Attained Sentence Examples
The state of civilization to which they have attained is very low.
There is no idea of government, but in each sept there is a head, who has attained that position by degrees on account of some tacitly admitted superiority and commands a limited respect and some obedience.
The institution has not attained great vogue.
The veterinary clinic was a lifelong dream he had attained.
At the early age of sixteen he attained one of the highest dignities of the order, being made grand prior of France.Advertisement
He entered the army as an engineer, and attained the rank of captain.
What hast thou attained relying on reason only?
The total exports of the province of Cagliari in 1905 attained a value of £1,388,735, of which £J50,023 was foreign trade, while the imports amounted to £1,085,514, of which £360,758 was foreign trade.
Towards the end of the r8th century Mannheim attained great celebrity in the literary world as the place where Schiller's early plays were performed for the first time.
A zealot for monastic and clerical reform, he introduced a more severe discipline, including the practice of flagellation, into the house, which, under his rule, quickly attained celebrity, and became a model for other foundations.Advertisement
The best form of stove is that with which perfect combustion is most nearly attained, and to which a pan of water is affixed to supply a desirable humidity to the air, the gas having the effect of drying the atmosphere.
Each year there is drawn up in every commune a list of the young men who attained the age of twenty during the previous year.
Men physically unfit are wholly exempted, and men who have not, at the tinie of the examination, attained the required physical standard are put back for re-examination after an interval.
Jesus is but a man in whom this reminiscence is unusually strong, and who has consequently attained to unusual spiritual excellence and power.
In subsequent years the motor industry attained considerable proportions.Advertisement
In Hughes's instrument almost perfect accuracy and certainty have been attained; and in actual practice it has proved to be decidedly superior to all previous type-printing telegraphs, not only in speed and accuracy, but in less liability to mechanical derangement from wear and tear and from accident.
Excepting the in creases of deficit in 1868 and 1870, the annual deficits tended thence forward to decrease, until in 1875 equilibrium between expendituri and revenue was attained, and was maintained until 1881.
Thus was elaborated the type of despot which attained completeness in Gian Galeazzo Visconti and Lorenzo de Medici.
From 1876, when equilibrium between expenditure and revenue had first been attained, taxation yielded steady annual surpluses, which in 1881 reached the satisfactory level of 2,120,000.
The chloroplasts increase in number by division., which takes place in higher plants when they have attained a certain size, independent of the division.Advertisement
The study of existing Algae, that is of plants that have continued to live in water, shows that under these conditions no high degree of organization has been reached, though some of them have attained gigantic dimensions.
Nearly related to myrtles are Melastomaceae which, poorly represented in the Old World, have attained here so prodigious a development in genera and species, that Ball looks upon it as the seat of origin of the family.
Before full adjustment has been attained the river bed may be broken in places by waterfalls or interrupted by lakes; after adjustment the bed assumes a permanent outline, the slope diminishing more and more gradually, without a break in its symmetrical descent.
They have attained the highest culture, profess the purest forms of monotheistic religion, and have brought all the people of the black type and many of those of the yellow under their domination.
The company was by no means a financial success, and many of its proceedings were wholly unscrupulous and indefensible; its great object, however, was attained, and New Zealand became the Britain of the south.Advertisement
This is the most perfect arrangement attained by the vertebral column, and is typical of, and restricted to, birds.
He was the son of a merchant, and was himself trained for the pursuits of commerce, in which, by his abilities and enterprising spirit, he attained a conspicuous position.
By this time the rising had attained the dimensions of a revolution; all the feudal levies of the kingdom were called out against it; and mercenaries were hired in haste from Venice, Bohemia and the emperor.
Priscian the grammarian speaks of him as having attained the summit of honesty and of all sciences.
For half a century the struggle between the two races went on with varying success, but on the whole the Polish government proved stronger than its insubordinate subjects, and about 1638 it seemed to have attained its object.
The effect of this latitude is to give the company ample discretion in the matter, and to enable the act to be administered and the object of it to be attained without undue interference.
The smoothest and safest running is, in fact, attained when a " transition," " easement " or " adjustment " curve is inserted between the tangent and the point of circular curvature.
This perfection of distribution is practically attained in present-day practice by the multiple control system of operating an electric train, where motors are applied to a selected number of axles in the train, all of them being under the perfect control of the driver.
This high mean pressure cannot be maintained for long, because as the speed increases the demand for steam per unit of time increases, so that cut-off must take place earlier and earlier in the stroke, the limiting steady speed being attained when the rate at which steam is supplied to the cylinders is adjusted by the cut-off to be equal to the maximum rate at which the boiler can produce steam, which depends upon the maximum rate at which coal can be burnt per square foot of grate.
This would be an ideal performance for an engine receiving steam at 190 lb initial pressure absolute, and rejecting steam at the back pressure assumed above, and could never be attained in practice.
In most of the systems that have been proposed this result is attained by electrical regulation; in one, however, a mechanical method is adopted, the dynamo being so' hung that it allows the driving belt to slip when the speed of the axle exceeds a certain limit, the armature thus being rotated at an approximately constant speed.
It was at Keighley in Yorkshire - where also the first English periodical, the Yorkshire Spiritual Telegraph, was published in 1855 and onwards - that spiritualism as a religious movement first made any mark in England; but this movement, though it spread rather widely, cannot be said to have attained at any time very vigorous proportions.
It is not, however, till the 8th century that prophecy attained its highest level as the interpreter of God's ways to men.
It marks the highest point to which the Hebrew race attained in its progress from henotheism to monotheism.
The great reflecting telescope at Dorpat was manufactured by him, and so great was the skill he attained in the making of lenses for achromatic telescopes that, in a letter to Sir David Brewster, he expressed his willingness to furnish an achromatic glass of 18 in.
During the glacial period many of the Nevada lakes attained a great size, several of them uniting to form the ancient " Lake Lahontan," in northwestern Nevada.
In 1877 the maximum annual output for the mines was attained, being $3 6, 3 01, 537.
Another mining region that attained importance in the early period was the Eureka District, in Eureka county, about 90 m.
With the exception of a few species from the Solenhofen lithographic Oolite, fossil Diptera belong to the Tertiary Period, during which the members of this order attained a high degree of development.
The beginnings of modern thermochemistry, though made independently of the doctrine of the conservation of energy, are practically contemporaneous with the recognition of that law, and without it the science could scarcely have reached the degree of development which it rapidly attained.
