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atonement

atonement

atonement Sentence Examples

  • In the New Testament, the English version uses " atonement " 1 Lev.

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  • A doctrine of atonement makes the following presuppositions.

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  • Swedenborg wholly rejects the orthodox doctrine of atonement; and the unity of God, as opposed to his idea of the trinity of the church, is an essential feature of his teaching.

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  • Thomas Arnold, criticizing Edward Hawkins, appeals rather to the atonement as deeper neglected truth.

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  • 700, was twice blessed; not only was it an act of atonement in itself, like fasting and flagellation; it also gained for the pilgrim the merit of having stood on holy ground.

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  • In the Old Testament, " atonement," " make an atonement " represent the Hebrew kippur and its derivatives.

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  • Later Judaism emphasized the idea of vicarious atonement for Israel through the sufferings of the righteous, especially the martyrs; but it is very doubtful whether the idea of the atonement through the death of the Messiah is a pre-Christian Jewish doctrine."

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  • In later Judaism, especially from about ioo B.C., great stress was laid on the Day of Atonement, and it is now the most important religious function of the Jews.

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  • His chief writings were: An essay in Lux Mundi on "The Incarnation as the Basis of Dogma" (1889); a paper, Belief in a Personal God (1891); Reason and Religion (1896), a protest against the limitation of the reason to the understanding; Ministerial Priesthood (1897); and Atonement and Personality (1901).

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  • On the great day of atonement the high priest appears in a vicarious and representative capacity, and offers on behalf of the whole nation which he was considered to embody in his sacred person.

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  • He edited in 1860 The Atonement, a collection of essays by various hands, prefaced by his study of the "Rise of the Edwardean Theory of the Atonement."

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  • This division of the Vertebrata into hot and cold blooded is a curiously retrograde step, only intelligible when we reflect that the excellent entomologist had no real comprehension of vertebrate morphology; but he makes some atonement for the blunder by steadily upholding the class distinctness of the Amphibia.

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  • But the obduracy of King Pagan, who had succeeded his father in 1846, led to the refusal alike of atonement for past wrongs, of any expression of regret for the display of gratuitous insolence, and of any indication of a desire to maintain friendship for the future.

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  • 18-20 to establish two days of atonement, in the first and seventh months.'

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  • The idea of vicarious atonement appears in the Old Testament in different forms. The nation suffers for the sin of the individual; 8 and the individual for the sin of his kinsfolk 7 or of the nation.

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  • The leading varieties of teaching, the Sayings of Jesus, Paul, the Johannine writings, the Epistle to the Hebrews, connect the atonement with Christ especially with His death, and associate it with faith in Him and with repentance and amendment of life.12 These ideas are also common to Christian teaching generally.

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  • He held a prominent place in the New School branch of the Presbyterians, to which he adhered on the division of the denomination in 1837; he had been tried (but not convicted) for heresy in 1836, the charge being particularly against the views expressed by him in Notes on Romans (1835) of the imputation of the sin of Adam, original sin and the atonement; the bitterness stirred up by this trial contributed towards widening the breach between the conservative and the progressive elements in the church.

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  • This fellowship with the glorified Christ rather than a less spiritual trust in his death and atonement is with him the essential thing.

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  • A new statement of the doctrine of the Atonement, proposed by Horace Bushnell (1802-1876) about 1850, provoked great controversy, but during the later years of the 19th century was widely accepted under the title of the "New Theology."

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  • The laws of the Day of Atonement belong to the Priestly Code.4 There is no trace of this function before the exile; the earliest reference to any such special time of atonement being the proposal of Ezek.

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  • But the idea which is now usually expressed by " atonement " is rather represented in the New Testament by iAaQµos and its cognates, e.g.

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  • Anselm and the scholastics regarded the atonement as an offering to God of such infinite value as to outweigh men's sins, a view sometimes styled the " Commerical Theory."

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  • The differences developed were chiefly between general atonement and atonement for the elect only and between mediate imputation and immediate imputation.

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  • McLeod Campbell, Nature of the Atonement (1869); T.

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  • The Old Testament, however, only prepares the way for the Christian doctrine of the atonement; this is clear, inasmuch as its teaching is largely concerned with the nation, and hardly touches on the future life.

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  • The New Testament, however, does not indicate that its writers were agreed as to any formal dogma of the atonement, as regards the relation of the death of Christ to the sinner's restoration to God's favour; but various suggestions are made as to the solution of the problem.

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  • At present the belief in an objective atonement is still widely held; whether in the form of penal theories - the old forensic view that the death of Christ atones by paying the penalty of man's sin - or in the form of governmental theories; that the Passion fulfilled a necessity of divine government by expressing and vindicating God's righteousness.

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  • But by treating the atonement simply as revealed (and unexplained) matter of fact - in spite of some partial analogies in human experience, a thing essentially anomalous - Butler repeats, and applies to the moral contents of Christianity, what Aquinas said of its speculative doctrines.

