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australia

australia

australia Sentence Examples

  • You've been to Australia, haven't you?

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  • Australia is essentially the fragment of a great plateau land of Archean rocks.

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  • This included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

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  • The visits to the United Kingdom of properly organized teams of bowlers from Australia and New Zealand in 1901 and from Canada in 1904 demonstrated that the game had gained enormously in popularity.

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  • The visits to the United Kingdom of properly organized teams of bowlers from Australia and New Zealand in 1901 and from Canada in 1904 demonstrated that the game had gained enormously in popularity.

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  • Of these eighty churches, twelve were in the United Kingdom, twenty on the continent of Europe, sixteen in North America, three in South America, ten in Asia, nine in Africa, six in Australia, two in New Zealand, one in Jamaica and one in Melanesia.

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  • In South Australia there are 38 deep bores, from 20 of which there is a flow of 6,250,000 gallons a day.

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  • In New South Wales, but close to the Victorian border, are found the loftiest peaks of Australia, Mount Kosciusco and Mount Townsend, rising to heights of 7328 and 7260 ft.

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  • With the exception of Tasmania there are no important islands belonging geographically to Australia, for New Guinea, Timor and other islands of the East Indian archipelago, though not removed any great distance from the continent, do not belong to its system.

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  • Australia possesses one mountain which, though not a volcano, is a " burning mountain."

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  • But they have been separated by the foundering of the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, which divided the continent of Australia from the islands of the Australasian festoon; and the foundering of the band across Australia, from the Gulf of Carpentaria, through western Queensland and western New South Wales, to the lower basin of the Murray, has separated the Archean areas of eastern and western Australia.

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  • The outer edge of this ledge is roughly parallel to the coast of Western Australia, and more than 150 m.

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  • Australia presents a contour wonderfully devoid of inlets from the sea except on its northern shores, where the coast-line is largely indented.

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  • Western Australia, again, is not favoured with many inlets, Exmouth Gulf and Shark's Bay being the only bays of any size.

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  • An eastern system in South Australia touches at a few points a height of 3000 ft.; and the Stirling Range, belonging to the south-western system of South Australia, reaches to 2340 ft.

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  • The absence of active volcanoes in Australia is a state of things, in a geological sense, quite new to the continent.

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  • The sea does not appear to have extended completely across Australia, breaking it into halves, for a projection from the Archean plateau of Western Australia extended as far east as the South Australian highlands, and thence probably continued eastward, till it joined the Victorian highlands.

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  • The absence of active volcanoes in Australia is a state of things, in a geological sense, quite new to the continent.

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  • Araucaria Cunninghami, the Moreton Bay pine, is a tall tree abundant on the shores of Moreton Bay, Australia, and found through the littoral region of Queensland to Cape York Peninsula, also in New Guinea.

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  • Here may be noticed three genera of large extinct marsupials from the Pleistocene of Australia whose affinities appear to ally them to the wombat-group on the one hand and to the phalangers on the other.

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  • The land mass of Australia rises to a mean height much less than that of any other continent; and the chief mountain systems are parallel to, and not far from, the coast-line.

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  • ALBANY, a municipal town in the county of Plantagenet, West Australia, on Princess Royal Harbour, a branch of King George Sound, 352 m.

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  • The city is the largest in British Columbia, and is the chief Canadian shipping port for Japan, China, Australia and the islands at which the C.P.R.

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  • No doubt eastern Australia then extended far out into the Tasman Sea.

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  • The southwest coast is watered by a few streams, but none of any size; amongst these is the Swan, upon which Perth, the capital of Western Australia, is built.

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  • From Torres Strait to Dampier Land the shelf spreads out, and connects Australia with New Guinea and the Malay Archipelago.

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  • The great rivers of Australia, draining inland, carve out valleys, dissolve limestone, and spread out their deposit over the plains when the waters become too sluggish to bear their burden farther.

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  • - The states of Australia are divided by natural boundaries, which separate geographical areas having different characters, owing, mainly, to their different geological structures.

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  • Earth movements are still taking place both along Bass Strait and the Great Valley of South Australia, and apparently along the whole length of tht southern coast of Australia.

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  • The coastal belt of Australia is everywhere well watered, with the exception of the country around the Great Australian Bight and Spencer Gulf.

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  • At Bajo de Velis, in San Luis, the plants belong to the " Glossopteris flora," which is so widely spread in South Africa, India and Australia, and the beds are correlated with the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Permo-Carboniferous).

