Augustus Sentence Examples
After the Social War it became a municipium and under Augustus a colony.
Now in 18 B.C. Augustus carried the Leges Tuliae, which offered inducements to marriage and imposed disabilities upon the celibate.
Augustus gave it back to Naples in exchange for Capri.
In 40 he helped to arrange the peace of Brundisium by which Octavian (Augustus) and Antonius were for a time reconciled.
Paul began the famous Villa Borghese; enlarged the Quirinal and Vatican; completed the nave, facade and portico of St Peter's; erected the Borghese Chapel in Sta Maria Maggiore; and restored the aqueduct of Augustus and Trajan ("Acqua Paolina").Advertisement
It was adopted by Augustus as the boundary of Gallia Cispadana; the far-famed Rubicon was a trifling stream a few miles farther north, now called Fiumicino.
Prefixed to this are two sections dealing respectively with (A) the ethnographical and philological divisions of ancient Italy, and (B) the unification of the country under Augustus, the growth of the road system and so forth.
Augustus was the first who gave a definite administrative organization to Italy as a whole, and at the same time gave official sanction to that wider acceptation of the name which had already established itself in familiar usage, and which has continued to prevail ever since.
The arrangements thus established by Augustus continued almost unchanged till the time of Constantine, and formed the basis of all subsequent administrative divisions until the fall of the Western empire.
Odoacer, a chief of the Herulians, deposed Romulus, the last Augustus of the West, and placed the peninsula beneath the titular sway of the Byzantine emperors.Advertisement
With his mercenaries behind him he met with some small successes in his fight for Normandy, but on the 27th of July he and his ally, the emperor Otto IV., met with a crushing defeat at Bouvines at the hands of Philip Augustus, and even the king himself was compelled to recognise that his hopes of recovering Normandy were at an end.
Capturing Rochester castle, John met with some other successes, and the disheartened barons invited Louis, son of Philip Augustus of France and afterwards king as Louis VIII., to take the English crown.
The second, the Periplus of the Inner Sea (the Mediterranean), is a meagre epitome of a similar work by Menippus of Pergamum, who lived during the times of Augustus and Tiberius.
Augustus and his successors brought it into further importance as a point on the route between Italy and the north-eastern portions of the empire.
Maurice, however, made generous provision for his brother Augustus, and the desire to compensate him still further was one of the minor threads of his subsequent policy.Advertisement
A colony was founded here either by the Triumviri or by Augustus.
Its recognition was mainly due to the efforts of Augustus, elector of Saxony.
The Roman town (a municipium) of Forum Iulii was founded either by Julius Caesar or by Augustus, no doubt at the same time as the construction of the Via Iulia Augusta, which passed through Utina (Udine) on its way north.
On the death of John Zapolya, the Austro-Polish alliance was still further cemented by the marriage of Sigismund's son and heir, Sigismund Augustus, with the archduchess Elizabeth.
Calvinism, indeed, rather recommended itself to the Poles as being of non-German origin, and Calvin actually dedicated his Commentary on the Mass to the young krolewicz (or crown prince) Sigismund Augustus, from whom protestantism, erroneously enough, expected much in the future.Advertisement
He was crowned, as Augustus II., on the 15th of September 1697, and his first act was to expel from the country the prince of Conti, the elect of a respectable minority, directed by the cardinal primate Michal Radziejowski (1645-1705), whom Augustus II.
Augustus attempted to indemnify himself for his failure to obtain Livonia, his covenanted share of the Swedish plunder, by offering Frederick William of Prussia Courland, Polish Prussia and even part of Great Poland, provided that he were allowed a free hand in the disposal of the rest of the country.
When Prussia declined this tempting offer for fear of Russia, Augustus went a step farther and actually suggested that "the four 1 eagles" should divide the banquet between them.
On the death of Augustus II., Stanislaus Leszczyfiski, who had, in the meantime, become the father-in-law of Louis XV., attempted to regain his throne with the aid of a small French army corps and 4,000,000 livres from Versailles.
He retired once more to his little court in Lorraine, with the title of king, leaving Augustus III.Advertisement
Florian's nephews, Fryderyk Michal and Augustus, were now the principal representatives of "the Family," as their opponents sarcastically called them.
The former, through the influence of Augustus's minister and favourite Briihl, had become, in his twenty-eighth year, vice ' The fourth eagle was the White Eagle, i.e.
His brother and Augustus, after fighting with great distinction against the Turks both by land and sea (Prince Eugene decorated him with a sword of honour for his valour at the siege of Belgrade), had returned home to marry Sophia Sieniawska, whose fabulous dowry won for her husband the sobriquet of "the Family Croesus."
Disappointed in their hopes of Russia, the Czartoryscy next attempted to form a confederation for the deposition of Augustus III., but while the strife of factions was still at its height the absentee monarch put an end to the struggle by expiring, conveniently, on the 5th of October 1763.
Returning to Poland, he became in 1564 secretary to Sigismund Augustus.
He has left The Game of Chess, an imitation of Vida, and Proporzec albo hold pruski (The Standard or Investiture of Prussia), where he describes the fealty done by Albert of Brandenburg to Sigismund Augustus.
In the Volscian territory lay the little town of Velitrae (Velletri), the birthplace of Augustus.
In 129 B.C. C. Sempronius Tuditanus celebrated a triumph over them, and in 34 B.C. they were finally crushed by Augustus.
He seems to have maintained to a certain degree an attitude of independence, if not of opposition, towards Augustus.
But he showed the magnanimity of his nature by at once admitting Verus as his partner, giving him the tribunician and proconsular powers, and the titles Caesar and Augustus.
It has also been virtually proved that it had the title even in the reign of Augustus.
Archelaus temporized; the loyalty of the people no longer constituted a valid title to the throne; his succession must first be sanctioned by Augustus.
At length Augustus summoned the representatives of the nation and Nicholaus of Damascus, who spoke for Archelaus, to plead before him in the temple of Apollo.
Augustus apportioned Herod's dominions among his sons in accordance with the provisions of his latest will.
His coins bore the heads of Augustus and Tiberius, and his government was worthy of the best Roman traditions - he succeeded where proconsuls had failed.
His marriage with the daughter of the Arabian king Aretas (which was at any rate in accordance with the general policy of Augustus) seems to have preserved his territory from the incursions of her people, so long as he remained faithful to her.
Augustus joined it with Lucania (from which it was divided by the rivers Laus and Crathis) to form the third region of Italy.
Augustus is said to have conducted here a colony of veterans,' but the place never had any great importance, and the lagoons behind it made it unhealthy, though the construction of the Via Domitiana through it must have made it a posting station.