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  • neuen Testamente (1841-1844; 2nd ed., 1857-1860); DerSchriftbeweis (1852-1856; 2nd ed., 18 571860); Die heilige Schrift des neuen Testaments zusammenhangend untersucht (1862-1875); Schutzschriften (1856-1859), in which he defends himself against the charge of denying the Atonement; and Theologische Ethik (1878).

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  • But by treating the atonement simply as revealed (and unexplained) matter of fact - in spite of some partial analogies in human experience, a thing essentially anomalous - Butler repeats, and applies to the moral contents of Christianity, what Aquinas said of its speculative doctrines.

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  • The ideas of expiation and atonement so prevalent in Ezekiel's scheme, which there find expression in the half-yearly sacrificial celebrations, are expressed in Lev.

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  • In this last work, by which he is chiefly known, he aimed at presenting an explanation and a vindication of the doctrine of the Atonement by the help of the conception of personality.

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  • Denney, Death of Christ, Atonement and the Modern Mind (1903); A.

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  • Moberly, Atonement and Personality; A.

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  • The ideas of expiation and atonement so prevalent in Ezekiel's scheme, which there find expression in the half-yearly sacrificial celebrations, are expressed in Lev.

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  • Moberly, Atonement and Personality; A.

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  • Two goats were provided by the ancient Hebrews on the Day of Atonement; the high priest sent one into the desert, after confessing on it the sins of Israel; it was not permitted to run free but was probably cast over a precipice; the other was sacrificed as a sin-offering.

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  • ATONEMENT and DAY OF Atonement.

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  • Day of Atonement: articles in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, and in the Encyclopaedia Biblica.

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  • ATONEMENT and DAY OF Atonement.

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  • Most theories of atonement would combine two or more of these, and would include repentance and amendment.

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  • Dale's Atonement (1875), the special point of which is that the death of Christ is not required by the personal demand of God to be propitiated, but by the necessity of honouring an ideal law of righteousness; thus, " the death of Christ is the objective ground on which the sins of men are remitted, because it was an act of submission to the righteous authority of the law by which the human race was condemned.

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  • But there is also a widespread inclination to minimize, ignore or deny the objective aspect of the atonement, the effect of the death of Christ on God's attitude towards men; and to follow the moral theories in emphasizing the subjective aspect of the atonement, the influence of the Passion on man.

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  • Dale's Atonement (1875), the special point of which is that the death of Christ is not required by the personal demand of God to be propitiated, but by the necessity of honouring an ideal law of righteousness; thus, " the death of Christ is the objective ground on which the sins of men are remitted, because it was an act of submission to the righteous authority of the law by which the human race was condemned.

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  • He wrote a large work on the Christian doctrine of justification and atonement, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and Versohnung, published during the years 1870-74, and in 1880-86 a history of pietism (Die Geschichte des Pietismus).

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  • Lengerke recognized a double motive: the lamb for atonement, the unleavened bread as a trace of the haste of the early harvest.

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  • 24); (8) vicarious atonement (chap. liii.).

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  • 27) after the regular daily sacrifice (in the synagogues a substitute - probably Adonay - was employed); 4 on the Day of Atonement the High Priest uttered the name ten times in his prayers and benediction.

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  • A treatise entitled The Atonement; its Reality, Completeness and Extent (1861) was based upon a smaller work which first appeared in 1845.

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  • The benefits of the atonement are appropriated by " the acceptance of God's forgiveness in Christ, our self-identification with Christ's atoning attitude, and then working out, by the power of the life bestowed upon us, all the (moral and spiritual) consequence of forgiveness."

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  • Crawford, Doctrine of the Holy Spirit respecting the Atonement (1871); R.

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  • 24); (8) vicarious atonement (chap. liii.).

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  • 27) after the regular daily sacrifice (in the synagogues a substitute - probably Adonay - was employed); 4 on the Day of Atonement the High Priest uttered the name ten times in his prayers and benediction.

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  • 5 Crawford, Scripture Doctrine of the Atonement, pp. 327 ff.

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  • Dale, Atonement (1875); J.

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  • (Atonement), (1889); G.

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  • (Atonement), (1889); G.

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  • Atonement: H.

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  • Atonement: H.

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  • Atonement >>

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  • in the single annual great fast of atonement.

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  • The Mandaean marriage service occurs both in Paris and in Oxford as an independent MS. The Diwan, hitherto unpublished, contains the ritual for atonement.

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  • Still more distinct is the doctrine of the atonement.

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  • Ewald regarded the Passover as an original pre-Mosaic spring festival made to serve the interest of purity and atonement.

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  • Breeches were assumed on the Day of Atonement.

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  • sin may be forgiven; and this restoration is the atonement.

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  • Moreover, it could not define the relation of Christ to the atonement.

