Atoms sentence example

atoms
  • All living and sentient things are formed out of insentient atoms.
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  • Atoms attract each other and atoms repel one another.
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  • He established the existence of molecules and atoms as we have defined above, and stated that the number of atoms in the molecule is generally 2, but may be 4, 8, &c. We cannot tell whether his choice of the powers of 2 is accident or design.
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  • He regarded the chemical properties of a substance as due to (1) the chemical atoms composing it, and (2) the structure, and he asserted that while different compounds might have the same components (isomerism), yet only one compound could have a particular structure.
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  • Thus, the symbols 14 2 and P4 indicate that the molecules of hydrogen and phosphorus respectively contain 2 and 4 atoms. Since, according to the molecular theory, in all cases of chemical change the action is between molecules, such symbols as these ought always to be employed.
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  • Hence the gaseous atoms of hydrogen and oxygen could not have parts.
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  • The molecule of every compound must obviously contain at least two atoms, and generally the molecules of the elements are also polyatomic, the elements with monatomic molecules (at moderate temperatures) being mercury and the gases of the argon group. The laws of chemical combination are as follows: I.
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  • There is no such thing really as a vacuum, any more than there are atoms or ultimate indivisible particles.
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  • The force which brings the atoms together in the forms of objects is inherent in the elements, and all their motions are necessary.
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  • The Daltonian would say that each of these weights represents a certain group of atoms, and that these groups can replace, or combine with, each other, to form new molecules.
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  • the relative weights of atoms. He took hydrogen, the lightest substance known, to be the standard.
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  • These atoms, which are the seeds of all things, are, however, not eternal but created by God.
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  • Pascal and other members of Port Royal openly expressed their doubts about the place allowed to God in the system; the adherents of Gassendi met it by resuscitating atoms; and the Aristotelians maintained their substantial forms as of old; the Jesuits argued against the arguments for the being of God, and against the theory of innate ideas; whilst Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721), bishop of Avranches, once a Cartesian himself, made a vigorous onslaught on the contempt in which his former comrades held literature and history, and enlarged on the vanity of all human aspirations after rational truth.
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  • The atoms have already learned this law, and are pregnant by it.
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  • It is evident that this is practicable if the number and kind of atoms contained in the molecule of a compound can be determined.
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  • He denied that gaseous atoms could have parts, although compound gases could.
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  • The " structure theory " (or the mode of linking of the atoms) of carbon compounds, founded by Butlerow, Kekule and Couper and, at a later date, marvellously enhanced by the doctrine of stereo-isomerism, due to J.
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  • By its aid the molecule is represented as a collection of atoms connected together by valencies in such a manner that the part played by each atom is represented;.
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  • This description, although not absolutely comprehensive, serves as a convenient starting-point for a preliminary classification, since a great number of substances, including the most important, are directly referable to hydrocarbons, being formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms by other atoms or groups.
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  • There also exists an extensive class of compounds termed the " heterocyclic series " - these compounds are derived from ring systems containing atoms other than carbon; this class is more generally allied to the aromatic series than to the aliphatic.
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  • Gomberg's triphenyl-methyl play no part in what follows), it is readily seen that the simplest hydrocarbon has the formula CH 4, named methane, in which the hydrogen atoms are of equal value, and which may be pictured as placed at the vertices of a tetrahedron, the carbon atom occupying the centre.
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  • (methylene) groups and the molecule consists of a single chain; such hydrocarbons are referred to as being normal; (2) has a branch and contains the group; CH (methine) in which the free valencies are attached to carbon atoms; such hydrocarbons are termed secondary or iso-; (3) is characterized by a carbon atom linked directly to four other carbon atoms; such hydrocarbons are known as tertiary.
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  • The ringed structure of benzene, C 6 H 61 was first suggested in 1865 by August Kekule, who represented the molecule by six CH groups placed at the six angles of a regular hexagon, the sides of which denoted the valencies saturated by adjacent carbon atoms, the fourth valencies of each carbon atom being represented as saturated along alternate sides.
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  • From these nuclei an immense number of derivatives may be obtained, for the hydrogen atoms may be substituted by any of the radicals discussed in the preceding section on the classification of organic compounds.
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  • It has already been stated that benzene derivatives may be regarded as formed by the replacement of hydrogen atoms by other elements or radicals in exactly the same manner as in the aliphatic series.
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  • Although Kekule founded his famous benzene formula in 1865 on the assumptions that the six hydrogen atoms in benzene are equivalent and that the molecule is symmetrical, i.e.
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  • The atomist has an easy answer; he says that the new body is made up by the juxtaposition of the atoms of iodine and mercury, which still exist in the red powder.
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  • Following Newton, he believed a gas to be made up of particles or atoms, From Dalton's Hydrogen Gas.
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  • In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.
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  • The gradual accumulation of data referring to organic compounds brought in its train a revival of the discussion of atoms and molecules.