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  • Wallace, this author is of opinion that marsupials did not effect an entrance into Australia till about the middle of the Tertiary period, their ancestors being probably opossums of the American type.

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  • Taking opossums to have been the ancestors of the group, the author considers that the present writer may be right in his view that marsupials entered Australia from Asia by way of New Guinea.

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  • The single species, which is a native of western and southern Australia, is about the size of an English squirrel, to which its long bushy tail gives it some resemblance; but it lives entirely on the ground, especially in sterile sandy districts, feeding on ants.

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  • Australia is bounded by the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and Torres Strait; on the E.

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  • Australia is bounded by the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and Torres Strait; on the E.

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  • These marine deposits are not found anywhere along the eastern coast of Australia; but they occur, and reach about the same height above sea-level, in New Guinea, and are widely developed in New Zealand.

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  • A separate family, Notoryctidae, is represented by the marsupial mole (Notoryctes typhlops), of the deserts of south Central Australia, a silky, golden-haired, burrowing creature, with a curious leathery muzzle, and a short, naked stumpy tail.

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  • All are animals of small or moderate size and arboreal habits, feeding on a vegetable or mixed diet, and inhabiting Australia, Papua and the Moluccan Islands.

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  • The terrace closest to the land, known as the continental shelf, has an average depth of 600 ft., and connects Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania in one unbroken sweep. Compared with other continents, the Australian continental shelf is extremely narrow, and there are points on the eastern coast where the land plunges down to oceanic depths with an abruptness rarely paralleled.

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  • There are no other rivers of importance in South Australia, but the Torrens and the Gawler may be mentioned.

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  • A separate family, Notoryctidae, is represented by the marsupial mole (Notoryctes typhlops), of the deserts of south Central Australia, a silky, golden-haired, burrowing creature, with a curious leathery muzzle, and a short, naked stumpy tail.

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  • There are no other rivers of importance in South Australia, but the Torrens and the Gawler may be mentioned.

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  • How 'bout Australia for the next HQ site?

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  • How 'bout Australia for the next HQ site?

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  • The Great Barrier Reef forms the prominent feature off the north-east coast of Australia; its extent from north to south is 1200 m., and it is therefore the greatest of all coral reefs.

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  • Westward of South Australia, on the shores of the Australian Bight, there is a stretch of country 300 m.

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  • A narrow Cambrian sea must have extended across central Australia from the Kimberley Goldfield in the north-west, through Tempe Downs and the Macdonnell chain in central Australia, to the South Australian highlands, central Victoria at Mansfield, and northern Tasmania.

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  • The Mesozoic begins with a Triassic land period in the mainland of Australia; while the islands of the Australasian festoon contain the Triassic marine limestones, which fringe the whole of the Pacific. The Triassic beds are best known in New South Wales, where round Sydney they include a series of sandstones and shales.

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  • A narrow Cambrian sea must have extended across central Australia from the Kimberley Goldfield in the north-west, through Tempe Downs and the Macdonnell chain in central Australia, to the South Australian highlands, central Victoria at Mansfield, and northern Tasmania.

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  • The following statistics are interesting: - The enormous development of the wheat-growing industry is These figures do not include the wheat ground into flour and sent by way of British Columbia to Asia and Australia, nor the wheat retained by the farmers for seed.

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  • Nearly allied is the jumping Antechinomys laniger, of East Central Australia, an elegant mouse-like creature, with large oval ears, elongated limbs, a long and tufted tail and no first hind toe.

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  • The one species, from Western Australia, is the largest member of the family, being about the size of a rabbit, to which it bears sufficient superficial resemblance to have acquired the name of "native rabbit" from the colonists.

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  • The Silurian system was marked by the retreat of the sea from central Australia; but the sea still covered a band across Victoria, from the coast to the Murray basin, passing to the east of Melbourne.

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  • The one species, from Western Australia, is the largest member of the family, being about the size of a rabbit, to which it bears sufficient superficial resemblance to have acquired the name of "native rabbit" from the colonists.

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  • Rhyn snorted and faced Sasha, the brother charged with governing Australia, and the first to abandon the Council in favor of serving the Dark One.

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  • A governor has been appointed since 1885, some importance being foreseen for the islands in connexion with the cutting of the Panama canal, as the group lies on the route to Australia opened up by that scheme.

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  • The second and marine type of the Jurassics occurs in Western Australia, on the coastal plain skirting the western foot of the western plateau.

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  • A governor has been appointed since 1885, some importance being foreseen for the islands in connexion with the cutting of the Panama canal, as the group lies on the route to Australia opened up by that scheme.

