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atrial

atrial

atrial Sentence Examples

  • The ventral side of the body in the atrial region is broad and convex, so that the body presents the appearance of a spherical triangle in transverse section, the apex being formed by the dorsal fin and the angles bordered by two hollow folds, the metapleural folds, each of which contains a continuous longitudinal lymph-space, the metapleural canal.

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  • The atrium or atrial chamber is a peripharyngeal cavity of secondary origin effecting the enclosure of the gill-clefts, which in the larva opened directly to the exterior.

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  • The pharynx projects freely into the atrium; it is surrounded at the sides and below by the continuous atrial cavity, but dorsally it is held in position in two ways.

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  • These are suspended to the muscular bodywall by a double membrane, called the ligamentum denticulatum, which forms at once the roof of the atrial chamber and the floor of a persistent portion of the original body-cavity or coelom (the dorsal coelomic canal on each side of the pharynx).

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  • The ligamentum denticulatum is thus lined on one side by the epiblastic atrial epithelium, and on the other by mesoblastic coelomic epithelium.

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  • Now this ligament is inserted into the primary bars some distance below the upper limits of the gill-clefts, and it therefore follows that, corresponding with each tongue-bar, the atrial cavity is produced upward beyond the insertion of the ligament into a series of bags or pockets, which may be called the atrial pouches.

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  • These are the atrial coelomic funnels or brown funnels, so called on account of the characteristic pigmentation of their walls.

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  • Although within the atrial cavity, it is separated from the latter by a narrow coelomic space, bounded towards the atrium by coelomic and atrial epithelium.

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  • ==Reproductive System== The sexes are separate, and the male or female gonads, which are exactly similar in outward appearance, occur as a series of gonadic pouches projecting into the atrial cavity at the base of the myotomes (figs.

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  • - a, Atrium; al, alimentary canal; y blood-vessel; cv, cerebral vesicle; df, dorsal section of myocoel (= fin spaces); e, " eyespot"; end, endostyle; gl, club-shaped gland; lm, edge of left metapleur; m, lower edge of mouth; n, notochord; nt, pigmented nerve tube; ps, primary gill-slits, I, 9, and 14; rc, renal cells on atrial floor; rm, edge of right metapleur; so, sense organ opening into praeoral pit; ss, thickenings, the rudiments of the row of secondary gill-slits.

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  • However, before its final and full placement in the atrium the mandril is withdrawn to avoid puncturing the thin-walled right atrial appendage.

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  • Information: A reader succeeded in reducing her atrial arrhythmia by using natural progesterone cream.

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  • Increased plasma atrial natriuretic factor and reduced plasma renin in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.

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  • diltiazem group, no attempts were made to terminate atrial fibrillation.

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  • Plasma levels of components of the renin-angiotensin system, atrial natriuretic peptide, and cellular sodium and transmembrane sodium efflux were also estimated.

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  • He was in atrial fibrillation and had a right pleural effusion and ascites.

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  • embolus from atrial myxoma Findings Subtle reduced density in the left basal ganglia on CT.

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  • The ECG usually shows atrial fibrillation and left ventricular enlargement.

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  • There is degeneration of cardiac ventral epicardium and toxic cardiac necrosis, especially of the atrial lining with damage to spleen and heart.

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  • Problems caused by atrial fibrillation 1 The palpitation itself may be unpleasant.

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  • Digoxin is used to treat atrial fibrillation, an irregularity of the heart beat.

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  • The most common of these is called atrial fibrillation, which is usually treated with digoxin, an old drug derived from the foxglove.

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  • The constant feeling of apprehension which you would experience comes from the release of adrenaline which would also cause atrial fibrillation.

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  • Their medical history included atrial fibrillation, congestive cardiac failure and a NSAID induced GI bleed.

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  • Fifteen per cent of all people who have had strokes have atrial fibrillation.

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  • While I was in hospital, I developed atrial fibrillation with a pulse rate of 156.

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  • The possible causes of atrial fibrillation have been given above.

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  • Assessment of three schemes for stratifying stroke risk in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

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  • Here the very system, being an acronym, is helpful in bringing to mind important risk factors for stroke with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation.

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  • Patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation at low risk of stroke during treatment with aspirin: .

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  • Dr. Howard Marshall This year has seen completion of recruitment to the study of atrio-ventricular node ablation and pacing for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

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  • An atrial flutter is a fault in the electrical activity of the heart.

