Having taken priest's orders, he held in 1524 a cure in the neighbourhood of Augsburg, but soon (1525) went over to the Reformed party at Nuremberg and became preacher at Gustenfelden.
The editio princeps of the original appeared at Augsburg (1471); that of Haverkamp (Leiden, 1738 and 1767) has now been superseded by C. Zangemeister, who has edited the Hist.
It refused to subscribe the Augsburg Recess, but at the same time it was not till 1536 that it was persuaded to join the League of Schmalkalden.
On his return from Spain, seeing war imminent, he issued a series of march orders (which deserve the closest study in detail) by which on the 15th of April his whole army was to be concentrated for manoeuvres between Regensburg, Landshut, Augsburg and Donauwbrth, and sending on the Guard in wagons to Strassburg, he despatched Berthier to act as commander-in-chief until his own arrival.
At length the hostility of the princes was overcome, and in December 1282 Rudolph invested his sons Albert and Rudolph with the duchies of Austria and Styria at Augsburg, and so laid the foundations of the greatness of the house of Habsburg.
Michael Maestlin in 1579 determined the relative positions of eleven stars in the Pleiades (Historia coelestis Lucii Baretti, Augsburg, 1666), and A.
In 1869 and 1871 he was president of the first and second Jewish Synods at Leipzig and Augsburg.
Not interpreting this as applying to works printed outside Ulm, he published in 1538 at Augsburg his Guldin Arch (with pagan parallels to Christian sentiments) and at Frankfort his Germaniae clzronicon, with the result that he had to leave Ulm in January 1539.
Historia trevirensis diplomatica et pragmatics (3 vols., Augsburg, 1750); Marx, Geschichte des Erzstifts Trier (5 vols., Trier, 1858-1864); Leonardy, Geschichte des trierischen Landes and Volkes (Saarlouis, 1871); Woerl, Fiihrer durch die Stadt Trier (8th ed., Leipzig, 1898).
Anselm's Apologia contra insipientem Gaunilonem (c. 110o); or the Lutheran Apology for the Augsburg Confession (1531); or J.
Instead of reviving Moravian orders at once, the settlers attended the Berthelsdorf parish church, regarded themselves as Lutherans, agreed to a code of "statutes" drawn up by the count, accepted the Augsburg Confession as their standard of faith, and, joining with some Lutheran settlers in a special Communion service in Berthelsdorf (Aug.
1700); Salig, Historie der Augsburg.
He denounced the peace of Augsburg as a pact with heresy; nor would he recognize the abdication of Charles V.
This last was a formula issued on the 25th of June 1580 (the jubilee of the Augsburg Confession) by the Lutheran Church in an attempt to heal the breach which, since the death of Luther, had been widening between the extreme Lutherans and the Crypto-Calvinists.
Augsburg it became known as Tabula peutingeriana.
corps and cavalry to observe the Austrians, pressed on to Augsburg with the others so as to be ready to deal with the Russians.
On the 16th Berthier went on to Augsburg, where he learnt that Lefebvre's advanced troops had been driven out of Landshut, thus opening a great gap seventy-six miles wide between the two wings of the French army.
In reply he immediately wrote: " You do not inform me what has rendered necessary such an extraordinary measure which weakens and divides my troops "- and - " I cannot quite grasp the meaning of your letter yet, I should have preferred to see my army concentrated between Ingolstadt and Augsburg, the Bavarians in the first line, with the duke of Danzig in his old position, until we know what the enemy is going to do.
Everything would be excellent if the duke of Auerstadt had been at Ingolstadt and the duke of Rivoli with the Wiirttembergers and Oudinot's corps at Augsburg,.
on the 17th, hoping to find Berthier, but the latter was at Augsburg.
About noon Berthier returned and after hearing his explanation Massena received orders to move from Augsburg towards Ingolstadt.
Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.
They comprised two parties: (1) the followers of Capito, Carlstadt and Bucer, who at the diet of Augsburg presented the Confessio Tetrapolitana from Strassburg, Constance, Lindau and Memmingen; (2) the followers of the Swiss reformer Zwingli, who to the same diet presented his private confession of faith.
After holding their own view for some years the four cities accepted the Confession of Augsburg, and were merged in the general body of Lutherans; but Zwingli's position was incorporated in the Helvetic Confession.
On leaving the university, the two brothers travelled abroad, visiting Lyons and Geneva, and residing for some while at Augsburg.
His two last missions were at Rome (1557) and at the Diet of Augsburg (1559).
He gained a temporary victory when the diet of Augsburg in 1500 established a council of regency (Reichsregiment), and in 1502 persuaded the electors to form a union to uphold the reforms of 1495 and 1500.
His ancestors had been members of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, and had secretly maintained their Protestant belief throughout the period of religious persecution, eventually giving their adherence to the Augsburg confession as approximate to their original faith.
In 1759, after completing with his pupils a tour of two years' duration through Gottingen, Utrecht, Paris, Marseilles and Turin, he resigned his tutorship and settled at Augsburg.
Worthy of special notice also are Photometria (Augsburg, 1760), Insigniores orbitae cometarum proprietates (Augsburg, 1761), and Beitrcige zum Gebrauche der Mathematik and deren Anwendung (4 vols., Berlin, 1765-1772).
proclaimed them the enemies of God and humanity, refused to receive their ambassadors, and finally, at the famous battle of the Lechfeld, overwhelmed them on the very scene of their first victory, near Augsburg, which they were besieging (Aug.
Other relics belonging to this period are the oath which John Hunyady took when elected governor of Hungary (1446); a few verses sung by the children of Pest at the coronation of his son Matthias (1458); 1 An example of this work, printed on vellum in Gothic letter (Augsburg, 1488), and formerly belonging to the library of Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, may be seen in the British Museum.
