For him, as for Petrarch, St Augustine was the model of a Christian student.
His first work was an inquiry into the authorship of the Commentary on St Paul's Epistles and the Treatise on Biblical Questions, ascribed to Ambrose and Augustine respectively.
ranked the festival of St Thomas with those of the four great Latin fathers, Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome and Gregory.
No theologian save Augustine has had an equal influence on the theological thought and language of the Western Church, a fact which was strongly emphasized by Leo XIII.
- The earliest Presbyterian emigration consisted of French Huguenots under the auspices of Admiral Coligny, led to Port Royal, South Carolina, by Jean Ribaut in 1562, and to Florida (near the present St Augustine) by Rene de Laudonniere in 1564, and by Ribaut in 1565.
Amongst the more important buildings for ecclesiastical and philanthropic purposes erected to the north of the city since 1860 are the Russian cathedral, hospice and hospital; the French hospital of St Louis, and hospice and church of St Augustine; the German schools, orphanages and hospitals; the new hospital and industrial school of the London mission to the Jews; the Abyssinian church; the church and schools of the Church missionary society; the Anglican church, college and bishop's house; the Dominican monastery, seminary and church of St Stephen; the Rothschild hospital and girls' school; and the industrial school and workshops of the Alliance Israelite.
WHITSTABLE, a watering-place in the St Augustine's parliamentary division of Kent, England, on the north coast at the east end of the Swale, 6 m.
There is little evidence of the imposition of fines as ecclesiastical penalties; but there are references to the practice in the epistles of St Gregory the Great, notably in his instructions to St Augustine.
He died at St Augustine, Florida, on the 4th of March 1906.
The more celebrated and central thesis of the book - this finite universe, the best of all such that are possible - also restates positions of Augustine and Aquinas.
In the Christian church flagellation was originally a punishment, and was practised not only by parents and schoolmasters, but also by bishops, who thus corrected offending priests and monks (St Augustine, Ep. 1 59 ad Marcell.; cf.
This idea is repeated in Ambrose and Augustine, and has since been a dominant idea of both Eastern and Western Christendom.
In the age of Chrysostom and Augustine the agape was frequent.
of the Greek Euchologion contain numerous prayers to be offered over animals sacrificed; and in the form of agape such sacrifices were common in Italy and Gaul on the natalis dies of a saint, and Paulinus of Nola, the friend of Augustine, in his Latin poems, describes them (c. 400) in detail.
In Augustine's work against Faustus the Manichean (xx.
The bishop induced his canons to follow the Rule of St Augustine and thus make themselves Augustinian Canons; and so Dominic became a canon regular and soon the prior or provost of the cathedral community.
St Augustine (In Joann.
Owing to this lack of decision as to the accurate finding of Easter, St Augustine tells us (Epist.
The ancient British and Celtic churches followed the cycle of 84 years which they had originally received from Rome, and their stubborn refusal to abandon it caused much bitter controversy in the 8th century between their representatives and St Augustine of Canterbury and the Latin missionaries.
It was naturally a term of respectful address from early times; thus St Augustine (Epist.
The first known instance of a mitred abbot is Egelsinus of St Augustine's, Canterbury, who received the honour from Pope Alexander II.
- Flemish Mitre, embroidered in gold thread, and the panels in colours, with figures of the Virgin and St Augustine.
The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
This wise moderation of the Elizabethan settlement, which had been effected before his appointment, was obviously not due to him; and Elizabeth could have placed Knox or Bonner in the chair of St Augustine had she been so minded.
ORIGEN (c. 185 - c. 2J4), the most distinguished and most influential of all the theologians of the ancient church, with the possible exception of Augustine.
Having entered the Christian priesthood, he naturally took an interest in the Priscillianist controversy then going on in his native country, and it may have been in connexion with this that he went to consult Augustine at Hippo in 413 or 414.
After staying for some time in Africa as the disciple of Augustine, he was sent by him in 415 to Palestine with a letter of introduction to Jerome, then at Bethlehem.
induced to summon at his capital in June 415 a synod at which Orosius communicated the decisions of Carthage and read such of Augustine's writings against Pelagius as had at that time appeared.
The earliest work of Orosius, Consultatio sive commonitorium ad Augustinum de errore Priscillianistarum et Origenistarum, explains its object by its title; it was written soon after his arrival in Africa, and is usually printed in the works of Augustine along with the reply of the latter, Contra Priscillianistas et Origenistas liber [ad Orosium.
It is a keen but not always fair criticism of the Pelagian position from that of Augustine.
The Historiae adversum Paganos was undertaken at the suggestion of Augustine, to whom it is dedicated.
When Augustine proposed this task he had already planned and made some progress with his own De civitate Dei; it is the same argument that is elaborated by his disciple, namely, the evidence from history that the circumstances of the world had not really become worse since the introduction of Christianity.
Against the common view that miracles can attest the truth of a divine revelation Gerhard maintained that " per miracula non possunt probari oracula "; and Hopfner returns to the qualified position of Augustine when he describes them as praeter et supra naturae ordinem."