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  • But these words are rare, and we read more often of " salvation " (vwrnpia) and " being saved," which includes or involves that restoration to divine favour which is called atonement.

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  • that the atonement took place not to satisfy the wrath of God, but in the practical interests of the divine government of the world, " The sufferings and death of the Son of God are an exemplary exhibition of God's hatred of moral evil, in connexion with which it is safe and prudent to remit that penalty, which so far as God and the divine attributes are concerned, might have been remitted without it."4

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  • All this necessarily tended to make the ritual ministry of the priests more important than it had been in old times; but it was in the reign of Manasseh, when the sense of divine wrath lay heavy on the people, when the old ways of seeking Jehovah's favour had failed and new and more powerful means of atonement were eagerly sought for (Micah vi.

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  • 31 seq.), when priestly Torah and priestly atonement should be no longer required.

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  • The Reformed church, on the other hand, constructed their special doctrine of the limited reference in the atonement.

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  • Magee (1766-18.31) for the omission in subsequent editions of a passage of the Moral Sentiments which that prelate had cited with high commendation as among the ablest illustrations of the doctrine of the atonement.

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  • From the beginning the sermons of Oecolampadius centred in the Atonement, and his first reformatory zeal showed itself in a protest (De risu paschali, 1518) against the introduction of humorous stories into Easter sermons.

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  • These were: (1) that the divine decree of predestination is conditional, not absolute; (2) that the Atonement is in intention 'universal; (3) that man cannot of himself exercise a saving faith; (4) that though the grace of God is a necessary condition of human effort it does not act irresistibly in man; (5) that believers are able to resist sin but are not beyond the possibility of falling from grace.

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  • degree in 1855, publishing in the same year a work on The Atonement.

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  • In particular the annual Day of Atonement would be relied on, and that in proportion as the expected Parousia.

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  • The points at which it chiefly touched them may be inferred from the author's counter-argument, with its emphasis in the spiritual ineffectiveness of the whole Temple-system, its highpriesthood and its supreme sacrifice on the Day of Atonement.

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  • The best known of his longer liturgical compositions are the philosophical Kether Malkuth (for the Day of Atonement) and the Azharoth, on the 613 precepts (for Shebhu`oth).

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  • Such an inference is, however, clearly at variance with the whole doctrine of sin, repentance and the atonement, as also with that of eternal reward and punishment, which postulates a real measure of human responsibility.

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  • As an ecclesiastic he was not so successful; he helped to compile his church's Confession of Faith in 1823, and laid great stress on a clause which limited the scope of the atonement to the elect.

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  • 34 f., where the relative positions of the contents of the Tabernacle are defined: further, the ritual of the Day of Atonement (Lev.

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  • A few years later Count Dietrich of Trier began a pilgrimage to Jerusalem with 113 companions, in atonement for the murder of Archbishop Kuno.

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  • The ignominy of such a proceeding was generally "considered sufficient atonement for the gravest offences.

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  • On the question of the Atonement he regards the death of Christ as a sacrifice offered to God and not a ransom paid to the devil.

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  • His Catholic Doctrine of the Atonement (1865) and Catholic Eschatology and Universalism (1876) are standard works.

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  • The adherents of Aristobulus seized and held the temple mount against the Romans, but on the Day of Atonement of the year 63 B.C. their position was stormed and the priests were cut down at the altars (Jos.

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  • 22-27), and on the Day of Atonement the High Priest pronounced it (Leviticus xvi.

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  • Though, in accounting for the anger of the gods, no sharp distinction is made between moral offences and a ritualistic oversight or neglect, yet the stress laid in the hymns and prayers, as well as in the elaborate atonement ritual prescribed in order to appease the anger of the gods, on the need of being clean and pure in the sight of the higher powers, the inculcation of a proper aspect of humility, and above all the need of confessing one's guilt and sins without any reserve - all this bears testimony to the strength which the ethical factor acquired in the domain of the religion.

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  • Allied with the doctrine of God which seeks the solution of the ultimate problem of all philosophy, the doctrine of salvation has taken the most prominent place in the Christian faith: so prominent, indeed, that to a large portion of believers it has been the supreme doctrine, and the doctrine of the deity of Jesus has been valued only because of its necessity on the effect of the atonement.

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  • But these hypotheses do not commend themselves, and we accept the tradition that Jesus taught that his death was an atonement for others.

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  • that there was some definite atonement demanded by Achilles, or due to him according to the custom and sentiment of the time.

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  • Mudge, 1885); and Eternal Atonement (1888).

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  • " the day "), or Kippurim (" atonement "), or Y.

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  • (" the day of atonement "), on Lev.

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  • Two sermons, preached in the college chapel in 17 9 8 and 1799, form the basis of his Discourses on the Scriptural Doctrines of Atonement and Sacrifice (1801); a polemic against Unitarian theology which was answered by Lant Carpenter.

