Auditory organs of a simple type are present in most insects.
Auditory bulla filled with honeycombed bony tissue.
At the fundus are placed the concrement-cells with their conspicuous otoliths (con) and the inconspicuous auditory cells, which are connected with the subumbral nerve - ring.
In connexion with the large size of the ears is the excessive inflation of the auditory bulla of the skull.
The green gland and the structures associated with it in Decapods were at one time regarded as constituting an auditory apparatus.
The skull has a remarkably narrow and pointed muzzle and much inflated auditory bullae; while the two halves of the lower jaw are firmly welded together at their junction, thus effectually preventing the scissor-like action of the lower incisors distinctive of Macropus and its immediate allies.
The pedal ganglia and auditory organs have disappeared with the foot, at all events have never been detected; the cerebral ganglia are very minute, while the parieto-splanchnic are well developed, and constitute the principal part of the nervous system.
In Bettongia, on the other hand, the head is shorter and wider, with smaller and more rounded ears, and more swollen auditory bullae.
When feathered or provided with secondary barbs the setae will respond to movements or vibrations in the surrounding water, and have been supposed to have an auditory function.
Thyng, who has carefully reviewed all the other theories, the balance of evidence tends to show that the quadrate has been taken up into the inner ear, where it is represented among the auditory ossicles by the incus.
In the majority of the Decapoda there is a saccular invagination of the integument in the basal segment of the antennular peduncle having on its inner surface " auditory " setae of the type just described.
From an evidential point of view the apparition is the most valuable class of death-warning, inasmuch as recognition is more difficult in the case of an auditory hallucination, even where it takes the form of spoken words; moreover, auditory hallucinations coinciding with deaths may be mere knocks, ringing of bells, &c.; tactile hallucinations are still more difficult of recognition; and the hallucinations of smell which are sometimes found as death-warnings rarely have anything to associate them specially with the dead person.
Although no auditory organs have been found in the females, the song of the males is believed to serve as a sexual call.
In the members of the typical genus Potorous (formerly known as Hypsiprymnus) the head is long and slender, with the auditory bullae somewhat swollen; while the ridges on the first two premolars are few and perpendicular, and there are large vacuities on the palate.
Gerbillus (or Tatera), with a large number of species, has a range coextensive with that of the sub-family; Pachyuromys, with two African species, has a short club-shaped tail and enormous auditory bullae; while the remaining members of the group, which are confined to North Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia, are arranged in the genera Meriones, Psainmomys and Rhombomys, the latter represented only by R.
The list is completed by Aepyprymnus rufescens, which differs from all the others by the hairy muzzle, and the absence of inflation in the auditory bullae and of vacuities in the palate.
By a simple modification, the open pit becomes a solid ectodermal ingrowth, just as in Teleostean fishes the hollow medullary tube, or the auditory pit of other vertebrate embryos, is formed at first as a solid cord of cells, which acquires a cavity secondarily.
The word is still sometimes employed in this sense, as of the ship's telegraph, by means of which orders are mechanically transmitted from the navigating bridge to the engine room, but when used without qualification it usually denotes telegraphic apparatus worked by electricity, whether the signals that express the words of the message are visual, auditory or written.
The skull, which must have consisted of hardened cartilage, exhibits pairs of nasal and auditory capsules, with a gill-apparatus below its hinder part, but no indications of ordinary jaws.
2), says, " Krohn stated that the structures described by my father as ovaries were in reality salivary glands, also that the oviduct runs down to the orifice described in the Monograph of the Cirripedia as the auditory meatus."
The air-bladder may be so reduced as to lose its hydrostatic function and become subservient to a sensory organ, its outer exposed surface being connected with the skin by a meatus between the bands of muscle, and conveying the thermobarometrical impressions to the auditory nerves.
Auditory ment in the crocodile, and with the ", chain " of Chicken, X 6 processus folii of the mammalian diameters; lateral and basal malleus, it follows that the whole views.