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  • Effect of oxygen on pulmonary hemodynamics and incidence of atrial fibrillation after noncardiac thoracotomy.

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  • Case 8 Cerebral embolus from atrial myxoma Findings Subtle reduced density in the left basal ganglia on CT.

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  • Atrial fibrillation associated with heart valve disease, valve prosthesis, heart failure, intracardiac thrombus, or thyrotoxicosis.

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  • The left atrial disk or plate is deployed and pulled back against the atrial septum.

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  • septum defect in humans is directly linked to the mammalian controlled term atrial septal defect and nothing else.

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  • superimposed to create an artificial atrial fibrillation waveform.

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  • The " lub " sound is caused by the closure of the AV valves at the beginning of atrial systole.

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  • Atrial tachycardia is focal in origin, commonly from muscle sleeves within the pulmonary veins.

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  • A transoesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) was therefore arranged to exclude left atrial thrombus, prior to performing the ablation.

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  • When the ventricular pressure falls below the atrial pressure the AV valves open and blood begins to quickly fill the ventricles.

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  • In most species of Balanoglossus each gill-slit may be said to open into its own atrial chamber or gill-pouch; this in its turn opens to the exterior by a minute gill-pore.

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  • In this group, the accessory gonopore is the opening of the "vagina," in contradistinction to the median and atrial opening of the uterus which is a "birth-pore."

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  • A, Oral tentacles (28 to 32 in full-grown animals, 20 to 24 in half-grown specimens); B, praeoral hood or praeoral epipleur; C, plicated ventral surface of atrial chamber; D l, D 17, D26, gonads, twenty-six pairs, coincident with myotomes io to 36; E, metapleur or lateral ridge on atrial epipleur; F, atripore, coincident with myotome 36; G', G ' 5, G34, double ventral fin rays, extending from myotomes 37 to 52, but having no numerical relation to them; H, position of anus, between myotomes 51 and 52; I, notochord, projecting beyond myotomes; K7, K27, K62, myotomes or muscular segments of body-wall, 62 in number; L '°Â°, L230, L253, dorsal fin rays, about 250 in number, the hard substance of the ray being absent at the extreme ends of the body (these have no constant numerical relation to the myomeres); M, notochord as seen through the transparent myotomes, the thin double-lined spaces being the connective-tissue septa and the broader spaces the muscular tissue of the myotomes; N, position of brown funnel of left side (atrio-coelomic canal); 0, nerve tube resting on notochord.

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  • The perforated pharyngeal region has then been detached from the adherent epipleura or opercular folds (wall of atrial or branchial chamber) by cutting the fluted pharyngo-pleural membrane d, and separated by a vertical cut from the intestinal region.

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  • a, Edge of groove formed by adhesion of median dorsal surface of alimentary canal to sheath of notochord; b, median dorsal surface of alimentary canal; c, left dorsal aorta; cc, single dorsal aorta, formed by union of the two anterior vessels; cc', same vessel resting on intestine; d, cut edge of pharyngo-pleural folds of atrial tunic, really the original outer body-wall before the downgrowth of epipleura; d', atrial tunic (original body-wall) at non-perforate region, cut and turned back so as to expose peri-enteric coelom and intestine r; e', upstanding folds of body-wall (pharyngo-pleural folds) on alternate bars of perforate region of body; f, atrio-coeiomic canals or brown funnels (collar-pores of Balanoglossus); g, cavity of a gonad-sac; m, cut musculature of body-wall; n, anus; o, post-atrioporal extension of atrial chamber in form of a tubular caecum; p, atriopore; q, hepatic caecum; r, intestine; s, coelom; t, area of adhesion between alimentary canal and sheath of notochord; v, atrial chamber or branchial cavity; w, post-atrioporal portion of intestine; x, canals of metapleura exposed by cutting; E, probe passing through atriopore into atrial or branchial chamber; FF', probe passing from coelom, where it expands behind the atriopore, into narrower perienteric coelom of praeatrioporal region.

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  • Even in external view, careful inspection will show that the body is divisible into four regions, namely, cephalic, atrial, abdominal and caudal.