Generally less varied and romantic, though easier in style, are the heroic poems Augsburgi iitkozet (Battle of Augsburg) and Aradi gyules (Diet of Arad) of Gregory Czuczor, who was, moreover, very felicitous as an epigrammatist.
The original, which consisted of a preface and thirteen books, is not lost, but we have a Latin translation of the first six books and a fragment of another on polygonal numbers by Xylander of Augsburg (1575), and Latin and Greek translations by Gaspar Bachet de Merizac (1621-1670).
Becker, Die Pfalz and die Pfiilzer (Leipzig, 1857); Mehlis, Fahrten durch die Pfalz (Augsburg, 1877); Kranz, Handbuch der Pfalz (Spires, 1902); Hensen, Pfalzfiihrer (Neustadt, 1905); and Nailer, Die Burgen der rheinischen Pfalz (Strassburg, 1887).
Of a controversial character are the Confessio Catholica, (1633-1637), an extensive work which seeks to prove the evangelical and catholic character of the doctrine of the Augsburg Confession from the writings of approved Roman Catholic authors; and the Loci communes theologici (1610-1622), his principal contribution.
In the 14th century there were schools at Mainz, Strassburg, Frankfort, Wiirzburg, Zurich and Prague; in the 15th at Augsburg and Nuremberg, the last becoming in the following century, under Hans Sachs, the most famous of all.
Stieve, Die Reichsstadt Kaufbeuren and die bayrische Restaurationspolitik (Munich, 1870); and Schroder, Geschichte der Stadt and Katholischen Pfarrei Kaufbeuren (Augsburg, 1903).
Protestants of the Augsburg and Helvetic Confessions numbered 54,364; members of the Church of England, 49 o; Old Catholics, 975; members of the Greek Orthodox Church, 3674; Greek Catholics, 2521; and Mahommedans, 889.
He appears to have passed his time in journeys from place to place, and in 910 was the nominal leader of an expedition against the Hungarians which was defeated near Augsburg.
But when Otto returned to Germany in 952 he was followed by Berengar, who did homage for Italy at Augsburg.
Otto failed to take Mainz and Augsburg; but an attempt on the part of Conrad and Ludolf to gain support from the Magyars, who had seized the opportunity to invade Bavaria, alienated many of their supporters.
Meanwhile the Magyars had renewed their ravages and were attacking Augsburg.
JOHANN JAKOB BRUCKER (1696-1770), German historian of philosophy, was born at Augsburg.
He returned to Augsburg in 1720, but became parish minister of Kaufbeuren in 1723.
In 1731 he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin, and was invited to Augsburg as pastor and senior minister of the church of St Ulrich.
He also wrote Tentamen Introductionis in Historiam Doctrinae de Ideis, afterwards completed and republished under the title of Historia Philosophicae Doctrinae de Ideis (Augsburg, 1723); Otium Vindelicum (1731); Kurze Fragen aus door philosophischen Historic (7 vols., Ulm, 1731-1736), a history of philosophy in question and answer, containing many details, especially in the department of literary history, which he omitted in his chief work; Pinacoiheca Scriptorum nostra aetate literis illustrium, &c. (Augsburg, 1741-1755); Ehrentempel der deutschen Gelehrsamkeit (Augsburg, 1747-1749); Institutiones Historiae Philosophicae (Leipzig, 1747 and 1756; 3rd ed.
Born (1743-1807) of Leipzig, in 1790); Miscellanea Historiae Philosophicae Literariae Criticae olim sparsim edita (Augsburg, 1748); Erste Anfangsgrunde der philosophischen Geschichte (Ulm, 1751).
In the Religious Peace of Augsburg the principle" cujus regio ejus religio "was accepted; by it a ruler's choice between Catholicism and Lutheranism bound his subjects, but any subject unwilling to accept the decision might emigrate without hindrance.
Even then the new league would not fight and allowed Louis to retain his conquests by the truce of Regensburg (1685), but none the less these humiliations gave rise to a more closelyknit and aggressive coalition, which was organized in 1686 and known as the League of Augsburg.
He apparently tried to conciliate his father-in-law in the hope of bringing him into the League of Augsburg.
As king of England he concluded treaties of alliance with the members of the League of Augsburg and sent a large army to oppose the French in Flanders.
above the sea, with a branch line to Oberdorf on the railway to Augsburg.
He was present at the Marburg conference in 1529, at the Augsburg diet in 1530 and at the signing of the Schmalkald articles in 1537, and took part in other public transactions of importance in the history of the Reformation; that he had an exceptionally large number of personal enemies was due to his vehemence, coarseness and arrogance in controversy.
The introduction of the Augsburg Interim in 1548 necessitated his departure from Nuremberg; he went first to Breslau, and afterwards settled at Konigsberg as professor in its new university at the call of Duke Albert of Prussia.
- The second great creed-making epoch of Church history opens in the 16th century with the Confession of Augsburg.
The Confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon, revised by Luther, and presented to the emperor Charles V.
at the diet of Augsburg.
An elaborate Apology for the confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon in reply to Roman Catholic criticisms. This, together with the confession, the articles of Lutheran.
ALEXANDER ALES (ALESIUS) (1500-1565), Scottish divine of the school of Augsburg, whose family name was Alane, was born at Edinburgh on the 23rd of April 1500.
After travelling in various countries of northern Europe, he settled down at Wittenberg, where he made the acquaintance of Luther and Melanchthon, and signed the Augsburg confession.
The personal contact between Luther and Zwingli led to no mental rapprochement between the two; but in the following year the Articles of Marburg did good service as one of the preliminaries to the Augsburg Confession, and remain a valuable document for the fundamental principles common to the Lutheran and Reformed Churches.