Bazard, after remaining for some time in obscurity in Paris, came to the conclusion that the ends of those who wished well to the people would be most easily attained, not through political agitation, but by effecting a radical change in their social condition.
With him the importance of the Palestinian patriarchate attained its zenith.
The Jews of Spain attained to high places in the service of the state from the time of the Moorish conquest in 711.
Jews no longer attached to the Synagogue, such as the Herschels and Disraelis, attained to fame.
They have attained to high rank in all branches of the public service, and have shown most splendid instances of far-sighted and generous philanthropy.
The town, which was founded in the 11th century, attained the height of its prosperity in the 15th and 16th centuries owing to its pottery wares.
After the Turkish conquest it greatly diminished, but afterwards gradually rose, till it was supposed to have attained to about 260,000, of whom about half were Mahommedans, at the time of the outbreak of the Greek revolution in 1821.
But the contents of early tombs and dwellings and indications supplied by such objects as stone vases and seal-stones show that the Cretans had already attained to a considerable degree of culture, and had opened out communication with the Nile valley in the time of the earliest Egyptian dynasties.
An extraordinary perfection was at this time attained in many branches of art, notably in the painted pottery, often with polychrome decoration, of a class known as " Kamares " from its first discovery in a cave of that name on' Mount Ida.
It retains a curiously carved screen, and the black marble tomb of Queen Elizabeth's physician, Marwood, who attained the age of 105.
He is chiefly occupied with the means whereby the unio mystica is to be attained, whereas Eckhart dwells on the union as an ever-present fact, and dilates on its metaphysical implications.
It has attained a high degree of wealth and prosperity under the Dutch government.
The sea in which these strata were deposited seems to have attained its greatest extension in Upper Cretaceous times, when its waters spread over the whole of western Asia and even encroached slightly upon the Indian land.
It attained a certain dignity and unity under Abbas Shah (1585-1628), but in later times was distracted and disorganized by Afghan invasions.
It is in David's history that the clans of the south first attained prominence, and some of them are known to have been staunch upholders of a purer worship of Yahweh, or to have been associated with the introduction of religious institutions among the Israelites.
In the Civil War he attained the rank of brigadier-general (March 1863) and received the brevet of major-general (1865).
Having attained his majority in 1805, he married on the 28th of July Catherine Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of John James, 1st marquess of Abercorn.
His lectures, which were supplemented with practical laboratory teaching, were attended by many chemists who subsequently attained distinction.
The Teutonic tribes whose dim origins he records have in the course of centuries attained to world-wide dominion.
Step by step he attained his end; in 1840 he won his "bachelier es.
These are Ariane (1672) and the Comte d'Essex, in the former of which Rachel attained success.
The disease is seen to have attained its maximum virulence in 1883.
As usually happened in this strife of the land power and the sea power, Napoleon's continental policy attained an almost complete success, while the naval and oriental schemes which he had more nearly at heart utterly miscarried.
Consequently his labours had attained to a certain degree of completeness in this direction, and it may therefore be expedient here to name the different groups which he thus thought himself entitled to consider established.
Again, the arrangement followed in the Pterylographie was of course based on pterylographical considerations, and we have its author's own word for it that he was persuaded that the limitation of natural groups could only be attained by the most assiduous research into the species of which they are composed from every point of view.
Ancient philosophers, who had not the Scriptures, received direct illumination from God, and only thus can the brilliant results attained by them be accounted for.
Great efforts have been made to devise cottonpicking machines, but, as yet, complete success has not been attained.
Some of the United States planters are alert to take advantage of the application of science to industry, and in many cases even to render active assistance, and very successful results have been attained by the co-operation of the United States Department of Agriculture and planters.
These are propagated, and there are instances as described above of very successful and commercially important results having been attained.
May we infer deductively that they have been attained because of the increase of speculative transactions?
He himself entered the imperial army at an early age and speedily attained high promotion.
The second, led by Peter himself, passed safely through Hungary, but suffered severely in Bulgaria, and only attained Constantinople with sadly diminished numbers at the end of July.
Thus, it would appear, the whole of the expansion of the Latin kingdom (which may be said to have attained its height in 1131, at the death of Baldwin II.) may be shown to have been dictated, at any rate in large part, by economic motives; and thus, too, it would seem that two of the most powerful motives which sway the mind of man - the religious motive and the desire for gain - conspired to elevate the kingdom of Jerusalem (at once the country of Christ, and a natural centre of trade) to a position of supremacy in Latin Syria.
But the greatest success was attained when St Bernard - no great believer in pilgrimages, and naturally disposed to doubt the policy of a second Crusade - was induced by the pope to become the preacher of the new movement.
Yet the church might ask, with some justice, whether the means he had used were excused by the end which he had attained.
Industry especially attained a high state of development; rich garments were embroidered, and glass, pastes, faience, &c., were manufactured.
The lords of Beaugency attained considerable importance in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries; at the end of the 13th century the fief was sold to the crown, and afterwards passed to the house of Orleans, then to those of Dunois and Longueville and ultimately again to that of Orleans.
It has been remarked that there is evidence that the Malays had attained to a certain stage of civilization before ever they set foot in Malaya.
From this time Gelo paid little attention to Gela, and devoted himself to the aggrandizement of Syracuse, which attained extraordinary wealth and influence.
Caub, first mentioned in the year 983, originally belonged to the lords of Falkenstein, passed in 1277 to the Rhenish Palatinate, and attained civic rights in 1324.
Many of them afterwards attained high positions in the Church; one, Anselm of Badagio, became pope under the title of Alexander II.
He was a powerful preacher and teacher, who broke from Calvinism in denying imputation and teaching perfect freedom of the will, by which perfect holiness might be attained.
In the fifty years between the Persian and the Peloponnesian wars architecture and plastic art attained their highest perfection in Athens.
This centralization of power (Synoecism), to which many Greek peoples never attained, laid the first foundations of Athenian greatness.
The prestige of her past history had now perhaps attained its zenith.
In spite of his absolute lack of talent, he attained the highest of positions - an exceptional fact in the history of the French Revolution.
Next year he was appointed captain of the steam reserve at Portsmouth; and after serving three years in that capacity, he remained at Portsmouth as flag-captain to the commander-in-chief until 1886, when he was retired by superannuation before he had attained flag rank.