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  • It may have some limit in theory, because there is an optimal arrangement of atoms in the universe; but for practical purposes, it has no limit.
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  • It is now agreed that the molecule of water contains two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, so that the atomic weight of oxygen becomes 16, and similarly that the molecule of ammonia contains three atoms of hydrogen and one of nitrogen, and that consequently the atomic weight of nitrogen is 14.
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  • PYRIMIDINES, METADIAZINES or Miazines, in organic chemistry, a series of heterocyclic compounds containing a ring complex, composed of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms, the nitrogen atoms being in the meta-position.
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  • 345), that only compounds containing two carbon atoms yielded fulminates, points to (Hcno) 2; on the other hand, Wohler (loc. cit.
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  • Their fundamental conception is that of Democritus; they seek to account for the formation of the cosmos, with its order and regularity, by setting out with the idea of an original (vertical) motion of the atoms, which somehow or other results in movements towards and from one another.
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  • " The subsidiary rays of medals and inscriptions, of geography and chronology, were thrown on their proper objects; and I applied the collections of Tillemont, whose inimitable accuracy almost assumes the character of genius, to fix and arrange within my reach the loose and scattered atoms of historical information."
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  • He defined structure " as the manner of the mutual linking of the atoms in the molecule," but denied that any such structure could give information as to the orientation of the atoms in space.
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  • According to this view, it is necessary to assume that, in all unsaturated compounds, two, or some even number of affinities are disengaged; and also that all elements which combine with an even number of monad atoms cannot combine with an odd number, and vice versa, - in other words, that the number of units of affinity active in the case of any given element must be always either an even or an odd number, and that it cannot be at one time an even and at another an odd number.
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  • that the sum of the units of affinity of all the atoms in a compound is an even number.
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  • It is often convenient to regard compounds as formed upon certain types; alcohol, for example, may be said to be a compound formed upon the water type, that is to say, a compound formed from water by displacing one of the atoms of hydrogen by the group of elements C 2 H 5, thus - H C2H5 O H O H Water Alcohol.
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  • Changes of the first and second kind, according to our views of the constitution of molecules, are probably of very rare occurrence; in fact, chemical action appears almost always to involve the occurrence of both these kinds of change, for, as already pointed out, we must assume that the molecules of hydrogen, oxygen and several other elements are diatomic, or that they consist of two atoms. Indeed, it appears probable that with few exceptions the elements are all compounds of similar atoms united together by one or more units of affinity, according to their valencies.
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  • We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.
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  • Lastly, in the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and solid iodine H2 - 1 - 12=HI+HI, so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic acid from its elements to apply heat continuously.
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  • His unitary conceptions may be summarized: every chemical compound forms a complete whole, and cannot therefore consist of two parts; and its chemical character depends primarily upon the arrangement and number of the atoms, and, in a lesser degree, upon their chemical nature.
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  • von Hofmann continued the investigation, and established their recognition as ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms had been replaced by hydrocarbon radicals, thus formulating the " ammonia type."
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  • Williamson showed how alcohol and ether were to be regarded as derived from water by substituting one or both hydrogen atoms by the ethyl group; he derived acids and the acid anhydrides from the same type; and from a comparison of many inorganic and the simple organic compounds he concluded that this notion of a " water-type " clarified, in no small measure, the conception of the structure of compounds.
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  • The equivalence of the four hydrogen atoms of methane rested on indirect evidence, e.g.
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  • Let us now consider hydrocarbons containing 2 atoms of carbon.
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  • Three such compounds are possible according to the number of valencies acting directly between the carbon atoms. Thus, if they are connected by one valency, and the remaining valencies saturated by hydrogen, we obtain the compound H 3 C CH 3, ethane.
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  • If the carbon atoms are connected by two valencies, we obtain a compound H2C:CH2, ethylene; if by three valencies, HC: CH, acetylene.
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  • In methane and ethane the hydrogen atoms are of equal value, and no matter which one may be substituted by another element or group the same compound will result.
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  • Considering derivatives primarily concerned with transformations of the hydroxyl group, we may regard our typical acid as a fusion of a radical R CO - (named acetyl, propionyl, butyl, &c., generally according to the name of the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms) and a hydroxyl group. By replacing the hydroxyl group by a halogen, acid-haloids result; by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules, acid-anhydrides, which may be oxidized to acid-peroxides; by replacing the hydroxyl group by the group. SH, thio-acids; by replacing it by the amino group, acid-amides (q.v.); by replacing it by the group - NH NH2, acid-hydrazides.
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  • In classifying closed chain compounds, the first step consists in dividing them into: (1) carbocyclic, in which the ring is composed solely of carbon atoms - these are also known as homocyclic or isocyclic on account of the identity of the members of the ring - and (2) heterocyclic, in which different elements go to make up the ring.