In 1545 he became minister of the Italian Protestant congregation at Augsburg, which he was compelled to forsake when, in January 1547, the city was occupied by the imperial forces in the Schmalkaldic War.
In addition to the books already named, he wrote Italian expositions of Romans (Geneva, 1545) and Galatians (Augsburg, 1546).
It was before him that the Reformer appeared at the diet of Augsburg; and it was he who, in 1519, helped in drawing up the bull of excommunication against Luther.
In the train of Quintana he witnessed at Bologna the double coronation of Charles in February 1530, visited Augsburg, and perhaps saw Luther at Coburg.
The conflicts between Catholics and Protestants speedily merged into the chronic political rivalries, domestic and foreign, which distracted the European states; and religious considerations played a very important part in diplomacy and war for at least a century and a half, from the diet of Augsburg in 1530 to the English revolution and the league of Augsburg, 1688-89.
In July 1518 a diet assembled in Augsburg to consider the new danger from the Turks, who were making rapid conquests under Sultan Selim I.
The common man, to whom the diet of Augsburg alludes, had, long been raising his voice against the " parsons " (Pfaffen); the men of letters, Brand, Erasmus, Reuchlin, and above all Ulrich von Hutten, contributed, each in their way, to discredit the Roman Curia; and lastly, a new type of theology, represented chiefly by Martin Luther, threatened to sweep away the very foundations of the papal monarchy.
That discovered in 1517 made a deep impression on the authorities by reason of its vast extent, and doubtless led the diet of Augsburg to allude to the danger which lay in the refusal of the common man to pay the ecclesiastical taxes.
He was summoned to Rome, but, out of consideration for his patron, the important elector of Saxony, he was permitted to appear before the papal legate during the diet of Augsburg in 1518.
Hans Sachs, on the other hand, sang the praises of the " Wittenberg Nightingale," and a considerable number of prominent men of letters accepted Luther as their guide - Zell and Bucer, in Strassburg, Eberlin in Ulm, Oecolampadius in Augsburg, Osiander and others in Nuremberg, Pellicanus in NOrdlingen.
The peasant movements alluded to above, which had caused so much anxiety at the diet of Augsburg in 1518, culminated in the fearful Peasant Revolt in which the common man, both in country and town, rose in the name of " God's justice " to avenge long-standing wrongs and establish his rights.
In 153(3 the emperor found himself in a position to visit Germany - once more, and summoned the diet to meet at Augsburg, with the hope of settling the religious differences and bringing about harmonious action against the Turk.
The Protestants were requested to submit a statement of their opinions, and on June 25th the " Augsburg Confession " was read to the diet.
Finally Christian III., an ardent Lutheran, ascended the throne in 1536; with the sanction of the diet he severed, in 1537, all connexion with the pope, introducing the Lutheran system of Church government and accepting the Augsburg Confession.
the so-called " Augsburg Interim."
The settlement, however, was deferred for the meeting of the diet, which took place at Augsburg, 1555.
There was no other way but to legalize the new faith in Germany, but only those were to be tolerated who accepted the Augsburg Confession.
During the three or four years which followed the signing of the Augsburg Confession in 1530 and the formation of the Schmalkaldic League, England, while bitterly dep ouncing and burning Lutheran heretics in the name of the Holy Catholic Church, was herself engaged in severing the bonds which had for well-nigh a thousand of years bound her to the Apostolic See.
While the Roman Catholic religion was declared to be that accepted by the majority of Frenchmen, the state subsidized the Reformed Church, those adhering to the Augsburg Confession and the Jewish community.
- For three years Calvin sojourned in Germany; he signed the Augsburg Confession, gained the friendship of Melanchthon and other leading reformers, and took part in the religious conferences of the period.
of Augsburg by rail and at the junction of lines to Buchloe and Dombiihl.
The Augsburg Confession (1530) is divided into numerous " articles," while Luther's Lesser Catechism gathers Christianity under three " articles "- Creation, Redemption, Sanctification.
On the other hand, the Augsburg Confession protests its loyalty to the decretum of Nice.
it frequently of heretics; thus the Augsburg Confession protests that the Protestants have carefully avoided nova dogmata.
The Council will rely chiefly upon Scripture s in reformandis dogmatibus et instaurandis in ecclesia moribus; the Roman reply to the two sets of articuli of Augsburg, and the Roman counterpart to the (later) Protestant assertion that the Bible 7 is the " only rule of faith and practice."
Fehr, Der Gottesfriede and die katholische Kirche des Mittelalters (Augsburg, 1861); A.
Its principal buildings are an old palace, formerly the residence of the bishops of Augsburg and now government offices, a royal gymnasium, a Latin school with a library of 75,000 volumes, seven churches (six Roman Catholic), two episcopal seminaries, a Capuchin monastery, a Franciscan convent and a deaf and dumb asylum.
In 1488 Dillingen became the residence of the bishops of Augsburg; was taken by the Swedes in 1632 and 1648, by the Austrians in 1702, and on the 17th of June 1800 by the French.
There is not very much variety among these treatises, one of the earliest, valuable on account of its rarity, is the block-book by Hartlieb, Die Kunst Ciromantia, 4 published at Augsburg about 1470 (probably, but it bears no imprint of place or date).
The course of the journey was first northwards to Plombieres, then by Basel to Augsburg and Munich, then through Tirol to Verona and Padua in Italy.
of Augsburg on the railway to Ulm.
See Dobel, Memmingen im Reformationszeitalter (Augsburg, 1877-1878), and Clauss, Memmingen Chronik,1826-1892(Memmingen, 1894).
The Confession of Augsburg uses words equivalent to the Articles quoted above which were based upon it.
On Napoleon's second abdication Jerome proceeded to Wurttemberg, was threatened with arrest unless he gave up his wife and child, and was kept under surveillance at Goppingen; finally he was allowed to proceed to Augsburg, and thereafter resided at Trieste, or in Italy or Switzerland.