He had submitted the doctrine of transubstantiation (already generally received both by priests and people, although in the west it had been first unequivocally taught and reduced to a regular theory by Paschasius Radbert in 831) to an independent examination, and had come to the conclusion that it was contrary to reason, unwarranted by Scripture, and inconsistent with the teaching of men like Ambrose, Jerome and Augustine.
Not far from St Augustine a spring bursts through the sea itself with such force that the ocean breakers roll back from it as from a sunken reef.
The most important harbours are at Fernandina, St Augustine, and Miami on the E.
On account of its warm climate, Florida has many resorts for health and pleasure, which are especially popular in the season from January to April; the more important are St Augustine, Ormond, Daytona, Palm Beach, Miami, Tampa, White Springs, Hampton Springs, Worthington Springs and Orange Springs.
The eight in 1905 were Jacksonville (35,301), Tampa (22,823), Pensacola (21,505), Key West (20,498), Live Oak (7200), Lake City (6409), Gainesville (J413), and St Augustine (5121).
Augustine, a hospital for the insane at Chattahoochee and a reform school at Marianna, all wholly supported by the state, and a Confederate soldiers' and sailors' home at Tallahassee, which is partially supported by the state.
In the following year, Jean Ribaut (1520-1565), with a band of French Huguenots, landed first near St Augustine and then at the mouth of the St Johns river, which he called the river of May, and on behalf of France claimed the country, which he described as " the fairest, fruitfullest and pleasantest of all the world "; but he made his settlement on an island near what is now Beaufort, South Carolina.
On the same day that Ribaut landed, a Spanish expedition arrived in the bay of St Augustine.
Menendez then turned his attention to the founding of a settlement which he named St Augustine (q.v.); he also explored the Atlantic coast from Cape Florida to St Helena, and established forts at San Mateo (Fort Caroline), Avista, Guale and St Helena.
Feeling unable to attack St Augustine, de Gourgues returned to France.
In 1586 St Augustine was almost destroyed by Sir Francis Drake and it also suffered severely by an attack of Captain John Davis in 1665.
In 1702, when Great Britain and Spain were contending in Europe, on opposite sides, in the war of the Spanish Succession, a force from South Carolina captured St Augustine and laid siege to the fort, but being unable to reduce it for lack of necessary artillery, burned the town and withdrew at the approach of Spanish reinforcements.
In 1740 General James Edward Oglethorpe, governor of Georgia, supported by a naval force, made an unsuccessful attack upon St Augustine; two years later a Spanish expedition against Savannah by way of St Simon's Island failed, and in 1745 Oglethorpe again appeared before the walls of St Augustine, but the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 prevented further hostilities.
In 1776, the Minorcans of New Smyrna refused to work longer on the indigo plantations; and many of them removed to St Augustine, where they were protected by the authorities.
The important coast towns were readily captured by Union forces; Fernandina, Pensacola and St Augustine in 1862, and Jacksonville in 1863; but an invasion of the interior in 1864 failed, the Union forces being repulsed in a battle at Olustee (on the 20th of February 1864).
Thus the pseudo-Democritus, who was reputed the author of the Physica et Mystica, which itself concludes each of its receipts with a magical formula, was believed to have travelled in Chaldaea, and to have had as his master Ostanes l the Mede, a name mentioned several times in the Leiden papyrus, and often by early Christian writers such as Tertullian, St Cyprian and St Augustine.
The marriage took place by proxy in the church of St Augustine, Vienna, on the 11th of March 1810.
The change was brought about by two causes - first, Greek theology, which reached the West chiefly through Jerome Rufinus and Ambrose, and, second, the new idea of the church wrought out by Augustine on the basis of the altered political situation of the church.
Augustine was the first who ventured to teach that the catholic church, in its empirical form, was the kingdom of Christ, that the millennial kingdom had commenced with the appearing of Christ, and was;therefore an accomplished fact.
By this doctrine of Augustine's, the old millennarianism, though not completely extirpated, was at least banished from the official theology.
They took up the same ground in this respect which the Roman Catholic Church had occupied since the time of Augustine.
In his fifteenth year he entered the order of St Augustine, was afterwards professor of theology at the university of Alcala, and published a Cursus theologiae in five volumes (1732-1738).
Augustine, Jerome, Ambrose and Gregory; though Bede's reading is very far from being limited to these.
St Augustine, in several passages, inveighs against those who thus by " gluttony and insobriety buried themselves over the buried," and " made themselves FIG.
In 434, three years after the council of Ephesus, he wrote the Commonitorium adversus profanas omnium haereticorum novitates, in which he ultimately aims at Augustine's doctrine of grace and predestination.
His "semi-Pelagian" opposition to Augustine is dealt with by Prosper of Aquitania in his Pro Augustini doctrina responsiones ad capitula objectionum Vincentiarnarium.
St Augustine had earlier introduced the custom into the English Church, learning it on his way through Gaul.