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  • With the capture of the capitals, the Persian war was at an end, and the atonement for the expedition of Xerxes was completea truth symbolically expressed in the burning of the palace at Persepolis.

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  • - xv., laws of purification, with an appendix (xvi.) on the Day of Atonement; (3) chaps.

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  • It may be regarded as certain that this chapter consists of three main elements, only one of which was originally connected with the ceremonial of the Day of Atonement, and that it has passed through more than one stage of revision.

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  • Doubtless, as Benzinger suggests, the rites to be performed by the officiating high priest on the annual Day of Atonement, which are not prescribed in vv.

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  • No mention is made of the Day of Atonement in the pre-exilic period, and it is a plausible conjecture that the present law arose from the desire to turn the spontaneous fasting of Neh.

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  • Possibly the omission of this introduction is due to the redactor who combined (1) and (2) by transferring the regulations of (1) to the ritual of the annual Day of Atonement.

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  • 23-25; (d) the Day of Atonement, vv.

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  • 26-32 (on the Day of Atonement, cf.

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  • They rejected the doctrine of the Trinity, and protested against mediatorship, atonement and the imputed righteousness of Christ, always laying more stress on the teaching of Christ than on the teaching of the church about him; but they repeatedly laid claim to the name of Christians or of Christian deists.

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  • 1875; enlarged, 1879); The Atonement (1867); Exposition of the Confession of Faith (1869); and Popular Lectures on Theological Themes (1887).

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  • He criticized prevailing conceptions of the Trinity, the atonement, conversion, and the relations of the natural and the supernatural.

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  • Four of his books were of particular importance: Christian Nurture (1847), in which he virtually opposed revivalism and "effectively turned the current of Christian thought toward the young"; Nature and the Supernatural (1858), in which he discussed miracles and endeavoured to "lift the natural into the supernatural" by emphasizing the supernaturalness of man; The Vicarious Sacrifice (1866), in which he contended for what has come to be known as the "moral view" of the atonement in distinction from the "governmental" and the "penal" or "satisfaction" theories; and God in Christ (1849) (with an introductory "Dissertation on Language as related to Thought"), in which he expressed, it was charged, heretical views as to the Trinity, holding, among other things, that the Godhead is "instrumentally three - three simply as related to our finite apprehension, and the communication of God's incommunicable nature."

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  • He founded and edited The Universalist Magazine (1819; later called The Trumpet) and The Universalist Expositor (1831; later The Universalist Quarterly Review); wrote about io,000 sermons, many hymns, essays and polemic theological works; and is best known for Notes on the Parables (1804), A Treatise on Atonement (1805) and Examination of the Doctrine of a Future Retribution (1834); in these, especially the second, he showed himself the principal American expositor of Universalism.

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  • Of his immediate followers Joseph Bellamy is distinctly Edwardean in the keen logic and in the spirit of his True Religion Delineated, but he breaks with his master in his theory of general (not limited) atonement.

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  • He edited his father's incomplete History of the Work of Redemption, wrote in answer to Stephen West, A Dissertation Concerning Liberty and Necessity (1797), which defended his father's work on the Will by a rather strained interpretation, and in answer to Chauncy on universal salvation formulated what is known as the " Edwardean," New England or Governmental theory of the atonement in The Necessity of the Atonement and its Consistency with Free Grace in Forgiveness (1785).

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  • His place in the Edwardean theology is principally due to his defence against the Universalists of his father's doctrine of the atonement, namely, that Christ's death, being the equivalent of the eternal punishment of sinners, upheld the authority of the divine law, but did not pay any debt, and made the pardon of all men a possibility with God, but not a necessity.

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  • - Among the Jews it was ordered that on the Day of Atonement the high priest should make confession of sins in the name of the whole people, and the day is still kept by the Jews with fasting and confession of sins.

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  • One (Yoma, " the day ") deals exclusively with the rites which were to be observed on the great day of expiation or atonement; the other (Taanith, " fast ") is devoted to the other fasts, and See Judith viii.

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  • c. 2; comp. Suetonius, Augustus, 76) may be accounted for by the fact that the day of atonement is called Sabbat Sabbaton (" a perfect Sabbath ").

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  • Anselm of Canterbury stands almost alone among the great theological masters in working purely from a scientific interest; this holds alike of his contribution to theism and of his doctrine of Atonement.

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  • C. Baur and his school interpreted it as a manifesto of anti-Pauline Jewish Christianity; on the contrary, it closely approaches Paul's doctrine of the Atonement and his Christology.

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  • They are taken as involved in redemption from sin - in the Atonement, or in the sacraments.

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  • The doctrine of Atonement, destined to be the focus of Protestant evangelicalism, has remained undefined in Catholic circles,' an implicate or presupposition, but no part of the explicit and authorized creeds.

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  • With Anselm Ritschl takes Abelard, who explains the Atonement simply by God's love, and thus is the forerunner of " moral " or " subjective " modern theories as Anselm is of the " objective " or " forensic " theory.

