join them.
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  • It was the scene of two battles between the Prussians and Austrians on the 27th and the 28th of June 1866.
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  • In 1521 Sultan Suleiman took it from the Hungarians, and from that year it remained in Turkish possession until 1688, when the Austrians captured it, only to lose it again in 1690.
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  • From 1 739 to 1789 the Turks were again its masters, when, in that last year, the Austrians under General Laudon carried it by assault, only to lose it again in 1792.
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  • During the French occupation (1800-1814), which began after the battle of Marengo, it was still more strongly fortified; the works were entirely destroyed by the Austrians in 1815, but were afterwards reconstructed, and Alessandria is still an important fortress and the headquarters of the second army corps.
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  • In October 1805 General Mack with 23,000 Austrians capitulated here to Napoleon.
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  • After a space, in which he held no diplomatic post, he became ambassador of the French Republic at Naples; but, while repairing thither with De Semonville he was captured by the Austrians and was kept in durance by them for some thirty months, until, at the close of 1795, the two were set free in return for the liberation of the daughter of Louis XVI.
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  • There the Prussians defeated the Austrians in May 1745, and in June 1760 the Prussians were routed by a greatly superior force of Austrians.
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  • In 1814 it was invested and bombarded by the Austrians, and was an important position during the Franco-German War of 1870-71.
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  • On the other hand the Austrians pointed out that not only would failure to understand each other's language cause fatal confusion on a battlefield, but also tend to disintegrate the forces even in peace time.
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  • The Piedmontese forces won two actions (8th of April and 30th of May 1848) over the Austrians here.
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  • Close to Nivelles is Seneffe, where Conde defeated William of Orange in 1674, and at Nivelles itself the French under Marceau defeated the Austrians in 1794.
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  • In contemporary military opinion, the Austrians were greatly superior in all arms to their adversary.
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  • According to this, the Austrian troops already in Bohemia, 1st corps, Count Clam-Gallas, 30,000 strong, were to receive the Saxons if the latter were forced to evacuate their own country, and to act as an advanced guard or containing wing to the main body under Feldzeugmeister von Benedek (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 8th, 10th corps) which was to concentrate at Olmiitz, whence the Prussian staff on insufficient evidence concluded the Austrians intended to attack Silesia, with Breslau as their objective.
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  • Had the Austrians attacked on both flanks forthwith, the Prussian central (I.) army could have reached neither wing in time to avert defeat, and the political consequences of the Austrian victory might have been held to justify the risks involved, for even if unsuccessful the Austrians and Saxons could always retreat into Bavaria and there form a backbone of solid troops for the 95,000 South Germans.
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  • The Austrians then slipped away, and the whole of the next day was spent in getting the divisions back to their proper lines of advance.
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  • But Moltke, wishing to preserve full freedom for manoeuvre for each army, determined to preserve the interval between them, and began his dispositions to manoeuvre the Austrians out of the position he had selected as the best for them to take up, on the left or farther bank of the Elbe.
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  • As an eminent French critic (General Bonnal) says, this was but to repeat Frederick the Great's manoeuvre at Kolin, and, the Austrians being where they actually were and not where Moltke decided they ought to be, the result might have been equally disastrous.
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  • By this time every infantry soldier and gun within call had been thrown into the fight, and the Austrians might well have thrown odds of three to one upon the Prussian centre and have broken it asunder.
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  • The slopes of the position towards the Austrians now took on the usual concave section, and from the crest of the ridge every movement could be seen for miles.
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  • Still the Austrians made good their retreat.
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  • In spite of heavy losses the Austrians were perhaps better in hand and more capable of resuming the battle next morning than the victors, for they were experienced in war, and accustomed to defeat, and retired in good order in three organized columns within easy supporting distance of each other.
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  • Thus the Austrians gained 24 hours, and the direction of XXIV.
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  • The cavalry established contact on the 15th in the neighbourhood of Tobitschau and Rochetinitz (action of Tobitschau, July 15th), and the Austrians finding their intention discovered, and their men too demoralized by fear of the breechloader to risk a fresh battle, withdrew their troops and endeavoured to carry out their concentration by a wide circuit down the valley of the Waag and through Pressburg.
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  • During the war of 1848, after the expulsion of the Austrians from Venice, Cibrario was sent to that city with Colli to negotiate its union with Piedmont.
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  • Of these last Russians and Poles numbered 21,013; Germans, 3386; Austrians and Hungarians, 2197; Dutch, 1902; Norwegians Swedes and Danes, 1341; and Rumanians, 1016.
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  • On the 15th of August 1760 Frederick the Great gained a decisive victory near Liegnitz over the Austrians, and in August 1813 Blucher defeated the French in the neighbourhood at the battle of the Katzbach.
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  • In 1859, after the Franco-Italian victories over the Austrians in Lombardy, by a bloodless revolution in Florence Leopold was expelled and Tuscany annexed to the Sardinian kingdom.
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  • He returned to Naples as captain on Massena's staff to fight the Bourbons and the Austrians in 1806, and subsequently went to Spain, where he followed Jerome Bonaparte in his retreat from Madrid.
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  • In the disturbances of 1820 he adhered to the Constitutionalist party, and fought under General Pepe (q.v.) against the Austrians.
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  • He promoted good relations with France, then fighting with Piedmont against the Austrians in Lombardy, and strongly urged on the king the necessity of an alliance with Piedmont and a constitution as the only means whereby the dynasty might be saved.
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  • The strong fortress of the Oberhaus was taken by the Austrians in 1742, and again in 1805.
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  • On the 8th of September 1796 an action was fought here between the French and the Austrians, in which the French were victorious.
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  • In 1632 Munich was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, and in 1705, and again in 1742, it was in possession of the Austrians.