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  • It is the chief health resort of the state, and its climate is one of the finest in Australia; it has a mean annual temperature of 58.6° F., and the summer heat is never excessive.

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  • In addition, Albany has the finest harbour in West Australia.

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  • The discovery of large quantities of gold in Otago in 1861 and the following years brought prosperity, a great " rush " of diggers setting in from Australia.

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  • They are magnificent evergreen trees, with apparently whorled branches, and stiff, flattened, pointed leaves, found in Brazil and Chile, Polynesia and Australia.

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  • Serious efforts to organize the game were made in the last quarter of the 19th century, but this time the lead came from Australia.

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  • The only species of this genus is about the size of a small rat, found in the interior of Australia.

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  • The annual rainfall and the area of the catchment afford no measure whatever as to the size of a river in the interior of Australia.

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  • The Devonian system includes a complex series of deposits, which are of most interest in eastern Australia.

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  • The Cretaceous period was initiated by the subsidence of a large area to the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, whereby a Lower Cretaceous sea spread southward, across western Queensland, western New South Wales and the north-eastern districts of South Australia.

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  • As the plains on the Rolling Downs formation are mostly waterless, the discovery of this deep reservoir of water has been of great aid in the development of central Australia.

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  • The rest of the southern coast west as far as 124° E., with the exception of the southern projection of Eyre Peninsula, which receives from 10 to 20 in., belongs to the 1 The literature of the geology of Australia is enumerated, to 1884, in the bibliography by Etheridge and Jack.

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  • from the coast, as well as the western and northern portions of Victoria and South Australia south of the Murray.

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  • The area of Australia subject to a rainfall of from io to 20 in.

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  • The following table shows the area of the rainfall zones in square miles: - The tropic of Capricorn divides Australia into two parts.

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  • m., comprising half of Queensland, the Northern Territory, and the northwestern divisions of Western Australia.

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  • In a region so extensive very great varieties of climate are naturally to be expected, but it may be stated as a general law that the climate of Australia is milder than that of corresponding lands in the northern hemisphere.

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  • During July, which is the coldest month in southern latitudes, one-half of Australia has a mean temperature ranging from 45° to 61°, and the other half from 62° to 80°.

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  • The following are the areas subject to the various average The temperature in December ranges from 60° to above 95° Fahr., half of Australia having a mean temperature below 84°.

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  • Western Australia has practically only two seasons, the winter or wet season, which commences in April and ends in October, and Western the summer or dry season, which comprises the remainder of the year.

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  • During the wet season frequent and heavy Australia rains fall, and thunderstorms, with sharp showers, occur in the summer, especially on the north-west coast, which is sometimes visited by hurricanes of great violence.

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  • The origin of the fauna and flora of Australia has attracted considerable attention.

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  • Much accumulated evidence, biological and geological, has pointed to a southern extension of India, an eastern extension of South Africa, and a western extension of Australia into the Indian Ocean.

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  • The comparative richness of proteaceous plants in Western Australia and South Africa first suggested a common source for these primitive types.

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  • The supposed continent extended across the south pole, practically joining Australia and South America.

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  • Modern naturalists consider that many of the problems of Australia's remarkable fauna and flora can be best explained by the following hypothesis: - The region now covered by the antarctic ice-cap was in early Tertiary times favoured by a mild climate; here lay an antarctic continent or archipelago.

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  • From an area corresponding to what is now South America there entered a fauna and flora, which, after undergoing modification, passed by way of Tasmania to Australia.

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  • Previous to its arrival Australia doubtless possessed considerable vegetation and a scanty fauna, chiefly invertebrate.

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  • At a comparatively recent date Australia received its third and newest constituent.

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  • Previous to the existence of the strait, and across its site, there poured into Australia a wealth of Papuan forms. Along the Pacific slope of the Queensland Cordillera these found in soil and climate a congenial home.

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  • The numerous facts, geological, geographical and biological, which when linked together lend great support to this theory, have been well worked out in Australia by Mr Charles Hedley of the Australian Museum, Sydney.

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  • The zoology of Australia and Tasmania presents a very conspicuous point of difference from that of other regions of the globe, in the prevalence of non-placental mammalia.

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  • There are two orders, the Marsupialia and the Monotremata, which do not possess this organ; both these are found in Australia, to which region indeed they are not absolutely confined.

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  • Australia, he pointed out, has no woodpeckers and no pheasants, which are widely-spread Indian birds.

