But that he found many admirers, even in the Augustan age, Horace himself bears witness (ibid.
He now " plunged into the ocean of the Augustan history," and " with pen almost always in hand," pored over all the original records, Greek and Latin, between Trajan and the last of the Western Caesars.
OCTAVIA, the name of two princesses of the Augustan house.
The boundaries of the original third Augustan region had by that time become somewhat altered, Metapontum belonging to Calabria, and Salernum and the territory of the Picentini to the third region instead of the first (Campania).
His character was hardening, and he deliberately adopted the most barbarous expedients for converting the Augustan Poles to his views.
In the Augustan age the population of Alexandria was estimated at 300,000 free folk, in addition to an immense number of slaves.
Cornelius Nepos is quoted for the statement that he was about the same age as Scipio Africanus the younger (born in 185 or 184 B.C.) and Laelius; while Fenestella, an antiquary of the later Augustan period, represented him as older than either.
Terence's pre-eminence in art was recognized in the Augustan age; and Horace expresses this opinion, though not as his own, in these words (Epistles II.
The authors of the Augustan age are unduly depreciated, while Ennius, Plautus, Laberius, Sallust are held up as models of imitation.
The poets of the Augustan age, who were deeply interested both in his philosophy and in his poetry, are entirely silent about the tragical story of his life.
Readers of a later time, who could compare his work with the finished works of the Augustan age, would certainly disparage his art rather than his power.
AULUS CREMUTIUS CORDUS, Roman historian of the later Augustan age.
Traces of this usage are frequent in Augustan writers.
Inscriptions mentioning the ForoClodienses have come to light on the spot; and an inscription of the Augustan period, which probably stood over the door of a villa, calls the place Pausilypon - a name justified by the beauty of the site.
ALBINOVANUS PEDO, Roman poet, flourished during the Augustan age.
Catulus in the preceding generation, was a kind of dilettante poet and a precursor of the poetry of pleasure, which attained such prominence in the elegiac poets of the Augustan age.
Third Period: Augustan Age, 42 B.C. to A.D.
For that work the Augustan age, as the end of one great cycle of events and the beginning of another, was eminently suited, and a writer who, by his gifts of imagination and sympathy, was perhaps better fitted than any other man of antiquity for the task, and who through the whole of this period lived a life of literary leisure, was found to do justice to the subject.
But the poetry of the latter half of the Augustan age destined to survive did not follow the lines either of lyrical or of dramatic art marked out by Horace.
The greatest masters of this kind of poetry are the elegiac poets of the Augustan age - Tibullus, Propertius and Ovid.
The Augustan age was one of those great eras in the world like the era succeeding the Persian War in Greece, the Elizabethan age in England, and the beginning of the 19th Lk y.
The elaborate literary culture of the Augustan age has done something to impair the native force of the Latin idiom.
The idea of Rome, owing to the antagonism between the policy of the government and the sympathies of the class by which literature was favoured and cultivated, could no longer be an inspiring motive, as it had been in the literature of the republic and of the Augustan age.
The reign of Domitian, although it silenced the more independent spirits of the time, Tacitus and Juvenal, witnessed more important contributions to Roman literature than any age since the Augustan, - among them the Institutes of Quintilian, the Punic War of Silius Italicus, the epics and the Silvae of Statius, and the Epigrams of Martial.
Two epitomists of previous histories may be mentioned: Justinus (of uncertain date) who abridged the history of Pompeius Trogus, an Augustan writer; and P. Annius Florus, who wrote in the reign of Hadrian a rhetorical sketch based upon Livy.
Verrius Flaccus in the Augustan age, had busied themselves with lexicography and etymology.
In the Augustan age M.
Sellar's Roman Poets of the Republic and Poets of the Augustan Age, and R.
Besides the era of Actium, there was also an Augustan era, which began four years later, or 27 B.C., the year in which Augustus prevailed on the senate and people of Rome to decree him the title of Augustus, and to confirm him in the supreme power of the empire.
Sellar, Roman Poets of the Augustan Age.
JULIUS FLORUS, poet, orator, and jurist of the Augustan age.
His Latin is correct, and, except for an excessive and peculiar use of abstract words, shows hardly anything that might not have been written in the Augustan age.
That literature, especially in the Augustan age, is not to be thoroughly understood without due appreciation of the character of the Alexandrian school.
This enumeration was also adopted in 1575 as against the Augustan confession of the year 1540 by Jeremiah Patriarch of Constantinople, and again in a council held in the same city in 1639 to anathematize Cyril Lucar, who with the Anglicans recognized two only, baptism and the Eucharist.
In October 1868 a unique collection of ancient Augustan silver plate was discovered on the Galgenberg near Hildesheim by some soldiers who were throwing up earthworks.
He had been born with the hopes of the Renaissance, with its anticipation of a new Augustan age, and had seen this fair promise blighted by the irruption of a new horde of theological polemics, worse than the old scholastics, inasmuch as they were revolutionary instead of conservative.
Meanwhile, the study of the Greek classics was ably represented at Rome in the Augustan age by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (fl.
But, while the Renaissance aimed at reproducing the Augustan age of Rome, the new humanism found its golden age in Athens.
It is certain that a house was shown as being his in the time of Suetonius; and this has been identified with a villa of the Augustan period, the site of which is now occupied by the monastery of S.
" The Augustan Confession presented by the German electors to Charles V.
Then followed the imperial invasion of Italy and Bourbon's sack of Rome (May 1527) which ended the Augustan age of the papal city in a horror of fire and blood.
In the Augustan age four hundred and twenty-five works bore his name, of which more than two hundred were allowed as genuine by the critics.
Of the great Roman writers Horace had least sympathy with him; yet he testifies to the high esteem in which he was held during the Augustan age.