The Council of Clovesho in 747 confirmed Augustine's injunction, and ordered that the rogation days be kept up "according to the way of our fathers."
Georgetown is the seat of the Southwestern University (Methodist Episcopal, South, co-educational), formed in 1873 (chartered 1875) by the combination of Ruterville College (Methodist Episcopal, at Ruterville, Texas, chartered in 1840, and closed in 1850), McKenzie College (at Clarksville, Texas, founded in 1841 and closed in 1872), Wesleyan College at San Augustine (chartered in 1844, burned a few years later, and not rebuilt), and Soule University at Chapel Hill (chartered in 1856, but closed in 1870).
St Augustine (De doctr.
Baronius makes use of the words of St Augustine: "I shall love with a special love the man who most rigidly and severely corrects my errors."
The Latin sermons of St Augustine, of which 384 are extant, have been taken as their models by all sensible subsequent divines, for it was he who rejected the formal arrangement of the divisions of his theme, and insisted that simplicity and familiarity of style were not incompatible with dignity and religion.
And St Augustine sums the whole matter up in the famous phrase: "Have charity, and do as thou wilt."
Nevertheless, the Roman functionaries, the army and the colonists from Italy soon brought the Latin element into Africa, where it flourished with such vigour that, in the 3rd century, Carthage became the centre of a Romano-African civilization of extraordinary literary brilliancy, which numbered among its leaders such men as Apuleius, Tertullian, Arnobius, Cyprian, Augustine and many others.
Augustine (De Civ.
Augustine, however (De Doct.
In 1546 the council of Trent adopted the canon of Augustine, declaring " He is also to be anathema who does not receive these entire books, with all their parts, as they have been accustomed to be read in the Catholic Church, and are found in the ancient editions of the Latin Vulgate, as sacred and canonical."
7) and Augustine (Contra advers.
They are attributed to Leucius, a Docetic writer, by Augustine (c. Felic. Manich.
I), the Manichaeans (Augustine,.
He descried the land near Cape St Augustine, and sailed along the coast as The Portu- far as the river Amazon, whence he proceeded to the geese in mouth of the Orinoco.
Holyrood Palace was originally an abbey of canons regular of the rule of St Augustine, founded by David I.
Another work by him is the group of frescoes including a large "Last Judgment," and scenes from the life of St Augustine, in the church of S.
Some general information as to the Platonic doctrines (chiefly in a Neoplatonic garb) was obtainable from the commentary with which Chalcidius (6th century) accompanied his translation, from the work of Apuleius (2nd century) De dogmate Platonis, and indirectly from the commentary of Macrobius (c. 400) on the Somnium Scipionis of Cicero, and from the writings of St Augustine.
As aids to the study of logic, the doctors of this period, beside the commentaries and treatises of Boetius (q.v.), possessed two tracts attributed to St Augustine, the first of which, Principia dialecticae, is probably his, but is mainly grammatical in its import.
The other tract, known as Categoriae decem, and taken at first for a translation of Aristotle's treatise, is really a rapid summary of it, and certainly does not belong to Augustine.
Bernard of Chartres, at the beginning of the 12th century, endeavoured, according to John of Salisbury, to reconcile Plato and Aristotle; but his doctrine is almost wholly derived from the former through St Augustine and the commentary of Chalcidius.
ARABICI, a religious sect originating about the beginning of the 3rd century, which is mentioned by Augustine (De Haeres.
Mores made him abbot of St Augustine's at Dover, and finally archbishop of Canterbury.
From the 5th century onwards certain celebrated saints were honoured almost universally; St Augustine (Sermo, 276, § 4) says that the festival of St Vincent was celebrated throughout the whole of the Christian world.
But it is above all St Augustine who in his refutation of Faustus, as well as in his sermons and elsewhere, clearly defined the true character of the honours paid to the saints: "Non eis templa, non eis altaria, non sacrificia exhibemus.
He was credited with having originated the doctrine of metempsychosis, while Cicero and Augustine assert that he was the first to teach the immortality of the soul.
The branches of the Stour dividing near Sarre take the place of the former Wantsume, a sea-passage which had diminished in breadth to half a mile in the time of Augustine.
In the and century a much greater name appears among the methodists, that of Soranus of Ephesus, a physician mentioned with praise even by Tertullian and Augustine, who practised at Rome in the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian.
Reid (Lord Loreburn) as lord chancellor, Mr Augustine Birrell as education minister (afterwards Irish secretary), Mr Lloyd-George as president of the Board of Trade, Mr Herbert Gladstone as home secretary, and Mr John Burns - a notable rise for a Labour leader - as president of the Local Government Board.
Cyril of Jerusalem, Augustine and the Apostolic Constitutions make no reference to any such feature either in the public or private worship of the Christians of that time.
Under the date 604 we read: " This year Augustine to Justus he gave Rochester, which is twenty-four miles from Canterbury.
This work (referred to by Augustine, Tractat.