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  • a, Cavity surrounding fin ray; a', fin ray; b, muscular tissue of myotome; c, nervecord; d, notochord; c, left aorta; f, thickened ridges of epithelium of praeoral chamber (Rader organ); g, coiled tube lying in a coelomic space on right side of praeoral hood, apparently an artery; h, cuticle of notochord; i, connective-tissue sheath of notochord; k, median ridge of skeletal canal of nerve-cord; 1, skeletal canal protecting nerve-cord; m, inter-segmental skeletal septum of myotome; n, subcutaneous skeletal connective tissue; o, ditto of metapleur (this should be relatively thicker than it is); q, subcutaneous connective tissue of ventral surface of atrial wall (not a canal, as supposed by Stieda and others); r, epiblastic epithelium; s, gonad-sac containing ova; t, pharyngeal bar in section, one of the "tongue" bars alternating with the main bars and devoid of pharyngo-pleural fold and coelom; v, atrio-coelomic funnel; w, socalled "dorsal" coelom; x, lymphatic space or canal of metapleur; y, sub-pharyngeal vascular trunk; z, blood-vessel (portal vein) on wall of hepatic caecum; aa, space of atrial or branchial chamber; bb, ventral groove of pharynx (anteriorly this takes the form of a ridge); cc, hyperbranchial groove of pharynx; dd, lumen or space of hepatic caecum; ee, narrow coelomic space surrounding hepatic caecum; $, lining cell-layer of hepatic caecum; gg, inner face of a pharyngeal bar clothed with hypoblast, the outer face covered with epiblast (represented black); hh, a main pharyngeal bar with projecting pharyngeal fold (on which the reference line rests) in section, showing coelomic space beneath the black epiblast; ii, transverse ventral muscle of epipleura; kk, raphe or plane of fusion of two down-grown epipleura; 11, space and nucleated cells on dorsal face of notochord; mm, similar space and cells on its ventral face.

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  • The atrial region extends from the mouth over about twothirds of the length of the body, terminating at a large median ventral aperture, the atriopore; this is the excurrent orifice for the respiratory current of water and also serves for the evacuation of the generative products.

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  • The ventral side of the body in the atrial region is broad and convex, so that the body presents the appearance of a spherical triangle in transverse section, the apex being formed by the dorsal fin and the angles bordered by two hollow folds, the metapleural folds, each of which contains a continuous longitudinal lymph-space, the metapleural canal.

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  • The atrium or atrial chamber is a peripharyngeal cavity of secondary origin effecting the enclosure of the gill-clefts, which in the larva opened directly to the exterior.

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  • The pharynx projects freely into the atrium; it is surrounded at the sides and below by the continuous atrial cavity, but dorsally it is held in position in two ways.

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  • These are suspended to the muscular bodywall by a double membrane, called the ligamentum denticulatum, which forms at once the roof of the atrial chamber and the floor of a persistent portion of the original body-cavity or coelom (the dorsal coelomic canal on each side of the pharynx).

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  • The ligamentum denticulatum is thus lined on one side by the epiblastic atrial epithelium, and on the other by mesoblastic coelomic epithelium.

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  • Now this ligament is inserted into the primary bars some distance below the upper limits of the gill-clefts, and it therefore follows that, corresponding with each tongue-bar, the atrial cavity is produced upward beyond the insertion of the ligament into a series of bags or pockets, which may be called the atrial pouches.

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  • These are the atrial coelomic funnels or brown funnels, so called on account of the characteristic pigmentation of their walls.

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  • Although within the atrial cavity, it is separated from the latter by a narrow coelomic space, bounded towards the atrium by coelomic and atrial epithelium.

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  • ==Reproductive System== The sexes are separate, and the male or female gonads, which are exactly similar in outward appearance, occur as a series of gonadic pouches projecting into the atrial cavity at the base of the myotomes (figs.

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  • - a, Atrium; al, alimentary canal; y blood-vessel; cv, cerebral vesicle; df, dorsal section of myocoel (= fin spaces); e, " eyespot"; end, endostyle; gl, club-shaped gland; lm, edge of left metapleur; m, lower edge of mouth; n, notochord; nt, pigmented nerve tube; ps, primary gill-slits, I, 9, and 14; rc, renal cells on atrial floor; rm, edge of right metapleur; so, sense organ opening into praeoral pit; ss, thickenings, the rudiments of the row of secondary gill-slits.

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  • Blood returning from the lungs must flow through an opening in the wall between the atria, called an atrial septal defect.

