The bowler delivers his bowl with one foot on a mat or footer, made of india-rubber or cocoanut fibre, the size of which is also prescribed by rule as 24 by 16 in., though, with a view to protecting the green, Australasian clubs employ a much larger size, and require the bowler to keep both feet on the mat in the act of delivery.
Existing marsupials may be divided into three main divisions or sub-orders, of which the first, or Polyprotodontia, is common to America and Australasia; the second, or Paucituberculata, is exclusively South American; while the third, or Diprotodonts, is as solely Australasian inclusive of a few in the eastern Austro-Malayan islands.
- The third and last sub-order of marsupials is the Diprotodontia, which is exclusively Australasian and includes the wombats, koala, cuscuses, kangaroos and their relatives.
But they have been separated by the foundering of the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, which divided the continent of Australia from the islands of the Australasian festoon; and the foundering of the band across Australia, from the Gulf of Carpentaria, through western Queensland and western New South Wales, to the lower basin of the Murray, has separated the Archean areas of eastern and western Australia.
The Mesozoic begins with a Triassic land period in the mainland of Australia; while the islands of the Australasian festoon contain the Triassic marine limestones, which fringe the whole of the Pacific. The Triassic beds are best known in New South Wales, where round Sydney they include a series of sandstones and shales.
Yet this narrow belt of water is the boundary line between the Australasian and the Indian regions.
Naval defence in any case remained primarily a question for the Imperial navy, and by agreement (1903, for ten years) between the British government and the governments of the Commonwealth (contributing an annual subsidy of £200,000) and of New Zealand (£40,000), an efficient fleet patrolled the Australasian waters, Sydney, its headquarters, being ranked as a first-class naval station.
This conference adopted an address to the queen expressing its loyalty and attachment, and submitting certain resolutions which affirmed the desirability of an early union, under the crown, of the Australasian colonies, on principles just to all, and provided that the remoter Australasian colonies should be entitled to admission upon terms to be afterwards agreed upon, and that steps should be taken for the appointment of delegates to a national Australasian convention, to consider and report upon an adequate scheme for a federal convention.
In accordance with the understanding arrived at, the various Australasian parliaments appointed delegates to attend a national convention to be held in Sydney, and on the 2nd March 1891 the convention held its first meeting.
Epps, The Land Systems of Australia, 8vo (London, 1894); Ernest Favenc, The History of Australasian Exploration, royal 8vo (Sydney, 1885); R.
Podargidae, Australasian, Caprimulgidae, cosmopolitan.
The ocean currents, the trade-winds blowing from the Australian mainland, and north-westerly storms from the Malayan islands, are no doubt responsible for the introduction of many, but not all, of these Malayan and Australasian species.
Reinforced by parts of the two Bulair divisions the Turks delivered vigorous counter-attacks on the 26th; but these were beaten off, and on that day and on the morrow the Australasian troops dug themselves in so thoroughly that by the night of the 27th-28th the position which they had taken Up, such as it was, was reasonably secure.
The two Australasian and the two French divisions were better off in this respect; but the number of divisions under Sir I.
There the rival forces were in close contact, the Turks everywhere enjoying the advantage of command; some sections of the Australasian line were, indeed, completely overlooked by ground in Ottoman occupation.
New Caledonia is part of the Australasian Festoon, and in its general characters resembles the geology of New Zealand.
See Australasian Bibliography (Sydney, 1843); G.
This was followed by the Australia Felix Magazine (1849), and the Australasian Quarterly Reprint (1850-1851) both published at Geelong, the Illustrated Australian Magazine (1850-1852), the Australian Gold-Digger's Monthly Magazine (1852-1853), edited by James Bonwick, and the Melbourne Monthly Magazine (1855-1856).
By far the most important addition to the Australasian product has come fromWestAustralia,which began its production in 1887 - about the time of the inception of mining at Witwatersrand ("the Rand") in South Africa-and by continuous increase, which assumed large proportions towards the close of the 19th century, was £6,426,000 in 1899, £6,179,000 in 1900, and L8,212,000 in 1905.
The total Australasian production in 1908 was valued at £14,708,000.
New Zealand is part of the Australasian festoon, on the Pacific edge of the Australasian area.