Augustus, however, finding it too unwieldy, again divided it into three provinces, one of which was Belgica, bounded on the west by the Seine and the Arar (Saone); on the north by the North Sea; on the east by the Rhine from its mouth to the Lacus Brigantinus (Lake Constance).
Aided by the Russians, his troops drove Stanislaus Leszczynski from Poland; Augustus was crowned at Cracow in January 1734, and was generally recognized as king at Warsaw in June 1736.
Augustus, who showed neither talent nor inclination for government, was content to leave Poland under the influence of Russia, and Saxony to the rule of his ministers.
It subsequently fell into the hands of Neapolis, and remained so until the time of Augustus, who took it in exchange for Aenaria (Ischia) and often resided there.
Meanwhile, in the Farther East so rapid has been the progress of geographical research since the first beginnings of investigation into the route connexion between Burma and China in 1874 (when the brave Augustus Margary lost his life), that a gradually increasing tide of exploration, setting from east to west and back again, has culminated in a flood of inquiring experts intent on economic and commercial development in China, essaying to unlock those doors to trade which are hereafter to be propped open for the benefit of humanity.
A Roman colony was sent to the place, as Strabo mentions, in the reign of Augustus.
Like Augustus, he attempted a reformation of morals and religion.
In 1747, by the royal decree establishing the boundary between Massachusetts and Rhode Island, Attleborough Gore, with other territory formerly under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, was annexed to Rhode Island, and the township of Cumberland was incorporated, the name being adopted in honour of William Augustus, duke of Cumberland.
But Charles's determination promptly to punish the treachery of Augustus prevailed over every other consideration.
Charles also rightly felt that he could never trust the treacherous Augustus to remain quiet, even if he made peace with him.
The cardinal-primate was then sent for and commanded to summon a diet, for the purpose of deposing Augustus.
After Klissow, Augustus made every effort to put an end to the war, but Charles would not even consider his offers.
Under Augustus they were included in Gallia Narbonensis; later, in the Viennensis.
Carinthia is so called from the Carni, a Celtic people, and in the time of Augustus it formed part of Noricum.
His coins of 270 struck at Alexandria bear the legend v(ir) c(onsularis) R(omanorum) im(perator) d(ux) R(omanorum) and display his head beside that of Aurelian, but the latter alone is styled Augustus.
Aurelian, the true Augustus, quickly grasped the situation, and took strenuous measures to deal with it.
Under the dominion of the Roman republic its national league was dissolved, but was revived by Augustus, who also restored to Phocis the votes in the Delphic Amphictyony which it had lost in 346 and enrolled it in the new Achaean synod.
The first settlement was made in 1801 by Augustus Sackett, and the village was incorporated in 1821.
A rescript of Augustus forbade Roman citizens to practise druidical rites.
Repeated appeals had been sent to the West from the beginning of the Egyptian affair (1163) onwards; while in 1184-1185 a great mission, on which the patriarch of Jerusalem and the masters of the Templars and the Hospitallers were all present, came to France and England, and offered the crown of Jerusalem to Philip Augustus and Henry II.
The very means which Philip Augustus and Henry II.
War had indeed disturbed the original agreement of Gisors between Philip Augustus and Henry II., but a new agreement was made between Henry's successor, Richard I., and the French king at Nonancourt (December 1189), by which the two monarchs were to meet at Vezelay next year, and then follow the sea route to the Holy Land together.
In these dissensions it was inevitable that Philip Augustus and Richard I., already discordant, should take contrary sides; and while Richard naturally sided with Guy de Lusignan, who came from his own county of Poitou, Philip as naturally sided with Conrad.
His great wealth may have been in part hereditary, but he owed his position and influence to his close connexion with the emperor Augustus.
The chief ancient authorities for his life are Horace (Odes with Scholia), Dio Cassius, Tacitus (Annals), Suetonius (Augustus).
Hadrian's first important act was to abandon as untenable the conquests of Trajan beyond the Euphrates (Assyria, Mesopotamia and Armenia), a recurrence to the traditional policy of Augustus.
The provinces were unsettled, the barbarians on the borders restless and menacing, and Hadrian wisely judged that the old limits of Augustus afforded the most defensible frontier.
Remains of the bridge of the Via Aemilia over the Rhenus have also been found - consisting of parts of the parapets on each side, in brick-faced concrete which belong to a restoration, the original construction (probably by Augustus in 2 B.C.) having been in blocks of Veronese red marble - and also of a massive protecting wall slightly above it, of late date, in the construction of which a large number of Roman tombstones were used.
Among the first of these benefactions was the great gymnasium of Ptolemy, built in the neighbourhood of the Agora about 250 B.C. Successive princes of the dynasty of Pergamum interested themselves in the adorn western entrance being the well-known Doric portico of Athena Archegetis with an inscription recording its erection from donations of Julius Caesar and Augustus.
At the eastern end of the Acropolis a little circular temple of white marble with a peristyle of 9 Ionic columns was dedicated to Rome and Augustus; its foundations were discovered during the excavations of 1885-1888.
He rapidly acquired the favour of the elector Frederick Augustus, surnamed the Strong, who had been elected to the throne of Poland in 1697.
He was at Warsaw when his master died in 1733, and he secured a hold on the confidence of the electoral prince, Frederick Augustus, who was at Dresden, by laying hands on the papers and jewels of the late ruler and bringing them promptly to his successor.
Briihl must therefore be held wholly responsible for the ruinous policy which destroyed the position of Saxony in Germany between 1733 and 1763; for the mistaken ambition which led Frederick Augustus II.
In 1736 he had been made a count of the Empire and had married the countess Franziska von KolowratKradowska, a favourite of the wife of Frederick Augustus.
Later on Augustus removed the inhabitants to his new town Augustodunum (Autun), to destroy the free native traditions.
She had thirteen children - Frederick Henry, drgwned at sea in 1629; Charles Louis, elector palatine, whose daughter married Philip, duke of Orleans, and became the ancestress of the elder and Roman Catholic branch of the royal family of England; Elizabeth, abbess and friend of Descartes; Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice, who died unmarried; Louisa, abbess; Edward, who married Anne de Gonzaga, "princesse palatine," and had children; Henrietta Maria, who married Count Sigismund Ragotzki but died childless; Philip and Charlotte, who died childless; Sophia, who married Ernest Augustus, elector of Hanover, and was mother of George I.
Besides creating the fiscus, Augustus also established in A.D.
They were removed from the list of judices by Caesar, but replaced by Augustus.