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  • The Reformation doctrine of Atonement, while akin to Anselm's, differs in making God the guardian of a system of public law rather than of His private or personal honour.

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  • 5 There is no such full and careful theory of Atonement in any Catholic theology, and, according to so unbiassed a judge as A.

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  • But it is by no means clear that this Protestant doctrine of Atonement is a unity.

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  • The Atonement imparts to the believer (a) forgiveness, (b) positive acceptance.

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  • Even in our own time, popular Protestant evangelicalism joins with the newer emphasis upon conversion the two great early Protestant appeals - to Atonement and to infallible Scripture.

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  • Atonement is a dream, and an immoral dream.

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  • On the other hand, the type of thought which would perfect Christianity in the form of a philosophy, and subordinates Atonement to Incarnation, is pledged to this doctrine that Incarnation was a rational necessity.

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  • Under John and Charles Wesley, a system known as Evangelical Arminianism was worked out in 18th-century England, strongly Augustinian in its doctrines of sin and atonement, modern Augustinian in its doctrine of conversion, strongly anti-Augustinian in its rejection of absolute predestination.

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  • Apart from apologetics or single doctrines like that of the Atonement, the task of rethinking Christian theology upon the great scale has been left chiefly to German science, philosophical and historical.

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  • The rationalist wing resolve Incarnation and still more Atonement into symbols of philosophical truth.

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  • Ritschl denies natural theology 4 as well as natural religion, denies dogma outright in its Greek forms - Trinitarian and Christological; and seeks to transpose the doctrine of Atonement - Christ's Person " or " Works as he puts it - from the legal to the ethical.

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  • Here English and American thought strikes in sympathetically, offering moral theories of Atonement, though not looking so exclusively towards forgiveness.

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  • The doctrine of penal substitution in the Atonement, as usually conceived, seems to point in the same direction as predestinarianism.

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  • Dale (The Atonement; Christian Doctrine).

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  • (1694-1761) on original sin and atonement had much influence in the east of Scotland, as we learn from Robert Burns; and such men as William Dalrymple, D.D.

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  • Of these views the former is the more catholic, more universally present in the Christian consciousness; the latter more deeply penetrates the mystery of the Atonement, as expounded in the Pauline epistles.

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  • In 1650 he published a tract (The Meritorious Price of Our Redemption) in which he attacked the Calvinistic doctrine of the atonement, and which was burned on Boston Common by order of the General Court.

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  • Eager to make atonement for his sin with regard to the archbishopric, he nominated Anselm to the vacant see, and after a great struggle compelled him to accept the pastoral staff of office.

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  • He withdrew from Rome, and spent some time at the little village of Schiavi, where he finished his treatise on the atonement, Cur Deus homo, and then retired to Lyons.

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  • Finally, in his greatest work, Cur Deus homo, he undertakes to make plain, even to infidels, the rational necessity of the Christian mystery of the atonement.

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  • The great conceptions of justification and atonement are hardly ever touched by Irenaeus.

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  • There is at the most not more than an allusion to Christ, who is never mentioned by name, and though there are frequent allusions to the regaining of life, which is accomplished by union with the Logos, there is no reference to the doctrines of the incarnation or of the atonement.

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  • This theory of the atonement was formulated by Origen.

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  • Among his chief works were The Apostle Paul (3rd ed., 1896); Memoire sur la notion hebraique de l'Esprit (1879); Les Origines litteraires de l'Apocalypse (1888); The Vitality of Christian Dogmas and their Power of Evolution (1890); Religion and Modern Culture (1897); Historical Evolution of the Doctrine of the Atonement (1903); Outlines of a Philosophy of Religion (1897); and his posthumous Religions of Authority and the Religion of the Spirit (1904), to which his colleague Jean Reville prefixed a short memoir.

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  • As they remained Calvinists they could not preach a universal atonement; they were in fact extreme particular redemptionists.

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  • May I make the only atonement in my power?

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  • I just think there are better ways of understanding the atonement and that penal substitution has some flaws that need reconsideration.

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  • When we receive the atonement made for us by the blood of Jesus Christ, new life begins.

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  • The creature who made him what he is wanted to kill him and thus find atonement before its own death.

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  • Likewise, substitutionary atonement is a vital element in the gospel.

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  • We can, for example, make little or nothing of the doctrine of vicarious atonement.

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  • Mark Cartledge reports on the symposium held at the London School of Theology to further public debate on the doctrine of penal substitutionary atonement.

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  • We believe that those who promote the notion of universal atonement misrepresent the substitutionary nature of our Lord Jesus Christ's death.

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  • Where does Christ inform the person who believes in limited atonement that He died for them?

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  • My sole hope for heaven lies in the full atonement made upon Calvary's cross for the ungodly.

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  • atonement theology, and God's justice was the central theme in his thought.