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  • The attack orders for the 2nd of December (drawn up by the Austrian general Weyrother, and explained by him to a council of superior officers, of whom some were hostile, the greater part indifferent, and the chief Russian member, General Kutusov, asleep) gave the five columns and the reserve, into which the Austro-Russian army was organized, the following tasks: the first and second (Russians) to move south-westward behind the Pratzen ridge towards Telnitz and Sokolnitz; the third (Russian) to cross the southern end of the plateau, and come into line on the right of the first two; the fourth (Austrians and Russians under Kolowrat) on the right of the third to advance towards Kobelnitz.
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  • He served under Joachim Murat and fought the Austrians on the Panaro in 1815.
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  • He fought in the constitutionalist army against the Austrians at Rieti (7th of March 1821), and on the re-establishment of autocracy he was arrested and imprisoned for three months by order of the prince of Canosa, the chief of police, his particular enemy.
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  • He would have been executed had not the Austrians intervened in his favour, and he was exiled instead to Briinn in Moravia; in 1823 he was permitted to settle in Florence, where he spent the rest of his days engaged on his Storia del reame di Napoli.
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  • The two armies bivouacked on their ground, and in Aspern the French and Austrians lay within pistol shot of each other.
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  • The Danube bridges, which had broken down once already, had at last been cut by heavy barges, which had been set adrift down stream for the purpose by the Austrians.
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  • The Austrians, 75,000 strong, lost 23,360.
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  • This and the other fortifications of Verona were rebuilt or repaired by the Austrians, but are no longer kept up as military defences.
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  • In1404-1405Verona, together with Padua, was finally conquered by Venice, and remained subject to the Venetians till the overthrow of the republic by Napoleon in 1 797, who in the same year, after the treaty of Campo Formio, ceded it to the Austrians with the rest of Venetia.
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  • On the 3rd of July 1744 the French were defeated there by the imperial troops, and on the 19th and 22nd of July 1793 by the Austrians.
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  • At Zorndorf he again distinguished himself, but at the surprise of Hochkirch fell wounded into the hands of the Austrians.
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  • In the Thirty Years' War, in June 1641, the Swedes, under Wrangel and Kdnigsmark, defeated the Austrians under the archduke Leopold at Wolfenbuttel.
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  • He met his death at the battle of Salankamen in 1691, when the total defeat of the Turks by the Austrians under Prince Louis of Baden led to their expulsion from Hungary.
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  • After occupying various important posts he became grand vizier in 1697, and owing to his ability and energy the Turks were able to drive the Austrians back over the Save, and Turkish fleets were sent into the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.
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  • Here in 1.793 the Austrians under Frederick of Saxe-Coburg and Clerfayt defeated the French under Dumouriez.
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  • But at the same time the Austrians occupied Lucca and Leghorn, and although Leopold simulated surprise at their action it has since been proved, as the Austrian general d'Aspre declared at the time, that Austrian intervention was due to the request of the grand-duke.
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  • Baldasseroni prime minister, on the 25th the Austrians entered Florence and on the 28th of July Leopold himself returned.
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  • But in October the ill-success of the Austrians against the French elsewhere forced them to conclude the peace of Vienna, by which Tirol was definitely secured to Bavaria.
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  • Conde, in the Spanish Low Countries, opposed with inferior forces the united army of Spaniards, Dutch and Austrians under William, and held the Meuse from Grave to Charleroi on the Sambre.
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  • Constance is the natural capital of the Thurgau, so that when in 1460 the Swiss wrested that region from the Austrians, the town and the Swiss Confederation should have been naturally drawn together.
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  • But Constance refused to give up to the Swiss the right of exercising criminal jurisdiction in the Thurgau, which it had obtained from the emperor in 1417, while the Austrians, having bought Bregenz (in two parts, 1451 and 1523), were very desirous of securing the well-placed city for themselves.
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  • The Austrians had long tried to obtain influence in the town, especially when its support of the Protestant cause attracted the sympathy of the Swiss.
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  • Returning to Italy on the outbreak of the revolution of 1848, he was appointed commander of a division of the pontifical forces, and fought against the Austrians in Venetia until the fall of Vicenza, when he returned to Piedmont as major-general.
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  • Maury, however, recognized that in great depths on the " Washington " and by the Austrians on the " Pola " the surest guarantee of bottom having been reached was to bring in 1890-1893, the latter carrying the investigations to the Red up a sample of the deposit.
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  • After the battle of Eggmiihl in 1809 the Austrians retired upon Regensburg, and the pursuing French defeated them again beneath its walls and reduced a great part of the city to ashes.
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  • Jagerndorf suffered severely during the Thirty Years' War, and was the scene of engagements between the Prussians and Austrians in May 1745 and in January 1779.
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  • Of the inhabitants born in the United States 130,389 were natives of Tennessee, 129,945129,945 of Alabama, 90,584 of Mississippi, 77,950 of Georgia and 75,633 of Arkansas; and of the foreign-born 71,062 were Mexicans, 48,295 Germans, 9204 Bohemians, 8213 English, 6870 Austrians and 6173 natives of Ireland.
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  • It was the scene of the defeat of the French and Bavarians under Marshals Tallard and Marsin, on the 13th of August 1704, by the English and the Austrians under the duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene.
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  • When the news of the Milanese revolt against the Austrians reached Turin (19th of March) public opinion demanded that the Piedmontese should succour their struggling brothers; and after some hesitation the king declared war.
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  • With an army of 60,000 Piedmontese troops and 30,000 men from other parts of Italy the king took the field, and after defeating the Austrians at Pastrengo on the 30th of April, and at Goito on the 30th of May, where he was himself slightly wounded, more time was wasted in useless operations.
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  • General Ramorino commanding the Lombard division proved unable to prevent the Austrians from crossing the Ticino (20th of April), and Chrzanowski was completely out-generalled and defeated at La Bicocca near Novara on the 23rd.
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  • Bonaparte by his victories over the Austrians in Italy and Styria had raised the French republic to heights of power never dreamed of, and now desired to impose on the emperor terms of peace, to which the Directors demurred.