1435), daughter of an Augsburg baker, was secretly married about 1432 to Albert (1401-1460),.
As a youth he had joined the league of Schmalkalden, but this adhesion, as well as his subsequent declaration to stand by the confession of Augsburg, cannot be regarded as the decision of his maturer years.
The formal investiture of the new elector took place at Augsburg in February 1548.
Meanwhile Maurice had refused to recognize the Interim issued from Augsburg in May 1548 as binding on Saxony; but a compromise was arranged on the basis of which the Leipzig Interim was drawn up for his lands.
Augsburg was taken, the pass of Ehrenberg was forced, and in a few days the emperor left Innsbruck as a fugitive.
with the filioque), and the so-called Athanasian Creed; six come from the 16th century - the Augsburg Confession, the Apology for the Augsburg Confession, the Schmalkald Articles, Luther's two Catechisms, and the Form of Concord.
But only the three early creeds and the Augsburg Confession are recognized by all Lutherans.
The Augsburg Confession and Luther's Short Catechism may therefore be said to contain the distinctive principles which all Lutherans are bound to maintain, but, as the principal controversies of the Lutheran church all arose after the publication of the Augsburg Confession and among those who had accepted it, it does not contain all that is distinctively Lutheran.
The General Synod of the Evangelical Church of the United States, organized in 1820, has no other creed than the Augsburg Confession, so liberally interpreted as not to exclude Calvinists.
The General Council, a secession from the General Synod, was organized in 1867, and accepts the "unaltered" (invariata) Augsburg Confession in its original sense, and the other Lutheran symbols as explanatory of the Augsburg Confession.
They permitted each congregation to use at pleasure the Augsburg Confession or the Heidelberg Catechism.
Ketteler, who had adopted Lutheranism during a visit to Germany in 1553, now professed the Augsburg Confession, and became the first duke of a new Protestant duchy, which he was to hold as a fief of the Polish crown, with local autonomy and absolute freedom of worship. The southern provinces of the ancient territory of the Order, Courland and Semgallen, had first been ceded on the 24th of June 1559 to Lithuania on similar conditions, the matter being finally adjusted by the compact of March 1562.
28, 1573), which granted absolute religious liberty to all non-Catholic denominations (dissidentes de religiose, as they now began to be called) without exception, thus exhibiting a far more liberal intention than the Germans had manifested in the religious peace of Augsburg eighteen years before.
In 1794 he was transferred to the nunciature at Cologne, but owing to the war had to make his residence in Augsburg.
A Spanish ambassador early in the reign thought that Elizabeth's own religion was equally negative, though she told him she agreed with nearly everything in the Augsburg Confession.
His best known works are: a manual of theology in 4 vols., Theologia eclectica, moralis et scholastica (Augsburg, 1752; revised by Benedict XIV.
for the 1753 edition published at Bologna); a defence of Catholic doctrine, entitled Demonstratio critica religionis Catholicae (Augsburg, 1751); a work on indulgences, which has often been criticized by Protestant writers, De Origine, Progressu, V alore, et Fructu Indulgentiorum (Augsburg, 1 73 5) a treatise on mysticism, De Revelationibus et Visionibus, &c. (2 vols., 1744); and the astronomical work Nova philosophiae planetarum et artis criticae systemata (Nuremberg, 1723).
b, Augsburg (1342).
The Smaller Catechism, with the Augsburg Confession, was made the Rule of Faith in Denmark in 1537.
The same year he was asked to become preacher in the high church in Augsburg.
(Augsburg, 1873); G.
He supported the Interim, which was issued from Augsburg in May 1548, and took part in the negotiations that resulted in the treaty of Passau (1552), and the religious peace of Augsburg (1555).
After the peace of Augsburg the elector mainly confined his attention to Brandenburg, where he showed a keener desire to further the principles of the Reformation.
His observations on the three comets of 1618 were published in De Cometis, contemporaneously with De Harmonice Mundi (Augsburg, 1619), of which the first lineaments had been traced twenty years previously at Gratz.
von Pfister, Das Montavon (Augsburg, 1884); J.
Matthàus LANG VON WELLENBURG (1469-1540), German statesman and ecclesiastic, was the son of a burgher of Augsburg.
He was also one of the most trusted advisers of Frederick's son and successor Maximilian I., and his services were rewarded in 1500 with the provostship of the cathedral at Augsburg and in the following year with the bishopric of Gurk.
on the 24th of February 1530, and went with him to the diet of Augsburg.
CONFESSION OF AUGSBURG, the most important Protestant statement of belief drawn up at the Reformation.
The Religious Peace of Augsburg (1555) recognized no Protestants save adherents of the Confession; this was modified in 1648.
War Of The League Of Augsburg >>
The Adiaphorist controversy among Lutherans was an issue of the provisional scheme of compromise between religious parties, pending a general council, drawn up by Charles V., sanctioned at the diet of Augsburg, 15th of May 1548, and known as the Augsburg Interim.
Practically the controversy was concluded by the religious peace ratified at Augsburg (Sept.
(First printed edition Augsburg, 1558.
Hildebrand set up Gerard, bishop of Florence, as a rival candidate, won over a part of the Romans to his cause, and secured the support of the empress regent Agnes at the Diet of Augsburg in June.
So pronounced an enemy of French preponderance did Innocent become that he approved the League of Augsburg, and was not sorry to see the Catholic James II., whom he considered a tool of Louis, thrust from the throne of England by the Protestant William of Orange.
p. 234), but he had not seen the bird, an account of which was communicated to him by Raphael Seiler of Augsburg, under the name of Suckeruogele.