The great bronze head of Augustus Caesar, now in the British Museum, is one of the trophies of this excavation, and is very interesting as being either a trophy of war carried off perhaps from Syene, or was actually set up at Meroe by the independent native ruler in honour of the Emperor.
Thus, Varro (De rustici) mentions a map of Italy engraved on marble, in the temple of Tellus, Pliny, a map of the seat of war in Armenia, of the time of the emperor Nero, and the more famous map of the Roman Empire which was ordered to be prepared for Julius Caesar (44 B.C.), but only completed in the reign of Augustus, who placed a copy of it, engraved in marble, in the Porticus of his sister Octavia (7 B.C.).
Pliny tells us that Caecilius, a freedman of the time of Augustus, left by his will as many as 4116.
Vedius Pollio, in the time of Augustus, was said to have thrown his slaves, condemned sometimes for trivial mistakes or even accidents, to the lampreys in his fishpond.
The law under which the slaves of Pedanius were put to death, probably introduced under Augustus and more fully enacted under Nero, is sufficient proof of this anxiety, which indeed is strongly stated by Tacitus in his narrative of the facts.
Antony, Octavius, and Sextus Pompeius employed them in the Second Civil War; and it is recorded by Augustus on the Monumentum Ancyranum that he gave back to their masters for punishment about 30,000 slaves who had absconded and borne arms against the state.
Augustus set himself against the undue multiplication of manumissions, probably considering the rapid succession of new citizens a source of social instability, and recommended a similar policy to his successor.
Nominally a free Greek city, Alexandria retained its senate to Roman times; and indeed the judicial functions of that body were restored by Septimius Severus, after temporary abolition by Augustus.
This latter fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under the imperial power.
The best quality, formed from the middle and broadest strips of the plant, was originally named hieratica, but afterwards, in flattery of the emperor Augustus, it was called, after him, Augusta; and the charta Livia, or second quality, was so named in honour of his wife.
It became a Roman colony under Augustus, who died at Nola.
Numerous ruins, an amphitheatre, still recognizable, a theatre, a temple of Augustus, &c., existed in the 16th century, and have been since used for building material.
On the death of Augustus II., king of Poland (1733), France had put forward as candidate Stanislaus Leszczynski, War of Louis XV.'s father-in-law.
In 1763, Catherine took advantage of the death of Augustus III.
On the 24th of August 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus.
The most important monument is the Augusteum, a temple of white marble erected to "Rome and Augustus" during the lifetime of that emperor by the common council or diet of the three Galatian tribes.
The inscription is a grave and majestic narrative of the public life and work of Augustus.
After Augustus the mint was finally closed.
Enguerrand III., the Great, fought at Bouvines under Philip Augustus (1214), but later he was accused of aiming at the crown of France, and he took part in the disturbances which arose during the regency of Blanche of Castile.
The place was taken by Philip Augustus in 1205 after a year's siege.
Carthage regained its rank of capital of Africa under Augustus, when thousands of Roman colonists flocked to the town.
Both inspection and procession were discontinued before the end of the republic, but revived and in a manner combined by Augustus.
To this period Mommsen assigns the regulation, generally attributed to Augustus, that the sons of senators should be knights by right of birth.
Augustus undertook the thorough reorganization of the equestrian order on a military basis.
Augustus divided the equites into six turmae (regarded by Hirschfeld as a continuation of the sex su fragia) .
It is not known whether the turmae contained a fixed number of equites; there is no doubt that, in assigning the public horse, Augustus went far beyond the earlier figure of ' Soo.
As before, the equites wore the narrow, purple-striped tunic, and the gold ring, the latter now being considered the distinctive badge of knighthood., The fourteen rows in the theatre were extended by Augustus to seat's in the circus.
In the jury courts, the equites, thanks to Julius Caesar, already formed two-thirds of the judices; Augustus, by excluding the senators altogether, virtually gave them the sole control of the tribunals.
The body-guard of Augustus, consisting of foreign soldiers (chiefly Germans and Batavians), abolished by Galba, was revived from the time of Trajan or Hadrian under the above title.
In 1793 it was besieged by the English under Frederick Augustus, duke of York, who was compelled to retire after the defeat of Hondschoote.
In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.
As late as the time of Augustus it was but little known in Roman territory, and gained a firm foothold in Italy only gradually, as a result of the intercourse between Rome and Asia consequent upon the erection of the Eastern provinces and the submission and colonization of Mesopotamia.
Pietro e Cesareo, fronting upon it, is ensconced in.a temple of Rome and Augustus, part of the side wall of which, with engaged columns, is still visible.
Siena was probably founded by the Etruscans (a few tombs of that period have been found outside Porta Camollia), and then, falling under the Roman rule, became a colony in the reign of Augustus, or a little earlier, and was distinguished by the name of Saena Julia.
It successfully resisted the attacks of Hannibal; and it is noteworthy that it continued to strike copper coins even under Augustus and Tiberius.
The Mesek of Augustus Greguss (1878), a collection of verse " Fables," belonging to the school of Gay, partake more of a didactic than lyrical nature.
The philosophical labours of the already mentioned John Erdelyi and of Augustus Greguss won for them well-deserved recognition, the latter especially being famous for his aesthetical productions, in which he appears to follow out the principles of Vischer.
Somogyi (sociology), and the late Augustus Pulszky In history there has been great activity.
Notable service was also rendered by Augustus de Morgan, who applied logical analysis to the laws of mathematics.
In this opposition he was joined by his brother, Frederick Augustus Conkling (1816-1891), at that time also a Republican member of Congress.
Theobald I., count of Bar, was an ally of Philip Augustus, as was also his son Henry II., who distinguished himself at the battle of Bouvines in 1214.
It probably acquired municipal rights in 90 B.C., but Augustus, owing to the fact that it did not support him, assigned a part of its territory to his veterans in 41 B.C., and henceforth it is once more called colonia.
Not far off to the south-east is the amphitheatre, probably erected by Augustus when he founded a colony at Syracuse; it is partly cut in the rock and partly built.
Augustus and his successors took good care to fortify the Rhine carefully, and a large proportion of the Roman legions were constantly in garrison here.
He was the author of a history (perhaps called Annales) of the events of the civil wars and the reign of Augustus, embracing the period from at least 43-18 B.C. In A.D.
It was bestowed in 1180 on Philip Augustus of France by Philip of Alsace, as the dowry of his niece Isabella of Hainaut.
Under Augustus the office lost much of its importance, its juridical functions and the care of the games being transferred to the praetor, while its city responsibilities were limited by the appointment of a praefectus urbi.