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  • It was long supposed that the simplest ring obtainable contained six atoms of carbon, and the discovery of trimethylene in 1882 by August Freund by the action of sodium on trimethylene bromide, Br(CH 2) 3 Br, came somewhat as a surprise, especially in view of its behaviour with bromine and hydrogen bromide.
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  • The separation of carbon atoms united by single affinities in this manner at the time the observation was made was altogether without precedent.
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  • The values in other cases are calculable from the formula RI 09° 28' - a), where a is the internal angle of the regular polygon contained by sides equal in number to the number of the carbon atoms composing the ring.
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  • As an illustration it may be pointed out that in the case of the two known types of lactones - the y-lactones, which contain four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom in the ring, are more readily formed and more stable (less readily hydrolysed) than the S-lactones, which contain one oxygen and five carbon atoms in the ring.
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  • That the number of atoms which can be associated in a ring by single affinities is limited there can be no doubt, but there is not yet sufficient evidence to show where the limit must be placed.
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  • These results may be graphically represented as follows: numbering the hydrogen atoms in cyclical order from i to 6, then the first thesis demands that whichever atom is substituted the same compound results, while the second thesis points out that the pairs 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are symmetrical with respect to 1, or in other words, the di-substitution derivatives 1.2 and 1.6, and also 1.3 and 1.5 are identical.
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  • The proof is divided into two parts: (1) that four hydrogen atoms are equal, and (2) that two pairs of hydrogen atoms are symmetrical with reference to a specified hydrogen atom.
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  • These three acids yield on heating phenol, identical with the substance started with, and since in the three oxybenzoic acids the hydroxyl groups must occupy positions other than I, it follows that four hydrogen atoms are equal in value.
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  • Petermann (Ann., 1869, 149, p. 129) provided the proof of the equivalence of the atoms 2 and 6 with respect to 1.
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  • Therefore there must be another pair of hydrogen atoms, other than 2 and 6, which are symmetrical with respect to 1.
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  • The trimolecular polymerization of numerous acetylene compounds-substances containing two trebly linked carbon atoms, -C: C -, to form derivatives of benzene is of considerable interest.
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  • Generally rupture occurs at more than one point; and rarely are the six carbon atoms of the complex regained as an open chain.
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  • Zincke; and his researches have led to the discovery of many chlorinated oxidation products which admit of decomposition into cyclic compounds containing fewer carbon atoms than characterize the benzene ring, and in turn yielding openchain or aliphatic compounds.
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  • In general, the rupture occurs between a keto group (CO) and a keto-chloride group (CC1 2), into which two adjacent carbon atoms of the ring are converted by the oxidizing and substituting action of chlorine.
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  • Ladenburg (Ber., 2, p. 140) devised his prism formula (IV), the six carbon atoms being placed at the six corners of a right equilateral triangular prism, with its plane projections (V, VI).
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  • CH CH HC, N CH HC CH HC HC HC Hcch Hc Ch Ch Kekule t i Dewar Ladenburg One of the earliest and strongest objections urged against Kekule's formula was that it demanded two isomeric ortho-di-substitution derivatives; for if we number the carbon atoms in cyclical order from i to 6, then the derivatives 1.2 and 1.6 should be different.'
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  • The former pointed out that the supposed isomerism was not due to an arrangement of atoms, but to the disposition of a valency, and therefore it was doubtful whether such a subtle condition could exert any influence on the properties of the substance.
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  • By projecting Ladenburg's prism on a plane and numbering the atoms so as to correspond with Kekule's form, viz.
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  • that 1.2 and 1.6 should be ortho-positions, 1.3 and 1.5 meta-, and 1.4 para-, and following out the transformation on the Ladenburg formula, then an ortho-dioxyterephthalic acid (IV) should result, a fact denied by experience, and inexplicable unless we assume a wandering of atoms. Kekule's formula (III), on the other hand, is in full agreement (Baeyer).
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  • The transformation is not one of the oxidation of a hexamethylene compound to a benzenoid compound, for only two hydrogen atoms are removed.
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  • He numbers the carbon atoms placed at the corners of a hexagon from i to 6, and each side in the same order, so that the carbon atoms i and 2 are connected by the side 1, atoms 2 and 3 by the side 2, and so on.
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  • A doubly linked pair of atoms is denoted by the sign A with the index corresponding to the side; if there are two pairs of double links, then indices corresponding to both sides are employed.
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  • From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.
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  • When applied to benzene, a twofold conjugated system is suggested in which the partial valencies of adjacent atoms neutralize, with the formation of a potential double link.
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  • It is well known that singly, doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms affect the physical properties of substances, such as the refractive index, specific volume, and the heat of combustion; and by determining these constants for many substances, fairly definite values can be assigned to these groupings.
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  • These bands are due to molecular oscillations; Hartley suggests the carbon atoms to be rotating and forming alternately single and double linkages, the formation of three double links giving three bands, and of three single links another three; Baly and Collie, on the other hand, suggest the making and breaking of links between adjacent atoms, pointing out that there are seven combinations of one, two and three pairs of carbon atoms in the benzene molecule.
