Yet we learn from Capitolinus that Marcus Aurelius was still worshipped as a household divinity in the time of Diocletian, and was believed to impart revelations in dreams (Vit.
Aurelius by the Senatus Fidenatium, was excavated in 1889.
The vivid narrative of his career given by Lucian might be taken as fictitious but for the corroboration of certain coins of the emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius (J.
166 a verse from the oracle was used as an amulet and was inscribed over the doors of houses as a protection, and an oracle was sent, at Marcus Aurelius' request, by Alexander to the Roman army on the Danube during the war with the Marcomanni, declaring that victory would follow on the throwing of two lions alive into the river.
See Lucian, 'AXï¿½EavSpos IkevSoï¿½avrns; Samuel Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius (1904); and F.
See Sallust, Jugurtha; Orelli's Onomasticon Tullianum; Asconius, In Scaurum; Aurelius Victor, De viris illustribus, 72; A.
LUCIUS VOLUSIUS MAECIANUS (2nd cent.) Roman jurist, was the tutor in law of the emperor Marcus Aurelius.
MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS (121-180), Roman emperor and Stoic philosopher, was born in Rome A.D.
The full name he then bore was Marcus Aelius Aurelius Antoninus, Aelius coming from Hadrian's family, and Aurelius being the original name of Antoninus Pius.
Through all his Stoical training Aurelius preserved the natural sweetness of his nature.
During the reign of Antoninus Pius (138 to 161), the concord between him and Aurelius was complete; Capitolinus (c. 7) says "nec praeter duas noctes per tot annos mansit diversis vicibus."
It has been assumed on the strength of a passage in Capitolinus that Aurelius married Faustina in 146, but the passage is not clear, and other evidence points strongly to 140; at all events it seems certain that a daughter was born to him in 140.
Antoninus Pius died in 161, having recommended as his successor Aurelius, then forty years of age, without mentioning Commodus, his other adopted son, commonly called Lucius Verus.
It is believed that the senate urged Aurelius to take the sole administration.
The early part of the reign of Aurelius was clouded by national misfortunes.
Indeed, the bulk of the reign of Aurelius was spent in efforts to ward off the attacks of the barbarians.
In January or February 169 Verus died at Altinum, apparently of apoplexy, though some ventured to say that he was poisoned by Aurelius.
Aurelius was thenceforth indisputed master of the empire, during one of the most troubled periods of its history.
In the autumn of 169 two of the German tribes, the Quadi and the Marcomanni, with their allies the Vandals, Iazyges and Sarmatians, renewed hostilities and, for three years, Aurelius resided almost constantly at Carnuntum.
In 174 Aurelius gained over the Quadi a decisive victory, which is commemorated by one of the sculptures on the column of Antonine.
8-10) ascribed the victory to the magic arts of an Egyptian named Arnuphis who prevailed on Mercury and other gods to 2 Aurelius has been severely criticized for sending Verus.
Among various reasons, the most convincing is that the presence of Aurelius was required in Rome; moreover, the real leader was evidently Cassius.
Aurelius next marched to Germany.
But after three months Cassius was assassinated, and his head was brought to Aurelius, who with characteristic magnanimity, persuaded the senate to pardon all the family of Cassius.
It is a proof of the wisdom of Aurelius's clemency that he had little or no trouble in pacifying the provinces which had been the scene of rebellion.
But none of these stories rests on trustworthy evidence; on the other hand, there can be no doubt that Aurelius trusted her while she lived, and mourned her loss.
In 177 occurred that persecution of Christians, the share of Aurelius in which has been the subject of so much controversy.
Meanwhile the German War continued, and the two Quintilii, who had been left in command, begged Aurelius once more to take the field.
In this campaign Aurelius, after a series of successes, was attacked, according to some authorities, by an infectious disease, of which he died after a seven days' illness, either in his camp at Sirmium (Mitrovitz), on the Save, in Lower Pannonia, or at Vindobona (Vienna), on the 17th of March 180, in the fifty-ninth year of his age.
Commodus, who was with his father when he died, erected to his memory the Antonine column (now in the Piazza Colonna at Rome), round the shaft of which are sculptures in relief commemorating the miracle of the Thundering Legion and the various victories of Aurelius over the Quadi and the Marcomanni.
Aurelius throughout his reign was hostile to Christianity.
But Aurelius was an eager patriot and a man of logical mind.