- the Heidelberg (Palatine), Florentine, Vatican and Augsburg - by Stephanus (1547), Nevelet (1610), Hudson (1718), Hauptmann (1741), Furia (1810), Coray (1810), Schneider (1812) and others.
Almost a quarter of the inhabitants live in towns, of which Munich and Nuremberg have populations exceeding 100,000, Augsburg, Wurzburg, Furth and Ludwigshafen between 50,000 and 100.,000, while twenty-six other towns number from 10,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.
Of the Roman Catholic Church the heads are the two archbishops of Munich-Freising and Bamberg, and the six bishops of Eichstatt, Spires, Wurzburg, Augsburg, Regensburg and Passau, of whom the first three are suffragans of Bamberg.
The chief centres of industry are Munich, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Furth, Erlangen, Aschaffenburg, Regensburg, Wurzburg, Bayreuth, Ansbach, Bamberg and Hof in Bavaria proper, and in the Palatinate Spires and the Rhine port of Ludwigshafen.
The main centres of the hardware industry are Munich, Nuremberg, Augsburg and Furth; the two first especially for locomotives and automobiles, the last for tinfoil and metal toys.
Aschaffenburg manufactures fancy goods, Augsburg and Hof produce excellent cloth, and Munich has a great reputation for scientific instruments.
The seat of the hop-trade is Nuremberg; of wool, Augsburg.
In 1803, accordingly, in the territorial rearrangements consequent on Napoleon's suppression of the ecclesiastical states, and of many free cities of the Empire, Bavaria received the bishoprics of Wurzburg, Bamberg, Augsburg and Freisingen, part of that of Passau, the territories of twelve abbeys, and seventeen cities and villages, the whole forming a compact territory which more than compensated for the loss of her outlying provinces on the Rhine.'
Other Protestant bodies are the Walloons, who, though possessing an independent church government, are attached to the Low-Dutch Reformed Church; the Lutherans, divided into the main body of Evangelical Lutherans and a smaller division calling themselves the Re-established or Old Lutherans (Herstelde Lutherschen) who separated in 1791 in order to keep more strictly to the Augsburg confession; the Mennonites founded by Menno Simons of Friesland, about the beginning of the 16th century; the Baptists, whose only central authority is the General Baptist Society founded at Amsterdam in 1811; the Evangelical Brotherhood of Hernhutters or Moravians, who have churches and schools at Zeist and Haarlem; and a Catholic Apostolic Church (1867) at the Hague.
The league of Augsburg (1686), which followed the revocation of the edict of Nantes, placed Orange at the head of the resistance to French domination.
He thus visited in succession Colmar, Nuremberg, Appenzell, Zurich, Pfaffers, Augsburg, Villach, Meran, Middelheim and other places, seldom staying a twelvemonth in any of them.
AUGSBURG, a city and episcopal see of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, chief town of the district of Swabia.
Among the public buildings of Augsburg most worthy of notice is the town-hall in Renaissance style, one of the finest in Germany, built by Elias Holl in 1616-1620.
There are also a Protestant church, St Anne's, a school of arts, a polytechnic institution, a picture gallery in the former monastery of St Catherine, a museum, observatory, botanical gardens, an exchange, gymnasium, deafmute institution, orphan asylum, several remarkable fountains dating from the 16th century, &c. Augsburg is particularly well provided with special and technical schools.
The manufactures of Augsburg are of great importance.
It is also noted for its bleach and dye works, its engine works, foundries, paper factories, and production of silk goods, watches, jewelry, mathematical instruments, leather, chemicals, &c. Augsburg is also the centre of the acetylene gas industry of Germany.
Copperengraving, for which it was formerly noted, is no longer carried on; but printing, lithography and publishing have acquired a considerable development, one of the best-known Continental newspapers being the Allgemeine Zeitung or Augsburg Gazette.
Augsburg (the Augusta Vindelicorum of the Romans) derives its name from the Roman emperor Augustus, who, on the conquest of Rhaetia by Drusus, established here a Roman colony about 14 B.C. In the 5th century it was sacked by the Huns, and afterwards came under the power of the Frankish kings.
Of its conventions the most memorable are those which gave birth to the Augsburg confession (1530) and to the Augsburg alliance (1686).
See Wagenseil, Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg (Augs., 1820-1822); Werner, Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg (1899); Roth, Augsburg's Reformationsgeschichte (1902).
Confession of Augsburg >>
He was educated in a school attached to a Benedictine monastery at Augsburg, and in 1865 entered the Bavarian army as a lieutenant in a cavalry regiment.
The earliest acknowledged instance of canonization by the pope is that of Ulric of Augsburg, who was declared a saint by John XV.
Cotton spinning and weaving are not confined to one district, but 60 are prosecuted in upper Alsace (MUihausen, Gebweiler, 25, 0 Colmar), in Saxony (Zwickau, Chemnitz, Annaberg), in 35,700 Silesia (Breslau, Liegnitz), in the Rhine province (Dssel 44,700 dorf, Mflnster, Cologne), in Erfurt and Hanover, in 50,900 Wrttember~ (Reutlingen, Cannstatt), in Baden, Bavaria 52, 00 - (Augsburg, Bamberg, Bayreuth) and in the Palatinate.
The Bavarian system embraces 4642 m., and is controlled and managed, apart from the general direction in Munich, by ten traffic boards, in Augsburg, Bamberg, Ingolstadt, Kempten, Munich, Nuremberg, Regensburg, Rosenheim, Weiden and Wurzburg.
01 32,379 KuIm (seat at Pelplin, West Prussia), Fulda, Hildesheim, Osnabrck, Paderborn, Mnster,)78 586,948 Limburg, Trier, Metz, Strassburg, Spires, Wurzburg, Regensburg, Passau, Eichstntt, - Augsburg, Rottenburg (WUrttemberg) and Mainz.