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  • Australia is inhabited by at least if o different species of marsupials, which is about two-thirds of the known species; these have been arranged in five tribes, according to the food they eat, viz., the grass-eaters (kangaroos), the root-eaters (wombats), the insect-eaters (bandicoots), the flesh-eaters (native cats and rats), and the fruit-eaters (phalangers).

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  • Of the larger kangaroos, which attain a weight of 200 lb and more, eight species are named, only one of which is found in Western Australia.

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  • There are some twenty smaller species in Australia and Tasmania, besides the rock wallabies and the hare kangaroos; these last are wonderfully swift, making clear jumps 8 or io ft.

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  • The Myrmecobius of Western Australia is a bushy-tailed ant-eater about the size of a squirrel, and from its lineage and structure of more than passing interest.

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  • Australia and Tasmania possess two animals of this order - the echidna, or spiny ant-eater (hairy in Tasmania), and the Platypus anatinus, the duckbilled water mole, otherwise named the Ornithorhynchus paradoxus.

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  • Australia has no apes, monkeys or baboons, and no ruminant beasts.

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  • The birds of Australia in their number and variety of species may be deemed some compensation for its poverty of mammals; yet it will not stand comparison in this respect with regions of Africa and South America in the same latitudes.

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  • Sixty species of parrots, some of them very handsome, are found in Australia.

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  • As for reptiles, Australia has a few tortoises, all of one family, and not of great size.

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  • There is also the Moloch horridus of South and Western Australia, covered with tubercles bearing large spines, which give it a very strange aspect.

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  • Australia is rich in snakes, and has more than a hundred different kinds.

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  • The eastern parts of Australia are very much richer both in their botany and in their zoology than any of the other parts.

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  • Under the system of grazing practised throughout Australia it is customary to allow sheep, cattle and horses to run at large all the year round within enormous enclosures and to depend entirely upon the natural growth of grass for their subsistence.

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  • The range in species is very limited, no one being common to eastern and western Australia.

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  • One thing is certain, that there is in Australia a flora that is a remnant of a vegetation once widely distributed.

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  • At the census of 1901, 48,248 aborigines were enumerated, of whom 7434 were in New South Wales, 652 in Victoria, 27,123 in South Australia, and 6212 in Western Australia.

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  • In South Australia and the Northern Territory a large number are outside the bounds of settlement, and it is probable that they are as numerous there as in Queensland.

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  • The census of Western Australia included only those aborigines in the employment of the colonists; and as a large part of this, the greatest of the Australian states, is as yet unexplored, it may be presumed that the aborigines enumerated were very far short of the whole number of persons of that race in the state.

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  • South Sea Islanders and other coloured races, numbering probably about 15,000, were in 1906 to be found principally in Queensland, but further immigration of Pacific Islanders to Australia is now restricted, and the majority of those in the country in 1906 were deported by the middle of 1907.

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  • At the close of 1906 the population of Australia was approximately 4,120,000, exclusive of aborigines.

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  • During 1906 a more rational view of the value of immigration was adopted by the various state governments and by the federal government, and immigration to Australia is now systematically encouraged.

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  • The death rate of Australia is much below that of European countries and is steadily declining.

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  • - Australia is politically divided into five states, which with the island of Tasmania form the Commonwealth of Australia.

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  • The distribution of population at the close of 1906 (4,118,000) was New South Wales 1,530,000, Victoria 1,223,000, Queensland 534,000, South Australia 381,000, Western Australia 270,000, Tasmania 180,000.

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  • The rate of increase since the previous census was 1.5% per annum, varying from 0.31 in Victoria to 2 06 in New South Wales and 6.9 in Western Australia.

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  • Australia contains four cities whose population exceeds ioo,000, and fifteen with over 10,000.

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  • The principal cities and towns are Sydney (pop. 530,000), Newcastle, Broken Hill, Parramatta, Goulburn, Maitland, Bathurst, Orange, Lithgow, Tamworth, Grafton, Wagga and Albury, in New South Wales; Melbourne (pop. 511,900), Ballarat, Bendigo, Geelong, Eaglehawk, Warrnambool, Castlemaine, and Stawell in Victoria; Brisbane (pop. 128,000), Rockhampton, Maryborough, Townsville, Gympie, Ipswich, and Toowoomba in Queensland; Adelaide (pop. about 175,000), Port Adelaide and Port Pirie in South Australia; Perth (pop. 56,000), Fremantle, and Kalgoorlie in Western Australia; and Hobart (pop. 35,500) and Launceston in Tasmania.