From such a rudis indiges-, taque moles, after it had attained an almost world-wide distribution, have arisen the various Ratitae, independently at various epochs and in various countries.
In the view of some alchemists, the ultimate principles of matter were Aristotle's four elements; the proximate constituents were a " sulphur " and a " mercury," the father and mother of the metals; gold was supposed to have attained to the perfection of its nature by passing in succession through the forms of lead, brass and silver; gold and silver were held to contain very pure red sulphur and white quicksilver, whereas in the other metals these materials were coarser and of a different colour.
Pitchblende attained considerable notoriety towards the end of the 19th century on account of two important discoveries.
But Wagner never thus represented the childhood of an ideal, though he attained the manhood of the most comprehensive ideal yet known in art.
Wagner added all the arts to each other, and in one of them he attained so consummate a mastery that we can confidently turn to it when his words and doctrines fail us.
In 1766 he was apprenticed to a storekeeper at Salem, in New England, and while in that employment occupied himself in chemical and mechanical experiments, as well as in engraving, in which he attained to some proficiency.
The object, however, can be fully attained only if the scale of the map is sufficiently large, if the horizontal and vertical scales are identical, so that there shall be no exaggeration of the heights, and if regard is had, eventually, to the curvature of the earth's surface.
It is under his wise guidance that the survey has attained its present efficiency.
Although these dogs were originally brought to Great Britain from Newfoundland and are still bred in the latter country, greater size, perfection and intelligence have been attained in England, where Newfoundlands for many years have been the most popular large dogs.
Neither series when published attained any great popularity.
Personal independence was largely sacrificed, but those still more important ends were in a great measure attained.
The system of serfdom attained its fullest development in the reign of Catherine II.
When he had attained the age of eighteen or nineteen years, Cosimo received him into his household, and determined to make use of his rare disposition for scholarship in the development of a long-cherished project.
The herbarium at Melbourne, Australia, under Baron Muller, attained large proportions; and that of the Botanical Garden of Calcutta is noteworthy as the repository of numerous specimens described by writers on Indian botany.
The genus is especially characteristic of the Middle and Upper Eocene, and some of the species attained the size of a rhinoceros.
From the biological point of view the reference of certain modes of behaviour, termed instinctive, to faculties of mind for which "instinct" is the generic term is scarcely satisfactory; from the psychological point of view the phrase "without necessary knowledge of the relation between the means employed and the end attained" is ambiguous.
Salvation is attained not by believing but by the perception of what is right; wisdom is resident in the soul and identical with the thought of man.
It first attained prominence with the settlement in.
He was succeeded by his son Suleiman " the Magnificent," in whose long and eventful reign Turkey attained the highest point of her glory.
On the 8th of December Murat reached Vilna, whilst Ney with about 400 men and Wrede with 2000 Bavarians still formed the rearguard; but it was quite impossible to carry out Napoleon's instructions to go into winter quarters about the town, so that the retreat was resumed on the 10th and ultimately Konigsberg was attained on the 9th of December by Murat with 400 Guards and 600 Guard cavalry dismounted.
Wittgenstein, who now commanded the allies in place of Kutusov, hearing of his approach, had decided to attack ' Napoleon always gave them out as 300,000, but this number was never attained.
The difference between the two, in Clement's judgment, was that the Greek philosophers had only glimpses of the truth, that they attained only to fragments of the truth, while Christianity revealed in Christ the absolute and perfect truth.
It was through possessing somewhat of this Reason that the philosophers attained to any truth and goodness; but in Christians he dwells more fully and guides them through all the perplexities of life.
It was during his reign that the Mogul power attained its greatest prosperity.
When that condition is attained, photosynthesis slows down and ceases.
The remaining two families of Enteropneusta, Ptychoderidae and Spengelidae, contain species of which probably all pursue an indirect course of development, culminating in a metamorphosis by which the adult form is attained.
The French afterwards resumed the blockade, so that although Barrosa was an allied victory, its object was not attained.
Wellington's object in this was at once attained, for Soult, leaving only 10,000 men in Bayonne, came out and concentrated at Orthes on the Pau.
Yarns, textile goods and weaving industries generally have not attained any great dimensions, but there are large jute-spinning mills and factories for cotton-wool and cotton driving - belts.
The book attained an almost unprecedented popularity both in America and in Europe, where it was translated into several languages; and it came to be considered a classic. Immediately after the appearance of this book Dana began the practice of law, which brought him a large number of maritime cases.
Dessau was probably founded by Albert the Bear; it had attained civic rights as early as 1213.
As a preacher he early attained great popularity, and Was, albeit unjustly, accused of Methodism.
After the 1900 election he established and edited at Lincoln a weekly political journal, The Commoner, which attained a wide circulation.
Here no such precision can be attained.
Under increasing magnetizing forces, greatly exceeding those comprised within the limits of the diagram, the magAetization does practically reach a limit, the maximum value being attained with a magnetizing force of less than 2000 for wrought iron and nickel, and less than 4000 for cast iron and cobalt.
Honda, measured the changes of length of various metals shaped in the form of ovoids instead of cylindrical rods, and determined the magnetization curves for the same specimens; a higher degree of accuracy was thus attained, and satisfactory data were provided for testing theories.
The aluminium-iron attained its greatest permeability in a field of o 5, about that of the earth's force, when its value was 9000, this being more than twice the maximum permeability of the Swedish iron.
So far, the best results have been attained with aluminium, and the permeability was greatest when the percentages of manganese and aluminium were approximately proportional to the atomic weights of the two metals.
The magnetization curve was found to be of the same general form as that of a paramagnetic metal, and gave indications that with a sufficient force magnetic saturation would probably be attained.
It first became a flourishing place under the Normans and during the crusades, but attained the acme of its prosperity as a seat of trade with the East under the Angevin princes.
The method of "generalized coordinates," as it is now called, by which he attained this result, is the most brilliant achievement of the analytical method.
It attained no importance, however, for nearly two centuries.
In Rio Grande do Sul, where it has attained its greatest development, about 400,000 beeves are slaughtered annually for the manufacture of jerked beef (xarque), beef extract, &c. Little attention has been given to sheep in Brazil except in the southern states, and even there the flocks are small.
The anticipated agreement, however, was not attained; and the result of the council was simply to embitter the relations between the two great religious parties, and those between the Western and Eastern halves of the Empire.
The point in dispute has not in his hands the all-absorbing importance it afterwards attained, and the keenness of later distinctions is as yet unknown.