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  • The left atrial disk or plate is deployed and pulled back against the atrial septum.

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  • For example atrial septum defect in humans is directly linked to the mammalian controlled term atrial septal defect and nothing else.

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  • The data streams from the two engines are superimposed to create an artificial atrial fibrillation waveform.

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  • The " lub " sound is caused by the closure of the AV valves at the beginning of atrial systole.

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  • Atrial tachycardia is focal in origin, commonly from muscle sleeves within the pulmonary veins.

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  • Atrial tachycardia with 2:1 block is characteristic of digitalis toxicity.

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  • A transoesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) was therefore arranged to exclude left atrial thrombus, prior to performing the ablation.

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  • When the ventricular pressure falls below the atrial pressure the AV valves open and blood begins to quickly fill the ventricles.

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  • Healthline presents specials on medical topics such as atrial fibrillation, diabetes and sleep apnea.

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  • Atrial fibrillation-A type of heart arrhythmia in which the upper chamber of the heart quivers instead of pumping in an organized way.

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  • Atrial septal defect-An opening between the right and left atria (upper chambers) of the heart.

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  • The most common types of septal defects are atrial septal defect, an opening between the two upper heart chambers (atria), and ventricular septal defect, an opening between the two lower heart chambers (ventricles).

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  • Atrial fibrillation-A type of heart arrhythmia in which the upper chamber of the heart quivers instead of pumping in an organized way.

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  • An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormal opening in the muscular wall separating the left and right upper chambers (atria) of the heart.

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  • This abnormal opening is called an atrial septal defect and causes blood from the left atrium to flow (or "shunt") across the hole into the right atrium.

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  • Different types of atrial septal defects occur, and they are classified according to where in the separating wall they are found.

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  • The most commonly found atrial septal defect, called secundum atrial septal defect, occurs in the middle of the atrial septum and accounts for about 70 percent of all atrial septal defects.

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  • Abnormal openings also form in the upper part of the atrial septum (called sinus venosus ASD) where the superior vena cava and right atrium join, and lower parts of the atrial septum (called primum ASD).

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  • Atrial septal defects can occur alone or in combination with other congenital heart disorders, such as ventricular septal defect.

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  • Atrial and ventricular septal defects are the most common congenital heart defects.

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  • Atrial septal defect accounts for 4-10 percent of all cases of congenital heart disease in the United States.

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  • Abnormal openings in the atrial septum are twice as common in females as in males.

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  • Abnormal openings in the atrial septum occur during fetal development.

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  • In some cases, an atrial septal defect can allow blood clots from the body to enter the brain and cause a stroke.

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  • Untreated atrial septal defect can lead to pulmonary hypertension, chest infection, Eisenmenger's syndrome, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, stroke, or right-sided heart failure.

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  • A person born with an atrial septal defect may have no symptoms in childhood, and the condition may go undetected into adulthood.

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  • Stunted growth may be a symptom of atrial septal defect.

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  • By age 50, most people with atrial septal defects experience symptoms that interfere with activities of daily living.

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  • Some heart murmurs (abnormal heart sounds) can indicate an atrial septal defect.

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  • A chest x ray, electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG), echocardiogram (echo), or magnetic resonance imaging MRI) can confirm the presence of an atrial septal defect.

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  • In some cases, cardiac catheterization, a more invasive diagnostic procedure, may be performed to diagnose atrial septal defect.

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  • Twenty percent of atrial septal defects in children correct themselves without medical treatments by the time a child is two years old.

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  • There are two types of surgical repair for atrial septal defects: primary closure in which the opening is repaired with sutures alone if the defect is small; or secondary closure in which a patch closes the opening if the defect is large.

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  • During traditional atrial septal defect surgery, the heart is exposed through an incision made in the chest or between the ribs.

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  • Closure devices cannot be used to treat all atrial septal defects, especially if the defect is large, if it is not centrally located within the atrial septum, or if there is not enough nearby tissue to adequately support the closure device.

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  • Diuretics may be prescribed if the atrial septal defect was diagnosed later in life and is causing fluid build-up.

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  • Infants and children with atrial septal defects may gain weight more slowly.

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  • Babies with atrial septal defects tire quickly when they eat, making frequent feedings necessary.