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  • that the hydrogen atoms must all lie in one plane.
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  • The proof of this statement rests on the fact that if the hydrogen atoms were not co-planar, then substitution derivatives (the substituting groups not containing asymmetric carbon atoms) should exist in enantiomorphic forms, differing in crystal form and in their action on polarized light; such optical antipodes have, however, not yet been separated.
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  • Ladenburg's prism formula would give two enantiomorphic ortho-di-substitution derivatives; while forms in which the hydrogen atoms are placed at the corners of a regular octahedron would yield enantiomorphic tri-substitution derivatives.
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  • The octahedral formula discussed by Julius Thomsen (Ber., 1886, 19, p. 2 944) consists of the six carbon atoms placed at the corners of a regular octahedron, and connected together by the full lines as shown in (I); a plane projection gives a hexagon with diagonals (II).
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  • Marsh also devised a form closely resembling that of Thomsen, inasmuch as the carbon atoms occupied the angles of a regular octahedron, and the diagonal linkages differed in nature from the peripheral, but differeng from Thomsen's since rupture of the diagonal and not peripheral bonds accompanied the reduction to hexamethylene.
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  • Two parallel triangular faces are removed from a cardboard model of a regular octahedron, and on the remaining six faces tetrahedra are then placed; the hydrogen atoms are at the free angles.
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  • Zeit., 1905, 29, p. 30), assumed the six carbon atoms to occupy six of the corners of a cube, each carbon atom being linked to a hydrogen atom and by single bonds to two neighbouring carbon atoms, the remaining valencies being directed to the unoccupied corners of the cube, three to each, where they are supposed to satisfy each other.
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  • Restricting ourselves to compounds resulting from the fusion of benzene rings, we have first to consider naphthalene, C10H8, which consists of two benzene rings having a pair of carbon atoms in common.
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  • If a-naphthylamine and a-naphthol be reduced, the hydrogen atoms attach themselves to the non-substituted half of the molecule, and the compounds so obtained resemble aminodiethylbenzene, C 6 H 3 NH 2 (C 2 H 5) 21 and oxydiethylbenzene, C 6 H 3.
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  • (7) (2) In the first symbol it is assumed that one of the affinities of each of the two central carbon atoms common to the two rings acts into both rings, an assumption involving a somewhat wide departure from all ordinary views as to the manner in which affinity acts.
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  • The centric formula proposed by Bamberger represents naphthalene as formed by the fusion of two benzene rings, this indicates that it is a monocyclic composed of ten atoms of carbon.
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  • Similarly, two or more methine groups may be replaced by the same number of nitrogen atoms with the formation of rings of considerable stability.
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  • Most of the simple ring systems which contain two adjacent carbon atoms may suffer fusion with any other ring (also containing two adjacent carbon atoms) with the production of nuclei of greater complexity.
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  • Heterocyclic rings may be systematically surveyed from two aspects: (I) by arranging the rings with similar hetero-atoms according to the increasing number of carbon atoms, the so-called " homologous series "; or (2) by first dividing the ring systems according to the number of members constituting the ring, and then classifying these groups according to the nature of the hetero-atoms, the so-called " isologous series."
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  • The transition between the two classes as differentiated above may be illustrated by the following cyclic compounds, each of which contains a ring composed of four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom: CH CH/ CH CH/ CH CO I CH CO' CH =CH c Tetramethylene But yrolactone.
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  • The formulae of these substances are: By substituting one or more CH groups in these compounds by nitrogen atoms, ring-systems, collectively known as azoles, result.
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  • Obviously, isomeric ring-systems are possible, since the carbon atoms in the original rings are not all of equal value.
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  • Thus furfurane yields the following rings by the introduction of one and two nitrogen atoms: CH=N N=CH..
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  • Thiophene also gives rise to triazsulphole, three nitrogen atoms being introduced.
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  • Six-membered ring systems can be referred back, in a manner similar to the above, to pyrone, penthiophene and pyridine, the substances containing a ring of five carbon atoms, and an oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen atom respectively.
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  • From the pyrone ring the following series of compounds are derived (for brevity, the hydrogen atoms are not printed): Penthiophene gives, by a similar introduction of nitrogen atoms, penthiazoline, corresponding to meta-oxazine, and para-thiazine, CH 2 CH 2o CH CO „ .„0 C ?
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  • The skeletons of these types are (the carbon atoms are omitted for brevity): We have previously referred to the condensation of heterocyclic ring systems containing two vicinal carbon atoms with benzene, naphthalene and other nuclei.
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  • One or two benzene nuclei may suffer condensation with the furfurane, thiophene and pyrrol rings, the common carbon atoms being vicinal to the hetero-atom.
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  • Typical formulae are (R denoting 0, S or NH): Isomers are possible, for the condensation may be effected on the two carbon atoms symmetrically placed to the hetero-atom; these isomers, however, are more of the nature of internal anhydrides.