The South Australian Caloprymnus campestris represents a genus near akin to the last, but with the edge of the hairy border of the bare muzzle less emarginate in the middle line, still more swollen auditory bullae, very large and posterially expanded nasals and longer vacuities on the palate.
Such hallucinations are commonly provoked by crystal-gazing, but auditory hallucinations may be caused by the use of a shell (shell-hearing), and the other senses are occasionally affected.
The tail and ears are generally very long; while, in correlation with the size of the latter, the auditory bullae of the skull are also large.
They have long hind limbs, large eyes and ears; and in correlation with the latter an enlarged auditory bulla to the skull, which is hollow and divided into a tympanic and a mastoid portion.
These are a chain of small bones belonging to the first four vertebrae, which are much modified, and connecting the air-bladder with the auditory organs.
The family, Chinchillidae, typified by the wellknown chinchilla, includes a small number of South American rodents with large ears and proportionately great auditory bullae in the skull, elongated hind-limbs, bushy tails, very soft fur and perfect clavicles.
One of the most puzzling features in its structure, and, at the same time, one of the greatest obstacles to the view that it is essentially primitive and not merely a degenerate creature, is the entire absence of the paired organs of special sense, olfactory, optic and auditory, which are so characteristic of the higher vertebrates.
According to this theory, then, when a pure tone is received the auditory apparatus corresponding to that tone is most excited, but the apparatus on each side of it is also excited, though by a rapidly diminishing amount, as the interval increases.
Very few students came out being highly visual or highly auditory learners.
Neonatal brainstem auditory evoked response recorded using maximum length sequences.
The WADT is considered to be a fast, inexpensive means of screening children for auditory discrimination deficits and for identifying children who are slower than average in developing auditory discrimination skills.
There are various methods for addressing auditory discrimination problems in children.
Auditory discrimination is one component of central auditory processing skills or auditory perception.
auditory hallucinations or sound distortions.
auditory meatus in medical speak.
auditory nerve to the brain.
auditory neuropathy do not have an acoustic reflex.
None that I have read so far have explained a purely auditory technique.
We are also using auditory evoked potentials to measure more directly the neural correlates of these processes.
They work by electrically stimulating the auditory nerve (nerve of hearing ).
binaural cues used for localisation and the effects of auditory training.
What is an auditory brainstem implant (ABI )?
The zygomatic arches are complete, and there is an auditory bullae present.
Recent research work here has been undertaken on the auditory cortex and the rodent barrel cortex.
Fully accessible courseware will have an auditory and visual impact.
Catching a bounced ball is easier to catch, because of the auditory cue from the ball hitting the floor.
Recently, a very few congenitally deaf children have been implanted with an auditory brainstem implant in Europe.
Every few seconds, someone would randomly press one of the buttons, and stand back to admire the high decibel auditory effect.
The difficulty of using Auditory Training Units with headphones has been overcome with the use of insert earphones supplied by the Ewing Foundation.
The graphic equalizer display is based on a number of auditory filter sized channels, each 1 bark wide.
It is concluded that this " continuity illusion " helped the auditory system to combine information from physically non-simultaneous formants.
characterized by auditory hallucinations (" voices " ).
In the same way auditory hallucinations may be induced, both positive or negative.
Auditory brainstem implants have been used for adults who have suffered trauma to their hearing nerve which means that it is no longer useful.
The same lateralization pattern was found in schizophrenic patients, indicating unimpaired functional lateralization of auditory language processing.
This is the external auditory meatus in medical speak.
We measured the auditory midline of ten patients exhibiting unilateral neglect as assessed by standard visual tests.
modalitymined the neural response in the same individuals to stimuli displaying fear and disgust presented in both visual and auditory modalities.
We have a large collection of mouse mutants with well-characterised auditory defects but only a superficial study of their physiological responses to various stimuli.
From here, the ' sound message ' is passed along the auditory nerve to the brain.
Background noise is a common problem for children with any hearing problem, including auditory neuropathy.
It is argued that like in visual system of primates, there is hierarchically organized processing of auditory information.