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  • Children with atrial septal defects require lifelong monitoring, even after a successful surgery or procedure to close the defect.

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  • The outlook for children with atrial septal defects has improved markedly in the past two decades.

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  • There is a 25 percent lifetime risk of death if the atrial septal defect is not repaired.

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  • When an atrial septal defect is corrected within the first 20 years of life, there is an excellent chance for the child to live a normal and productive life.

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  • Atrial septal defects cannot be prevented.

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  • Once an atrial septal defect has been closed, it is unlikely that more surgery will be needed.

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  • Most children with atrial septal defects can be fully active and are encouraged to exercise.

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  • A child with an atrial septal defect may tire more easily than other children; frequent breaks and rest periods should be encouraged as needed during activities.

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  • A child with an atrial septal defect has a greater risk of having a child with a heart defect.

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  • Genetic counseling and further testing, such as chromosome analysis before pregnancy, or amniocentesis during pregnancy, may be recommended in adults with atrial septal defects.

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  • Treatment and care for a child with an atrial septal defect can be costly, and some health insurance plans may not cover all expenses associated with a child's hospitalization or surgery.

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  • Caring for a child with an atrial septal defect is demanding.

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  • Atrial fibrillation-A type of heart arrhythmia in which the upper chamber of the heart quivers instead of pumping in an organized way.

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  • With this syndrome, blood returning from the lungs must flow through an opening or hole in the wall between the atria, called an atrial septal defect.

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  • The most common types of septal defects are atrial septal defect, an opening between the two upper heart chambers (atria), and ventricular septal defect, an opening between the two lower heart chambers (ventricles).

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  • Atrial septal defects account for 4-10 percent of all cases of congenital cardiovascular defects in the United States; ventricular septal defects account for about 14-16 percent.

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  • This condition may cause a hole in the wall between the left and right atrium, called an atrial septal defect.

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  • Balloon atrial septostomy, also done to correct transposition of the great arteries, enlarges the atrial opening during heart catheterization.

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  • For tricuspid atresia and pulmonary atresia, the Fontan procedure connects the right atrium to the pulmonary artery directly or with a conduit, and the atrial defect is closed.

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  • Various types of congenital heart disease, including ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septic defect (ASD), or PDA (patent ductus arteriosus), may be present.

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  • Atrial septal defect-An opening between the right and left atria (upper chambers) of the heart.

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  • See also Atrial septal defect; Congenital heart disease.

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  • A number of different heart defects are common in Down syndrome, including abnormal openings (holes) in the walls that separate the heart's chambers (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect).

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  • In most species of Balanoglossus each gill-slit may be said to open into its own atrial chamber or gill-pouch; this in its turn opens to the exterior by a minute gill-pore.

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  • A, Oral tentacles (28 to 32 in full-grown animals, 20 to 24 in half-grown specimens); B, praeoral hood or praeoral epipleur; C, plicated ventral surface of atrial chamber; D l, D 17, D26, gonads, twenty-six pairs, coincident with myotomes io to 36; E, metapleur or lateral ridge on atrial epipleur; F, atripore, coincident with myotome 36; G', G ' 5, G34, double ventral fin rays, extending from myotomes 37 to 52, but having no numerical relation to them; H, position of anus, between myotomes 51 and 52; I, notochord, projecting beyond myotomes; K7, K27, K62, myotomes or muscular segments of body-wall, 62 in number; L '°°, L230, L253, dorsal fin rays, about 250 in number, the hard substance of the ray being absent at the extreme ends of the body (these have no constant numerical relation to the myomeres); M, notochord as seen through the transparent myotomes, the thin double-lined spaces being the connective-tissue septa and the broader spaces the muscular tissue of the myotomes; N, position of brown funnel of left side (atrio-coelomic canal); 0, nerve tube resting on notochord.

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  • The perforated pharyngeal region has then been detached from the adherent epipleura or opercular folds (wall of atrial or branchial chamber) by cutting the fluted pharyngo-pleural membrane d, and separated by a vertical cut from the intestinal region.

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  • Even in external view, careful inspection will show that the body is divisible into four regions, namely, cephalic, atrial, abdominal and caudal.

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  • The atrial region extends from the mouth over about twothirds of the length of the body, terminating at a large median ventral aperture, the atriopore; this is the excurrent orifice for the respiratory current of water and also serves for the evacuation of the generative products.

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