This plan was first put into execution at the general election of 18 9 0, which was held during the industrial excitement aroused by the Australasian maritime strike of that year.
The Australasian colonies got their supplies direct, and part of the Russian supplies went by the caravan routes.
The rate per head of population within the United Kingdom has not increased much during recent years, and in the Australasian colonies it has apparently fallen greatly as compared with recorded averages of 12 lb per head in Victoria and 9 lb in New South Wales in 1884.
The southern hemisphere ranks lightly in the matter of consumption, the only other country worth mentioning there besides the Australasian and Cape dependencies being Argentina.
Two further developments must be mentioned: (a) The creation of diocesan and provincial synods, the first diocesan synod to meet being that of New Zealand in 1844, whilst the formation of a provincial synod was foreshadowed by a conference of Australasian bishops at Sydney in 1850; (b) towards the close of the r9th century the title of archbishop began to be assumed by the metropolitans of several provinces.
The greater part of this is debitable, as just pointed out, to the first year, in which the mortality, calculated upon the number of births, ranged, in the decennium 1895-1904, between 70 per mille, in the exceptionally favourable circumstances of the Australasian States, to nearly 270 in European Russia.
The three Australasian states head the list in virtue of their remarkably low death-rate, which outweighs the relative paucity of their births.
In the case of two of the Australasian states, of Holland, Finland, Spain and Italy, the order is in accord with that given by the test applied above, and the difference between the two in Austria, Ireland and France is not large.
Amounting to a serious pest in Australasian colonies, it is also established in the Falklands and Kerguelen; its presence in much of Europe is attributed to early acclimatization, as it seems anciently to have been confined to the Iberian peninsula.
Some of the passerine birds have been the most widely distributed, especially the house-sparrow (Passer domesticus), which is now an integral, and very troublesome, part of the fauna in the Australasian States and in North America.
The total Australasian production in 1900 was 14,063,244 oz.
An Australasian conference met at Melbourne in 1881 and has continued to meet in alternate years.
I er Ib " and cc Australasian," and for the first time a British colony sent its armed forces outside its own boundaries to fight on behalf of the mother-country.
In July of the same year Dr Moran, the Roman Catholic archbishop of Sydney, became the first Australasian cardinal.
In 1889 the premier, Sir Henry Parkes, gave in his adhesion to the movement for Australasian federation, and New South Wales was represented at the first conference held at Melbourne in the beginning of 1890.
Phalarideae (6 genera, three of which are South African and Australasian; the others are more widely distributed, and represented in our flora).
Thus many of the Australasian and South American tribes use only one and two; seven, for instance, would be two.
The origin of the Australasian fauna is a question pertaining to the article Zoological Distribution.
The Australasian species come nearest to laying eggs, inasmuch as the eggs are large, full of yolk, and enclosed in a shell; but development normally takes place in the uterus, though abnormally, incompletely developed eggs are extruded.
In all the Australasian species the egg is large and heavily charged with foodyolk, and is surrounded by a tough membrane.
(The following genera have been proposed: Peripatus for the neotropical species, Peripatoides for the Australasian, Peripatopsis and Opisthopatus for the African, Paraperipatus for the New Britain, Eoperipatus for the Malayan species, and Ooperipatus for the supposed oviparous species of Australia and New Zealand.) The colour is highly variable in species from all regions; it is perhaps more constant in the species from the neotropical region than in those from elsewhere.
The following species are aberrant in respect of these characters: Peripatus (Opisthopatus) cinctipes, Purcell (Cape Colony and Natal), presents a few Australasian features; there is a small receptaculum seminis on each oviduct, some of the legs are provided with welldeveloped coxal organs, the feet have one anterior, one posterior and one dorsal papilla, and the successive difference in the ages of the embryos in the uterus, though nothing like that found in the neotropical species, is slightly greater than that found in other investigated African species.
The Australasian species are in some confusion.
Ova large, with much yolk and thick membrane, like those of Australasian species; embryos with slit-like blastopore and of very different ages in the same uterus, probably born all the year round.
It is held that in the Miocene and Pliocene periods there were land connexions with the Philippines, Java and the Moluccas, and through the last with Australasian lands to the east and south-east.
That at Gaba Tepe was to be carried out by the two Australasian divisions under Gen.