To allow the transmission of high frequency sounds, the stapes is used as an auditory ossicle.
The architecture of the music, the rhythm and the timbre all created changes in brain processing through stimulation of the auditory pathways.
Therefore, freqency analysis of the incoming signal takes place at the auditory periphery, within the cochlea.
Articulatory phonology does not take the goal to be auditory.
pivot grammar works best through the auditory cortex.
visual prosody and speech intelligibility head movement improves auditory speech perception.
psychophysics experiments, we have characterized interactions between auditory and visual motion perception.
The symbol may be visual, auditory, or that you step in a mud puddle!
Effects of attention and unilateral neglect on auditory stream segregation.
Thus, the effective auditory stimulus for the activation is not masked by the scanner noise.
Physical, visual and auditory stimuli can have powerful subconscious learning effects.
We are investigating both the structure and function of these cortical areas and their reciprocal connections with the auditory thalamus.
In the skull there are always vacuities, or unossified spaces in the bones of the palate, while the "angle," or lower hind extremity of each half of the lower jaw is strongly bent inwards so as to form a kind of shelf, and the alisphenoid bone takes a share in the formation of the tympanum, or auditory bladder, or bulla.
They contribute to the formation of the auditory meatus, and of the right and left carotid canals which accompany the eustachian tubes.
The dorsal or hyomandibular portion of this same arch is transformed into the auditory chain, ending in the fenestra ovalis.
The columellar apparatus, or auditory chain of ossicles (fig.
Auditory bulla simple and hollow within.
Auditory bulla of skull filled with cancellar tissue.
The Leydigian or nuchal organ is supposed to be auditory and to contain an otolith.
In Chinchilla the fore-feet have five and the hind four digits, the tail is long and bushy, and the auditory bullae are enormous, appearing on the top of the skull; Lagidium has four digits in both foreand hind-feet, and Lagostomus three only in the hindfeet, while the auditory bullae are much smaller (see Chinchilla and Viscacha).
No importance can be attached to the presence of horns as an indication of affinity between Arsinoitherium and the Amblypoda; and there are important differences in the structure of the skulls of the two, notably in the external auditory meatus, the occiput, the premaxill.ae, the palatal foramina and the lower jaw.
2, antennule (the arrow points to the opening of the socalled auditory organ).
For auditory stimulation part of the process involves rubbing the felt for several minutes with a scrunched up plastic bag.
Even infants can enjoy the visual and auditory stimulation that the videos offer.
The digital book highlights each word as it is spoken, and the child enjoys the visual and auditory experiences as he or she becomes immersed in the reading adventure.
It provides definitions, translations, and auditory single words.
He will present two distractions to your dog; one will be visual and one will be auditory.
To entice consumers, he offers several extremely comprehensive free lessons that include text elements and auditory aids.
This will give you both a visual and an auditory reference for when to change chords and what chord to play.
Reading - Large type books and books on CD can be provided to residents with visual or auditory limitations.
Residents with auditory limitations can use assistive devices to enhance hearing.
In addition, a person might have what is known as an auditory sleep start, in which a discomforting experience of hearing a perceived loud noise wakes you up in light sleep.
The brain's electrical response to visual, auditory, and sensual stimulation is recorded.
Tumor growth (schwannoma) on the nerves to the ears (auditory nerves) is most characteristic of NF-2.
They often demonstrate lower than normal levels of interest in their environment and responsiveness to others, and they are slower than other children in reacting to visual or auditory stimulation.
These may be auditory (hearing voices) or tactile (feeling as though worms are crawling over one's skin).
Parents should contact a healthcare professional if their child begins to have auditory or visual hallucinations, has a sudden change in behavior, shows signs of suicide ideation, or exhibits other symptoms of schizophrenia.
Delayed auditory feedback (DAF), in which stutterers hear an echo of their own speech sounds, has also been effective in treating stuttering.
This technique, called functional MRI, involves rapid imaging to display changes in the brain's blood flow in response to tasks or visual and auditory stimuli.