WALMER, a watering-place, and member of the Cinque Port of Sandwich, in the St Augustine's parliamentary division of Kent, England, 2 m.
In Ambrose, Augustine and Leo I., sacrilegium means sacrilege.
Other notable buildings within the line of the old fortifications are the Gothic Augustine church, built in the 14th century, and containing a fine monument of Canova; the Capuchin church, with the burial vault of the Habsburgs; the church of Maria-Stiegen, an interesting Gothic building of the 14th century, restored in 1820; the handsome Greek church, by T.
The name, which was originally Wipendorp, is derived from an Augustine monastery, founded in 1130 by Vicelin, the apostle of Holstein, and is mentioned as "novum monasterium" in a document of 1136.
It was here that Christian Latin literature took its rise, and to this province belong the names of Tertullian and Cyprian, of Arnobius and Lactantius, above all of Augustine.
He is at once the gigantic eater of Turpin, the huge warrior eight feet high, who could lift the armed knight standing on his open hand to a level with his head, the crusading conqueror of Jerusalem in days before the crusades, and yet with all this the temperate drinker and admirer of St Augustine, as his character had filtered down through various channels from the historical pages of Einhard.
The extracts from Cicero and Ovid, Origen and St John, Chrysostom, Augustine and Jerome are but specimens of a useful custom which reaches its culminating paint in book xxviii., which is devoted entirely to the writings of St Bernard.
At the next vacancy, not later than 409, he succeeded to the bishopric of Nola, and this office he held with ever-increasing honour until his death, which occurred shortly after that of Augustine, whose friend he was, in 431.
The extant writings of Paulinus consist of some fifty Epistolae, addressed to Sulpicius Severus, Delphinus, Augustine, Jerome and others; thirty-two Carmina in a great variety of metre, including a series of hexameter "natales," begun about 393 and continued annually in honour of the festival of St Felix, metrical epistles to Ausonius and Gestidius, and paraphrases of three psalms; and a Passio S.
For about three months following this event he was held as a prisoner on parole within the limits of Charleston; then, because of his influence in deterring others from exchanging their paroles for the privileges of British subjects, he was seized, taken to St Augustine, Florida, and there, because he would not give another parole to those who had violated the former agreement affecting him, he was confined for forty-two weeks in a dungeon.
1750) and the two brothers of George Washington, Lawrence (who succeeded to the management upon the death of Lee) and Augustine; and of Englishmen, including John Hanbury, a wealthy London merchant.
Then, as always, it is recorded that he read the whole of St Augustine, in twenty-two octavo volumes.
His conversion is said to have greatly influenced that of Augustine.
The controversy his intolerance provoked was closed by Augustine's controversial treatise De Baptismo, in which the validity of baptism administered by heretics is based on the objectivity of the sacrament.
To Augustine's doctrine of man's total depravity, his incapacity for any good, and the absolute sovereignty of the divine grace in salvation according to the divine election, Pelagius opposed the view that "God's grace 1 For fuller details see separate articles.
Augustine found a justification for these penal measures in the "compel them to come in" of Luke xiv.
It is in part surrounded by ancient walls, and has many picturesque medieval houses, and two old churches, of St Gregory and St Augustine, both fine Gothic buildings.
A more commanding figure is that of Aurelius Augustinus or St Augustine (354-430), bishop of Hippo, who for comprehensiveness and dialectical power stands out in the same way as Hieronymus or St Jerome (c.33 I or 340-420), a native of Stridon in Dalmatia, does for manysided learning and scholarship.
The Patristic Age, to the Death of St Augustine, A.D.
But the only name of first rank in preaching is that of Augustine, and even he is curiously unequal.
Augustine's De doctrina Christiana, bk.
- After the days of Chrysostom and Augustine there was a great decline of preaching.
Rabanus Maurus published an adaptation of Augustine's De doctrina Christiana, bk.
Augustine, the great teacher of the West, was true to the spirit of the great Alexandrians, when he wrote 166): " Let every good and true Christian understand that truth, wherever he finds it, belongs to his Lord."
Augustine teaches that the Father and the Son are the one principle of the Being of the Spirit.
The special characteristic of its theology is in the first part where it owes most to the teaching of Augustine, who in his striving after self-knowledge analysed the mystery of his own triune personality and illustrated it with psychological images, " I exist and I am conscious that I exist, and I love the existence and the consciousness; and all this independently of any external influence."
About 394 Jerome came to know Augustine, for whom he held a high regard.
The Egyptian writer Hermes Trismegistus (c. 250), in a work called Asclepius (cited by Augustine, De civit.
Similarly Augustine (De civ.
Thomas Augustine Arne >>
At its southern end, by the quay, is a bronze statue of Thiers, and at the northern end, the cathedral of St Augustine, a large church built in quasi-Byzantine style.
In it is preserved a relic supposed to be the right arm of St Augustine, brought from Pavia in 1842.
In the first three centuries of the Christian era Hippo was one of the richest cities in Roman Africa; but its chief title to fame is derived from its connexion with St Augustine, who lived here as priest and bishop for thirty-five years.