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  • In 1488 Dillingen became the residence of the bishops of Augsburg; was taken by the Swedes in 1632 and 1648, by the Austrians in 1702, and on the 17th of June 1800 by the French.
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  • In 1866 the Prussians inflicted a severe defeat on the Austrians in the neighbourhood.
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  • The Rhine frontier was threatened by Schwarzenberg's Austrians (210,000); Barclay de Tolly's Russians (150,000) were slowly coming up; and another Austrian force menaced the S.E.
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  • Thus he designed to crush a part of the coalition before the Russians and Austrians poured over the eastern frontier.
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  • S., led to the rapid rise of Banjaluka, which was thenceforward the scene of many encounters between Austrians and Turks; notably in 1527, 1688 and 1737.
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  • In 1807 it became the capital of the kingdom of Westphalia; in 1813 it was bombarded and captured by the Russian general Chernichev; in 1830, 1831 and 1848 it was the scene of violent commotions; from 1850 to 1851 it was occupied by the Prussians, the Bavarians and the Austrians; in 1866 it was occupied by the Prussians, and in 1867 was made the capital of the newly formed Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.
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  • When war was declared between Prussia and Austria in 1866, Saxony declined the former's offer of neutrality, and, when a Prussian force crossed the border, the Saxon army under the king and the crown prince joined the Austrians in Bohemia.
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  • In May 1800 the French gained a victory over the Austrians near Memmingen.
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  • Towards 1847 he took part in the political agitation in Italy, and presided over scientific congresses, notably at Venice, where he declared himself in favour of the independence of Italy and the expulsion of the Austrians.
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  • At the Revolution he took up arms in behalf of the king, became commander of the "army of Conde," and fought xn conjunction with the Austrians till the peace of Campo Formio in 1797, being during the last year in the pay of England.
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  • Obliged to leave the city in 1848, he was restored by the Austrians in 1849; ten years later, on the 10th of August 1859, the representatives of Modena declared their territory part of the kingdom of Italy, and their decision was confirmed by the plebiscite of 1860.
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  • During the last war of Poland as an independent country Kollataj betook himself to the camp of Kosciuszko, but when he saw that there was no longer hope he went to Galicia, but was captured by the Austrians and imprisoned at Olmiitz till 1803.
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  • Belfort was besieged in 1814 by the troops of the allies and in 1815 by the Austrians.
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  • On the 29th of June 1866 the Prussians gained here a great victory over the Austrians.
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  • Fleury was driven by Chauvelin to more energetic measures; he concluded a close alliance with the Spanish Bourbons and sent two armies against the Austrians.
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  • At the beginning of the 19th century, the fortifications were re-erected, but were easily taken by the French in 1809, and were again stormed by the Austrians on the 28th of June 1849.
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  • During the War of the Spanish Succession, the French under the duke of Vendome occupied it; and during the siege of Mantua in 1796, the Austrians under Wiirmser were defeated here by the French under Augereau, who was later created by Napoleon duke of Castiglione.
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  • In 1741, during the War of the Austrian Succession, Linz was taken by the Bavarians, but was recovered by the Austrians in the following year.
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  • Conjointly with Berthier and Dejean, he signed the armistice with the Austrians which closed the campaign in North Italy in June 1800.
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  • Maximilian carried the elaborate etiquette of the court of Vienna to Mexico, but favouring toleration of Protestantism, and the supremacy of the Crown over the Church, he was too liberal for the clericals who had set him up. As a foreigner he was unpopular, and the regiments of Austrians and Belgians which were to serve as the nucleus of his own army were more so.
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  • He was recalled to active service during the Hundred Days, and as commander of the army of the Var he defended the south of France against the Austrians.
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  • Since 1880 Italians, Russians, Poles, Austrians, Bohemians and Hungarians have enormously increased in the immigrant population.
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  • Here, on the 14th of October 1805, the Austrians under Laudon were defeated by the French under Ney, who by taking the bridge decided the day and gained for himself the title of duke of Elchingen.
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  • To Wellington and Blucher were committed the invasion of France from the north, while the Russians and Austrians entered it from the east.
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  • On the right the Russians under Wittgenstein advanced from Striesen, the Prussians under Kleist through the Grosser Garten, whilst Prussians under Prince Augustus and Austrians under Colloredo moved upon the Moczinski redoubt, which was the scene of the most desperate fighting, and was repeatedly taken and retaken.
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  • The villages west of the Plauen ravine and even Lobda were occupied in the early morning by General Metzko with the leading division of Klenau's corps from Freiberg, and upon Metzko Napoleon intended first to throw the weight of his attack, giving to Victor's infantry and the cavalry of Murat, king of Naples, the task of overwhelming the isolated Austrians.
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  • The forces engaged were 96,000 French, Saxons, &c., and 200,000 Austrians, Russians and Prussians.
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  • Vacz was the scene of two victories gained by the Austrians against the Turks, one in 1597 and the other in 1684.
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  • The French were defeated here by the Austrians and Saxons under the archduke Charles, 15th June 1796.
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  • In 1760 the town was bombarded by the Austrians.
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  • Kolin is chiefly famous on account of the battle here on the 18th of June 1757, when the Prussians under Frederick the Great were defeated by the Austrians under Daun (see Seven Years' War).
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  • To the north of the castle is the Arena, a kind of circus erected by Napoleon in 1805; while facing the castle on the opposite side of the park is the Arco della Pace, begun by Napoleon in 1806 from the designs of Cagnola to mark the beginning of the Simplon Road, but finished by the Austrians in 1833.
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  • For the results of that campaign, and for the history of Italian progress towards independence, in which Milan played a prominent part by opening the revolution of 1848, with the insurrection of the Cinque Giorvate (March 17-22), by which the Austrians were driven out; the reader is referred to the article Italy.