In other words the governors were ordered merely to punish sacrilege, and, under Aurelius, Christianity was regarded as such.
When, therefore, we remember that Aurelius knew little of the Christians, that the only mention of them in the Meditations is a contemptuous reference to certain fanatics of their number whom even Clement of Alexandria compares for their thirst for martyrdom to the Indian gymnosophists, and finally that the least worthy of them were doubtless the most prominent, we cannot doubt that Aurelius was acting unquestionably in the best interests of a perfectly intelligible ideal.
The book which contains the philosophy of Aurelius is known by the title of his Reflections, or Meditations, although that is not the name which he gave to it himself avrov).
It is believed by many critics that they were intended for the guidance of Aurelius's son, Commodus (q.v.); at all events they are generally considered as one of the most precious of the legacies of antiquity.
Aurelius throughout his life adhered to the Stoical philosophy.
There can be no doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, although Schultz is probably right in maintaining that all his theology amounts to this - the soul of man is most intimately united to his body, and together they make one animal which we call man; and so the deity is most intimately united to the world or the material universe, and together they form one whole.
Aurelius is, above all things, a practical moralist.
It is no "fugitive and cloistered virtue" that Aurelius seeks to encourage; on the contrary, man must lead the "life of the social animal," must "live as on a mountain"; and "he is an abscess on the universe who withdraws and separates himself from the reason of our common nature through being displeased with the things which happen."
The morality of Marcus Aurelius cannot be said to have been new when it was given to the world.
But above all, what gives the sentences of Marcus Aurelius their enduring value and fascination, and renders them superior to the utterances of Epictetus and Seneca, is that they are the gospel of his life.
Aurelius Antoninus (1884) contains a general account - life, character, philosophy, relations with Christianity - as well as a bibliography; see also art.
Aurelius (London, 1904).
P. Dickson, London, 1886); for the Aurelius column, E.
(6) For a full account of the correspondence of Aurelius and Fronto, see Robinson Ellis, Correspondence of Fronto and M.
Aurelius (Oxford, 1904).
Tacitus, besides being a man of immense wealth (which he bequeathed to the state), Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, Bk.
10; Aurelius Victor, Caesares, 36; Zonaras xii.
Aurelius Memmius Symmachus.
The 42nd canon of the council of Carthage under Aurelius likewise forbade them, but these were only local councils.
21 f.) has left us a description of the town as it existed in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the agora, the Acropolis, the island of Cranae (Marathonisi) where Paris celebrated his nuptials with Helen, the Migonium or precinct of Aphrodite Migonitis (occupied by the modern town of Marathonisi or Gythium), and the hill Larysium (Koumaro) rising above it.
MARCUS AURELIUS CARAUSIUS, tyrant or usurper in Britain, A.D.
Constantius then made extensive preparations to ensure the reconquest of Britain, but before they were completed Carausius was murdered by Allectus, his praefect of the guards (Aurelius Victor, Caesares, 39; Eutropius ix.
Marcus Aurelius Carinus >>
121, 127); and Palmyrenes who became Roman citizens began to take Roman names, usually Septimius or Julius Aurelius, in addition to their native names.
92 (a Latin inscription of the time of Marcus Aurelius), and NSI.
Marcus Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus >>
Annius Verus (afterwards the emperor Marcus Aurelius) and the son of L.
21; Aurelius Victor, De viris illustribus, 73; Orosius v.
Thereupon the Quakers, who were perhaps not without the -obstinacy of which Marcus Aurelius complained in the early Christians, rushed to Massachusetts as if invited, and the result was that the general court of the colony banished them on pain of death, and four of them, three men and one woman,were hanged for refusing to depart from the jurisdiction or for obstinately returning within it.
Aurelius gave to masters an action against their slaves for any cause of complaint, thus bringing their relation more directly under the surveillance of law and public opinion.
See Aurelius Victor, Caesares, 28; Eutropius, ix.
- xxxi.; Aurelius Victor, Epit.
Extreme youth was no bar; the emperor Marcus Aurelius had been an eques at the age of six.
After the reign of Marcus Aurelius (according to Mommsen) the equites were divided into: (a) viri eminentissimi, the prefects of the praetorian guard; (b) viri perfectissimi, the other prefects and the heads of the financial and secretarial departments; (c) viri egregii, first mentioned in the reign of Antoninus Pius, a title by right of the procurators generally.