Hippo was captured by the Vandals under Genseric in 431, after a siege of fourteen months, during which Augustine died.
Only the cathedral, together with Augustine's library and MSS., escaped the general destruction.
On the top of the hill on which Hippo stood, a large basilica, with chancel towards the west, dedicated to St Augustine, was opened in 1900.
He attended lectures on grammar, and his favourite work was St Augustine's De civitate Dei, He caused Frankish sagas to be collected, began a grammar of his native tongue, and spent some of his last hours in correcting a text of the Vulgate.
The method of Ticonius was dominant in the Church down to the middle ages, amongst his followers being such notable churchmen as Augustine, Primasius, Cassiodorus, Bede, Anselm.
The first of these is the recapitulation theory which Tyconius originated and Augustine adopted, and which has been revived in later times by Hofmann, Hengstenberg and others.
and a choenix of wheat Verse II postulates either a Vespasianic or Domitianic date:" And the beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven; and he goeth into perdition."In verse 10 it is stated that five of the seven had fallen," the one is and another is not yet come, and when he cometh he must continue a little while."If we reckon from Augustine and omit Galba, Otho and Vitellius, each of whom reigned only a few months, we arrive at Vespasian.
In 1602 he entered the university of Louvain, then in the throes of a violent conflict between the Jesuit, or scholastic, party and the followers of Michael Baius, who swore by St Augustine.
Still more was it the object of his Augustinus, a bulky treatise on the theology of St Augustine, barely finished at the time of his death.
Augustine speaks of the salt administered to catechumens before baptism and of their exorcism as sacraments; and as late as 1129 Godefrid so calls the salt and water, oil and chrism, the ring and pastoral staff used in ordinations.
They made it clear that they still held a great part of the beliefs of the medieval Church, especially as represented in Augustine's writings, and repudiated the radical notions of the Anabaptists and of Zwingli.
The national library, which has upwards of 225,000 volumes, occupies the old St Augustine Church, dedicated in 1692 and devoted to its present use by Juarez in 1867.
From this monastery went forth St Augustine and his companions on their mission to England in 59 6, carrying their monachism with them; thus England was the first country out of Italy in which Benedictine life was firmly planted.
The tendency of modern historical scholarship justifies the maintenance of the tradition that St Augustine and his forty companions were the first great Benedictine apostles and missioners.
Basing themselves on St Gregory's counsel to St Augustine, Dunstan, lEthelwold and Oswald adopted from the observance of foreign monasteries, and notably Fleury and Ghent, what was suitable for the restoration of English monachism, and so produced the Concordia Regularis, interesting as the first serious attempt to bring about uniformity of observance among the monasteries of an entire nation.
In 431 he appeared in Rome to interview Pope Celestine regarding the teachings of St Augustine and then all traces of him are lost until 440, the first year of the pontificate of Leo I., who had been in Gaul and thus probably had met Prosper.
Prosper was a layman, but he threw himself with ardour into the religious controversies of his day, defending Augustine and propagating orthodoxy.
After Augustine's death he wrote three series of Augustinian defences, especially against Vincent of Lerins (Pro Augustino responsiones).
He had earlier opened a correspondence with Augustine, along with his friends Tyro and Hilarius, and although he did not meet him personally his enthusiasm for the great theologian led him to make an abridgment of his commentary on the Psalms, as well as a collection of sentences from his works - probably the first dogmatic compilation of that class in which Peter Lombard's Liber sententiarum is the best-known example.
He also put into elegiac metre, in 106 epigrams, some of Augustine's theological dicta.
1555), bishop of St David's and martyr, born about the end of the 15th century of a Yorkshire family, is said to have been educated at Cambridge, whence he proceeded to Oxford and became a canon regular of St Augustine.
The site of Jacksonville was called Cow Ford (a version of the Indian name, Wacca Pilatka), from the excellent ford of the St John's River, over which went the King's Road, a highway built by the English from St Augustine to the Georgia line.
He studied at Emmerich and Cologne, where the teaching of Peter Lombard led him, through Augustine and Chrysostom, to firsthand study of the Bible.
The nature of this supremacy has been much disputed, but it was at any rate sufficient to guarantee the safety of Augustine in his conference with the British bishops.
In 597 the mission of Augustine landed in Thanet and was received at first with some hesitation by the king.
Ã†thelberht gave Augustine a dwelling-place in Canterbury, and Christ Church was consecrated in 603.
A group of sufferers called the Madaurian martyrs seems to belong to the same period: for in the correspondence of St Augustine, Namphamo, one of their number, is spoken of as "archimartyr," which appears to mean protomartyr of Africa.
At the instance of his friend Erasmus he prepared an elaborate commentary on Augustine's De Civitate Dei, which was published in 1522 with a dedication to Henry VIII.
Augustine (see Augustinians).
Some thirty congregations of canons regular of St Augustine are numbered.