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  • But the Transvaal War of 1899-1902, to which Australia sent 6310 volunteers (principally mounted rifles), and the gradual increase of military sentiment, brought the question more to the front, and more and more attention was given to making Australian defence a matter of local concern.

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  • In 1908 a movement began for the establishment of Australia.

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  • There is no state church in Australia, nor is the teaching of religion in any way subsidized by the state.

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  • The statutory ages differ in the various states; in New South Wales and Western Australia it is from 6 to 13 years inclusive, in Victoria 6 to 12 years, in Queensland 6 to II years, and in South Australia 7 to 12 years inclusive.

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  • There was, therefore, a residue of 9% of illiterates, most of whom were not born in Australia.

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  • The cost of public instruction ih Australia averages about I Is.

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  • 520,713.188,158.223,326 374,097 2,377 essentially a pastoral one, and the products of the flocks and herds constitute the chief element in the wealth of Australia.

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  • Numerically the flocks of Australia represent one-sixth of the world's sheep, and in just over half a century (1851-1905) the exports of Australian wool alone reached the value of £650,000,000.

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  • The chief wheat lands are in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales; the yield averages about 9 bushels to the acre; this low average is due to the endeavour of settlers on new lands to cultivate larger areas than their resources can effectively deal with; the introduction of scientific farming should almost double the yield.

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  • The vine is cultivated in all the states, but chiefly in South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales.

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  • Australia produces abundant quantities and nearly all varieties of fruits; but the kinds exported are chiefly oranges, pineapples, bananas and apples.

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  • Although the timbers of commercial value are confined practically to the eastern and a portion of the western coastal belt and a few inland tracts of Australia, they constitute an important national asset.

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  • In Western Australia, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland there are many hundreds of well-equipped saw-mills affording employment to about 5000 men.

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  • Gold is found throughout Australia, and the present prosperity of the states is largely due to the discoveries of this metal, the development of other industries being, in a country of varied resources, a natural sequence to the acquisition of mineral treasure.

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  • From the date of its first discovery, up to the close of 1905, gold to the value of £460,000,000 sterling has been obtained in Australia.

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  • For many years Western Australia was considered to be destitute of mineral deposits of any value, but it is now known that a rich belt of mineral country extends from north to south.

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  • This was the first of the many rich discoveries in the same district which have made Western Australia the chief gold-producer of the Australian group. In 1907 there were eighteen goldfields in the state, and it was estimated that over 30,000 miners were actively engaged in the search for gold.

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  • a year, valued at £300,000; South Australia produces about 30,000 oz.

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  • It is situated beyond the river Darling, and close to the boundary between New South Wales and South Australia.

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  • Up to the end of 1904 Australia had produced silver to the value of £45,000,000.

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  • Copper is known to exist in all the states, and has been mined extensively in South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and.

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  • The satisfactory price obtained during recent years has enabled renewed attention to be paid to copper mining in South Australia, and the production of the metal in 1905 was valued at £470,324.

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  • In Western Australia copper deposits have been worked for some years.

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  • The total value of copper produced in Australia up to the end of 1905 was £42,500,000 sterling, £24,500,000 having been obtained in South Australia, £7,500,000 in New South Wales, £6,400,000 in Tasmania and over £3,500,000 in Queensland.

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  • Tin was known to exist in Australia from the first years of colonization.

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  • In South Australia tin-mining is unimportant.

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  • In Western Australia the production from the tin-fields at Greenbushes and elsewhere was valued at £87,000.

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  • The total value of tin produced in Australia is nearly a million sterling per annum, and the total production to the end of 1905 was £22,500,000, of which Tasmania produced about 40%, New South Wales one-third, Queensland a little more than a fourth.

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  • Iron is distributed throughout Australia, but for want of capital for developing the fields this industry has not progressed.

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  • Magnetite occurs in great abundance in Western Australia, together with haematite, which would be of enormous value if cheap labour were available.

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  • Antimony is widely diffused throughout Australia, and is sometimes found associated with gold.

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  • Good lodes of stibnite (sulphide of antimony) have been found near Roebourne in Western Australia, but no attempt has yet been made to work them.

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  • New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania.

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  • Manganese probably exists in all the states, deposits having been found in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia, the richest specimens being found in New South Wales.

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  • At many of the mines at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, large quantities of ores of telluride of gold have been found in the lode formations.

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  • In Western Australia the lead occurs in the form of sulphides and carbonates of great richness, but the quantity of silver mixed with it is very small.

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  • Cobalt occurs in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, and efforts have been made in the former state to treat the ore, the metal having a high commercial value; but the market is small, and no attempt has been made up to 1907 to produce it on any large scale.