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  • Between the French and the Austrians, Bavaria was now in an evil case.
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  • Before the death of Charles Theodore (February 16th, 1799) the Austrians had again occupied the country,.
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  • He himself was, however, no more prepared for attack than the Republic for defence, but the Dutch had already sunk so low, that they agreed to pay a heavy indemnity to induce the Austrians to drop a demand they were unable to enforce.
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  • In 1799 it was successively occupied by the Austrians and the French.
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  • Turkey held her own against the Austrians, but in 1788 Ochakov fell to the Russians.
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  • As the discontent became more general, the insurgents returned, took several forts, defeated the revo Austrians at Turnhout, and overran the country.
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  • The lower course of the Adda was formerly the boundary between the territories of Venice and of Milan; and on its banks several important battles have been fought, notably that of Lodi, where Napoleon defeated the Austrians in 1796.
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  • The Bohemians refused to acknowledge him as their king and elected in his stead Frederick V., the elector palatine of the Rhine, a son-inlaw of the English king James I., and the Hungarians and the Austrians were hardly less disaffected.
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  • On the 9th of June Prussian troops had already marched into Holstein, the Austrians, with Duke Frederick, falling back on Altona.
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  • At the beginning of 1849 it was the scene of several engagements between the Austrians and Hungarians; and later in the year it was several times taken and retaken by the Russians and Hungarians.
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  • At the end of the 17th century the city was bombarded by the French, and in 1746, after the defeat of Piacenza, surrendered to the Austrians, who were, however, soon driven out.
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  • The short-lived Ligurian republic was soon swallowed up in the French empire, not, however, until Genoa had been made to experience, by the terrible privations of the siege when Massena held the city against the Austrians (1800), all that was meant by a participation in the vicissitudes of the French Revolution.
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  • The disintegrating force of the ever-simmering racial rivalries could be kept in check by the army; Hungarian regiments garrisoned Italy, Italian regiments guarded Galicia, Poles occupied Austria, and Austrians Hungary.
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  • The main principles of this agreement were decided during the spring of 1867; but during this period the Austrians were not really consulted at all.
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  • The whole responsibility for the payment of the remainder of the interest, amounting annually to over a hundred million gulden, and the management of the debt, was left to the Austrians.
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  • The alliance was naturally very popular among the German Austrians; some of them went so far as to attempt to use it to influence internal policy, and suggested that fidelity to this alliance required that there should be a ministry at Vienna which supported the Germans in their internal struggle with the Sla y s; they represented it as a national alliance of the Teutonic races, and there were some Germans in the empire who supported them in this view.
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  • First the Austrians were determined to get a more favourable division of the common expenses; that of 1867 still continued, although Hungary had grown relatively in wealth.'
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  • Moreover, a proposed alteration in the taxes on sugar would be of considerable advantage to Hungary; the Austrians, therefore, demanded that henceforth the proportion should be not 68.6: 31.4 but 58: 42.
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  • This town in Carinthia had a population of 16,491 Germanspeaking Austrians; the Slovenian-speaking population numbered 568, of whom 180 were inhabitants of the gaol or the hospital.
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  • The German Club, e.g., congratulated Bismarck on his measures against the Poles; the German Austrians refused to take cognizance of events outside Austria with which they had nothing to do.
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  • When in 1888 the two clubs, the German Austrians and the Germans, joined once more under the name of the " United German Left " into a new club' with eighty-seven members, so as the better to guard against the common danger and to defeat the educational demands of the Clericals, the National Germans remained apart with seventeen members.
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  • Here the Austrians defeated the French on the 17th of September 1796.
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  • Not far from Aussig iš the village of Kulm, where, on the 29th and 30th of August 1813, a battle took place between the French under Vandamme and an allied army of Austrians, Prussians and Russians.
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  • On the 30th of September 1707 it was stormed, after a three months' siege, by the Austrians under Daun; and on the 6th of August 1 734 it was taken, after a siege of four months, by French, Spanish and Sardinian troops under the future King Charles of Naples.
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  • On the 18th of July 1806 it was captured, after an heroic defence, by the French under Massena; and on the 18th of July 1815 it capitulated, after a three months' siege, to the Austrians.
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  • Seeing the importance of taking the initiative, and if possible, of securing Saxony, he suddenly, on the 24th of August 1756, crossed the frontier of that country, and shut in the Saxon army between Pirna and Konigstein, ultimately compelling it, after a victory gained over the Austrians at Lobositz, to surrender.
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  • In 1757, after defeating the Austrians at Prague, he was himself defeated by them at Kolin; and by the shameful convention of Closter-Seven, he was freely exposed to the attack of the French.
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  • In November 1757, however, when Europe looked upon him as ruined, he rid himself of the French by his splendid victory over them at Rossbach, and in about a month afterwards, by the still more splendid victory at Leuthen, he drove the Austrians from Silesia.
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  • In the former year Frederick triumphed, at a heavy cost, over the Russians at Zorndorf; and although, through lack of his usual foresight, he lost the battle of Hochkirch, he prevented the Austrians from deriving any real advantage from their triumph, Silesia still remaining in his hands at the end of the year.
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  • He had here to contend both with the Russians and the Austrians; and although at first he had some success, his army was in the end completely broken.
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  • On the 29th of October of that year he gained his last victory over the Austrians at Freiberg.
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  • In April 1797 the French, under General Hoche, defeated the Austrians near Neuwied, this being their first decisive success in the revolutionary wars.
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  • At Tolentino the treaty was made between Bonaparte and the pope in 1797, by which the pope ceded Avignon; and here in 1815 a battle was fought in which the French under Murat were defeated by the Austrians.
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  • In 1848 Pest became the seat of the revolutionary diet, but in the following year the insurgents had to retire before the Austrians under Windischgratz.
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  • A little later the Austrians had to retire in their turn, leaving a garrison in the fortress of Buda, and, while the Hungarians endeavoured to capture this position, General Hentzi retaliated by bombarding Pest, doing great damage to the town.