Augustine Birrell >>
The Alexandrian Clement, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, Jerome and Augustine only tell of the Zebedean what is traceable to stories told by Papias of others, to passages of Revelation and the Gospel, or to the assured fact of the long-lived Asian presbyter.
St Augustine's Tractatus in Joannis Ev.
He had some difficulties with the bishops in Africa on the question of appeals to Rome, and with the bishops of Provence with regard to the doctrines of St Augustine.
The county (extra-metropolitan) is divided into 8 parliamentary divisions, namely, North-western or Dartford, Western or Sevenoaks, South-western or Tunbridge, Mid or Medway, North-eastern or Faversham, Southern or Ashford, Eastern or St Augustine's and the Isle of Thanet, each returning one member; while the boroughs of Canterbury, Chatham, Dover, Gravesend, Hythe, Maidstone and Rochester each return one member.
The five modern lathes (Aylesford, St Augustine, Scray, Sheppey and Sutton-at-Hone) all existed in the time of Edward I., with the additional lathe of Bedding, which was absorbed before the next reign in that of St Augustine.
The earliest were the priory of Christ's Church and the abbey of St Peter and St Paul, now called St Augustine's, both at Canterbury, founded by Augustine and the monks who accompanied him to England.
The names of the oldest foundations which still survive, such as the Hotel Dieu in Paris, St Thomas's and St Bartholomew's in London, the order of St Augustine, and (in the form of a modern revival) that of St John of Jerusalem, sufficiently indicate the original religious connexion.
The new species include a number discovered in central and western China by Dr Augustine Henry and other collectors; also several from Japan and California.
The series of the Fathers alone contains Jerome (1516), Cyprian (1520), Pseudo-Arnobius (1522), Hilarius (1523), Irenaeus (Latin, 1526), Ambrose (1527), Augustine (1528), Chrysostom (Latin, 1530), Basil (Greek, 1532, the first Greek author printed in Germany), and Origen (Latin, 1536).
Augustine's City of God, published in 426, was an apologetic, not an historical work, but it had great influence in our field, for in it he undertook to answer the common heathen accusation that the growing misfortunes of the empire were due to the prevalence of Christianity and the forsaking of the gods of Rome.
It was to sustain Augustine's thesis that Orosius produced in 417 his Historiarum libri septem, which remained the standard text-book on world history during the middle ages.
In the East, Augustine's, predestinationism had little influence, but East and West were one in their belief that human nature had been corrupted by the fall, and that salvation therefore is possible only to one who has received divine grace through the sacraments.
Augustine's theory was ultimately accepted everywhere in the West, and thus the Church of the middle ages was regarded not only as the sole ark of salvation, but also as the ultimate authority, moral, intellectual and political.
He it was who sent the monk Augustine to England, in order to win over the Anglo-Saxons to the Christian faith.
Augustine was not the first preacher of the Gospel at Canterbury.
A Frankish bishop, Liudhard, had laboured there before his time; but the mission of Augustine and his ordination as a bishop were decisive in the conversion of the country and the establishment of the Anglo-Saxon church.
Thus was to be realized the old dream of Augustine: that of a Kingdom of God on earth under the rule of the Church.
Starting from Augustine's conception of the Church as the community of the elect, he protested against a church of wealth and power, a church that had become a political institution instead of a school of salvation, and against its head, the bishop of Rome.
The church of St George was built in 1826, its tower forming a conspicuous landmark, and the Roman Catholic church of St Augustine was built from the designs and at the expense of A.
The neighbouring Pegwell Bay, famed for its shrimps, is supposed to have been the scene of the landing of Hengist and Horsa, and at Cliff's End (Ebbs Fleet) a monolithic cross marks the landing-place of St Augustine in 596.
The influence of Varro's last work on the nine disciplinae, or branches of study, long survived in the seven " liberal arts " recognized by St Augustine and Martianus Capella, and in the trivium and quadrivium of the middle ages.
St Augustine (d.
In his survey of the " liberal arts " St Augustine imitates (as we have seen) the Disciplinae of Varro, and in the greatest of his works, the De Civitate Dei (426), he has preserved large portions of the Antiquitates of Varro and the De Republica of Cicero.
of Guelma is Suk Ahras (7602), a station on the railway to Tunis, identified with the Roman city Tagaste, the birthplace of St Augustine.
It is only in accordance with what constantly recurs in the history of Biblical criticism that this effort to approximate to the truth met at first with considerable opposition, and was for a time regarded even by Augustine as dangerous..
In the mind even of Augustine (Locutio in Jos.
This was ratified by Pope Gelasius (492-496), and independently confirmed for the province of Africa by a series of Synods held at Hippo Regius in 393, and at Carthage in 397 and 419, under the lead of Augustine.
(From copy belonging to Robert de Bello, abbot of St Augustine's, Canterbury.
or reg.) of the 6th century, a palimpsest which once belonged to the monks of Fleury, and by the so-called speculum (m) or collection of quotations formerly attributed to Augustine but probably connected with Spain.