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  • Coal of a very fair description was discovered in the basin of the Irwin river, in Western Australia, as far back as the year 1846.

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  • In South Australia, at Leigh's Creek, north of Port Augusta, coalbeds have been discovered.

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  • The quantity of coal extracted annually in Australia had in 1906 reached 7,497,000 tons.

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  • Marble is found in many parts of New South Wales and South Australia.

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  • Kaolin, or porcelain clay, although capable of application to commercial purposes, has not as yet been utilized to any extent, although found in several places in New South Wales and in Western Australia.

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  • Several specimens of very fair quality have also been met with in Western Australia.

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  • Zircon, tourmaline, garnet and other precious stones of little commercial value are found throughout Australia.

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  • The number of vessels engaged in the over-sea trade of Australia in 1905 was 2112, viz.

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  • The United Kingdom in 1905 sent 60% of the imports taken by Australia, compared with 26% from foreign countries, and 14% from British possessions; of Australian imports the United Kingdom takes 47%, foreign countries 31% and British possessions 22%.

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  • In normal years (that is to say, when there is no large movement of capital) the exports of Australia exceed the imports by some £15,300,000.

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  • This sum represents the interest payable on government loans placed outside Australia, mainly in England, and the income from British and other capital invested in the country; the former may be estimated at £7,300,000 and the latter £8,000,000 per annum.

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  • Gold is exported in large quantities from Australia.

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  • Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.

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  • Almost the whole of the railway lines in Australia are the property of the state governments, and have been constructed and equipped wholly by borrowed capital.

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  • 3 in., in South Australia 5 ft.

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  • In several of the states, New South Wales and South Australia proper, the railways yield more than the interest paid by the government on the money borrowed for their construction.

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  • are in Western Australia.

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  • Yet while the Tasmanians are so distinctly separated in physique and customs from the Australians, the fauna and flora of Tasmania and Australia prove that at one time the two formed one continent, and it would take an enormous time for the formation of Bass Strait.

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  • It would have been reasonable to expect to find them sporadically all over Australia.

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  • Four points are clear: (i) the Australians represent a distinct race; (2) they have no kinsfolk among the neighbouring races; (3) they have occupied the continent for a very long period; (4) it would seem that the Tasmanians must represent a still earlier occupation of Australia, perhaps before the Bass Strait existed.

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  • He urges that the similarities of some of the primitive races of India and Africa to the aborigines of Australia are indications that they were peopled from one common stock.

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  • That in days so remote as to be undateable, a Dravidian people driven from their primitive home in the hills of the Indian Deccan made their way south via Ceylon (where they may to-day be regarded as represented by the Veddahs) and eventually sailed and drifted in their bark boats to the western and north-western shores of Australia.

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  • In the slow process of time they drove them into the most southerly corner of Australia, just as the Saxons drove the Celts into Cornwall and the Welsh hills.

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  • Dr Charles Pickering (1805-1878), who studied the Australians on the spot, writes: 1 In his Discoveries in Central Australia, E.

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  • In the north of Australia there are traces of Malay and Papuan blood.

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  • In caves of the valley of the Glenelg river, north-west Australia, about 60 m.

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  • This exception was discovered by Messrs Spencer and Gillen among the Arunta of central Australia, some allied septs, and their nearest neighbours to the north, the Kaitish.

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  • Thus, among some tribes of Western Australia the penalty for abducting another's wife was to stand with leg extended while each male of the tribe stuck his spear into it.

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  • In South Australia boys had to undergo three stages of initiation in a place which women were forbidden to approach.

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  • Girls, too, were scarred at puberty and had teeth knocked out, &c. The ceremonies - known to the Whites under the native generic term for initiatory rites, Bora - were much the same throughout Australia.

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  • Howitt, The Native Tribes of South-east Australia (1904) and On the Organization of Australian Tribes (1889); G.

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  • Bettany, The Red, Brown and Black Men of Australia (1890); B.

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  • Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia (1899) The Northern Tribes of Central Australia (London, 1904); E.

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  • Rusden, History of Australia (1897); Australasia, British Empire Series (Kegan Paul & Co., 1900); A.

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  • Thomas, Native Tribes of Australia (1907).

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  • The Discovery of Australia.

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  • It is impossible to say who were the first discoverers of Australia, although there is evidence that the Chinese had some knowledge of the continent so far back as the 13th century.

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  • The Portuguese also advance claims to be the first discoverers of Australia, but so far the evidence cannot be said to establish their pretensions.