There can be no doubt that if Cobden had been satisfied to devote all his energies to commercial life he might soon have attained to great opulence, for it is understood that his share in the profits of the business he had established amounted to from £8000 to £10,000 a year.
The minimum of the temperature is attained in January and the maximum in July.
The encouragement of polite literature was more especially the object of the Kisfaludy Society, founded in 1836.4 Polite literature had received a great impulse in the preceding period (1807-1830), but after the formation of the academy and the Kisfaludy society it advanced with accelerated speed towards the point attained by other nations.
Roscoe Conkling was admitted to the bar at Utica, New York, in 1850, was appointed district-attorney of Oneida (disambiguation)|Oneida county in the same year, and soon attained success in the practice of his profession.
A useless " correlated variation " may have attained great volume and quality before it is (as, it were) seized upon and perfected by natural selection.
By this procedure the width of the central band in the diffraction pattern is halved, and so far an advantage is attained.
It is not likely that such a result will ever be fully attained in practice; but the case is worth stating, in order to show that there is no theoretical limit to the concentration FIG.
Owing to the different circumstances which have attended their migrations, the Thai peoples have attained to varying degrees of civilization.
The Lao, who descended from the mountain districts of Yunnan, Szechuen and Kweichow to the highland plains of upper Indo-China, and drove the wilder Kha peoples whom they found in possession into the hills, mostly adopted Buddhism, and formed small settled communities or states in which laws were easy, taxes light and a very fair degree of comfort was attained.
When we put aside one or two exceptionally fine pieces, like the hymn of the soul in the apocryphal Acts of Thomas, the highest degree of excellence in style is perhaps attained in staightforward historical narrative - such as the account of the PersoRoman War at the beginning of the 6th century by the author who passes under the name of Joshua the Stylite, or by romancers like him who wrote the romance of Julian; by biographers like some of those who have written lives of saints, martyrs and eminent divines; and by some early writers of homilies such as Philoxenus (in prose) and Isaac of Antioch (in verse).
It is plainly Gnostic and may perhaps have been composed by Bardaisan or his son Harmonius.0 Among recent editions of Apocrypha in Syriac may be mentioned those of the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Epistle of Baruch, ' For the later Monophysite versions, none of which attained much popularity, see Wright's Syr.
He died in Paris, on the 9th of January 1757, having thus very nearly attained the age of roo years.
But no mere copyist or verbal translator could have attained that result.
In 1756, while still on the North American station, he attained to post rank.
He had attained the rank of full admiral in April of 1794.
The first led him into a teleological system so minute and overstrained as to defeat its own end; the second was successfully attained by giving greater precision and certainty to medical and surgical practice in difficult cases.
Either to the 10th or the 11th century must be referred the name of another Arabian physician who has also attained the position of a classic, Abu'l Qasiin or Abulcasis, of El-Zahra, near Cordova, in Spain.
Two of them, on the urine and the pulse respectively, attained the position of medical classics.
Corvisart translated the Inventum novum into French, and Auenbrugger's method rapidly attained a European reputation.
In practical medicine the subsequent results of Behring and his followers have in diphtheria attained a signal therapeutical success.
It is now fully recognized that diseases of infants and children, of the insane, of the generative organs of women, of the larynx, of the eye, have been brought successively into the light of modern knowledge by "specialists," and by them distributed to the profession; and that in no other way could this end have been attained.
It is in the structure of the brain itself that modern research has attained the most remarkable success.
Among the revisions may be adduced some addition to our knowledge of dyspepsia, attained by analytic investigations into the contents of the stomach at various stages of digestion, and by examining the passage of opaque substances through the primae vine by the Rntgen rays.
Those at St Peter's, Westminster, and St Paul's, attained a fame which has survived, while other similar foundations lapsed, such as St Anthony's (Threadneedle Street, City), at which Sir Thomas More, Archbishop Whitgift and many other men of eminence received education.
From these remains we may guess that London was a handsome city in the reign of Hadrian, and probably then in as great a position of importance as it ever attained.
He was the foremost man in Europe, and England had reached a height of power and glory such as she had never attained before.
High speeds are often attained.
Mile of Warsaw in 1828, who termed it a "hydrostatic air-pump without cylinders, taps, lids or stoppers," this is attained by using, both for the inlet and the outlet, vertical capillary glass tubes, soldered, the former to somewhere near the bottom, the latter to the top of the vessel.
The chief industry of Lemgo is the manufacture of meerschaum pipes, which has attained here a high pitch of excellence; other industries are weaving, brewing and the manufacture of leather and cigars.
Fraunhofer; the latter ultimately attained considerable success and produced telescope disks up to 28 centimetres (II in.) diameter.
In 1848 Bontemps was obliged to leave France for political reasons and came to England, where he initiated the optical glass manufacture at Chance's glass works near Birmingham, and this firm ultimately attained a considerable reputation in the production of optical glass, especially of large disks for telescope objectives.
This is probably never completely attained, variations in the sixth significant figure of the refractive index being observed in different parts of single large blocks of the most perfect glass.
When a suitable temperature for the fusion of the particular glass in question has been attained, the mixture of raw materials is introduced in comparatively small quantities at a time.
The stirring process is begun when the glass is perfectly fluid at a temperature little short of the highest attained in its fusion, but as the stirring proceeds the glass is allowed to cool gradually and thus becomes more and more viscous until finally the stirring cylinder can scarcely be moved.
When the glass has acquired this degree of consistency it is supposed that no fresh movements can occur within its mass, so that if homogeneity has been attained the glass will preserve it permanently.
The temperature required in the fusion of sheet-glass and of other glasses produced in tank furnaces is much lower than that attained in steel furnaces, and it is consequently pos Since the discovery of the Rntgen rays, experiments have been made to ascertain the effects of the different constituents of glass on the transparency of glass to X-rays.
For the production of coloured sheet-glass, however, the employment of pot furnaces is still almost universal, probably because the quantities of glass required of any one tint are insufficient to employ even a small tank furnace continuously; the exact control of the colour is also more readily attained with the smaller bulk of glass which has to be dealt with in pots.
For a few isolated purposes, however, it is desirable to use a glass which has not been touched upon either surface and thus preserves the lustre of its " fire polish " undiminished; this can be attained in crown-glass but not in sheet, since one side of the latter is always more or less marked by the rubber used in the process of flattening.