C. Burkitt has shown) to a misunderstanding of a remark of Augustine about the " Itala " which really refers to the Vulgate.
In a certain wide sense the textual criticism of the New Testa ment began as soon as men consciously made recensions and versions, and in this sense Origen, Jerome, Augustine and many other ecclesiastical writers might be regarded as textual critics.
This work is now in the Bologna gallery, - the "Virgin enthroned, with Augustine and five other saints."
Three essentials of a permanent religious foundation were wanting in Neoplatonism; they are admirably indicated in Augustine's Confessions (vii.
It changed thought into an emotional dream; it plunged into the ocean of sentiment; it treated the old world of fable as the reflection of a higher reality, and transformed reality into poetry; and after all these expedients, to borrow a phrase of Augustine's, it only saw afar off the land of its desire.
His work was destroyed,' but the copious extracts which we find in Lactantius, Augustine, Jerome, Macarius Magnus and others show how profoundly he had studied the Christian writings, and how great ' was his talent for real historical research.
To this period also belongs a set of " philosophers," with regard to whom it is impossible to say whether they are dupes or impostors - the " decepti deceptores " of whom Augustine speaks.
C. Marius Victorinus translated certain works of Plotinus, and thus had a decisive influence on the spiritual history of Augustine (Confess.
In the ancient world there was only one Western theologian who came directly under the influence of Neoplatonism; but that one is Augustine, the most important of them all.
It was through Neoplatonism that Augustine got rid of scepticism and the last dregs of Manichaeism.
On all the cardinal doctrines - God, matter, the relation of God to the world, freedom and evil - Augustine retained the impress of Neoplatonism; at the same time he is the theologian of antiquity who most clearly perceived and most fully stated wherein Neoplatonism and Christianity differ.
It was based on St Augustine's Enchiridion, and considers (a) Faith, i.e.
And it is interesting to observe how, e.g., St Augustine, though desperately combating the dualism of the Manichaeans, yet afterwards introduced a number of dualistic ideas into Christianity, which are distinguishable from those of Manichaeism only by a very keen eye, and even then with difficulty.
Ambrose, Augustine and Hilary commended the example of the psalmist who gave praise "seven times a day" (Ps.
General Benjamin Lincoln, succeeding Howe, undertook to drive the British out of Georgia, but General Augustine Prevost, who had commanded in Florida, moved up and compelled Lincoln to retire to Charleston.
Augustine (De civitate dei, vi.
In the West, Augustine, like Eusebius and Theodoret, calls the elements signs or symbols of the body and blood signified in them; yet he argues that Christ " took and lifted up his own body in his hands when he took the bread."
The Fihrist reckons seven principal works of Mani, six being in the Syriac and one in the Persian language; regarding some of these we also have information in Epiphanius, Augustine, Titus of Bostra, and Photius, as well as in the formula of abjuration (Cotelerius, PP. Apost.
And although the God of light himself now took to the field, and with the help of new aeons (the spirit of life, &c.) inflicted total defeat upon Satan, and set the ' A is spoken of in the formula of abjuration, and an Epistola ad virginem Menoch by Augustine.
2 The Canticum amatorium is cited by Augustine.
According to Augustine the teachers were twelve and the bishops seventy-two in number.
At least Augustine speaks of such a personage, and the Fihrist also has knowledge of a chief of all Manichaeans.
Augustine was an auditor for nine years, while Faustus was at that time the most esteemed Manichaean teacher in the West.
Augustine in his later writings against the Manichaeans deals chiefly with the following problems: (I) the relation between knowledge and faith, and between reason and authority; (2) the nature of good and evil, and the origin of the latter; (3) the existence of free will, and its relation to the divine omnipotence; (4) the relation of the evil in the world to the divine government.
The annexed plan of the Abbey of St Augustine's at Bristol, now the cathedral church of that city, shows the arrangement of the buildings, which departs very little from the ordinary Benedictine type.
Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin >>
Augustine of Hippo.
Tertullian, while speaking of readers and exorcists, says nothing about acolytes; neither does St Augustine.
TERTULLIAN (c. 155 - c. 222), whose full name was Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, is the earliest and after Augustine the greatest of the ancient church writers of the West.
Augustine, again, stood on the shoulders of Tertullian and Cyprian; and these three North Africans are the fathers of the Western churches.
Although he had left the church, his earlier writings continued to be extensively read; and in the 4th century his works, along with those of Cyprian, were the principal reading of Western Christians, until they were superseded by those of Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine and Gregory.
This granted two weekly markets on Tuesday and Friday and a fair on the eve of St Augustine lasting thirty days; it made the town a free borough and provided that the king would send his justices to deliver the prison when necessary.
As captain of artillery and later as lieutenant-colonel he served against the British in South Carolina in 1779-80, but he was captured near Charleston in 1780, and was imprisoned at St Augustine, Florida, for a year.
At the close of his life he was asked by some of the clerics who attached themselves to him to form them into a religious order, and Groot resolved that they should be canons regular of St Augustine.