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  • Delivered with his colleagues to the Austrians on the 3rd of April 1793, he was exchanged for the daughter of Louis XVI.
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  • The English and Austrians held a strong position along the Sambre to the sea.
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  • After vainly attempting to break the Austrian centre, Pichegru suddenly turned their left, and defeated Clerfayt at Cassel, Menin and Courtrai, while Moreau, his second in command, defeated Coburg at Tourcoing in May 1794; then after a pause, during which Pichegru feigned to besiege Ypres, he again dashed at Clerfayt and defeated him at Rousselaer and Hooglede, while Jourdan came up with the new army of the Sambre-and-Meuse, and utterly routed the Austrians at Fleurus on the 27th of June 1794.
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  • Pichegru began his second campaign by crossing the Meuse on the 18th of October, and after taking Nijmwegen drove the Austrians beyond the Rhine.
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  • In 1740 Maupertuis went to Berlin on the invitation of the king of Prussia, and took part in the battle of Mollwitz, where he was taken prisoner by the Austrians.
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  • It was occupied by the Russians in 1769, and by the Austrians in 1774.
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  • The Austrians were left in Flanders, a menace and a danger.
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  • He was subsequently defeated by the Austrians several times and forced to retreat, and on the 18th of May he sailed from Naples for France (see Murat, Joaciiim).
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  • Generals Guglielmo Pepe and Carrascosa now concluded a treaty with the Austrians at Casalanza on favourable terms, and on the 23rd the Austrians entered Naples to restore Bourbon rule.
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  • General Pepe The was sent to the frontier at the head of 8000 men, but was completely defeated by the Austrians at Rieti on the 7th of March.
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  • On the 23rd the Austrians entered Naples, followed soon afterwards by the king; every vestige of freedom was suppressed, the reactionary Medici ministry appointed, and the inevitable state trials instituted with the usual harvest of executions and imprisonment.
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  • In April 1860 Victor Emmanuel again proposed an alliance whereby Naples, in return for help in expelling the Austrians from Venetia, was to receive the Marche, while Sardinia would annex.
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  • During the Thirty Years' War it was captured several times by the Swedes and in the 18th century by the Austrians.
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  • In April 1809 Napoleon defeated the Austrians here and the town was stormed by his troops.
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  • Torgau is particularly celebrated as the scene of a battle fought on the 3rd of November 1760, when Frederick the Great defeated the Austrians (see Seven Years' War).
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  • But when the revolution of 1848 broke out he threw himself heart and soul into the fray, and became one of the leading spirits of the insurrection against the Austrians, known as the Five Days of Milan (March 18-2 2, 1848).
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  • On the expulsion of the Austrians the question arose as to the future government of Milan and Italy.
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  • Cattaneo was an uncompromising republican and a federalist; so violent was his dislike of the Piedmontese monarchy that when he heard that King Charles Albert had been defeated by the Austrians, and that Radetzky was marching back to reoccupy Milan, he exclaimed: "Good news, the Piedmontese have been beaten.
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  • Now we shall be our own masters; we shall fight a people's war, we shall chase the Austrians out of Italy, and set up a Federal Republic."
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  • When the Austrians returned Cattaneo had to flee, and took refuge at Lugano, where he gave lessons, wrote his Storia della Rivoluzione del 1848, the Archivio triennale delle cose d'Italia (3 vols., 1850-1855), and then early in 1860 he started the Politecnico once more.
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  • In the war between Austria and Prussia in 1866, HesseDarmstadt was upon the side of the Austrians; Prince Louis accompanied his troops to the front, and was duly appointed by the grand-duke to the command of the Hessian division.
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  • Besides the British concession the French, Germans, Russians, Japanese, Austrians, Italians and Belgians have separate settlements, five miles in all, the river front being governed by foreign powers.
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  • The Austrians had a great superiority in artillery, upon which they relied for breaking their way through the Italian lines.
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  • The Italian right was so far not heavily attacked, and demonstrative attacks by the Austrians in the Val Sugana were readily repulsed.
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  • By May ig the Austrians were attacking hard all along the line to which the Italians had retired, from Coni Zugna and the Passo di Buole to Pasubio, and the Campomolon line had gone.
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  • Although the wings were holding, the situation in the centre was very grave, and Cadorna considered that if the Austrians were able to concentrate on the weak spot and keep up the impetus of their attack they might succeed in breaking through to the plain.
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  • Meanwhile the Austrians were continuing their advance in the centre, but the situation on the Italian left was improving.
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  • If Pasubio went, the line south of the Posina was turned, and the Austrians had a new route to the plain by the Valli dei Signori, as well as the opening they were now making for, by the Lower Astico.
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  • Pasubio was the key of the situation, and the Austrians hammered unceasingly against Bertotti's right wing.
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  • North-east of Pasubio, along all the rest of the mountain front to above the Val Sugana, the Austrians gained notable successes.
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  • Corps in the Val Sugana, and the Austrians turned the right wing of the division by a bold and skilful advance by way of the Porta Manazzo.
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  • Owing to an error in the transmission of an order the Alpine troops who were holding the positions of Cima Undici and Cima Dodici retired before the Austrians attacked, and uncovered the flank of the division, while on the same day (May 25) the attacking forces succeeded in occupying the important position of Corno di Campo Verde (6,815 ft.).
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  • A desperate attack failed to retrieve the error, and Pria Fora remained in possession of the Austrians.
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  • The line now held by the Italians (27th and 9th Divs.) was the last bulwark defending the plains in this sector, and both here and across the Astico the Austrians made a great effort to break through.
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  • Farther north again the Austrians gained ground on the Marcesina plateau and so came within 4 m.
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  • The Austrians were only 3 m.
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  • Here were the shortest routes to the plain, and here the Austrians had been able to bring up their guns in sufficient numbers.