Sikhism attained its zenith under the military genius of Ranjit Singh.
The vase is a proof of the high degree of excellence to which the goldsmith's art had already attained.
Babylonian art, however, had already attained a high degree of excellence; two seal cylinders of the time of Sargon are among the most beautiful specimens of the gem-cutter's art ever discovered.
In 729 B.C. the summit of his ambition was attained, and he was invested with the sovereignty of Asia in the holy city of Babylon.
No remarkable specimens of the metallurgic art of an early period have been found, apart perhaps from the silver vase of Entemena, but at a later epoch great excellence was attained in the manufacture of such jewellery as ear-rings and bracelets of gold.
Copper smelting has been carried on in or near the town since 1584 when the Mines Royal Society set up works at Neath Abbey; the industry attained huge proportions a century later under Sir Humphrey Mackworth, who from 16 9 5 carried on copper and lead smelting at Melincrythan.
This is attained by the aid of a copper pipe, 4 in.
These pans are sometimes heated by boiling oil, with the idea that under such conditions the sugar which is kept stirred all the time as it thickens cannot be burnt or caramelized; but the same object can be attained more economically with steam of a given pressure by utilizing its latent heat.
In the, 5th century, when it attained its greatest extent, it included, besides Armagnac, the neighbouring territories of Fezensac, Fezensaguet, Pardiac, Pays de Gaure, Riviere Basse, Eauzan and Lomagne, and stretched from the Garonne to the Adour.
It appears to be primarily related to the organs of attachment and to have attained greater elaboration than the rest of the nervous system because the proximal end is the most specialized and most stimulated portion of the worm.
This transference of the authority of the latter to a number of distinct bodies and the consequent disintegration of the old organization was a gradual spontaneous movement, - a process of slow displacement, or natural growth and decay, due to the play of economic forces, - which, generally speaking, may be assigned to the 14th and 15th centuries, the very period in which the craft gilds attained the zenith of their power.
Arminius died, worn out by uncongenial controversy and ecclesiastical persecution, before his system had been elaborated into the logical consistency it attained in the hands of his celebrated successor, Simon Episcopius; but though inchoate in detail, it was in its principles clear and coherent enough.
Great diversity prevailed everywhere, and we should not be surprised to find some different fact or custom in every lordship. Anglo-Norman feudalism attained a logical completeness and a uniformity of practice which, in the feudal age proper, can hardly be found elsewhere through so large a territory; but in Anglo-Norman feudalism the exception holds perhaps as large a place as the regular, and the uniformity itself was due to the most serious of exceptions from the feudal point of view - centralization under a powerful monarchy.
Here the sheikh found some of his relations and the matrimonial alliance was soon arranged; but though the object of the journey had been attained, the Blunts were anxious to visit Hail and make the acquaintance of the amir Ibn Rashid, of whose might and generosity they daily heard from their hosts in Jauf.
The Wahhabi empire had now attained its zenith, a settled government was established able to enforce law and order in the desert and in the towns, and a spirit of Arabian nationality had grown up which bade fair to extend the Wahhabi dominion over all the Arab race.
Two poets of the Koreish attained celebrity in Arabia itself at this time.
William Gilpin, in his Forest Scenery, describes a cedar which, at an age of about 118 years, had attained to a height of 53 ft.
Whether this type is more conveniently designated by the word Iberian, or by some other name (" Eur-african," " Mediterranean," &c.) is a matter of comparative indifference, provided that there is no misunderstanding as to the steps by which the term Iberian attained its meaning in modern anthropology.
The greatest altitudes of the whole of Tunisia are attained on this central table-land, where Mt Sidi Ali bu Musin ascends to about 5700 ft.
Saracenic art has perhaps not attained here the high degree it reached in western Algeria, Spain and Egypt; still it presents much that is beautiful to see and worthy to be studied.
Rich in corn, in herds, and in later times also in oil, and possessing valuable fisheries, mines and quarries, the province of Africa, of which Tunisia was the most important part, attained under the empire a prosperity to which Roman remains in all parts of the country still bear witness.
Peruvian literature since the independence has also attained high merit in the walks of poetry and romance.
Since 1810, when it became a head port, it has gradually attained the position of the chief port of the Forth west of Leith.
Then the Diporpa stage is attained.
He is first spoken of in Nennius's History of the Britons (9th century), and at greater length in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (12th century), at the end of which the French Breton cycle attained its fullest development in the poems of Chretien de Troyes and others.
Day by day his impassioned words, filled with the spirit of the Old Testament, wrought upon the minds of the Florentines and strung them to a pitch of pious emotion never before - and never since - attained by them.
Holding that chemistry had not attained the rank of a science - his lectures dealt with the "effects of heat and mixture" - he had an almost morbid horror of hasty generalization or of anything that had the pretensions of a fully fledged system.
The principal manufactures are leather goods, furniture, carriages, chemicals, musical instruments and carpets, for the first two of which the city has attained a wide reputation.
The Cyclostomata are numerous in Palaeozoic rocks, but attained a specially predominant position in the Cretaceous strata, where they are represented by a prpfusion of genera and species; while they still survive in considerable numbers at the present day.
Abulwalid's works mark the culminating point of Hebrew scholarship during the middle ages, and he attained a level which was not surpassed till the modern development of philological science in the 19th century.
Microscopic accuracy has to be attained in cutting out the space for the insertion of the design, and while the latter must be soldered firmly in its place, not the slightest trace of solder or the least sign of junction must be discernible between the metal of the inserted picture and that of the field in which it is inserted.
The Hirado expert has not yet attained technical skill equal to that of the Chinese.
France We owe the literary journal to France, where it soon attained to a degree of importance unapproached in any other country.
It attained municipal privileges in 1284, was frequently pillaged by the Swedes after 1643, and in 1848 became the capital, under Danish rule, of Schleswig.
The intolerable meanness advocated for the sake of the paltriest gains, the entire ignoring of any pursuit in life except money-getting, and the representation of the whole duty of man as consisting first in the attainment of a competent fortune, and next, when that fortune has been attained, in spending not more than half of it, are certainly repulsive enough.
On the other hand, his descriptive power in treating of nature shows far more art than the Trianin school ever attained.
Catulus in the preceding generation, was a kind of dilettante poet and a precursor of the poetry of pleasure, which attained such prominence in the elegiac poets of the Augustan age.