3 The subject he chose was a compromise between theology and the humanities, being St Augustine's De civitate.
is considered the oldest city save one (St Augustine, Florida) in the United States.
A sect of Abelitae, who seem to have lived in North Africa, is mentioned by Augustine (De Haeresibus, lxxxvi.).
Ep. 22 and Augustine, Confess.
Of this view the part which was not Aristotle's, the state of " universalia ante rem," was due to the Neoplatonists, who interpreted the " separate forms " of Plato to be ideas in intellect, and handed down their interpretation through St Augustine to the medieval Realists like Aquinas, who thus combined Neoplatonism with Aristotelianism.
On a hill rising directly from the banks of the Danube stand the magnificent buildings (erected 1730-1834) of the Augustine canonry, founded in 1106 by Margrave Leopold the Holy.
In the 4th century the Donatist party was in open schism; the orthodox party had the upper hand in the time of Aurelius and Augustine; the regular meeting of the councils further increased the corporate cohesion of the African Episcopal body.
This scholarly linguist, equipped with modern methods of scientific research, did not confine himself to the classical period like Csoma, but extended his ' The Capuchin friars who were settled in Lhasa for a quarter of a century from 1719 studied the language; two of them, Francisco Orazio della Penna, well known from his accurate description of Tibet, and Cassian di Macerata sent home materials which were utilized by the Augustine friar Aug.
We possess some of the results collected by this mission in an excellent short treatise on Tibet by P. Orazio himself, as well as in the Alphabetum Tibetanum of the Augustine monk A.
- St Augustine's Abbey, Bristol (Bristol Cathedral).
In his sermons St Augustine frequently quotes Punic words< History.
The "quo warranto" rolls show that a market every Wednesday and a fair on St Augustine's day were granted to Simon son of Walter by King John.
In response to the request of the archbishop, the pope had commanded them to follow the rule of Augustine and to be known by the above name.
From the Gesta the indefatigable Gervase turned to a third project, the history of the see of Canterbury from the arrival of Augustine to the death of Hubert Walter (1205).
In January 1779 about 200 British soldiers occupied the island by order of Colonel Augustine Prevost, but they were dislodged (Feb.
The champions of this reaction fought under the banner of St Augustine; and Baius' Augustinian predilections brought him into conflict with Rome on questions of grace, free-will and the like.
Augustine made experiments on the flesh of a peacock in order to find physical evidence for the doctrine.
Here St Ambrose baptized St Augustine; here he closed the doors against the emperor Theodosius after his cruel massacre at Thessalonica; here the Lombard kings and the early German emperors caused themselves to be crowned with the iron crown of Lombardy, and the pillar at which they took their coronation oaths is preserved under the lime-trees in the piazza.
Each of the "four living creatures" of Ezekiel and the Apocalypse has been attributed to each of the four evangelists in turn; Augustine and Bede think that Mark is designated by the "man"; Theophylact and others think that he is designated by the eagle; Anastasius Sinaita makes his symbol the ox; but medieval art acquiesced in the opinion of Jerome that he was indicated by the lion.
Thus St Augustine 54 ad Januar.) mentions it as having been kept from time immemorial and as probably instituted by the apostles Chrysostom, in his homily on the ascension, mentions a celebration of the festival in the church of Romanesia outside Antioch, and Socrates (Hist.
Mose important was the two-fold mission to Britain - of St Augustine in 596, of Mellitus, Paulinus and others in 601; but Gregory also made strenuous efforts to uproot paganism in Gaul, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, Arianism in Spain, Donatism in Africa, Manichaeism in Sicily, the heresy of the Three Chapters in Istria and northern Italy.
The last of the great Latin Fathers and the first representative of medieval Catholicism he brings the dogmatic theology of Tertullian, Ambrose and Augustine into relation with the Scholastic speculation of later ages.
&c.), and Augustine (Tract.
The first of these new forms was that of the canons regular or Augustinian canons who about the year r060 arose out of the older semi-monastic canonical institute, and lived according to the so-called " Rule of St Augustine."
St Isidore appears to be their principal authority; they also draw, directly or indirectly, from Orosius, St Jerome, St Augustine, and probably from a lost map of classical antiquity, represented in a measure by the Peutinger Table of the 13th century.
200) and by St Augustine.
Chaucer in his Nun's Priest's Tale ranks Bradwardine with St Augustine.
The church of St Augustine, Broxbourne, is a fine example of Perpendicular work, and contains interesting monuments, including an altar tomb with enamelled brasses of 1473.
He was consecrated by St Augustine before 604, and a church was built for him in London by Aethelberht, king of Kent; this church was dedicated to St Paul, and Mellitus became first bishop of London.
Of Chrysostom and St Augustine, who both speak of Maundy Thursday as being marked by a solemn celebration of.
The section 1023 - I 06 7 certainly, and possibly also the section 1068-11 21, was composed at St Augustine's, Canterbury; and the former is of extreme interest and value, the writer being in close contact with the events which he describes.
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