LUCILIUS JUNIOR, a friend and correspondent of the younger Seneca, probably the author of Aetna, a poem on the origin of volcanic activity, variously attributed to Virgil, Cornelius Severus (epic poet of the Augustan age) and Manilius.
This Augustan period in Sweden closed somewhat abruptly about 1765.
Horace and the other Augustan poets).
On his death, however, Hadrian immediately reverted to the Augustan policy and restored the conquests.
During the age of Anne various Augustan poets in whom the lyrical faculty was slight, from Congreve and Richard Duke down to Ambrose Philips and William Somerville, essayed the epistle with more or less success, and it was employed by Gay for several exercises in his elegant persiflage.
It is, however, to be noted that Shelley's "Letter to Maria Gisborne" (1820), Keats's "Epistle to Charles Clarke" (1816), and Landor's "To Julius Hare" (1836), in spite of their romantic colouring, are genuine Horatian epistles and of the pure Augustan type.
No doubt Varro contemned the Hellenizing innovations by which the hard and rude Latin of his youth was transformed into the polished literary language of the late republican and the Augustan age.
With regard to the form of the poem, Rutilius handles the elegiac couplet with great metrical purity and freedom, and betrays many signs of long study in the elegiac poetry of the Augustan era.
The Augustan age produced in Livy a great popular historian and natural artist and a trained rhetorician (in the speeches), - but as uncritical and inaccurate as he was brilliant.
A canal ran through them parallel to the road, and for some reason that is not altogether clear it was used in preference to the road during the Augustan period.
AUGUSTAN HISTORY, the name given to a collection of the biographies of the Roman emperors from Hadrian to Carinus (A.D.
The work professes to have been written during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine, and is to be regarded as the composition of six authors, - Aelius Spartianus, Julius Capitolinus, Aelius Lampridius, Vulcacius Gallicanus, Trebellius Pollio and Flavius Vopiscus - known as Scriptores Historiae Augustae, writers of Augustan history.
The importance of the Augustan history as a repertory of information is very considerable, but its literary pretensions are of the humblest order.
Augustan history >>
Scanty traces of the ancient city walls may be seen; within the town the best-preserved building is the so-called temple of Minerva, with six Corinthian columns of travertine, now converted into a church, erected by Gaius and Titus Caesius in the Augustan era.
The Augustan writers had been Italians.
The chief authority for the events of Aurelian's reign is his life by Vopiscus, one of the writers of the "Augustan History"; it is founded on Greek memoirs and certain journals deposited in the Ulpian library at Rome.
One of the most important sites in Roman Britain, Caerleon housed a legionary fortress, the base for the 2nd Augustan Legion.
It was to be the base of the Second Augustan legion for 200 years.
In the opinion of his contemporaries, Balde revived the glories of the Augustan age, and Pope Alexander VII.
72), while in the Augustan poets (e.g.
To the fastidious critics of the Augustan age, such as Horace, he seemed rude (cf.
5803-5926) found at Iguvium two or three are of Augustan date, but none seem to be earlier, A Latin inscription of Iguvium (C.I.L.
Cincius, the author of various political and antiquarian treatises (de Fastis, de Comitiis, de Priscis Verbis), who lived in the Augustan age, to which period Mommsen, considering them a later fabrication, refers the Greek annals of L.
The chief ancient authorities for the reign of Hadrian are: the life by Aelius Spartianus in the Scriptores historiae Augustae (see AUGUSTAN HISTORY and bibliography); the epitome of Dio Cassius (lxix.) by Xiphilinus; Aurelius Victor, Epit.
In the Augustan division of Italy, however, Placentia belonged to the 8th region, Aemilia, whereas Iria certainly, and Clastidium possibly, belonged to the 9th, Liguria (see Th.
The literature of the later republic reflects the sympathies and prejudices of an aristocratic class, sharing in the conduct of national affairs and living on terms of equality with one another; that of the Augustan age, first in its early serious enthusiasm, and then in the licence and levity of its later development, represents the hopes and aspirations with which the new monarchy was ushered into the world, and the pursuit of pleasure and amusement, which becomes the chief interest of a class cut off from the higher energies of practical life, and moving in the refining and enervating atmosphere of an imperial court.
The influences which had inspired republican and Augustan literature were the artistic impulse derived from a familiarity with the great works of Greek genius, becoming more intimate with every new generation, the spell of Rome over the imagination of the kindred Italian races, the charm of Italy, and the vivid sensibility of the Italian temperament.
In the Silvae, though many of them have little root in the deeper feelings of human nature, we find occasionally more than in any poetry after the Augustan age something of the purer charm and pathos of life.
It was with these elements - fiercely antagonistic because so closely allied in character - that the battle of Christianity was really fought, and though, after its official adoption, the old religion lingered on as "paganism" and died hard at the end, it was really doomed from the moment when the Augustan revival had taken its irrecoverable bias in the direction of the emperorworship.
At a later period records called ephemerides were kept by order of the emperor; these were much used by the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (see Augustan History).
To Drusus fell the more ambitious task of advancing the Roman frontier line from the Rhine to the Elbe, a work which occupied him until his death in Germany in 9 B.C. In 13 B.C. Augustus had returned to Rome; his return, and the conclusion of his second period of rule, were commemorated by the erection of one of the most beautiful monuments of the Augustan age, the Ara Pacis Augustae (see Roman Art, Pl.
We still possess a description of this route by Isidore of Charax, probably dating from the Augustan period (in C. MUller, Geographi graeci minores, vol.
In the Augustan division of Italy Luca was assigned to the 7th region (Etruria); it is little mentioned in the imperial period except as a meeting-point of roads - to Florentia (see Clodia, Via), Luna and Pisae.
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