On his death in 1189, the nobles of Anjou, Maine and Touraine refused to recognize John of England, and did homage to Arthur, who declared himself the vassal of Philip Augustus.
While Philip Augustus was invading Normandy, Arthur tried to seize Poitou.
When the newly elected successor to the throne, the highly popular prince Christian Augustus of Augustenburg, died suddenly in Skane in May 181o, the report spread that he had been poisoned, and that Fersen and his sister, the countess Piper, were accessories.
Little is heard of Pannonia until 35 B.C., when its inhabitants, having taken up arms in support of the Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia (Sissek).
In the division of Italy by Augustus it formed the seventh regio and extended as far north as the river Macra, which separated it from Liguria.
Augustus gave it the name of Colonia Julia Pisana; his grandsons Gaius and Lucius were patrons of the colony, and after their death monuments were erected in their honour, as is recorded in two long inscriptions still extant.
Its strategic importance was early recognized by the Romans, and about 13 B.C. Drusus, the son-in-law of Augustus, erected a fortified camp here, to which the castellum Mattiacorum (the modern Castel) on the opposite bank was afterwards added, the two being connected with a bridge at the opening of the Christian era.
In the time of Augustus it was inferior to Patavium in importance, but on a par with Mediolanum, and superior to Brixia and other towns of the district.
Patavium acquired Roman citizenship with the rest of Gallia Transpadana in 49 B.C. Under Augustus, Strabo tells us, Patavium surpassed all the cities of the north in wealth, and in the number of Roman knights among its citizens in the census of Augustus was only equalled by Gades, which had also Soo.
The foundation by Augustus of Nicopolis, into which the remaining inhabitants were drafted, left the site desolate.
After the battle of Actium (31 B.C.) Augustus restored Amisus as a "free city" to the province of Bithynia-Pontus, but made no other serious change.
In 1771 Augustus George of Baden-Baden died without sons, and his territories passed to Charles Frederick of Baden-Durlach, who thus became ruler of the whole of Baden.
Adjacent to the town are the two Augustus Cleveland monuments, one erected by government, and the other by the Hindus, to the memory of the civilian, who, as collector of Bhagalpur at the end of the 18th century, "by conciliation, confidence and benevolence, attempted and accomplished the entire subjection of the lawless and savage inhabitants of the Jungleterry of Rajmahal."
The efforts to subdue or restrain these marauders proved fruitless, till Augustus Cleveland won them by mild measures, and successfully made over the protection of the district to the very hill people who a few years before had been its scourge.
The communal privileges, conferred on the town in 1182 by Hugh III., duke of Burgundy, were confirmed by Philip Augustus in 1188, and in the 13th century the dukes took up their residence there.
His father was Christian Augustus (1673-1726), duke of Schleswig-HolsteinGottorp, bishop of Lubeck, and administrator, during the war of 1700-1721, of the duchies of Holstein-Gottorp for his nephew Charles Frederick; his mother was Albertina Frederica of BadenDurlach.
The great inspiring influence of the new literature was the enthusiasm produced first by the hope and afterwards by the fulfilment of the restoration of peace, order, national glory, under the rule of Augustus.
The sentiment of hero-worship was at all times strong in the Romans, and no one was ever the object of more sincere as well as simulated hero-worship than Augustus.
For more than a century after the death of Augustus Roman literature continues to flow in the old channels.
For a generation after the death of Augustus no new original literary force appeared.
With this object he consecrated there his new temple of Apollo (28 B.C.), associated for long with the Julian house, and adopted by Augustus as his special patron at Actium, and transferred to its keeping the Sibylline books, thus marking the new headquarters of the Graeco-Roman religion.
Originally, no doubt, Augustus designed to attract religious feeling generally to the reigning house, but it was inevitable that the more personal note should be given to it.
As the palace cults became national, the worship of the Genius was bound to spread, and ultimately Augustus sanctioned its celebration at the compita together with the worship of the old Lares.
In the succeeding centuries Augustus's intentions were realized with a fullness which he would hardly have wished, and the cult of the imperial house practically superseded the state religion as the official form of worship.
Three hundred and twenty-nine letters to Augustus of Saxony dating from the 17th of November 1565 to the 8th of September 1581, and one hundred and eleven letters to the chancellor Mordeisen dating from November 1559 to the summer of 1565, are preserved in MS. in the Saxon archives, and were published by Ludovicus at Halle in 1699 under the title Arcana seculi decimi sexti.
The other, territorially distinct from it for reasons of statecraft, was the Temple of Roma and Augustus, to which the inhabitants of the 64 Gallic cantons in the three Roman provinces of Aquitania, Lugudunensis and Belgica - the so-called Tres Galliae - sent delegates every summer to hold games and otherwise celebrate the worship of the emperor which was supposed to knit the provincials to Rome.
Augustus made it the capital of Achaea; Hadrian enriched it with public works.
This arch appears on Roman coins from Augustus to Commodus; according to Pausanias it bore two four-horse chariots, one driven by Helios and the other by Phaethon, his son, all in gilded bronze.
Lucius Castricius is mentioned as a Roman governor under Augustus.
As the extent of Roman land increased, this could no longer be done, and in the Acta of the Fratres, which date from Augustus, we do not find this procession mentioned (Henzen, Acta Fratrum Arvalium, 1874); but there is a good description of this or a similar rite in Virgil, Georg.
In Augustus' time Tegea was the only important town of Arcadia, but its history throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods is obscure; it ceased to exist as a Greek city after the Gothic invasion of 395.
The conquest of Spain by Augustus, which was completed in the thirty-ninth year B.C., gave rise to this era, which began with the first day of the following year, and was long used in Spain and Portugal, and generally in all the Roman provinces subdued by the Visigoths, both in Africa and the South of France.
Many of the medals struck by the city of Antioch in honour of Augustus are dated according to this era.
Besides the era of Actium, there was also an Augustan era, which began four years later, or 27 B.C., the year in which Augustus prevailed on the senate and people of Rome to decree him the title of Augustus, and to confirm him in the supreme power of the empire.
On her death he married Margaret of France, sister of King Philip Augustus.
In early life he became attached to republican principles, which he never abandoned, although he avoided offending Augustus by too open an expression of them.
He moved that the title of pater patriae should be bestowed upon Augustus, and yet resigned the appointment of praefect of the city after six days' tenure of office, because it was opposed to his ideas of constitutionalism.
Nerva saw that if he could not find an Augustus to control the army, the army would find another Domitian to trample the senate under foot.
In disciplinary matters no emperor since Augustus had been able to keep so strong a control over the troops.