A number of important towns grew up, among which we may mention Trier (Augusta Trevirorum), Cologne (Colonia Agrippinensis),Bonn (Bonna), Worms(Borbetomagus), Spires (Noviomagus), Strassburg (Argentoratum) and Augsburg (Augusta Vindelicorum).
The great battle against D f these foes was fought on the 10th of August 955 on the Lechfeld near Augsburg.
however, Anno and other prominent prelates and laymen, perhaps jealous of the influence exercised at court by Henry, bishop of Augsburg (d.
Heartened by this circumstance Bertold and his followers returned to the attack when the diet met at Augsburg in 1500.
In June he opene4 the diet at Augsburg, and here the Lutherans submitted a summary of their doctrines, afterwards called the Augsburg Confession.
The Protestant Rrinces could only present a formal protest and leave Augsburg.
All the states and cities which subscribed to the confession of Augsburg were admitted to it, and thus a large number of Protestants, including the duchies of Wurttemberg and Pomerania and the cities of Augsburg and Frankfort, secured a needful protection against the decrees of the Reichskammergeric/it, which the league again repudiated.
The Lutheran cities of southern and central Germany, among them Strassburg, Augsburg, tJlm and Frankfort, now submitted to the emperor, while Ulrich of Wurttemberg and the elector palatine of the Rhine, Frederick II., followed their example.
There was some resistance to the Interim, but force was employed against Augsburg and other recalcitrant cities, and soon it was generally accepted.
invaded Germany as the protector of her liberties, while Maurice seized Augsburg and marched towards Innsbruck, where the emperor was residing, with the intention of making him a prisoner.
Delayed by the war with Fran.ce and Turkey, the diet for the settlement of the religious difficulty did not meet at Augsburg until February 1555.
of Augsburg, or in other words beiiame a Lutheran, forthwith to resign his principality.
The peace of Augsburg can hardly be described as a satisfactory settlement.
After the peace of Augsburg, which was published in September 1555, the emperor carried out his intention of abdicating.
Ferdinand L, who like all the German sovereigns after him was recognized as emperor without being crowned by the pope, made it a prime object of his short reign to defend and and enforce the religious peace of Augsburg for which he was largely responsible.
His first diet, which met at Augsburg in 1566, was, however, unable, or unwilling, to take any steps in this direction, and while the Roman.
Catholics urged the enforcement of the decrees of the council of Trent the serious differences among the Protestants received fresh proof from the attempt made to exclude the Calvinist prince Frederick III., elector palatine of the Rhine, from the benefits of the peace of Augsburg.
The matter came before the diet, which was opened at Augsburg in July 1582, but the case was left undecided; afterwards, however, the Reichshofrat declared against the insurgents, although it was not until 1598 that Protestant worship was abolished and the Roman Catholic governing body was restored.
prince, Joachim Frederick, afterwards elector of Brandenburg, to sit and vote in the imperial diet; it was not admitted, and the administrator retired from Augsburg, a similar fate befalling a similar claim made by several other administrators some years later.
In April he defeated Tilly at the crossing of the Lech, the imperialist general being mortally wounded during this fight, and then he took possession of Augsburg and of Munich.
Again he joined the emperor, but his punishment was swift and sure, as Turenne and Wrangel again marched into the electorate and defeated the Bavarians at Zusmarshausen, near Augsburg, in May 1648.
The peace of Augsburg, 1555, which recognized a dualism within the Empire in religion as in politics, marked the failure of his plan of union (see Charles V.; Germany; Maurice Of Saxony); and meanwhile he had been able to accomplish nothing to rescue Hungary from the Turkish yoke.
The maintenance of the indivisibility of the realm and of the Christian faith according to the Augsburg Confession, and the observance of the Kongelov itself, are now the sole obligations binding upon the king.
The Hessian star catalogue was published in Lucius Barettus's Historia coelestis (Augsburg, 1668), and a number of other observations are to be found in Coeli et siderum in eo errantium observationes Hassiacae (Leiden, 1618), edited by Willebrord Snell.
Without being so forward as the rival city of Augsburg to embrace the architectural fashions of the Italian renaissance - continuing, indeed, to be profoundly imbued with the old and homely German burgher spirit, and to wear, in a degree which time has not very much impaired even yet, the quaintness of the old German civic aspect - she had imported before the close of the 15th century a fair share of the new learning of Italy, and numbered among her citizens distinguished humanists like Hartmann Schedel, Sebald Schreier, Willibald Pirkheimer and Conrad Celtes.
Two totally dissimilar portraits of young women, both existing in duplicate examples (one pair at Augsburg and Frankfort, the other pair in the collections of M.
An interval of five years separates the Vienna "Madonna" from the two fine heads of the apostles Philip and James in the Uffizi at Florence, the pair of boys' heads painted in tempera on linen in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, the "Madonna with the Pink" at Augsburg, and the portrait of Wolgemut at Munich, all of 1516.
A portrait-drawing by the master done at Augsburg a few months previously, one of his finest works, served him as the basis both of a commemorative picture and a woodcut.
At the Diet of Augsburg (1530) Melanchthon was the leading representative of the reformation, and it was he who prepared for that diet the seventeen articles of the Evangelical faith, which are known as the "Augsburg Confession."
He held conferences with Roman divines appointed to adjust differences, and afterwards wrote an Apology for the Augsburg Confession.
After the Augsburg 2 He read the usual service, but omitted everything that taught a propitiatory sacrifice; he did not elevate the Host, and he gave both the bread and the cup into the hands of every communicant.
The year after Luther's death, when the battle of Miihlberg (1547) had given a seemingly crushing blow to the Protestant cause, an attempt was made to weld together the evangelical and the papal doctrines, which resulted in the compilation by Pflug, Sidonius and Agricola of the Augsburg "Interim."