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  • During the interval elapsing between Dampier's two voyages, an accident led to the closer examination of the coasts of Western Australia by the Dutch.

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  • After voyaging westward for nearly three weeks, Cook, on the 19th of April 1770, sighted the eastern coast of Australia at a point which he named after his lieutenant, who discovered it, Point Hicks, and which modern geographers identify with Cape Everard.

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  • He saw and named Port Jackson, but forbore to enter the finest natural harbour in Australia.

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  • Cook having completed the survey of the east coast, to which he gave the name of New South Wales, sighted and named Cape York, the northernmost point of Australia, and took final possession of his discoveries northward from 38° S.

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  • The observations of Captain Furneaux, however, did not strengthen this belief, and when making his final voyage, the great navigator appears to have definitely concluded that it was part of the mainland of Australia.

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  • Some small expeditions were made from Bathurst, resulting in the discovery of the Lachlan, and in 1816 the first of the great exploration expeditions of Australia was fitted out under Lieutenant Oxley, R.N.

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  • During the next two or three years public attention was occupied with Captain King's maritime explorations of the north-west coast in three successive voyages, and by explorations of Western Australia in 1821.

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  • Among the performances of less renown, but of much practical utility in surveying and opening new paths through the country, we may mention that of Captain Banister, showing the way across the southern part of Western Australia, from Swan river to King George Sound, and that of Messrs Robinson and G.

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  • Again, in Western Australia there were the explorations of the Arrowsmith, the Murchison, the Gascoyne, and the Ashburton rivers, by Captain Grey, Mr Roe, Governor Fitzgerald, Mr R.

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  • The mistake, shown in all the old maps of Australia, had originated in a curious optical illusion.

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  • A reward of £io,000 having been offered by the legislature of South Australia to the first man who should traverse the whole continent from south to north, starting from the city of Adelaide, Mr Stuart resolved to make the attempt.

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  • He had also proved that the interior of Australia was not a stony desert, like the region visited by Sturt in 1845.

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  • By these means, the unknown region of Mid Australia was simultaneously entered from the north, south, east and west, and important additions were made to geographical knowledge.

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  • The Barcoo or Cooper's Creek and its tributary streams were traced from the Queensland mountains, holding a south-westerly course to Lake Eyre in South Australia; the Flinders, the Gilbert, the Gregory, and other northern rivers watering the country towards the Gulf of Carpentaria were also explored.

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  • Having crossed a table-land of sandstone which divides these streams from those running to the western shores of Arnheim Land, Mr Stuart, in the month of July, passed down what is called the Adelaide river of north Australia.

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  • The line crossing Australia which was thus explored has since been occupied by the electric telegraph connecting Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney, and other Australian cities with London.

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  • Western Australia, from about 120° to 134° E.

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  • long., an extent of half a million square miles, still remained a blank in the map. But the two expeditions of 1873, conducted by William Christie Gosse (1842-1881), afterwards deputy surveyorgeneral for South Australia, and Colonel (then Major) Egerton Warburton, made a beginning in the exploration of this terra incognita west of the central telegraph route.

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  • south of Central Mount Stuart, to strike into Western Australia.

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  • Meantime a more successful attempt to reach the western coast from the centre of Australia was made by Major Warburton, with thirty camels, provided by Mr (afterwards Sir) T.

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  • Elder, of South Australia.

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  • north of Adelaide city, Warburton succeeded in making his way to the De Grey river, Western Australia.

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  • Of the several attempts to cross Western Australia, even Major Warburton's expedition, the most successful, had failed in the important particular of determining the nature of the country through which it passed.

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  • Major Warburton had virtually raced across from the Macdonnell range in South Australia to the headwaters of the Oakover river on the northwest coast, without allowing himself sufficient time to note the characteristics of the country.

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  • John (afterwards Sir John) Forrest was despatched by the Perth government with general instructions to obtain information regarding the immense tract of country out of which flow the rivers falling into the sea on the northern and western shores of Western Australia.

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  • Forrest and his party safely crossed the entire extent of Western Australia, and entering South Australia struck the overland telegraph line at Peake station, and, after resting, journeyed south to Adelaide.

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  • Giles's journeys added greatly to our knowledge of the characteristics of Western and South Australia, and he was able to bear out the common opinion that the interior of Australia west of 132° E.

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  • Lindsay's expedition, which was fitted out by Sir Thomas Elder, the generous patron of Australian exploration, entered Western Australia about the 26th parallel south latitude, on the line of route taken by Forrest in 1874.