Pliny rightly praises Trajan as the lawgiver and the founder of discipline, and Vegetius classes Augustus, Trajan and Hadrian together as restorers of the morale of the army.
Licinius, played an excellent Maecenas to his Augustus.
He was only carrying a step farther the policy of Augustus, who by a system of rewards and penalties had tried to encourage marriage and the nurture of children.
The actual effect of Trajan's regulations is hard to measure; they were probably more effectual for their object than those of Augustus.
Trajan never lacked money to expend on great works of public utility; as a builder, he may fairly be compared with Augustus.
His attitude towards religion was, like that of Augustus, moderate and conservative.
Each succeeding emperor was saluted with the wish that he might be "better than Trajan and more fortunate than Augustus."
Yet the breach made in Trajan's felicitas by the failure in the East was no greater than that made in the felicitas of Augustus by his retirement from the right bank of the Rhine.
The great event of this visit took place on the succeeding Christmas Day, when Charles on rising from prayer in St Peter's was crowned by Leo and proclaimed emperor and Augustus amid the acclamations of the crowd.
But she attracted the attention of the future emperor Augustus, who in 38 compelled her husband to divorce her and married her himself, having first got rid of his own wife Scribonia.
Her two sons, at their dying father's request, were entrusted to the guardianship of Augustus, to whom she bore no children.
Livia was suspected of committing various crimes to secure the throne for Tiberius, whereas Augustus naturally favoured the claims of his blood-relatives.
The senate also elected her chief priestess of the college founded in honour of the deified Augustus.
In order to arrive at the date here implied, we can begin the reckoning from Julius Caesar or Augustus, we can include or exclude Galba, Otho and Vitellius, and, finally, when we have drawn our conclusions from these data, there remains the possibility that the book was after all not written under the sixth emperor, but was really a vaticinium ex eventu.
North-east of the entrance is a "Birth House" for the cult of the child Harsemteu, and behind the temple a small temple of Isis, dating from the reign of Augustus.
It was captured by the Jacobites in 1745, but reoccupied after the battle of Culloden, when it received its present name in honour of William Augustus, duke of Cumberland, the victorious general.
Pressure was put by the German powers on Charles Augustus, grand-duke of Saxe-Weimar, in whose dominions Jena university was situated, to reprove and dismiss the offenders.
Among the last-mentioned are the square at the railway station - the Ernst August-Platz - with an equestrian statue of King Ernest Augustus in bronze; the triangular Theater-Platz, with statues of the composer Marschner and others; and the Georgs-Platz, with a statue of Schiller.
According to the heading of the chief MS. he was a slave and was freed by Augustus.
Augustus occasionally appointed a city praefect to represent him in his absence from Italy, although the praetors, or even one of the consuls, remained in the capital.
He was further entrusted by Augustus with a summary criminal jurisdiction over slaves and rioters, which was, however, gradually extended till in the time of Severus or even earlier it embraced all offences by whomsoever committed.
In consequence of a treaty between Philip Augustus and John of England, she was betrothed to the former's son, Louis, and was brought to France, in the spring of 1200, by John's mother Eleanor.
Philip Augustus refused to help his son, and Blanche was his sole support.
Later, when Herod's conduct aroused the suspicions of Augustus, Nicolaus was sent on a mission to bring about a reconciliation.
Fragments of his universal history (`Iaropia KaBoXLKi 7), from the time of the Assyrian empire to his own days, his autobiography, and his life of Augustus (Bios Kacaapos) have been preserved, chiefly in the extracts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
This, as founded by Augustus, consisted of nine cohorts, each l000 strong, some part of which was always with the emperor, whether in Rome or elsewhere.
He therefore set himself up in rivalry with John Lackland, youngest son of Henry II., and supported by Philip Augustus of France, and aided by William des Roches, seneschal of Anjou, he managed to enter Angers (18th of April 1199) and there have himself recognized as count of the three countships of Anjou, Maine and Touraine, for which he did homage to the king of France.
King John soon regained the upper hand, for Philip Augustus having deserted Arthur by the treaty of Le Goulet (22nd of May 1200), John made his way into Anjou; and on the 18th of June 1200 was recognized as count at Angers.
In 1202 he refused to do homage to Philip Augustus, who, in consequence, confiscated all his continental possessions, including Anjou, which was allotted by the king of France to Arthur.
The defeat of the latter, who was taken prisoner at Mirebeau on the ist of August 1202, seemed to ensure John's success, but he was abandoned by William des Roches, who in 1203 assisted Philip Augustus in subduing the whole of Anjou.
The golden age of Weimar, covered by the reign of Charles Augustus from 1775 to 1828, 'has left an indelible impress on the character of the town.
The town has been embellished by several other statues, including those of Charles Augustus (1875); Lucas Cranach (1886); Marie Seibach (1889); the composer Hummel (1895) and Franz Liszt (1904).
To the north-west is the Ettersberg, with the Ettersburg, a château which was another favourite resort of Charles Augustus and his friends.
The history of Weimar, apart from its association with Charles Augustus and his court, is of little general interest.
Under Charles Augustus Weimar became a centre of Liberalism as well as of art.
The traditions of Charles Augustus were well maintained by his grandson, the grand-duke Charles Alexander (1818-1901), whose statue now stands in the Karlsplatz.
Coeffeteau won considerable distinction in the controversy against the Protestant reformers and also wrote a History of Rome from Augustus to Constantine.
Confirming what was doubtless an older custom, Philip Augustus decreed the quarantaine-le-roi, which suspended every act of reprisal for at least forty days; and in 1257 Louis IX.
Amongst these must be included, at least after the time of Augustus, the Lares compitales.
The artificial mole was probably of earlier date than the reign of Augustus (possibly 2nd century B.C.); and by that time at any rate there were docks large enough to contain the vessels employed in bringing the obelisks from Egypt.
There was also a short cut from Puteoli to Neapolis by the tunnel of Pausilipon, made under Augustus.
In the time of Augustus the census was extended to the whole empire.
In 27 Agrippa was consul for the third time, and in the following year the senate bestowed upon Octavian the emperial title of Augustus.
The inscription on the portico states that it was erected by him during his third consulship. His friendship with Augustus seems to have been clouded by the jealousy of his father-in-law Marcellus, which was probably fomented by the intrigues of Livia, the second wife of Augustus, who feared his influence with her husband.
On the death of Marcellus, which took place within a year, he was recalled to Rome by Augustus, who found he could not dispense with his services.
Augustus honoured his memory by a magnificent funeral.
From the materials at hand he constructed a circular chart, which was engraved on marble by Augustus and afterwards placed in the colonnade built by his sister Polla.