His greatest contribution to poetic art consisted in the perfection which he attained in the phalaecian, the pure iambic, and the scazon metres, and in the ease and grace with which he used the language of familiar intercourse, as distinct from that of the creative imagination, of the rostra, and of the schools, to give at once a lifelike and an artistic expression to his feelings.
The prose style of Rome, as a vehicle for the continuous narration of events coloured by a rich and picturesque imagination and instinct with dignified emotion, attained its perfection in Livy.
The common calendar and cycle of festivals, observed by all Dorians (of which the Carneia was chief), and the distribution in Greece of the worships of Apollo and Heracles, which attained pre-eminence mainly in or near districts historically " Dorian," suggest that these cults, or an important element in them, were introduced comparatively late, and represent the beliefs of a fresh ethnic superstratum.
He entered holy orders and ultimately attained the rank of abbe; but his tastes all lay in the direction of experimental research, especially on the subject of electricity.
It was, however, the Arthurian legend which of all his fabrications attained the greatest vogue.
This explains how the later Montanism never attained a position of influence.
He began life in the clerical career, which he left, at the age of twenty-three, when he had attained the rank of muderris.
The city walls attained a circuit of 1 o m.
It has not, however, attained great prosperity.
The tusks, or upper incisor teeth, which were probably smaller in the female, in the adult males attained the length of from 9 to io ft.
During the civil commotions which so long afflicted the country, it suffered less than most other places; and it soon afterwards attained the rank of the richest commercial town in the north of Ireland.
An order in council (1899) making English the language of the courts after fifteen years (by which the Maltese would have obtained the right to be tried in English) was promulgated at a time when the system of taxation was also being revised; henceforth agitation in favour of Italian and against taxation attained proportions unpleasant for those who preferred popularity to reform and progress.
But it was obvious that a permanent coalition could not be expected unless some definite understanding on the debated point could be attained; and on the very same day the landgrave despatched to Zwingli an invitation to a colloquy, and received his prompt acquiescence.
Metz acquired the privileges of a free imperial town in the 13th century, and soon attained great commercial prosperity.
The turning of them outdoors to ripen their growth is the surest way to obtain flowers, but they do not take on a free blooming habit until they have attained some age.
The Assyrians with all their culture, never attained the stage of analysis which demonstrates that only a few fundamental sounds are involved in human speech, and hence that it is possible to express all the niceties of utterance with an alphabet of little more than a score of letters.
Indeed, approximate accuracy is not attained until we are within sixteen hundred years of our own era; but the sequence of events of a period preceding this by two thousand years is well established, and the recent discoveries of Professor Petrie carry back the record to a period which cannot well be less than five thousand, perhaps not less than six thousand years B.C. Both from Egypt and Mesopotamia, then, the records of the archaeologist have brought us evidence of the existence of a highly developed civilization for a period exceeding by hundreds, perhaps by thousands, of years the term which had hitherto been considered the full period of man's existence.
It was decided, in view of the incomplete success attained on this day, that the IX.
The Australian Corps also successfully attained its first objectives, though not till later in the evening, so that the exploitation of their success on this day proved out of the question.
The system of irrigation by which these agricultural results are attained is most elaborate.
Four times was Herat sacked by Turkomans and Usbegs during the centuries which intervened between the Timuride princes and the rise of the Afghan power, and it has never in modern times attained to anything like its old importance.
In Ifli, the central portion, formerly existed the town of Sagilmasa, founded by Miknasa Berbers in 757 B.C. It was on the direct caravan route from the Niger to Tangier, and attained a considerable degree of prosperity.
The teeth (when all are present) are differentiated into the usual four series; and milk-teeth, not completely discarded till the full stature is attained, are invariably developed.
Most Hymenoptera are of moderate or small size, the giants of the order - certain saw-flies and tropical digging-waspsnever reach the bulk attained by the largest beetles, while the wing-spread is narrow compared with that of many dragonflies and moths.
Appointed deputy to the Legislative Assembly and subsequently to the Convention, he attained considerable prominence.
His second daughter, Blanche, became the wife of John of Gaunt, who thus succeeded to the duke's inheritance in her right; and on the 13th of November 1362, when King Edward attained the age of fifty, John was created duke of Lancaster, his elder brother, Lionel, being at the same time created duke of Clarence.
He called the depth at which the opposed direction is attained the driftcurrent depth, and he found it to be dependent on the velocity of the surface current and on the latitude.
When at work it is slowly turned until the carrier is at right angles to the frame, when the cut has attained the full depth.
At starting, when the full load is to be lifted, the balance chain uncoils, and continues to do so until the desired equilibrium between the working loads is attained, when it is coiled up again in the reverse direction, to be again given out on the return trip.
With the increased activity of working characteristic of modern coal mining, the depth of the mines has rapidly increased, and at the present time the level of 4000 ft., formerly assumed as the possible limit for working, has been nearly attained.
Belgium 950 3117 The greatest depth attained in the Westphalian coal is at East Recklinghausen, where there are two shafts 841 metres (2759 ft.) deep.
Finally, we have in the Pliocene of India the genus Tetraconodon, remarkable for the enormous size attained by the bluntly conical premolars; as the molars are purely bunodont, this genus seems to be a late and specialized survivor of a primitive type..
These results showed clearly that liquefied acetylene was far too dangerous for general introduction for domestic purposes, since, although the occasions would be rare in which the requisite temperature to bring about detonation would be reached, still, if this point were attained, the results would be of a most disastrous character.
The letters of Ignatius illustrate the commanding position which Polycarp had already attained in Asia.
Under his dynasty the country attained its greatest splendour in the early part of the 11th century, when its raja, whose dominions extended from the Jumna to the Nerbudda, marched at the head of 36,000 horse and 45,000 foot, with 640 elephants, to oppose the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni.
His book has attained a quasi-canonicity in Islam, being treated almost like the Koran, and to his grave solemn pilgrimages are made, and prayers are believed to be heard there.
If the whole liquid becomes vaporized before this stage is attained, a state will exist in which the vessel is occupied solely by free molecules, describing paths which are disturbed only by encounters with other free molecules or the sides of the vessel.
Most of the satires of Lucilius were written in hexameters, but, so far as an opinion can be formed from a number of unconnected fragments, he seems to have written the trochaic tetrameter with a smoothness, clearness and simplicity which he never attained in handling the hexameter.