Close to the cathedral there is a triumphal arch decorated with bas-reliefs known as the Porte Noire, which is generally considered to have been built in commemoration of the victories of Marcus Aurelius over the Germans in 167.
It was a rich and prosperous place under the Roman emperors, and Marcus Aurelius promoted it to the rank of a colonic as Colonia Victrix Sequanorum.
MARCUS AURELIUS CARINUS, Roman emperor, A.D.
Aurelius Julianus, and encountered the army of Diocletian in Moesia.
Vopiscus, Carinus (mainly the recital of his crimes); Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus, 38, Epit.
600), that she perished in Sicily under Marcus Aurelius between 176 and 180.
Antoninus Pius, hearing of his fame, appointed him tutor to his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.
The letters consist of correspondence with Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, in which the character of Fronto's pupils appears in a very favourable light, especially in the affection they both seem to have retained for their old master; and letters to friends, chiefly letters of recommendation.
Aurelius (1904); and the full bibliography in the article by Brzoska in the new edition of Pauly's Realencyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, iv.
An abridgment of one of his writings, with the title of Aurelius, became the most popular of all Latin medical works.
Smith has, however, still stronger arguments, which he states as follows: " Throughout the entire line of the old bridge, the bed of the river was found to contain ancient wooden piles; and when these piles, subsequently to the erection of the new bridge, were pulled up to deepen the channel of the river, many thousands of Roman coins, with abundance of broken Roman tiles and pottery, were discovered, and immediately beneath some of the central piles brass medallions of Aurelius, Faustina and Commodus.
MARCUS AURELIUS VALERIUS MAXENTIUS, Roman emperor from A.D.
1; Aurelius Victor, Epit.
Pannonia superior was under the consular legate, who had formerly administered the single province, and had three legions under his control: Pannonia inferior at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as garrison, after Marcus Aurelius under a consular legate, still with only one legion.
70; Aurelius Victor; De viris illustrious, 6; Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bk.
The fortress grew in importance, and was afterwards made a municipium; and here Marcus Aurelius died in 180.
His father was Cassius Apronianus, governor of Dalmatia and Cilicia under Marcus Aurelius, and on his mother's side he was the grandson of Dio Chrysostom, who had assumed the surname of Cocceianus in honour of his patron the emperor Cocceius Nerva.
96, and lived during the reigns of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.
Its most important member was Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 490-585), historian, statesman, and monk.
Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus, who wrote a few feeble eclogues and (283) a dull piece on the training of dogs for the chase.
Of the Christian "poets" only Aurelius Prudentius Clemens (c. 348-410) need be mentioned.
Aurelius, broke away from the traditional Latin of the Silver and Golden ages, and took as his models the pre-classical authors.
Aurelius Symmachus (c. 350-410), the author of some speeches and a collection of letters.
A more commanding figure is that of Aurelius Augustinus or St Augustine (354-430), bishop of Hippo, who for comprehensiveness and dialectical power stands out in the same way as Hieronymus or St Jerome (c.33 I or 340-420), a native of Stridon in Dalmatia, does for manysided learning and scholarship.
MARCUS AURELIUS CARUS, Roman emperor A.D.
us of the imperial philosopher Marcus Aurelius, whose works.
When the Parthian War (162-5) broke out, Polyaenus, too old to share in the campaign, dedicated to the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus a work, still extant, called Strategica or Strategemata, a historical collection of stratagems and maxims of strategy written in Greek and strung together in the form of anecdotes.
LUCIUS AELIUS AURELIUS COMMODUS (161-192), also called Marcus Antoninus, emperor of Rome, son of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina, was born at Lanuvium on the 31st of August 161.
According to Aurelius Victor (De vir.
SCILLITAN MARTYRS, a company of early North African Christians who suffered under Marcus Aurelius in A.D.
It is thus the concluding scene of the persecution under Marcus Aurelius, which is best known from the sufferings of the churches of Vienne and Lyons in South Gaul.
Marcus Aurelius died on the 17th of March of the year in question, and persecution ceased almost immediately upon the accession of Commodus.
Under Antoninus and Marcus Aurelius it appears to have been a flourishing city, the district, now desolate, being then very fertile and covered with forests of olives.
A supernatural pride was blended with a natural anxiety, and it was at this juncture that Origen brought to light again a book written in the days of Marcus Aurelius, which but for the great Alexandrian might have been lost for ever.
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