Augustus sent a Roman colony to it, and a Roman road ran from it to Catana.
Before 6 B.C. Augustus made it a colony, with the title Caesarea, and it became the centre of civil and military administration in south Galatia, the romanization of which was progressing rapidly in the time of Claudius, A.D.
Augustus Heinze; later the Amalgamated Copper Company gained control of a large part of the mines.
Saxony owes its unusual wealth in fruit partly to the care of the elector Augustus I., who is said never to have stirred abroad without fruit seeds for distribution among the peasants and farmers.
Augustus I., brother and successor of Maurice, was one of the best domestic rulers that Saxony ever had.
With all his virtues, however, Augustus was an intolerant Lutheran, and used very severe means to exterminate the Calvinists; in his electorate he is said to have expelled 111 Calvinist preachers in a single month.
This prince was elected king of Poland as Augustus II.
Augustus pawned and sold large districts of Saxon territory, while he drained the electorate of both men and money.
For a year before the peace of Altranstadt in 1706, when Augustus gave up the crown of Poland, Saxony was occupied by a Swedish army, which had to be supported at an immense expense.
The caste privileges of the estates (Stdnde) were increased by Augustus, a fact which tended to alienate them more from the people, and so to decrease their power.
Frederick Augustus II., who succeeded his father in the electorate in 1733, and was afterwards elected to the throne of Poland as Augustus III., was an indolent prince, wholly under the influence of Count Heinrich von Briihl (q.v.).
The elector's son and successor, Frederick Christian, survived his father only two months, dying also in 1763, leaving a son, Frederick Augustus III., a boy of thirteen.
As he was the first king of Saxony, he is usually styled Frederick Augustus I.
When the Bavarian succession fell open in 1777, Frederick Augustus joined Prussia in protesting against the absorption of Bavaria by Austria, and Saxon troops took part in the bloodless " potato-war."
Frederick Augustus was succeeded in 1827 by his brother Antony, to the great disappointment of the people, who had expected a more liberal era under Prince Frederick Augustus, the king's nephew.
Einsiedel was now dismissed, Prince Frederick Augustus, son of Maximilian, who resigned the succession, became co-regent, and a constitution was promised.
Antony had died in 1836, and Frederick Augustus II.
King George died on the 15th of October 1904 and was succeeded by his son as King Frederick Augustus III.
He was buried in the sepulchre of Augustus, and divine honours were paid him by his successor.
In 1203 the monastery was burnt by the troops of Philip Augustus, who afterwards furnished large sums for its restoration (La Merveille).
He seems to have received a good education under the care of Augustus who, in 29, after Mark Antony's death, gave him the hand of Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Antony and Cleopatra, and placed him on his father's throne.
Augustus divided its lands among his veterans, but did not plant a colony here.
He afterwards fled to Athens, where he was soon put to death by Octavian, whom he had offended by writing an abusive letter (Suetonius, Augustus, 4).
The diet was the humble servant of the conqueror of the moment, and the leading magnates chose their own sides without the slightest regard for the interests of their country, the Lithuanians for the most part supporting Charles XII., while the Poles divided their allegiance between Augustus and Stanislaus Leszczynski, whom Charles Leszczyn- placed upon the throne in 1704 and kept there till 1709.
The interregnum occurring on the death of Augustus III.
A later period, that of the miserable epoch of Augustus III., is described very graphically in the memoirs of Matuszewicz, first edited by Pawinski at Warsaw in 1876.
The national theatre was really founded in the reign of Stanislaus Augustus; and good plays were produced by Bohomolec, Kaminski, Kropinski, Boguslawski, Zablocki, and others.
The family of Livia, the consort of Augustus, belonged to Fundi.
He was compelled by public opinion to support the claims of Louis XV.'s father-inlaw Stanislaus Leszczynski, ex-king of Poland, to the Polish crown on the death of Frederick Augustus I., against the RussoAustrian candidate; but the despatch of a French expedition of 150o men to Danzig only served to humiliate France.
Considered as a history of algebra, this work is strongly objected to by Jean Etienne Montucla on the ground of its unfairness as against the early Italian algebraists and also Franciscus Vieta and Rene Descartes and in favour of Harriot; but Augustus De Morgan, while admitting this, attributes to it considerable merit.
The Roman town was founded in the reign of Augustus, and it flourished for two centuries before it disappeared from history.
Augustus died on 19th August A.D.
Tibur was a favourite place of resort in Roman times, and both Augustus and Maecenas had villas here, and possibly Horace also.
Augustus made it a military station; Tiberius chose it as his headquarters against the Pannonian rebels; and from Septimius Severus, who made it the centre of a military government, it gained the name of Septimia Sissia.
From that time it is one of the principal units in the literature (Didymus, &c.), and is said to occur in the temple of Augustus at Pergamum as 13.8 (18).
Caesar made no far-reaching modifications in the government of the city, such as were afterwards carried out by Augustus, and the presence in the Lex Julia Municipalis of the clauses referred to is an example of the common process of "tacking" (legislation per saturam, as it was called by the Romans).
The district which later bore the name of Venetia was inhabited, under the Roman Republic, by a variety of tribes - Celts, Veneti, Raeti, &c. Under Augustus, Venetia and Histria formed the tenth region of Augustus, the latter including the Istrian peninsula as far as the river Arsia, i.e.
Peter accompanied his cousin, King Philip Augustus, on the crusade of 1190, fought against the Albigenses, and was present at the battle of Bouvines in 1214.
On the death of the third king Amyntas in 25 B.C., Galatia was incorporated by Augustus in the Roman empire, and few of the provinces were more enthusiastically loyal.
The district was given to various cadets of the ruling house of Brunswick, one of these being Ernest Augustus, afterwards elector of Hanover, and the ancestor of the Hanoverian kings of Great Britain and Ireland.
The brief struggle over, Otho returned in triumph to the camp, and on the same day was duly invested by the senators with the name of Augustus, the tribunician power and the other dignities belonging to the principate.
Augustus and his successors adopted the practice of granting to existing towns in the provinces either the full citizenship, or a partial civitas known as the jus Latii.
Caesar-worship as an organized cult developed spontaneously in many provincial towns during the reign of Augustus, and was fostered by him and his successors as a means of promoting in these centres of vigour and prosperity a strong loyalty to Rome and the emperor, which was one of the firmest supports of the latter's power.
By the organization of the order on these lines Augustus secured the double object of maintaining Caesar-worship in all the most vigorous centres of provincial life, and attracting to himself and his successors the special devotion of the industrial class which had its origin in the municipia of the Roman Empire, and has become the greatest political force in modern Europe.