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  • atonement doctrine has been to help transmit information about the divine Son.

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  • atonement theory allows?

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  • I oppose the limited atonement position, whilst strongly maintaining an effectual atonement position, whilst strongly maintaining an effectual atonement position.

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  • atonement models I was thoroughly silenced.

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  • The phrase penal substitutionary atonement is normally applied to the restatement of this by John Calvin.

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  • We must abandon the doctrine of the blood atonement.

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  • atonement of sins.

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  • atonement for the sins of his people.

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  • atonement for the soul.

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  • doctrine of the atonement depends on Jesus ' state of knowledge.

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  • friars of the atonement with us for the meetings.

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  • The new birth and the atonement are alike and equally heavenly thoughts, heavenly plans and purposes.

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  • The Cur deus homo, in which he develops views of atonement and satisfaction which are still held by orthodox theologians.

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  • penal substitutionary atonement.

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  • sacrifice of atonement, through faith in his blood.

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  • vicarious atonement.

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  • He wrote a large work on the Christian doctrine of justification and atonement, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and Versohnung, published during the years 1870-74, and in 1880-86 a history of pietism (Die Geschichte des Pietismus).

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  • The differences developed were chiefly between general atonement and atonement for the elect only and between mediate imputation and immediate imputation.

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  • The most important writers are Yoseh ben Yoseh, probably in the 6th century, chiefly known for his compositions for the day of Atonement, Eleazar Qalir, the founder of the payyetanic style, perhaps in the 7th century, Seadiah, and the Spanish school consisting of Joseph ibn Abitur (died in 970), Ibn Gabirol, Isaac Gayyath, Moses ben Ezra, Abraham ben Ezra and Judah ha-levi, who will be mentioned below; later, Moses ben Nahman and Isaac Luria the Kabbalist.'

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  • Thomas Arnold, criticizing Edward Hawkins, appeals rather to the atonement as deeper neglected truth.

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  • Two goats were provided by the ancient Hebrews on the Day of Atonement; the high priest sent one into the desert, after confessing on it the sins of Israel; it was not permitted to run free but was probably cast over a precipice; the other was sacrificed as a sin-offering.

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  • Ezekiel prescribes a half-yearly ritual of sin-offering whereby atonement was to be made (xlv.

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  • in the single annual great fast of atonement.

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  • On the great day of atonement the high priest appears in a vicarious and representative capacity, and offers on behalf of the whole nation which he was considered to embody in his sacred person.

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  • In later post-exilian times this great day of atonement became to an increasing degree a day of humiliation for sin and penitent sorrow, accompanied by confession; and the sins confessed were not only of a purely ceremonial character, whether voluntary or inadvertent, but also sins against righteousness and the duties which we owe to God and man.

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  • He edited in 1860 The Atonement, a collection of essays by various hands, prefaced by his study of the "Rise of the Edwardean Theory of the Atonement."

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  • This fellowship with the glorified Christ rather than a less spiritual trust in his death and atonement is with him the essential thing.

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  • The Mandaean marriage service occurs both in Paris and in Oxford as an independent MS. The Diwan, hitherto unpublished, contains the ritual for atonement.

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  • 700, was twice blessed; not only was it an act of atonement in itself, like fasting and flagellation; it also gained for the pilgrim the merit of having stood on holy ground.

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  • This separation led to strong insistence on " evangelical " views (in the usual sense of the term) concerning Christ,the Atonement, imputed righteousness, the Scriptures, &c. This showed itself in the Beaconite controversy in England (see above), and in a further division in America.

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  • Still more distinct is the doctrine of the atonement.

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  • Lengerke recognized a double motive: the lamb for atonement, the unleavened bread as a trace of the haste of the early harvest.

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  • Ewald regarded the Passover as an original pre-Mosaic spring festival made to serve the interest of purity and atonement.

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  • neuen Testamente (1841-1844; 2nd ed., 1857-1860); DerSchriftbeweis (1852-1856; 2nd ed., 18 571860); Die heilige Schrift des neuen Testaments zusammenhangend untersucht (1862-1875); Schutzschriften (1856-1859), in which he defends himself against the charge of denying the Atonement; and Theologische Ethik (1878).

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  • This division of the Vertebrata into hot and cold blooded is a curiously retrograde step, only intelligible when we reflect that the excellent entomologist had no real comprehension of vertebrate morphology; but he makes some atonement for the blunder by steadily upholding the class distinctness of the Amphibia.

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  • Breeches were assumed on the Day of Atonement.

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  • He held a prominent place in the New School branch of the Presbyterians, to which he adhered on the division of the denomination in 1837; he had been tried (but not convicted) for heresy in 1836, the charge being particularly against the views expressed by him in Notes on Romans (1835) of the imputation of the sin of Adam, original sin and the atonement; the bitterness stirred up by this trial contributed towards widening the breach between the conservative and the progressive elements in the church.