When evaluating infants, rather than testing of threshold levels, the examiner establishes the minimum response level at which the child responds to auditory stimuli.
The child is instructed to listen for a sound and to respond when a sound is heard by doing varying tasks, such as placing a ball in a cup or placing a peg in a pegboard, when the auditory stimulus is heard.
Some electrophysiological tests are the auditory brainstem response (ABR) test, auditory steady-state response (ASSR) testing, electroencephalic audiometry (EEG) test, and otoacoustic emission testing (OAE).
To perform the auditory brainstem response (ABR) test, headphones are placed on the infant or child and electrophysiological responses from the scalp and ears are recorded in response to tones sent through the headphones.
This test is also called the brainstem auditory evoked response.
Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) testing also involves monitoring recorded responses from the scalp of tones at varying frequencies.
Firszt, Jill B., et al. "Auditory Sensitivity in Children Using the Auditory Steady-State Response."
Auditory discrimination is a central auditory processing skill that involves the ability to differentiate among phonemes-the smallest significant units of sound in a language.
Auditory discrimination is part of phonology which, in turn, is one of the five components of language.
Auditory discrimination tests (ADTs) are one type of auditory analysis tests, which are used to measure how well a child understands speech and the spoken word.
Two of the most commonly used ADTs are Wepman's Auditory Discrimination Test (WADT) and the Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination.
Auditory discrimination skills are very important in the classroom.
Auditory discrimination ability or phonological awareness skills have long been correlated with reading ability.
Some specialists believe that ADTs should be a component of all reading programs and that poor auditory discrimination can be a major factor in children's failure to reach reading targets.
Some underachieving but gifted children have learning disabilities that are caused by deficits in central auditory skills, including auditory discrimination.
The WADT commonly is used to test for an auditory discrimination deficit in such children.
Deficits in auditory discrimination are also believed to be one of the causes of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD).
Sometimes electrophysiological techniques are used to assess various types of central auditory processing including auditory discrimination.
These techniques measure auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), which are changes in the brain's neural-electrical activity in response to the reception of auditory signals.
The most common way of measuring auditory discrimination with P300 is the oddball paradigm, in which a series of low-frequency auditory stimuli is randomly interspersed with high-frequency stimuli.
Many children do well on the auditory word discrimination subtest of TAPS, which uses auditory stimuli, but perform poorly on the G-F-W Test of Auditory Discrimination, which uses visual stimuli.
Such children may have good auditory discrimination skills but poor auditory-visual integration discrimination.
In the early 2000s research suggests that auditory discrimination and other perceptual processes may not be primary factors in predicting reading ability and learning disabilities.
Early intervention for children with low ADT scores may include exercises and activities designed to improve auditory discrimination.
Auditory discrimination-The ability to detect small similarities and differences between sounds.
Auditory evoked potential (AEP)-A change in the neural-electrical activity in the brain in response to auditory signals.
Auditory perception-The ability to comprehend and interpret auditory signals.
Central auditory processing skills-The skills needed for auditory perception, including auditory discrimination, auditory memory, auditory blending, and auditory comprehension.
Wepman's Auditory Discrimination Test (WADT)-A commonly used test for evaluating auditory discrimination skills.
Although no two children reach these milestones at precisely the same age, a significant lag may indicate the need for assessment of auditory discrimination and/or other components central auditory processing.
Walker. "Diagnostic Principals in Neuro-otology: The Auditory System."
The hallucinations may be either visual or auditory.
They often demonstrate lower than normal levels of interest in their environment and less responsiveness to others, and they are slower than other children in reacting to visual or auditory stimulation.
Mental retardation causes global language delay, including delayed auditory comprehension and use of gestures.
An automated auditory brainstem response (ABR) test, or brainstem auditory-evoked response (BAER) test, in which brainstem responses to sounds are monitored through small electrodes taped to the child's head.
A cochlear implant bypasses damaged hair cells in the child's cochlea and helps establish some degree of hearing by stimulating the hearing (auditory) nerve directly.