And the self-governing communities of the middle ages were a restoration, rather than a development, of the flourishing and independent municipalities of the age of Augustus and his immediate successors.
A story is told that de Courci when imprisoned in the Tower volunteered to act as champion for King John in single combat against a knight representing Philip Augustus of France; that when he appeared in the lists his French opponent fled in panic; whereupon de Courci, to gratify the French king's desire to witness his prowess, "cleft a massive helmet in twain at a single blow," a feat for which he was rewarded by a grant of the privilege for himself and his heirs to remain covered in the presence of the king and all future sovereigns of England.
In 1704 he was entrusted with his first diplomatic mission, the deposition of Augustus II.
Shortly afterwards he was besieged by Augustus in Warsaw and compelled to surrender.
The two together constituted the third region of Augustus.
The fleur-de-lis was first definitely connected with the French monarchy in an ordonnance of Louis le Jeune (c. 1147), and was first figured on a seal of Philip Augustus in 1180.
He also tells us that he was at Gyaros (one of the Cyclades) when Augustus was at Corinth on his return to Rome from the East in 29 B.C., and that he accompanied the prefect of Egypt, Aelius Gallus, on his expedition to Upper Egypt, which seems to have taken place in 25-24 B.C. These are the only dates in his life which can be accurately fixed.
Doubtless, however, he returned to Rome after a long sojourn in Alexandria, a fact which explains the defectiveness of his information about the countries to the east of his native land, and renders it possible for him to have made use of the " chorography " of Agrippa, a map of the Roman Empire and adjacent countries set up by order of Augustus in the Porticus Vipsaniae.
He then joined George Augustus Selwyn, bishop of New Zealand, in a mission to the Melanesian islands.
It was plundered by the Iapydes under Augustus, but, in the period of peace which followed, was able to develop its resources.
Augustus visited it during the Pannonian wars in 12-10 B.C. and it was the birthplace of Tiberius's son by Julia, in the latter year.
He died (about 32) while governor of Syria under Augustus.
This Order Was Interrupted To Gratify The Vanity Of Augustus, By Giving The Month Bearing His Name As Many Days As July, Which Was Named After The First Caesar.
This Mistake Having Been Discovered, Augustus Ordered That All The Years From The Thirtyseventh Of The Era To The Forty Eighth Inclusive Should Be Common Years, By Which Means The Intercalations Were Reduced To The Proper Number Of Twelve In Forty Eight Years.
Sir John Hippisley appealed to George III., who on the warm recommendation of Prince Augustus Frederick, duke of Sussex, gave orders for the annual payment of a pension of £4000 to the last of the Royal Stuarts.
In 33 B.C. Augustus during his Dalmatian wars built a wall and towers there, as an inscription records; in a medieval copy of it the emperor Frederick III.
Under Augustus, the district known as Sequania formed part of Belgica.
But he joined with his brother Richard and the French king Philip Augustus in the great conspiracy of 1189, and the discovery of his treason broke the heart of the old king (see Henry Ii.).
By his divorce from Isabella of Gloucester he offended the English baronage (1200); by his marriage with Isabella of Angouleme, the betrothed of Hugh of Lusignan, he gave an opportunity to the discontented Poitevins for invoking French assistance and to Philip Augustus for pronouncing against him a sentence of forfeiture.
When John Sobieski died in 1696, Augustus was a candidate for the Polish throne, and in order to further his chances became a Roman Catholic, a step which was strongly resented in Saxony.
Augustus continued the war against the Turks for a time, and being anxious to extend his influence and to find a pretext for retaining the Saxon troops in Poland, made an alliance in 1699 with Russia and Denmark against Charles XII.
The Poles would not assist, and at the head of the Saxons Augustus invaded Livonia, but for various causes the campaign was not a success, and in July 1702 he was defeated by Charles at Klissow.
Augustus was then deposed in Poland, and after holding Warsaw for a short time he fled to Saxony.
Peace was made with Sweden in December 1719 at Stockholm after the death of Charles XII., and Augustus was recognized as king of Poland.
Augustus died at Warsaw on the 1st of February 1733, leaving a son Frederick Augustus, who succeeded him in Poland and Saxony, and many illegitimate children, among whom was the famous general, Maurice of Saxony, known as Marshal Saxe.
Antonius Balbus, praetor in Sicily in 82 B.C., and Marcus Atius Balbus, who married Julia, a sister of Caesar, and had a daughter Atia, mother of Augustus.
Mommsen thinks that he had incurred the displeasure of Augustus by his conduct as praetor, and that his African appointment after so many years was due to his exceptional fitness for the post.
It became a colony either under the triumvirs or under Augustus, and it was then no doubt that it was fortified.
The hare takes readily to the water, where it swims well; an instance having been recorded in which one was observed crossing an arm of 1 Julius Hare's co-worker in this book was his brother Augustus William Hare (1792-1834), who, after a distinguished career at Oxford, was appointed rector of Alton Barnes, Wiltshire.
When Christian Louis died George William succeeded him in Luneburg-Celle; but the duchy was also claimed by a younger brother, John Frederick, a cultured and enlightened prince who had forsaken the Lutheran faith of his family and had become a Roman Catholic. Soon, however, by an arrangement John Frederick received Calenberg and Grubenhagen, which he ruled in absolute fashion, creating a standing army and modelling his court after that of Louis XIV., and which came on his death in 1679 to his youngest brother, Ernest Augustus (1630-1698), the Protestant bishop of Osnabruck.
It was, however, his more ambitious brother, Ernest Augustus, who did most for the prestige and advancement of the house.
This agitation, however, soon died away; and in 1708 George Louis, the son and successor of Ernest Augustus, was recognized as an elector by the imperial diet.
His father, Ernest Augustus, had taken a step of great importance in the history of Hanover when he married Sophia, daughter of the elector palatine, Frederick V., and grand-daughter of James I.
Induced by political exigencies George allied himself with Frederick the Great when the Seven Years' War broke out in 1756; but in September 1757 his son William Augustus, duke of Cumberland, was compelled after his defeat at Hastenbeck to sign the convention of Klosterzeven and to abandon Hanover to the French.
Like those of the other districts of Germany, the estates of the different provinces which formed the kingdom of Hanover had met for many years in an irregular fashion to exercise their varying and ill-defined authority; and, although the elector Ernest Augustus introduced a system of administrative councils into Celle, these estates, consisting of the three orders of prelates, nobles and towns, together with a body somewhat resembling the English privy council, were the only constitution which the country possessed, and the only check upon the power of its ruler.