By the agreement of the 1st of July 1890, between the British and German governments, and by agreements concluded between Germany and Portugal in 1886 and 1894, and Germany and the Congo Free State in 1884 and later dates, the German sphere of influence attained its present area.
Ashdod became the seat of a bishop early in the Christian era, but seems never to have attained any importance as a town.
It continued to grow steadily thereafter until it attained railway connexion with the Central Pacific and San Francisco in 1876, and with the East by the Santa Fe system in 1885.
In commercial relations the chief port of Massachusetts attained its greatest importance about 1840, when it was selected as the American terminus of the first steamship line (Cunard) connecting Great Britain with the United States; but Boston lost the commercial prestige then won by the failure of the state to promote railway communication with the west, so as to equal the development effected by other cities.
The limit of size was reached in an immense clipper of 4555 tons, and the greatest speed was attained in a passage from San Francisco to Boston in seventy-five days, and from San Francisco to Cork in ninety-three days.
It was once generally assumed that the repression practised attained its end of securing harmony of opinion.
In 1775 he attained his flag rank, and in 1778 became a vice-admiral.
Along the archipelagoes of the North Pacific coast, from Mount St Elias to the Columbia river, the dugout attained its best.
Chiefs were at once qualified for the highest grade, but ordinary members attained promotion only through initiatory rites.
Modern writers rather dwell on the perfect organization demanded by his scheme, the training of a nation to combined labour, the level attained here by art and in the fitting of masonry, and finally the fact that the Great Pyramid was the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world and now alone of them survives.
Of the education of Herodotus no more can be said than that it was thoroughly Greek, and embraced no doubt the three subjects essential to a Greek liberal education - grammar, gymnastic training and music. His studies would be regarded as completed when he attained the age of eighteen, and took rank among the eplzebi or eirenes of his native city.
At Athens the franchise, jealously guarded at this period, was not to be attained without great expense and difficulty.
Hence he never attained to that perfect idiomatic purity of style, which was the special glory of the early writers of comedy, Naevius and Plautus.
He attained to some eminence as a painter, and his Digte show him to have been a true poet.
He was perhaps the first Roman born beyond the Alps who attained eminence in literature.
A grammar-school was founded at Midhurst in 1672 and attained some eminence.
The standard set up by eminent statisticians, therefore, may be taken to represent an ideal, not likely to be attained anywhere under present conditions, but towards which each successive census may be expected to advance.
If these suppositions have a basis of reality, the proper motion of Algol should be disturbed by a small, but measurable undulation, corresponding to the projection of its orbit upon the sky; and although certainty on the point cannot be attained for some years to come, Lewis Boss regarded the evidence available in 1895 as tending to confirm Dr Chandler's theory.6 Proceedings Amer.
By a law of 1908 the board of education of any city is authorized to establish industrial schools for children who have completed the elementary school course or have attained the age of fourteen years, and trade schools for children who are more than sixteen years old and have completed the elementary school course or a course offered by any of the industrial schools.
In 1172 it became a free imperial city and it attained the zenith of its prosperity under the.
The percentage of attendance has rivalled that in the primary schools of Scotland, and in 1905 attained to 86.9%.
When a known temperature was attained the sounder was excited, and d 2 and d 1 could be measured.
In September 1841 Greeley merged his weekly papers, The Log Cabin and The New Yorker, into The Weekly Tribune, which soon attained as wide circulation as its predecessors, and was much more profitable.
Each school district is required by law to keep its school open at least three months a year and all children between the ages of eight and fourteen are required to attend for the full term; if unemployed they are required to continue in school until they have attained the age of sixteen.
It may be said without exaggeration that no American public man in the history of the country has achieved such extraordinary popularity during his lifetime as Mr Roosevelt had attained at fifty years of age, both at home and abroad.
His record in the war for efficiency and personal gallantry no doubt contributed largely to his nomination and election as governor of the state of New York; but he attained the governorship not on this ground alone.
Six years afterwards, having attained his majority, he was made a counsellor in the Bordeaux parlement.
Lace-making, discovered or introduced by Barbara Uttmann in the latter half of the 16th century, and now fostered by government schools, was long an important domestic industry among the villages of the Erzgebirge, and has attained to a great industry in Plauen.
The first was the district in the north-west of Germany, inhabited originally by the Saxons, which became a duchy and attained its greatest size and prosperity under Henry the Lion in the 12th century.
He belonged to a senatorial family, which had attained considerable distinction under the emperors, his father and grandfather having been well-known jurists.
For in no other country had hostility to religion attained such a pitch or assumed such grotesque forms; and consequently in no other country did the yearning for religion manifest itself so unequivocally, when bitter experience had demonstrated the necessity of a return to law and order.
A large portion of the county is hilly, especially in the east, where the highest elevations are attained, though these are nowhere great.
Like some other publishers who preferred reputation to returns in money, Froben died poor, and his impressions never reached the splendour afterwards attained by those of the Estiennes, or of Plantin.
The fairs of Geneva (held 4 times a year) are mentioned as early as 1262, and attained the height of their prosperity about Industry.
At Constantinople the monastery of Studium, founded about 460, attained to supreme influence during the controversy about images.
The church, however, never attained any greater development, but on the contrary continued to lose adherents from century to century.
In point of fact, in Greece and Rome the priest never attained to any considerable independent importance; we cannot speak of priestly power and hardly even of a distinct priestly class.
Suffrage is universal, both men and women who have attained the age of 21 years being able to vote in elections to the House of Deputies.
The city attained the climax of its prosperity in the 16th century, when its population, according to one estimate, reached 80,000.
That date may therefore be reckoned as that of the foundation of the coaltar colour industry, which has since attained such important dimensions - in Germany, however, rather than in England, the country where it originated.
The first sources of the enormous wealth he subsequently attained were his introduction of sleeping-cars for railways, and his purchase (1864) of Storey Farm on Oil Creek, where a large profit was secured from the oil-wells.
Mental imperturbability (arapaEia) was the result to be attained by cultivating such a frame of mind.
Towards the end of the 14th century the Polish towns even attained some degree of political influence, and their delegates sat with the nobles and clergy in the king's councils, a right formally conceded to them at Radom in March 1384.
In the domain of the Knights the gentry, parochial clergy and townsmen, who, beneath its protection, had attained to a high degree of wealth and civilization, for long remained without the slightest political influence, though they bore nearly the whole burden of taxation.