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  • the manner in which the atoms are linked together; and (3) the configuration of the molecule, i.e.
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  • the arrangement of the atoms in space.
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  • Similarly, an increase of volume is associated with doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms.
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  • If, however, an amount of energy a is taken up in separating atoms, the ratio is expressible as C p /C„= (5+a)/(3-Fa), which is obviously smaller than 5/3, and decreases with increasing values of a.
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  • Regnault confirmed Neumann's observations, and showed that the molecular heat depended on the number of atoms present, equiatomic compounds having the same molecular heat.
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  • the amount which is equivalent to one part of hydrogen; and (2) a factor which denotes the number of atoms of hydrogen which combines with or is equivalent to one atom of the particular element.
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  • This is shown in the case of the chloracetic acids: According to van 't Hoff the substitution of chlorine atoms into a methyl group occasions the following increments: The introduction of chlorine, however, may involve a fall in the boiling-point, as is recorded by Henry in the case of the chlorinated acetonitriles: NC CH 3.
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  • An ethylenic or double carbon union in the aliphatic hydrocarbons has, apparently, the same effect on the boiling-point as two hydrogen atoms, since the compounds C 0 H 2 „ +2 and CoH2n boil at about the same temperature.
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  • Now in both cases one gramme-molecule of oxygen is decomposed, and the two oxygen atoms thus formed are combined with two carbon valencies.
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  • Thus oxygen varies according as whether it is linked to hydrogen (hydroxylic oxygen), to two atoms of carbon (ether oxygen), or to one carbon atom (carbonyl oxygen); similarly, carbon varies according as whether it is singly, doubly, or trebly bound to carbon atoms.
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  • C. C. Baly regards colour as due to " isorropesis " or an oscillation between the residual affinities of adjacent atoms composing the molecule.
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  • This tautomerism may be of a twofold nature :-(I) it may involve the mere oscillation of linkages, as in acridine; or (2) it may involve the oscillation of atoms, as in fluorescein.
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  • molecular weight, is constant for isomers, and that two atoms of hydrogen were equal to one of carbon, three to one of oxygen, and seven to one of chlorine; but these ratios were by no means constant, and afforded practically no criteria as to the molecular weight of any substance.
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  • - On the theory that crystal form and structure are the result of the equilibrium between the atoms and molecules composing the crystals, it is probable, a priori, that the same substance may possess different equilibrium configurations of sufficient stability, under favourable conditions, to form different crystal structures.
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  • We may therefore regard the nitrogen atoms as occupying the centres of a cubic space lattice composed of iodine atoms, between which the hydrogen atoms are distributed on the tetrahedron face normals.
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  • Coplanar substitution in four hydrogen atoms would involve the pushing apart of the iodine atoms in four horizontal directions.
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  • If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.
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  • A pupil of Nessus, or, as some accounts prefer, of Democritus himself, he was a complete sceptic. He accepted the Democritean theory of atoms and void and the plurality of worlds, but held a theory of his own that the stars are formed from day to day by the moisture in the air under the heat of the sun.
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  • The acetyl compound on reduction yields two of its nitrogen atoms in the form of ammonia and the third in the form of methylamine.
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  • THIAZOLES, in organic chemistry, a series of heterocyclic compounds containing the grouping shown below; the replaceable hydrogen atoms in which are designated a, (3 and µ.
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  • The cyanhydrin is hydrolysable to an acid, the lactone of which may be reduced by sodium amalgam to a glucoheptose, a non-fermentable sugar containing seven carbon atoms. By repeating the process a non-fermentable gluco-octose and a fermentable glucononose may be prepared.
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  • Lowry and Armstrong represent these compounds by the following spatial formulae which postulate a y-oxidic structure, and 5 asymmetric carbon atoms, i.e.
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  • Since that date it has more than once been suggested that the molecular currents producing magnetism might be due to the revolution of one or more of the charged atoms or " ions " constituting the molecule.
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  • It has been supposed that certain electrons revolve like satellites in orbits around the atoms with which they are associated, a view which receives strong support from the phenomena of the Zeeman effect, and on this assumption a theory has been worked out by P. Langevin, 2 which accounts for many, of the observed facts of magnetism.
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  • As a consequence of the structure of the molecule, which is an aggregation of atoms, the planes of the orbits around the latter may be oriented in various positions, and the direction of revolution may be right-handed or left-handed with respect to the direction of any applied magnetic field.
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  • If the structure of the molecule is so perfectly symmetrical that, in the absence of any external field, the resultant magnetic moment of the circulating electrons is zero, then the application of a field, by accelerating the right-handed (negative) revolutions, and retarding those which are left-handed, will induce in the substance a resultant magnetization opposite in direction to the field itself; a body composed of such symmetrical molecules is therefore diamagnetic. If however the structure of the molecule is such that the electrons revolving around its atoms do not exactly cancel one another's effects, the molecule constitutes a little magnet, which under the influence of an external field will tend to set itself with its axis parallel to the field.