By the law of Hanover a woman could not ascend the throne, and accordingly Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland, the fifth son of George III., and not Victoria, succeeded William as sovereign in 1837, thus separating the crowns of Great Britain and Hanover after a union of 123 years.
Order, however, having been restored, in 1850 he dismissed the Liberal ministry and attempted to evade his concessions; a bitter struggle had just broken out when Ernest Augustus died in November 1851.
His son, Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland, continued to maintain his claim to the crown of Hanover, and refused to be reconciled with Prussia.
In the Neustadt are the market square, with a bronze equestrian statue of Augustus the Strong; the Kaiser Wilhelmplatz; and the Aibertplatz.
The Zwinger, begun in 1711, and built in the rococo style, forms an enclosure, within which is a statue of King Frederick Augustus I.
The Briihl palace, built in 1737 by Count Briihl, the minister of Augustus II., has been in some measure demolished to make room for the new Standehaus (diet house), with its main facade facing the Hofkirche; before the main entrance there is an equestrian statue (1906) of King Albert.
The Japanese palace in the Neustadt, built in 1715 as a summer residence for Augustus II., receives its name from certain oriental figures with which it is decorated; it is sometimes called the Augusteum and contains the royal library.
The public monuments of Dresden also include the Moritz Monument, a relief dedicated by the elector Augustus to his brother Maurice, a statue of Weber the composer by Rietschel, a bronze statue of Theodor Korner by Hahne', the Rietschel monument on the Briihl Terrace by Schilling, a bust of Gutzkow, and a statue of Bismarck on the promenade.
Of these the most valuable is its splendid picture gallery, founded by Augustus I.
The objects, which are about 3000 in number, are arranged in eight rooms. They include the regalia of Augustus II.
Founded by Augustus II., it has become famous throughout the world, owing to the masters who have from time to time been associated with it - such as Pair, Weber, Reissiger and Wagner.
John George II., in the 17th century, formed the Grosser Garten, and otherwise greatly improved the town; but it was in the first half of the 18th century, under Augustus I.
The Neustadt, which had been burned down in the 17th century, was founded anew by Augustus I.; he also founded Friedrichstadt.
On the right the Russians under Wittgenstein advanced from Striesen, the Prussians under Kleist through the Grosser Garten, whilst Prussians under Prince Augustus and Austrians under Colloredo moved upon the Moczinski redoubt, which was the scene of the most desperate fighting, and was repeatedly taken and retaken.
The end of this period is generally said to coincide with the loss of the French provinces to Philip Augustus, but literary and political history do not correspond quite so precisely, and the end of the first period would be more accurately denoted by the appearance of the history of 'William the Marshal in 1225 (published for the Societe de l'histoire de France, by Paul Meyer, 3 vols., 1891-1901).
In 31 B.C. it served Octavian (Augustus) as a base against Antony.
It was probably increased by Augustus and in Pliny's time had reached 180.
Augustus planned it.
But both he and his successor Tiberius realized that the greater need was to consolidate the existing empire, and absorb the vast additions recently made to it by Pompey, Caesar and Augustus.
In return for the excesses of the democracies Rome dissolved the league, which, however, was allowed to revive under Augustus, and merged with the other central Greek federations in the Achaean synod.
One nation only - the France of Philip Augustus - was able to remain outside the Roman vassalage.
There is not a word, in the documents concerning the relations of Philip Augustus with Rome, from which we may conclude that the Capetian crown submitted, or that the papacy wished to impose upon it the effective suzerainty of the Holy See.
Founded by the conquests of Philip Augustus and Louis VIII.
In 2 B.C. Augustus, at the dedication of the temple of Mars Ultor, exhibited a naumachia between Athenians and Persians, in a basin probably in the horti Caesaris, where subsequently Titus gave a representation of a sea-fight between Corinth and Corcyra.
For the next four years he led a vagabond life, but in 1698, after vainly petitioning the new king, Charles XII., for pardon, he entered the service of Augustus the Strong of Saxony and Poland, with the deliberate intention of wresting from Sweden Livonia, to which he had now no hope of returning so long as that province belonged to the Swedish Crown.
The aristocratic republic of Poland was obviously the most convenient suzerain for a Livonian nobleman; so, in 1698, Patkul proceeded to the court of the king-elector at Dresden and bombarded Augustus with proposals for the partition of Sweden.
His first plan was a combination against her of Saxony, Denmark and Brandenburg; but, Brandenburg failing him, he was obliged very unwillingly to admit Russia into the partnership. The tsar was to be content with Ingria and Esthonia, while Augustus was to take Livonia, nominally as a fief of Poland, but really as an hereditary possession of the Saxon house.
The same year, recognizing the unprofitableness of serving such a master as Augustus, he exchanged the Saxon for the Russian service.
On the 19th of August 1704 he succeeded, at last, in bringing about a treaty of alliance between Russia and the Polish republic to strengthen the hands of Augustus, but he failed to bring Prussia also into the antiSwedish league because of Frederick I.'s fear of Charles and jealousy of Peter.
In 14 B.C. Augustus rebuilt Berytus as a Roman colony and stationed two legions there; later on Ptolemais, Tyre and Sidon received colonial status.
Under Augustus the greater part of the peninsula was added to Italy, and, when the seat of empire was removed to Ravenna, Istria reaped many benefits from the proximity of the capital.
As the wealthiest of Roman provinces it had most to gain by the pax Romana, and therefore welcomed the empire, and established and maintained the most devout cult of Augustus by means of the organization known as the Koinon or Commune, a representative council, meeting in the various metropoleis.
After Geoffrey's death (1186) the feud between John and Richard drove the latter into an alliance with Philip Augustus of France.
Henry once declined an offer of the Empire, made by the opponents of Frederick Barbarossa; and he steadily supported the young Philip Augustus against the intrigues of French feudatories.
The Order of St George (one class only) was instituted by King Ernest Augustus I.
The Order of Duke Peter Frederick Louis, a family order and order of merit, was founded by the grand duke Paul Frederick Augustus in memory of his father in 1838.
Other Saxon orders are the military Order of St Henry, for distinguished service in the field, founded in 1736 in one class; since 1829 it has had four classes; the ribbon is sky blue with two yellow stripes, the gold cross bears in the centre the effigy of the emperor Henry II.; the Order of Albert, for civil and military merit, founded in 1850 by Frederick Augustus II.
The Order of the White Eagle was founded in 1713 by Augustus II.
Other orders are those of St Vladimir, founded by Catherine II., 1782, four classes, and of St Stanislaus, founded originally as a Polish order by Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski in 1765, and adopted as a Russian order in 1831.