This result having been attained, he passed the rest of his days in retirement, emerging sometimes from his retreat to give addresses on theological questions, and also writing, in conjunction with his friend Reusch, his last book, Geschichte der Moralstreitigkeiten in der romisch-katholischen Kirche seit dem sechzehnten Jahrhundert mit Beitragen zur Geschichte and Charakteristik des Jesuitenordens (Nordlingen, 188 9), in which he deals with the moral theology of St Alfonso de' Liguori.
Elected deputy in 1859, he received various administrative appointments, but only attained a political office in 1876 when the Left, of which he had been a prominent and influential member, came into power.
Among the Tertiary volcanic rocks those of acid types (granites, granulites) were the first to appear and are developed latitudinally; rocks of intermediate type (dacites, andesites) characterize the Miocene and early Pliocene periods; while the basic rocks (ophites, elaeolite syenites and basalts) attained their maximum in later Pliocene and Quaternary times.
This assimilative policy attained its culminating point in the so-called decrees of rattachement (1881), in pursuance of which each ministerial department in France was made responsible for Algerine affairs which came by their nature within its jurisdiction.
The result was attained when there was a definite volume called the New Testament by the side of the earlier volume called the Old Testament, complete like it, and like it endowed with the attributes of a Sacred Book.
Meanwhile the labour traffic, which had been initiated, so far as the, Pacific islands were concerned, by an unsuccessful attempt in 1847 to employ New Hebridean labourers on a settlement near the present township of Eden in New South Wales, had attained considerable proportions, had been improperly exploited and, as already indicated, had led the natives to retaliation, sometimes without discernment, a notorious example of this (as was generally considered) being the murder of Bishop Patteson in 1871.
The most disastrous occurred in 1875, 1856 and in 1770, when the flood level at Castets attained the record height of 422 ft.
On the other hand, two other Australian agamoids have attained some celebrity by their grotesque appearance, due to the extraordinary development of their integuments.
At Vera Cruz he won the rank of first lieutenant, and for gallant conduct at Contreras and Chapultepec respectively he was brevetted captian and major, a rank which he attained with less than one year's service.
This was passed again and again between gradually approximated rollers, with occasional annealing, until the desired thickness had been attained.
The society's interdenominational character has commonly secured - what could hardly otherwise have been attained - the acceptance of the same version by missions of different churches working side by side.
Asmara appears to have been one of the most prosperous of these villages, and to have attained commercial importance through being on the high road from Axum to Massawa.
In support of image-worship he advanced ' Porphyry tells us that on four occasions during the six years of their intercourse Plotinus attained to this ecstatic union with God.
The remarkable ruins of Palenque, Uxmal, Chichenitza, Lorillard, Ixinche, Tikal, Copan and Quirigua, with their carved stonework and astonishing architectural conceptions, show that they had attained a high degree of civilization.
While the prairie tribes of America lived under the loose sway of chiefs and councils of old men, the settled nations of Mexico had attained to a highly organized government.
J udges and justices are appointed by the governor and council, and with the exception of justices of the peace they hold office during good behaviour or until they have attained the age of seventy years; justices of the peace are appointed for a term of five years only, but they may be reappointed.
Macquer (1718-1784) as lecturer in chemistry at the college of the Jardin du Roi, where his lectures attained great popularity.
About the time of the Revolution, the woollen trade flourished in Dublin, and the produce attained great celebrity.
They are industrious and abstemious in their lives, and when living up to the standard of their faith they present one of the nearest approaches to the realization of the Christian ideal which have ever been attained.
But the wealth to which they attained in the Caucasus weakened for a time their moral fervour, and little by little they began to depart somewhat from the requirements of their belief.
Anuradhapura became the capital of Ceylon in the 5th century B.C., and attained its highest magnificence about the commencement of the Christian era.
He early attained to the settled conviction that for the actual disposition of the solar system some abstract intelligible reason must exist, and this, after much meditation, he believed himself to have found in an imaginary relation between the "five regular solids" and the number and distances of the planets.
Without assigning to each element its due value, no sound comprehension of his modes of thought can be attained.
A man of great force of character and much ability, of keen ambitions and unusual shrewdness, though not remarkable for breadth of mind, he attained to great influence in the executive government and was soon the leading spirit in that dominant group known in Upper Canadian history as the Family Compact.
Of Pisindalis, her son and successor, little is known; but Lygdamis, who next attained to power, is notorious for having put to death the poet Panyasis and caused Herodotus, the greatest of Halicarnassians, to leave his native city (c. 457 B.C.).
Halicarnassus and other Dorian cities of Asia were to some extent absorbed by the Delian League, but the peace of Antalcidas in 387 made them subservient to Persia; and it was under Mausolus, a Persian satrap who assumed independent authority, that Halicarnassus attained its highest prosperity.
He was at this time curate of Hoole, near Preston, having recently taken orders in the Church of England, although, according to the received accounts, he had not attained the canonical age.
Debarred from the foreign mission field, he attained high distinction as a preacher and as a teacher of rhetoric in Genoa, Florence and Rome.
Each one, however, was attached and led onward by the prospect of a higher rank to be attained, while the intellectually gifted had an additional inducement in the assurance that they did not require to submit themselves to any authority, but would be led to God by pure reason.
He was educated in commerce, and on entering the service of the East India Company speedily attained high rank.
Walker, that the Old South of 1790, practically unaided by immigration, maintained a rate of increase at least approximatin that attained by other sections of the country by native an foreign stock combined.
The merchant marine of the United States in 1900 totalled 5,164,839 net tons, which was less than that of 1860 (5,353,808), in which year American shipping attained an amount which only in recent years Exports of Domestic Merchandise.
Within the last few years the object desired has been practically attained in a few states by provisions they have introduced for taking a popular vote as to the person whom the legislature ought to elect, the latter being expected to defer to the popular will.
Miss Cons's work bore fruit after some years in the excellence of the entertainment provided and the high repute which the " Old Vic " attained.
The needle weir has, however, attained its greatest development in the United States across the Big Sandy river at Louisa, where, instead of needles 3 to 4 in.
How long he remained in Rome after becoming a Christian, whether he had attained any office in the church before leaving Rome, what was the date of his visit to Greece - on these points also we remain in ignorance.
In 1117 he led an expedition against Ghazni and bestowed the throne upon Bahram Shah, who was also obliged to mention Sinjar's name first in the official prayer at the Ghaznavid capital - a prerogative that neither Alp Arslan nor Malik Shah had attained.