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  • It abolished the conception of life s an entity above and beyond the common properties of matter, and led to the conviction that the marvellous and exceptional qualities of that which we call " living " matter are nothing more nor less than an exceptionally complicated development of those chemical and physical properties which we recognize in a gradually ascending scale of evolution in the carbon compounds, containing nitrogen as well as oxygen, sulphur and hydrogen as constituent atoms of their enormous molecules.
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  • TRIAZINES, in organic chemistry, a series of cyclic compounds, containing a ring system composed of three carbon and three nitrogen atoms. Three series are possible, the positions of Marine Trias Of The Alpine And Indian Types.
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  • Piperic acid differs from piperonylic acid by the group C4H 4, and it was apparent that these carbon atoms must be attached to the carbon atom which appears in the carboxyl group of piperonylic acid, for if they were directly attached to the benzene ring polycarboxylic acids would result in oxidation.
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  • Crum was probably the first to recognize that some hydrogen atoms of the cellulose had been replaced by an oxide of nitrogen, and this view was supported more or less by other workers, especially Hadow, who appears to have distinctly recognized that at least three compounds were present, the most violently explosive of which constituted the main bulk of the product commonly obtained and known as guncotton.
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  • He introduced a system which, so far as we know, was his own, though founded upon the Epicurean philosophical creed; on the practical side it conformed pretty closely to the Stoic rule of life, thus adapting itself to the leanings of the better stamp of Romans in the later times of the republic. According to Asclepiades all diseases depended upon alterations in the size, number, arrangement or movement of the "atoms," of which, according to the doctrine of Epicurus, the body consisted.
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  • These atoms were united into passages (iropot) through which the juices of the body were conveyed.
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  • The organic derivatives of silicon resemble the corresponding carbon compounds except in so far that the silicon atom is not capable of combining with itself to form a complex chain in the same manner as the carbon atom, the limit at present being a chain of three silicon atoms. Many of the earlier-known silicon alkyl compounds were isolated by Friedel and Crafts and by Ladenburg, the method adopted consisting in the interaction of the zinc alkyl compounds with silicon halides or esters of silicic acids.
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  • He held the doctrine that the chemical elements are compounds of equal and similar atoms, and might therefore possibly be all derived from one generic atom.
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  • The first term includes simple sugars containing two to nine atoms of carbon, which are known severally as bioses, trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, &c.; whilst those of the second group have the formula C12H22011 and are characterized by yielding two monosaccharose molecules on hydrolysis.
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  • The facts suggested that the six carbon atoms formed a chain, and that a hydroxy group was attached to five of them, for it is very rare for two hydroxy groups to be attached to the same carbon atom.
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  • It is seen that aldoses and ketoses which differ stereochemically in only the two final carbon atoms must yield the same osazone; and since d-mannose, d-glucose, and d-fructose do form the same osazone (d-glucosazone) differences either structural or stereochemical must be placed in the two final carbon atoms.3 It may here be noticed that in the sugars there are asymmetric carbon atoms, and consequently optical isomers are to be expected.
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  • Thus glucose, containing four such atoms, can exist in 16 forms; and the realization of many of these isomers by E.
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  • The plane projection of molecular structures which differ stereochemically is discussed under Stereoisomerism; in this place it suffices to say that, since the terminal groups of the hexaldose molecule are different and four asymmetric carbon atoms are present, sixteen hexaldoses are possible; and for the hexahydric alcohols which they yield on reduction, and the tetrahydric dicarboxylic acids which they give on oxidation, only ten forms are possible.
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  • When such compounds are converted into corresponding dibasic acids, CO 2 H.[CH(OH)) 3.00 2 H, the number of asymmetric carbon atoms becomes reduced from three to two, as the central carbon atom is then no longer associated with four, but with only three different radicles.
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  • This formula, which necessitates the presence of two asymmetric carbon atoms in an alkyl tetrahydroberberine, has been accepted by M.
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  • AMINES, in chemistry, derivatives of ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.
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  • The replacement of one hydrogen atom by one alkyl or aryl group gives rise to primary amines; of two hydrogen atoms by two groups, to secondary amines; of three hydrogen atoms by three groups, to tertiary amines.
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  • His theory of light and theory of the cosmic atoms were equally astonishing.
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  • The isomerism which occurs as soon as the molecule contains a few carbon atoms renders any classification based on empirical molecular formulae somewhat ineffective; on the other hand, a scheme based on molecular structure would involve more detail than it is here possible to give.
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  • Thus primary alcohols and aldehydes, both of the aliphatic and aromatic series, readily yield on oxidation acids containing the same number of carbon atoms. These reactions may be shown thus: - � R�CH 2 OH -> R.