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  • For four days the Austrians attacked, making a last effort on June 18, when 20 battalions were sent in against the Lemerle - Magnaboschi line in an attempt to drive a wedge between the Italian 30th and 33rd Divisions.
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  • Army prematurely, as he wished to keep a " mass of manoeuvre " in hand against the possibility of a break-through by the Austrians; but by June 2 he felt himself master of the situation.
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  • But the Austrians were now getting ready to go - out of the salient and back to a strong line which they had already selected.
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  • The counter-offensive, which was to be directed against the two sides of the Austrian salient, was never fully developed, for it was anticipated by the Austrians, who withdrew skilfully and in good order.
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  • But the Austrians had a great advantage in position, and used it well.
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  • During the struggle of1848-1866to expel the Austrians from Lombardy, Lugano served as headquarters for Mazzini and his followers.
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  • In the neighbourhood the Austrians under Mack were, on the 6th of October 1805, decisively defeated by the French under Soult.
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  • Pop. (1890), 2 1,805; (1900), 35,936, of whom 7318 were foreign-born, 2017 being Hungarians, 1663 Germans, and 923 Austrians; (1910 census) 55,482.
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  • The Austrians under Prince Eugene occupied it in 1706, the French in 1733 and the French and Spaniards in 1743 and the Austrians were again in possession from 1746 till 1796.
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  • The revolutionary movement of February 1848 was crushed by the Austrians and the university was closed; and, though the Sardinian forces obtained possession in March, the Austrians soon recovered their ground.
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  • Fortunately for Italy, and for the cause of the Entente, the Germans and Austrians were, in part at least, outrunning their transport.
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  • When they had taken up their positions in the Meletta - Badenecche salient, Conrad's attacks were renewed, and for 10 days the fight continued, but brought no success to the Austrians, who lost heavily.
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  • The Austrians and Germans were much favoured by the late coming of winter, which greatly prolonged the strain on the hard-tried armies of Italy.
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  • On Napoleon's escape from Elba (1815) Murat, after some hesitation, placed himself on the emperor's side and waged war against the Austrians, with Pepe on his staff.
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  • Pepe, who in parliament had declared in favour of deposing the king, now took command of the army and marched against the Austrians.
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  • He was given command of the Neapolitan army which was to co-operate with Piedmont against the Austrians, but when he reached Bologna the king, who had already changed his mind, recalled him and his troops.
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  • When the city was forced by hunger to surrender to the Austrians, Pepe and Manin were among those excluded from the amnesty; he again went into exile and died in Turin in 1855.
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  • He allied himself with Victor Emmanuel, and marched into Italy in 1859, with the object of expelling the Austrians from the peninsula.
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  • Of the foreign-born element 6649, or about one-half, were Mexicans, 1360 were Germans and the rest chiefly English, Irish, Canadians, Italians, Scotch and Austrians.
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  • In 1746 a battle between the Franco-Spanish forces and the Austrians was fought under the city walls, and in 1796 it was occupied by the French.
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  • In 1848 Piacenza was the first of the towns of Lombardy to join Piedmont; but it was reoccupied by the Austrians till 1859.
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  • At Freiburg, on the 22nd of July 1762, the Prussians defended themselves successfully against the superior forces of the Austrians.
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  • In 1675 Pomerania and the bishopric of Bremen were overrun by the Brandenburgers, Austrians and Danes.
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  • It is celebrated as the scene of the battle in which, on the 15th of January 1797, Napoleon inflicted a decisive defeat upon the Austrians commanded by Josef Alvintzi, Baron von Barberek (1735-1810) (see French Revolutionary Wars).
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  • Cannstatt was the scene of a victory gained by the French over the Austrians on the 21st of July 1796.
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  • Castelnuovo is a picturesque town, with a dismantled 14thcentury citadel, which has, at various times, been occupied by Bosnians, Turks, Venetians, Spaniards, Russians, French, English and Austrians.
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  • In 1707 it was captured and put to ransom by the French, who afterwards, in 1796 and 1800, defeated the Austrians in the neighbourhood.
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  • It has yielded to the Austrians fine sculpture in marble and bronze and many inscriptions.
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  • It leaves on the right the great Thermae of Constantine, of which the Austrians have cleared out the south-east part.
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  • The work done by the Austrians enables a good idea to be obtained of the appearance presented by a great Graeco-Roman city of Asia in the last days of its prosperity.
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  • From early manhood a disciple of Mazzini and affiliated to the Giovane Italia, he took an active part in the Mazzinian conspiracies and was nearly captured by the Austrians while smuggling arms into Milan.
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  • Twice during the Seven Years' War Berlin was attacked by the enemy: in 1757 by the Austrians, who penetrated into the suburbs and levied a heavy contribution, and in 1760 by the Russians, who bombarded the city, penetrated into it, and only retired on payment of a ransom of 1,500,000 thalers (225,000).
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  • In the revolutionary war of 1848-49 the Hungarians were twice defeated before the walls of Kassa by the Austrians under General Schlick, and the town was held successively by the Austrians, Hungarians and Russians.
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  • He allowed himself to be taken prisoner by the Austrians, and was interned at Briinn till 1792.
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  • Among the various elements comprising the foreign-born population were 119,598 Germans; 94,844 Irish; 45,428 English; 42,865 Italians; 19,745 Russians; 14,913 Hungarians; 14,728 Austrians; 14,357 Poles; 14,211 Scotch; and 10,261 Dutch.
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  • He co-operated with the Austrians in the siege of Genoa, which surrendered on the 4th of June 1800.
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  • But a few weeks after his accession Turkey sustained a crushing defeat at Slankamen from the Austrians under Prince Louis of Baden and was driven from Hungary; during the four years of his reign disaster followed on disaster, and in 1695 Ahmed died, worn out by disease and sorrow.