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  • One of the most successful expeditions which traversed Western Australia was that led and equipped by the Hon.

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  • It may be said that exploration on a large scale is now at an end; there remain only the spaces, nowhere very extensive, between the tracks of the old explorers yet to be examined, and these are chiefly in the Northern Territory and in Western Australia north of the tropic of Capricorn.

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  • In 1827 and 1829, an English company endeavoured to plant a settlement at the Swan river, and this, added to a small military station established in 1825 at King George Sound, constituted Western Australia.

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  • On the shores of the Gulf St Vincent, again, from 1835 to 1837, South Australia was created by another joint-stock company, as an experiment in the Wakefield scheme of colonization.

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  • When that system was abolished, the social conditions of New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia became more equal.

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  • In the latter direction, explored by Mitchell in 1834 and 1836, lay Australia Felix, now Victoria, including the well-watered, thickly-wooded country of Gipps' Land.

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  • Such was the growth of infant Victoria in five years; that of Adelaide or South Australia, in the same period, was nearly equal to it.

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  • Western Australia progressed but slowly, with less than 4000 inhabitants altogether, under Governors Stirling and Hutt.

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  • Victoria produced already more wool than New South Wales,the aggregate produce of Australia in 1852 being 45,000,000 lb; and South Australia, between 1842 and this date, had opened most valuable mines of copper.

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  • The population of New South Wales in 1851 was 190,000; that of Victoria, 77,000; and that of South Australia about the same.

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  • The copper mines of South Australia were for the time deserted, while Tasmania and New Zealand lost many inhabitants, who emigrated to the more promising country.

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  • The separation of the northern part of eastern Australia, Discovery of gold.

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  • At the beginning of 1860, when the excitement of the gold discoveries was wearing off, five of the states had received from the home government the boon of responsible government, and were in a position to work out the problem of their position without external interference; it was not, however, until 1890 that Western Australia was placed in a similar position.

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  • the great questions upon which the country was divided, were settled within twenty years of the granting of self-government.1 With the disposal of these important problems, politics in Australia became a struggle for office between men whose political principles were very much alike, and the tenure of power enjoyed by the various governments did not depend upon the principles of administration so much as upon the personal fitness of the head of the ministry, and the acceptability of his ministry to the members of the more popular branch of the legislature.

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  • The two most striking political events in the modern history of Australia, as a whole, apart from the readiness it has shown to remain a part of the British empire, and to in Australia.

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  • In Victoria the law has been altered five times, and in Queensland and South Australia seven times.

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  • It was provided that a person was to be prohibited from landing in Australia who failed to write in any prescribed language fifty words dictated to him by the commonwealth officer supervising immigration.

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  • One of the most notable events in the modern history of Australia occurred shortly after the great strike of 1890.

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  • The effects of the crisis were mainly felt in the three eastern states, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia being affected chiefly by reason of the fact of their intimate financial connexion with the eastern states.

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  • The allegations made con cerning the Chinese really amounted to a charge of undue 1 Australia, it may be noted, has woman's suffrage in all the states (Victoria, the last, adopting it in November 1908), and for the federal assembly.

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  • The consuming power of the population was greatly diminished, and in the year following the crisis the imports into Australia from abroad diminished by four and three-quarter millions.

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  • 1902 a nd the number of sheep and cattle in Australia had of P greatly diminished, but the year 1902 was one of veritable drought.

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  • But beyond this the pastoralist learnt most effectually the lesson that, in a country like Australia, provision must be made for the occasional season when the rainfall is entirely inadequate to the wants of the farmer and the pastoralist.

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  • Its existence was well-nigh forgotten by the people of Australia until the occurrence of its biennial meetings, and even then but slight interest was taken in its proceedings.

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  • The occasion was the report of Major-General Edwards on the defences of Australia, and Sir Henry addressed the other premiers on the desirability of a federal union for purposes of defence.

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  • During the year 1896 Enabling Acts were passed by New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia, and delegates were elected by popular vote in all the colonies named except Western Australia, where the delegates were chosen by parliament.

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  • The constitution was accepted by Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania by popular acclamation, but in New South Wales very great opposition was shown, the main points of objection being the financial provisions, equal representation in the Senate, and the difficulty in the way of the larger states securing an amendment of the constitution in the event of a conflict with the smaller states.

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  • As far as the other colonies were concerned, it was evident that the bill was safe, and public attention throughout Australia was fixed on New South Wales, where a fierce political contest was raging, which it was recognized would decide the fate of the measure for the time being.

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