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  • He had a great master in Democritus, the originator of the doctrine of atoms, and there is every reason to believe that the various " asclepia " were very carefully conducted hospitals for the sick, possessing a curious system of case-books, in the form of votive tablets, left by the patients, on which were recorded the symptoms, treatment and result of each case.
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  • " Atom " has mainly a chemical import, being defined as the smallest particle of matter which can take part in a chemical reaction; a " molecule " is composed of atoms, generally two or more.
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  • The doctrine that matter can be divided into, or regarded as composed of, discrete particles (termed " atoms " by early writers, and " molecules " by modern ones) has at all times played an important part in metaphysics and natural science.
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  • The atomic theory is a theory of the constitution of bodies which asserts that they are made up of atoms. The opposite theory is that of the homogeneity and continuity of bodies, and asserts, at least in the case of bodies having no apparent organization, such, for instance, as water, that as we can divide a drop of water into two parts which are each of them drops of water, so we have reason to believe that these smaller drops can be divided again, and the theory goes on to assert that there is nothing in the nature of things to hinder this process of division from being repeated over and over again, times without end.
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  • This is the doctrine of the infinite divisibility of bodies, and it is in direct contradiction with the theory of atoms.
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  • " In modern times the study of nature has brought to light many properties of bodies which appear to depend on the magnitude and motions of their ultimate constituents, and the question of the existence of atoms has once more become conspicuous among scientific inquiries.
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  • " We shall begin by stating the opposing doctrines of atoms and of continuity.
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  • The atoms, they said, do not fill up the universe; there are void spaces between them.
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  • Descartes, consistently with this doctrine, denies the existence of atoms as parts of matter, which by their own nature are indivisible.
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  • To the atomist the true method of estimating the quantity of matter in a body is to count the atoms of it.
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  • The void spaces between the atoms count for nothing.
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  • According to Boscovich matter is made up of atoms. Each atom is an indivisible point, having position in space, capable of motion in a continuous path, and possessing a certain mass, whereby a certain amount of force is required to produce a given change of motion.
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  • Besides this the atom is endowed with potential force, that is to say, that any two atoms attract or repel each other with a force depending on their distance apart.
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  • Boscovich himself, in order to obviate the possibility of two atoms ever being in the same place, asserts that the ultimate force is a repulsion which increases without limit as the distance diminishes without limit, so that two atoms can never coincide.
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  • This opinion is deduced from our experience of the behaviour of bodies of sensible size, but we have no experimental evidence that two atoms may not sometimes coincide.
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  • This is a prejudice of the same kind with the last, arising from our experience of bodies consisting of immense multitudes of atoms.
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  • No other system of atoms can occupy the same region of space at the same time, because before it could do so the mutual action of the atoms would have caused a repulsion between the two systems insuperable by any force which we can command.
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  • In this way Boscovich explained the apparent extension of bodies consisting of atoms, each of which is devoid of extension.
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  • When two bodies are said in ordinary language to be in contact, all that is meant is that they are so near together that the repulsion between the nearest pairs of atoms belonging to the two bodies is very great.
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  • Atoms are endowed with the power of acting on one another by attraction or repulsion, the amount of the force depending on the distance between them.
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  • It has not the so-called property, of Impenetrability, for two atoms may exist in the same place.
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  • In like manner, after the French mathematicians had attempted, with more or less ingenuity, to construct a theory of elastic solids from the hypothesis that they consist of atoms in equilibrium under the action of their mutual forces, Stokes and others showed that all the results of this hypothesis, so far at least as they agreed with facts, might be deduced from the postulate that elastic bodies exist, and from the hypothesis that the smallest portions into which we can divide them are sensibly homogeneous.
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  • Thomson (Lord Kelvin) to form a theory of vortex atoms in a homogeneous, incompressible and frictionless liquid."
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  • When chemical phenomena occur the molecule may be divided into atoms, and these atoms, in the presence of electrical phenomena, may themselves be further divided into electrons or corpuscles.
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  • In the light of these results it is of extreme significance that the four gases for which n = o are all believed to be monatomic: the molecules of these gases consist of single atoms. Moreover, these four are the only monatomic gases for which the value of y is known, so that the only atoms of which the shape can be determined are found to be spherical.
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  • Now this is exactly the shape which we should expect to find in molecules composed of two spherical atoms distorting one another by their mutual forces, and all gases for which n=2 are diatomic.
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  • If a solid body is regarded as an aggregation of similar atoms each of mass m, its specific heat C is given, as in formula (19) by C = i (n+3) R/Jm.
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  • From Dulong and Petit's law that Cm is the same for all elements, it follows that n+3 must be the same for all atoms. Moreover, the value of Cm shows that n+3 must be equal to six.
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  • Now if the atoms are regarded as points or spherical bodies oscillating about positions of equilibrium, the value of n+3 is precisely six, for we can express the energy of the atom in the form (9 2 v a 2 v a2v E = z(mu 2 +mv 2 +mw 2 +x 2 ax2 + y2ay2-fz2az2), where V is the potential and x, y, z are the displacements of the atom referred to a certain set of orthogonal axes.