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  • Pop. (1900) 2481; (1905 state census) 6566, of whom 3537 were foreign-born, including 1169 Finns, 516 Swedes, 498 Canadians, 323 Austrians and 314 Norwegians.
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  • But as the duke of Vendome, a much abler general, replaced the captive, the incursion, daring though it was, proved anything but advantageous to the Austrians.
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  • It was stormed and sacked by the Austrians in 1630, and never quite recovered.
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  • Claimed in 1708 as a fief of the empire by Joseph I., it was governed for the greater part of the century by the Austrians.
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  • A three days' bombardment in 1799 again placed Mantua in the hands of the Austrians; and, though restored to the French by the peace of Luneville (1801), it became Austrian once more from 1814 till 1866.
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  • At the beginning of the Seven Years' War Prague was - in 1757 - again besieged by Frederick the Great after he had defeated the Austrians in a battle between the Zizkov and Pocernic (commonly called the battle of Prague, see Seven Years' War).
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  • In 1598 the fortress was unsuccessfully besieged by the Turks, but it fell into their hands in 1660 and was recovered by the Austrians in 1692.
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  • It has since been of considerable importance as a fortress: it successfully resisted the Austrians in 1849, and was strengthened in 1852.
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  • In 1848-1849 it formed a refuge for the national government and legislature when Budapest fell into the hands of the Austrians; and it was in the great Calvinist church that, on Kossuth's motion (April 14th, 1849) the resolution was passed declaring the house of Habsburg to have forfeited the crown of St Stephen.
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  • The latter, commanded by General Pepe (q.v.), who made no attempt to defend the difficult defiles of the Abruzzi, were defeated, after a half-hearted struggle at Rieti (March 7th, 1821), and the Austrians entered Naples.
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  • Commending his wife and children to the care of his comrades, he rushed towards the Austrians, gathered a number of their spears together against his breast, and fell pierced through and through, having opened a way into the hostile ranks for his fellow-countrymen, though at the price of his own life.
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  • This began the lively paper war humorously called "the second war of Sempach," in which the Swiss (with but rare exceptions) maintained the historical character of the feat against various foreigners - Austrians and others.
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  • According to this the fight was not a pitched battle but a surprise, the Austrians not having had time to form up into ranks.
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  • Assuming this, and rejecting the evidence of the 1476 chronicle as an interpolation and full of mistakes, and that of the song as not proved to have been in existence before 1531, Herr Burkli comes to the startling conclusion that the phalanx formation of the Austrians, as well as the name and act of Winkelried, have been transferred to Sempach from the fight of Bicocca, near Milan (April 27, 1522), where a real leader of the Swiss mercenaries in the pay of France, Arnold Winkelried, reall y met his death in very much the way that his namesake perished according to the story.
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  • Herr Burkli confines his criticism to the first struggle, in which alone mention is made of the driving back of the Swiss, pointing out also that the chronicle of 1476 and other later accounts attribute to the Austrians the manner of attack and the long spears which were the special characteristics of Swiss warriors, and that if Winkelried were a knight (as is asserted by Tschudi) he would have been clad in a coat of mail, or at least had a breastplate, neither of which could have been pierced by hostile lances.
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  • In the battle which took place near it between the Austrians and Prussians on the 7th of September 1757, Hans Karl von Winterfeldt, the general of Frederick the Great, was slain.
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  • The Austrians vied with his own countrymen in doing honour to the dead general.
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  • It served, however, to precipitate the crisis on the continent of Europe; the great army assembled at Boulogne was turned eastwards; by the capitulation of Ulm (October 19) Austria lost a large part of her forces; and the last news that reached Pitt on his A t lit death-bed was that of the ruin of all his hopes by the US er Z crushing victory of Napoleon over the Russians and Austrians at Austerlitz (December 2).
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  • He was driven to cross the frontier The revo= and surrender himself to the Austrians.
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  • Brunswick had no heart for his work; the king was ill satisfied with the Austrians, and both were alarmed by the ravages of disease among the soldiers.
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  • When the enemy had quitted France, he invaded Hainaut and defeated the Austrians at Jemappes on the 6th of November.
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  • But he could make no impression on his soldiers, and deserted to the Austrians.
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  • The Austrians were joined by British, Dutch and Prussian forces.
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  • In the east the Prussians and Austrians took Mainz at the end of July, allowing the garrison to depart on condition of not serving against the Allies for a year.
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  • In Flanders the English were defeated at Hondschoote (September 8) and the Austrians at Wattignies (October 15).
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  • In the east Hoche routed the Austrians at Weissenburg and forced them to recross the Rhine before the end of 1793.
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  • The invasion of Switzerland was baffled by want of concert between Austrians and Russians and by Massena's victory at Zurich on the 25th and 26th of September.
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  • After the abortive election of the king of Prussia to be emperor, he, with the other Austrians, left Frankfort.
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  • This victory, which resulted in the temporary reoccupation of Innsbruck by the Austrians, made Hofer the most conspicuous of the insurgent leaders.
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  • His subordinate Kellermann repulsed the Prussians at Valmy (September 20, 1792), and he himself severely defeated the Austrians at Jemappes (November 6).
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  • The chief events in its annals are the defeat of the Turks in 1621 by Ladislaus IV., of Poland, in 1673 by John Sobieski, of Poland, and in 1739 by the Russians under Miinnich; the defeat of the Russians by the Turks in 1768; the capture by the Russians in 1769, and by the Austrians in 1788; and the occupation by the Russians in 1806.
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  • She acted as eyes and ears for her brother in southern Germany until her death on the 14th of October 1758, the day of Frederick's defeat by the Austrians at Hochkirch.
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  • They distinguished themselves at Civita Castellana, a little town which they took; but the Austrians arrived in force, and during the retreat Napoleon Louis, the elder son, took cold, followed by measles, of which he died.
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  • The Austrians soon lost all control of the city, the arsenal was seized by the revolutionists, and under the direction of Manin a civic guard and a provisional government were instituted.