Hearing loss is caused by a number of different problems that occur either in the auditory nerve or in parts of the middle or inner ear.
This movement stimulates the auditory nerve and sends messages about sound to the brain.
When these hair cells stop functioning, the auditory nerve is not stimulated, and the child cannot hear.
These electrical impulses flow through electrodes contained in a narrow, flexible tube that has been threaded into the cochlea during surgery and stimulate the auditory nerve.
The auditory nerve carries the electrical impulses to the brain, which interprets them as sound.
G., et al. "Concurrent and predictive validity of the cognitive adaptive test/clinical linguistic and auditory milestone scale (CAT/CLAMS) and the Mental Developmental Index of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development."
They can see and hear adequately, but they have difficulty distinguishing between different visual cues and auditory signals, and may have problems understanding spatial relationships and sequencing the sights and sounds they observe.
In terms of the study of temperament, fMRI allows researchers to study such complex brain activities as problem-solving as well as visual and auditory (hearing) perception.
Evoked potentials record the response of the brain to a sensory, visual, or auditory stimulus.
Auditory seizures affect the part of the brain that controls hearing and cause the individual to imagine voices, music, and other sounds.
Problem areas may include attention, short-term auditory memory, and abstract thinking.
Likewise, if your child excels at auditory learning, consider looking into a curriculum that associates songs with phonemes and spelling rules.
Audiologist: Audiologists do their best to ensure healthy ears, communication competency, and identifies and prevents hearing loss and auditory dysfunction.
A child who learns by listening is an auditory learner.
Musical - Some people respond most to rhythmic auditory stimulation - so working music into the class (even just in the background) will help them retain and acquire new learning.
Theories and speculations abound, from voices of the dead to auditory illusions, but not a single theory explains every case that comes along.
Clairaudience: This ability is purely auditory.
Sing along videos are great for auditory stimulation as well as helping with verbal skills.
Auditory learners are not abundant in the autism community but many people on the spectrum learn through music.
Books with repetitive words or rhyming ones may spark the interest of auditory learners because they have a rhythm and cadence that can appeal to the students' desire for sameness.
Listening to music while following along with a printed copy of the lyrics can also be a good approach with auditory learners, reinforcing the written word with auditory stimulation.
Did those questions include family history, medical issues, psychological problems, environmental issues, genetic screening, auditory and speech screening, neurological consultations, verbal and physical skills, and living conditions?
Sensory integration toy adaptations: Many outdoor toys are produced with varied textures to suit the tactile needs of children with autism, while others include sounds and lights for visual and auditory stimulation.
Jazz prodigy Matt Savage was diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) at the age of three and suffered from severe sensory processing challenges, particularly to auditory stimuli.
With help from intensive auditory integration therapy, he was eventually able to tolerate, and even love, music.
It is important to have your child's hearing tested as one of the fundamental steps to determining if deficits in communication are due to hearing problems or due auditory processing problems associated with autism.
Some autistic children may be visual learners, and others may respond to auditory lessons, such as lectures or learning through songs.
Unlike auditory learners, who can understand the biomechanics of a stretch by simply listening to or reading instructions, visual learners need to see a picture of the stretch, or watch someone perform it.
Its focus on auditory learning can mean that the student falls behind in developing good writing skills.
A video podcast, often called a vodcast or videocast, works on a similar principle but adds visuals to the auditory content.
The statocysts present in general the structure of either a knob or a closed vesicle, composed of (I) indifferent supporting epithelium; (2) sensory, so-called auditory epithelium of slender cells, each.
In certain divisions of the Malacostraca more specialized organs are found which have been regarded as auditory.
AIM is a time-domain auditory model for studying the role of phase locking and temporal fine-structure in auditory perception.
Typically, children have a period of normal language development, followed by a period of language regression with auditory agnosia.
developing auditory memory While developing aural attention span helps children to attend and concentrate, developing auditory memory helps them to learn.
His other main area of expertise is in pediatric audiology, particularly pediatric auditory rehabilitation.
auditory cortex to localize sound sources.
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