Type C (86.5%): Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, in which the upper segment of the esophagus ends in a blind pouch (EA) and the lower segment of the esophagus is attached to the trachea (TEF).
Pulmonary artery banding, narrowing the pulmonary artery with a band to reduce blood flow and pressure in the lungs, is used for ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal defect, and tricuspid atresia.
Esophageal atresia (EA) is a birth defect (congenital anomaly) in which the esophagus, which connects the mouth to the stomach, is shortened and closed off (dead ended) at some point along its length.
Duodenal atresia, one of the causes of duodenal obstruction, affects one in 10,000 live births in the United States and is found equally among boys and girls and more often among premature births.
Parents may also feel guilty because they feel that they may have in some way contributed to the development of biliary atresia, although as of 2004, there is no known way to prevent the disease.
When a physician suspects esophageal atresia after being presented with the typical symptoms, diagnosis usually begins with gently passing a catheter through the nose and into the esophagus.
Cyanotic defects include truncus arteriosus, total anomalous pulmonary venous return, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, tricuspid atresia, and pulmonary atresia.
For tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia, or pulmonary atresia, the shunt procedure creates a passage between blood vessels, sending blood into parts of the body that need it.
For tricuspid atresia and pulmonary atresia, the Fontan procedure connects the right atrium to the pulmonary artery directly or with a conduit, and the atrial defect is closed.
Because of modern medical treatments, including antibiotics to treat infections and surgery to treat heart defects and duodenal atresia, life expectancy has greatly increased.