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  • But the obduracy of King Pagan, who had succeeded his father in 1846, led to the refusal alike of atonement for past wrongs, of any expression of regret for the display of gratuitous insolence, and of any indication of a desire to maintain friendship for the future.

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  • His chief writings were: An essay in Lux Mundi on "The Incarnation as the Basis of Dogma" (1889); a paper, Belief in a Personal God (1891); Reason and Religion (1896), a protest against the limitation of the reason to the understanding; Ministerial Priesthood (1897); and Atonement and Personality (1901).

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  • In this last work, by which he is chiefly known, he aimed at presenting an explanation and a vindication of the doctrine of the Atonement by the help of the conception of personality.

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  • A treatise entitled The Atonement; its Reality, Completeness and Extent (1861) was based upon a smaller work which first appeared in 1845.

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  • Swedenborg wholly rejects the orthodox doctrine of atonement; and the unity of God, as opposed to his idea of the trinity of the church, is an essential feature of his teaching.

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  • A new statement of the doctrine of the Atonement, proposed by Horace Bushnell (1802-1876) about 1850, provoked great controversy, but during the later years of the 19th century was widely accepted under the title of the "New Theology."

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  • The synodical decision in regard to the five points is contained in the canons adopted at the 136th session held on the 23rd of April 1619; the points were: unconditional election, limited atonement, total depravity, irresistibility of grace, final perseverance of the saints.

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  • " Atone " (originally - see below - " ` at one ") and " atonement " are terms ordinarily used as practically synonymous with satisfaction, reparation, compensation, with a view The to reconciliation.

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  • A doctrine of atonement makes the following presuppositions.

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  • sin may be forgiven; and this restoration is the atonement.

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  • The problem of the atonement is the means or condition of the restoration of man to God's favour; this has been variously found (a) in the endurance of punishment; (b) in the payment of compensation for the wrong done, the compensation consisting of sacrifices and other offerings; (c) in the performance of magical or other ritual, the efficacy of the ritual consisting in its being pleasing to or appointed by God, or even in its having a coercive power over the deity; (d) in repentance and amendment of life.

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  • Most theories of atonement would combine two or more of these, and would include repentance and amendment.

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  • Some or all of the conditions of atonement may be fulfilled, according to various views, either by the sinner or vicariously on his behalf by some kinsman; or by his family, clan or nation; or by some one else.

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  • In the Old Testament, " atonement," " make an atonement " represent the Hebrew kippur and its derivatives.

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  • II suggests a mystic or symbolic explanation by its statement " the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your lives: 3 for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life."

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  • The atoning ritual reached its climax on the Day of Atonement e"??? ?i, aj p. pa E eX a6µou, in the Mishna simply " the Day " Yoma), observed annually on the 10th day of the 7th month (Tisri), in the autumn, about October, shortly before the Feast of Tabernacles or vintage festival.

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  • The laws of the Day of Atonement belong to the Priestly Code.4 There is no trace of this function before the exile; the earliest reference to any such special time of atonement being the proposal of Ezek.

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  • 18-20 to establish two days of atonement, in the first and seventh months.'

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  • The Day of Atonement is the only fast provided in the Law; it is only on this occasion that (a) the Jews are required to " afflict their souls," (b) the High Priest enters the Holy of Holies, (c) the High Priest offers incense before the mercy seat and sprinkles it with blood, and (d) the scapegoat or Azazel is sent away into the wilderness, bearing upon him all the iniquities of the people.

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  • In later Judaism, especially from about ioo B.C., great stress was laid on the Day of Atonement, and it is now the most important religious function of the Jews.

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  • The idea of vicarious atonement appears in the Old Testament in different forms. The nation suffers for the sin of the individual; 8 and the individual for the sin of his kinsfolk 7 or of the nation.

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  • Again, the Old Testament speaks of the restoration of heathen nations, and of the salvation of the heathen; 1 ° but does not formulate any theory of atonement in this connexion.

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  • The Old Testament, however, only prepares the way for the Christian doctrine of the atonement; this is clear, inasmuch as its teaching is largely concerned with the nation, and hardly touches on the future life.

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  • Moreover, it could not define the relation of Christ to the atonement.

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  • Later Judaism emphasized the idea of vicarious atonement for Israel through the sufferings of the righteous, especially the martyrs; but it is very doubtful whether the idea of the atonement through the death of the Messiah is a pre-Christian Jewish doctrine."

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  • In the New Testament, the English version uses " atonement " 1 Lev.

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  • But the idea which is now usually expressed by " atonement " is rather represented in the New Testament by iAaQµos and its cognates, e.g.

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  • But these words are rare, and we read more often of " salvation " (vwrnpia) and " being saved," which includes or involves that restoration to divine favour which is called atonement.

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  • The leading varieties of teaching, the Sayings of Jesus, Paul, the Johannine writings, the Epistle to the Hebrews, connect the atonement with Christ especially with His death, and associate it with faith in Him and with repentance and amendment of life.12 These ideas are also common to Christian teaching generally.