In the Augsburg Confession (1530), which was largely due to him, freedom is claimed for the will in non-religious matters, and in the Loci of 1533 he calls the denial of freedom Stoicism, and holds that in justification there is a certain causality, though not worthiness, in the recipient, subordinate to the Divine causality.
Two are to the Cardinal of Augsburg and one to Lazarus von Schwendi.
Of the total population, civil and military, 578,458 were Magyars, 104,520 were Germans, 25,168 were Slovaks, and the remainder was composed of Croatians, Servians, Rumanians, Russians, Greeks, Armenians, Gypsies, &c. According to religion, there were 445,023 Roman Catholics, 5806 Greek Catholics, 4422 Greek Orthodox; 67,319 were Protestants of the Helvetic, and 38,811 were Protestants of the Augsburg Confessions; 168,985 were Jews, and the remainder belonged to various other creeds.
In 1830 he was rector of the university; and in his speech at the tricentenary of the Augsburg Confession in that year he charged the Catholic Church with regarding the virtues of the pagan world as brilliant vices, and giving the crown of perfection to poverty, continence and obedience.
Aufhebung der Gesellschaft Jesu (Augsburg, 1854).
The result was that Pope Leo cancelled the summons, and it was arranged that Luther should appear before the papal Legate to the German Diet, Thomas de Vio, Cardinal Cajedtan, at Augsburg.
Luther had been spending the time between his interview with the Legate at Augsburg (Oct.
After much debate a compromise was arrived at, which foreshadowed the religious peace of Augsburg of 1555.
Three separate confessions were presented to the emperor - one from Zwingli, one by the theologians of the four cities of Strassbourg, Constance, Lindau and Memmingen (Confessio Tetrapolitana), and the Augsburg Confession, the future symbol of the Lutheran church.
(Gotha, 1893-1901), ii.; The Marburg Colloquy; Schirrmacher, Briefe and Acten zu der Geschichte des Religionsgespraches zu Marburg, 1529, and des Reichstages zu Augsburg 1530 (Gotha, 1876); Hospinian, Historia Sacramentaria, ii.
(Frankfurt a M., 1846); The Augsburg Confession: Schaff, The Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches (London, 1877), History of the Creeds of Christendom (London, 1877).
But as this attitude left him without supporters he was obliged to submit to the emperor Charles V., to pay a heavy fine, and to accept the Interim, issued from Augsburg in May 15 4 8.
The bronze doors of Augsburg (1047-1072) are similar in style.
At a later time Augsburg and Nuremberg were the chief centres for the production of artistic works in the various metals.
Denis, and L'Art du moyen age (various dates); Karch, Die Rdthselbilder an der Broncethiire zu Augsburg (1869); Krug, Entwiirfe fiir Gold-, Silber-, and Bronze-Arbeiten; Linas, Orfevrerie merovingienne (1864), and Orfevrerie du XIII me siecle (1856); Bordeaux, Serrurerie du moyen age (1858); Didron, Manuel des oeuvres de bronze et d'orfevrerie du moyen age (1859); Du Sommerard, Arts au moyen age (1838-1846), and Musee de Cluny (1852); Rico y Sinobas, Trabajos de metales (1871); Bock, Die Goldschmiedekunst des Mittelalters (1855), and Kleinodien des heil.-romischen Reiches; Jouy, Les gemmes et les joyaux (1865); Texier, Dictionnaire d'orfevrerie (1857); Virgil Solis, Designs for Goldand Silversmiths (1512), (facsimile reproduction, 1862); Molinier, Les Bronzes de la Renaissance (1886); Servant, Les bronzes d'art (1880); Wilhelm Bode, Italian Bronze Statuettes of the Renaissance (Eng.
To this policy may be traced his share in bringing about the religious peace of Augsburg in 1555, his tortuous conduct at the diet of Augsburg eleven years later, and his reluctance to break entirely with the Calvinists.
Although a sturdy Lutheran the elector hoped at one time to unite the Protestants, on whom he continually urged the necessity of giving no cause of offence to their opponents, and he favoured the movement to get rid of the clause in the peace of Augsburg concerning ecclesiastical reservation, which was offensive to many Protestants.
The Latin translation, published at Augsburg, 1758-1759, 85 vols.
In the centre the colossal statue of Luther rises, on a pedestal at the base of which are sitting figures of Peter Waldo, Wycliffe, Hus and Savonarola, the heralds of the Reformation; at the corners of the platform, on lower pedestals, are statues of Luther's contemporaries, Melanchthon, Reuchlin, Philip of Hesse, and Frederick the Wise of Saxony, between which are allegorical figures of Magdeburg (mourning), Spires (protesting) and Augsburg (confessing).
In 1526 John, elector of Saxony, Philip, landgrave of Hesse, and other Protestant princes formed a league against the Roman Catholics, and the Torgau articles, drawn up here by Luther and his friends in 1530, were the basis of the confession of Augsburg.
of Augsburg by rail and at the junction of lines to Ulm and Ingolstadt.
The codification of the law of Augsburg in 1276 already fills a moderate volume in print (ed.
by Christian Meyer, Augsburg, 1872).
at the diet of Augsburg in 1530.
Having signed the confession of Augsburg, he was alone among the electors in objecting to the election of Ferdinand, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand I., as king of the Romans.
The cities of Strassburg, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Basel, became centres of learned coteries, which gathered round scholars like Wimpheling, Brant, Peutinger, Schedel, and Pirckheimer, artists like Darer and Holbein, printers of the eminence of Froben.
Like Augsburg, Nuremberg attained great wealth as an intermediary between Italy and the East on the one hand, and northern Europe on the other.
On his return he set up in medical practice at Augsburg, whither his father had been transferred; but in a few months he found an opening for an academical career, on being appointed prosector at Erlangen.