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  • The Austrians evacuated Venice on the 26th of March, and Manin became president of the Venetian republic. He was already in favour of Italian unity, and though not anxious for annexation to Piedmont (he would have preferred to invoke French aid), he gave way to the will of the majority, and resigned his powers to the Piedmontese commissioners on the 7th of August.
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  • Towards the end of 1848 the Austrians, having been heavily reinforced, reoccupied all the Venetian mainland; but the citizens, hard-pressed and threatened with a siege, showed the greatest devotion to the cause of freedom, all sharing in the dangers and hardships and all giving what they could afford to the state treasury.
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  • In 1868, two years after the Austrians finally departed from Venice, his remains were brought to his native city and honoured with a public funeral.
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  • The bourgeoisie, the Assembly, the country and La Fayette, one of the leaders of the army, now embarked upon a royalist reaction, which would perhaps have been efficacious, Manifesto had it not been for the entry into the affair of the ki Prussians as allies of the Austrians, and for the insolent manifesto of the duke of Brunswick.
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  • Dumouriez, the conqueror of Jemappes (November 6, 1792), who invaded Holland, was beaten by the Austrians (March 1793).
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  • Instead of profiting by Dumouriezs treachery and the successes in La Vende, the Coalition, divided over the resuscitated Polish question, lost time on the frontiers of this new Poland of the west which was sacrificing itself for the sake of a Universal Republic. Thus in January 1794 the territory of France was cleared of the Prussians and Austrians by the victories at Hondschoote, Wattignies and Wissembourg; the army of La Vende was repulsed from Granville, overwhelmed by Hoches army at Le Mans and Savenay, and its leaders shot; royalist sedition was suppressed at Lyons, Bordeaux, Marseilles and Toulon; federalist insurrections were wiped out by the terrible massacres of Carrier at Nantes, the atrocities of Lebon at Arras, and the wholesale executions of Fouch and Collot dHerbois at Lyons; Louis XVI.
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  • After having separated the Piedmontese from the Austrians, whom he drove back into Tyrol, and repulsed offensive reprisals of Wurmser and Alvinzi on four occasions, he stopped short at the preliminary negotiations of Loben just at the moment when the Directory, discouraged by the problem of Italian reconstitution, was preparing the army of the Rhine to re-enter the field under the command of Hoche.
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  • The provocations of Talleyrand and England strengthened the illusion: Why should not the Austrians emulate the Spaniards?
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  • With the assistance of the Austrians, who put an end to disorder, Florence was occupied and the grand ducalists established a government in the name of Ferdinand.
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  • On Napoleon's escape from Elba Murat turned against the Austrians, and Ferdinand had again to leave Florence temporarily; but he returned after Waterloo, and reigned until his death in 1824.
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  • In 1852 he formally abrogated the constitution, and three years later the Austrians departed.
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  • It suffered severely in the Hussite wars and in the Thirty Years' War, and was bombarded and burnt by the Austrians in 1757 during the Seven Years' War..
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  • He accordingly surrendered to the Russian general Demitrius Buturlin (1790-1849), by whom he was handed over to the Austrians, who shot him in the market-place of Arad a few days later.
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  • Of the total population in 1900, those of foreign parentage (both parents foreign-born) numbered 118,946, and there were 61,021 of foreign birth, including 20,035 Swedes, 11,532 Norwegians, 7335 Germans, 5637 English-Canadians, 3213 Irish, 2289 English, 1929 Russians, 1706 French-Canadians and 1133 Austrians.
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  • In 1 793 it was besieged in vain by the Austrians.
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  • He returned to Naples early in 1821 with 50,000 Austrians, defeated the constitutionalists under Pepe, dismissed parliament, and set to work to persecute all who had been in any way connected with the movement.
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  • The Austrians occupied Romagna and restored the province to the pope, but though many arrests of Carbonari were made there were no executions.
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  • The Austrians retired from Romagna and the Marches in July 1831, but Carbonarism and anarchy having broken out again, they returned, while the French occupied Ancona.
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  • Thus at the diet of 1589 he prevailed over the king by threatening to leave the country defenceless against the Turks, if the Austrians were not excluded from the succession.
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  • The refusal of the Austrians to accept these reasonable terms justified Zamoyski's suspicion that the league would use Poland as a cat's-paw, and the negotiations came to nothing.
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  • Of the foreign-born element, 29.8% were Irish; there were also many Germans and Austrians, English, and Frenchand English-Canadians.
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  • Victor Emmanuel's object now was the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy and the expansion of Piedmont into a North Italian kingdom, but he did not regard the idea of Italian unity as coming within the sphere of practical politics for the time being, although a movement to that end was already beginning to gain ground.
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  • He was in communication with some of the conspirators, especially with La Farina, the leader of the Societd Nazionale, an association the object of which was to unite Italy under the king of Sardinia, and he even communicated with Mazzini and the republicans, both in Italy and abroad, whenever he thought that they could help in the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy.
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  • When war with Prussia appeared imminent he tried to obtain Italian assistance, and Victor Emmanuel was very anxious to fly to the assistance of the man who had helped him to expel the Austrians from Italy, but he could not do so unless Napoleon gave him a free hand in Rome.
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  • At the beginning of the Hungarian revolution of 1848 the town was held by the Hungarians, but on the 4th of February 1849 it was taken by the Austrians under General Baron Trebersberg.
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  • Business: Austrians are quite formal in their business dealings.
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  • He was hospitably received by the Turkish authorities, who, supported by Great Britain, refused, notwithstanding the threats of the allied emperors, to surrender him and the other fugitives to the merciless vengeance of the Austrians.
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  • The village gives its name to the three days' battle of Arcola (15th, 16th and 17th of November 1796), in which the French, under General Napoleon Bonaparte, defeated the Austrians commanded by Allvintzy (see French Revolutionary Wars) .
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