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  • The New Testament, however, does not indicate that its writers were agreed as to any formal dogma of the atonement, as regards the relation of the death of Christ to the sinner's restoration to God's favour; but various suggestions are made as to the solution of the problem.

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  • 19 Hebrews speaks of Christ as transcending the rites and officials of the law; He a ccomplishes the realities which they could only foreshadow;, in relation to the perfect, heavenly sacrifice which atones for sin, He is both priest and victim.20 The subsequent development of the Christian doctrine has chiefly shaped itself according to the Pauline formula of vicarious atonement; the sufferings of Christ were accepted as a substitute for theunishment which men deserved, p ?

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  • Anselm and the scholastics regarded the atonement as an offering to God of such infinite value as to outweigh men's sins, a view sometimes styled the " Commerical Theory."

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  • that the atonement took place not to satisfy the wrath of God, but in the practical interests of the divine government of the world, " The sufferings and death of the Son of God are an exemplary exhibition of God's hatred of moral evil, in connexion with which it is safe and prudent to remit that penalty, which so far as God and the divine attributes are concerned, might have been remitted without it."4

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  • 5 Crawford, Scripture Doctrine of the Atonement, pp. 327 ff.

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  • 7 Dale, Atonement, pp. 430 ff.

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  • The benefits of the atonement are appropriated by " the acceptance of God's forgiveness in Christ, our self-identification with Christ's atoning attitude, and then working out, by the power of the life bestowed upon us, all the (moral and spiritual) consequence of forgiveness."

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  • At present the belief in an objective atonement is still widely held; whether in the form of penal theories - the old forensic view that the death of Christ atones by paying the penalty of man's sin - or in the form of governmental theories; that the Passion fulfilled a necessity of divine government by expressing and vindicating God's righteousness.

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  • But there is also a widespread inclination to minimize, ignore or deny the objective aspect of the atonement, the effect of the death of Christ on God's attitude towards men; and to follow the moral theories in emphasizing the subjective aspect of the atonement, the influence of the Passion on man.

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  • McLeod Campbell, Nature of the Atonement (1869); T.

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  • Crawford, Doctrine of the Holy Spirit respecting the Atonement (1871); R.

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  • Dale, Atonement (1875); J.

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  • Denney, Death of Christ, Atonement and the Modern Mind (1903); A.

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  • Day of Atonement: articles in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, and in the Encyclopaedia Biblica.

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  • All this necessarily tended to make the ritual ministry of the priests more important than it had been in old times; but it was in the reign of Manasseh, when the sense of divine wrath lay heavy on the people, when the old ways of seeking Jehovah's favour had failed and new and more powerful means of atonement were eagerly sought for (Micah vi.

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  • 31 seq.), when priestly Torah and priestly atonement should be no longer required.

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  • The Reformed church, on the other hand, constructed their special doctrine of the limited reference in the atonement.

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  • Magee (1766-18.31) for the omission in subsequent editions of a passage of the Moral Sentiments which that prelate had cited with high commendation as among the ablest illustrations of the doctrine of the atonement.

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  • From the beginning the sermons of Oecolampadius centred in the Atonement, and his first reformatory zeal showed itself in a protest (De risu paschali, 1518) against the introduction of humorous stories into Easter sermons.

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  • These were: (1) that the divine decree of predestination is conditional, not absolute; (2) that the Atonement is in intention 'universal; (3) that man cannot of himself exercise a saving faith; (4) that though the grace of God is a necessary condition of human effort it does not act irresistibly in man; (5) that believers are able to resist sin but are not beyond the possibility of falling from grace.

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  • degree in 1855, publishing in the same year a work on The Atonement.

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  • In particular the annual Day of Atonement would be relied on, and that in proportion as the expected Parousia.

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  • The points at which it chiefly touched them may be inferred from the author's counter-argument, with its emphasis in the spiritual ineffectiveness of the whole Temple-system, its highpriesthood and its supreme sacrifice on the Day of Atonement.

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  • The best known of his longer liturgical compositions are the philosophical Kether Malkuth (for the Day of Atonement) and the Azharoth, on the 613 precepts (for Shebhu`oth).

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  • Such an inference is, however, clearly at variance with the whole doctrine of sin, repentance and the atonement, as also with that of eternal reward and punishment, which postulates a real measure of human responsibility.

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  • As an ecclesiastic he was not so successful; he helped to compile his church's Confession of Faith in 1823, and laid great stress on a clause which limited the scope of the atonement to the elect.

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  • 34 f., where the relative positions of the contents of the Tabernacle are defined: further, the ritual of the Day of Atonement (Lev.

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  • A few years later Count Dietrich of Trier began a pilgrimage to Jerusalem with 113 companions, in atonement for the murder of Archbishop Kuno.

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