CASPAR AQUILA [KASPAR ADLER] (1488-1560), German reformer, was born at Augsburg on the 7th of August 1488, educated there and at Ulm (1502), in Italy (he met Erasmus in Rome), at Bern (1508), Leipzig (151o) and Wittenberg (1513).
In 1516 he became pastor of Jenga, near Augsburg.
Openly proclaiming his adhesion to Luther's doctrine, he was imprisoned for half a year (1520 or 1522) at Dillingen, by order of the bishop of Augsburg; a death sentence was commuted to banishment through the influence of Isabella, wife of Christian II.
His vehement opposition to the Augsburg Interim (1548) led him to take temporary shelter at Rudolstadt with Catherine, countess of Schwarzburg.
As early as the council of Augsburg (952) these were condemned to be scourged, while Leo II.
The most learned work on clerical celibacy from the strictly conservative point of view is that of Francesco Antonio Zaccaria, Storia Polemica del celibato sacro (Rome, 1774); but many of his most important One of Dr Lea's few serious mistakes is his acceptance of the spurious pamphlet in favour of priestly marriage which was attributed in the 11th century to St Ulrich of Augsburg (i.
On the contrary, the cardinal of Lorraine, by his question whether the Calvinists were prepared to sign the Confession of Augsburg, attempted to sow dissension between them and the Lutheran Protestants of Germany, on whose continued support they calculated.
He opposed Louis's candidate for the electorate of Cologne (1688), approved the League of Augsburg, acquiesced in the designs of the Protestant William of Orange, even in his supplanting James II., whom, although a Roman Catholic, he distrusted as a tool of Louis.
In 1529 the la,ndgrave signed the "protest" which was presented to the diet at Spires, being thus one of the original "Protestants;" in 1530 he was among the subscribers to the confession of Augsburg; and the formation of the league of Schmalkalden in the same year was largely due to his energy.
Holy Scripture and the three primitive creeds were declared to be the true foundations of Christian faith, and the Augsburg Confession was adopted.
He had won laurels in a public disputation at Augsburg in 1514, when he had defended the lawfulness of putting out capital at interest; again at Bologna in 1515, on the same subject and on the question of predestination; and these triumphs had been repeated at Vienna in 1516.
At the Augsburg diet in 1530 Eck was charged by Charles V.
Bedeutung der Wachslichter bei den kirchlichen Funktionen (Augsburg, 1874); V.
Then it was that he began to direct his attention to a study of the Bible, which led him to a conviction, never afterwards shaken, not only of the divine character of evangelical religion, but also of the unapproachable adequacy of its expression in the Augsburg Confession.
Julius III., at the instance of the duke of Milan, gave him (1553) the rich see of Novara (which lie resigned in 1560 for the see of Albano) and sent him as nuncio to the diet of Augsburg (1555), from which he was immediately recalled by the death of Julius (March 23).
The principal demand of the Bohemians was that the " Con fession of Augsburg " - a summary of Luther's teaching - should be recognized in Bohemia.
They further g Y renewed the demand, which they had already expressed at the diet of 1567, that the estates should have the right of appointing the members of the consistory - the ecclesiastical body which ruled the Utraquist church; for since the death of John of Rokycan that church had had no archbishop. After long deliberations and the king's final refusal to recognize the confession of Augsburg, the majority of the diet, consisting of members of the Bohemian brotherhood and advanced Utra quists, drew up a profession of faith that became known as the Confessio Bohemica.
It was in most points identical with the Augsburg confession, but differed from it with regard to the doctrine of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper.
Melanchthon himself sent a Greek translation of the Augsburg Confession to Joasaph, patriarch of Constantinople, and some years afterwards Jacob Andreae and Martin Crusius began a correspondence with Jeremiah, patriarch of Constantinople, in which they asked an official expression of his opinions about.
Orphaned at the age of four, he was reared by an uncle at Augsburg, who finally sent him to the university of Dillingen.
EMIL SCHURER (1844-1910), German Protestant theologian, was born at Augsburg on the 2nd of May 1844.
His principal works are: De Magnis Conjunctionibus (Augsburg, 1489); Introductorium in Astronomiam (Venice, 1506); and Flores Astrologici (Augsburg, 1488).
A part of his compendium of medicine was published in Latin in the 16th century as Liber theoricae nec non practicae Alsaharavii (Augsburg, 1519).
During his imprisonment he had refused to accept the Interim, issued from Augsburg in May 1548, and had urged his sons to make no peace with Maurice.
To find the distinctive technicalities of Lutheranism we have to leave Melanchthon's system (and his great Reformation creed, the Augsburg Confession) for the Formula of Concord and the lesser men of that later period.
See C. Meichelbeck, Historiae Frisingensis (Augsburg, 1724-1729, new and enlarged edition 1854).
At Augsburg, in 1569, he ordered the construction of a 19-ft.
With her remaining child she wandered, under the name of duchesse de Saint-Leu, from Geneva to Aix, Carlsruhe and Augsburg.
The young prince also studied at the gymnasium at Augsburg, where his love of work and his mental qualities were gradually revealed; he was less successful in mathematics than in literary subjects, and he became an adept at physical exercises, such as fencing, riding and swimming.
He also wrote or edited various Chinese works on geography, the celestial and terrestrial spheres, geometry and arithmetic. And the detailed history of the mission was drawn out by him, which after his death was brought home by P. Nicolas Trigault, and published at Augsburg, and later in a complete form at Lyons under the name De Expeditione Christiana apud Sinas Suscepta, ab Soc. Jesu, Ex P. Mat.
of Germany through the peace of Augsburg (1555), Charles V., exhausted by illness and by thirty years of intense activity, in the truce of Vaucelles abandoned Henry II.s conquests- Piedmont and the Three Bishoprics.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.