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  • The difficulty is further diminished when it is proved, as it can be proved, 2 that the modes of energy represented in the atomic spectrum acquire energy so slowly that the atom might undergo collisions with other atoms for centuries before being set into oscillations which would possess an appreciable amount of energy.
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  • empiricism in the metaphysical system of Leibnitz, whose theory of self-determined monads can be understood only when taken in the light of the assertion of the rights of the subject against the substance of Spinoza and the atoms of the materialist.
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  • These antinomies are four - two mathematical, two dynamical - connected with (I) the limitation of the universe in respect of space and time, (2) the theory that the whole consists of indivisible atoms (whereas, in fact, none such exist), (3) the problem of freedom in relation to universal causality, (4) the existence of a universal being - about each of which pure reason contradicts the empirical, as thesis and antithesis.
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  • If material systems are constituted of discrete atoms, separated from each other by many times the diameter of any of them, this simple plan of exhibiting their interactions in terms of direct forces between them would indeed be exact enough to apply to a wide range of questions, provided we could be certain that the laws of the forces depended only on the positions and not also on the motions of the atoms. The most important example of its successful application has been the theory of capillary action elaborated by P. S.
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  • Now this doctrine of material atoms is an almost necessary corollary to the doctrine of a universal aether.
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  • The other course is to consider matter as formed of ultimate atoms, each the nucleus or core of an intrinsic modification impressed on the surrounding region of the aether; this might conceivably be of the nature of vortical motion of a liquid round a ring-core, thus giving a vortex atom, or of an intrinsic strain of some sort radiating from a core, which would give an electric atom.
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  • We recognize an atom only through its physical activities, as manifested in its interactions with other atoms at a distance from it; this field of physical activity would be identical with the surrounding field of aethereal motion or strain that is inseparably associated with the nucleus, and is carried on along with it as it moves.
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  • To make room for these we have to remember that the atomic nucleus has remained entirely undefined and beyond our problem; so that what may occur, say when two molecules come into close relations, is outside physical science - not, however, altogether outside, for we know that when the vital nexus in any portion of matter is dissolved, the atoms will remain, in their number, and their atmospheres, and all inorganic relations, as they were before vitality supervened.
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  • Our direct knowledge of matter can, however, never be more than a rough knowledge of the general average behaviour of its molecules; for the smallest material speck that is sensible to our coarse perceptions contains myriads of atoms. The properties of the most minute portion of matter which we can examine are thus of the nature of averages.
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  • We may gradually invent means of tracing more and more closely the average drifts of translation or orientation, or of changes of arrangement, of the atoms; but there will always remain an unaveraged residue devoid of any recognized regularity, which we can only estimate by its total amount.
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  • The aether is taken to be at rest; and the strain-forms belonging to the atoms are the electric fields of the intrinsic charges, or electrones, involved in their constitution.
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  • When the atoms are in motion these strain-forms produce straining and unstraining in the aether as they pass across it, which in its motional or kinetic aspect constitutes the resulting magnetic field; as the strains are slight the coefficient of ultimate inertia here involved must be great.
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  • PYRAZINES, PIAZINES, or Paradiazines, In organic chem istry, a group of compounds containing a ring system composed of 4 carbon, atoms and 2 nitrogen atoms, the nitrogen atoms being in the para position.
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  • The 2.3 derivatives are somewhat unstable compounds, since on heating they readily give up two hydrogen atoms. Tetrahydropyrazines of the 1.2.
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  • His speculum metal is composed of four atoms of copper (126.4 parts) and one of tin (58.9 parts), a brilliant alloy, which resists tarnish better than any other compound tried.
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  • OLEFINE, in organic chemistry, the generic name given to open chain hydrocarbons having only singly and doubly linked pairs of carbon atoms. The word is derived from the French olefiant (from olefier, to make oil), which was the name given to ethylene, the first member of the series, by the Dutch chemists, J.
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  • The simple olefines containing one doublylinked pair of carbon atoms have the general formula (CnH2n; the di-olefines, containing two doubly-linked pairs, have the general formula C0H2n_2 and are consequently isomeric with the simple acetylenes.
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  • As unsaturated compounds they can combine with two monovalent atoms. Hydrogen is absorbed readily at ordinary temperature in the presence of platinum black, and paraffins are formed; the halogens (chlorine and bromine) combine directly with them, giving dihalogen substituted compounds; the halogen halides to form monohalogen derivatives (hydriodic acid reacts most readily, hydrochloric acid, least); and it is to be noted that the haloid acids attach themselves in such a manner that the halogen atom unites itself to the carbon atom which is in combination with the fewest hydrogen atoms (W.
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  • QUINONES, in organic chemistry, a group of compounds in which two hydrogen atoms of a benzene nucleus are replaced by two oxygen atoms. This replacement may take place either in the ortho or para positions, giving rise to orthoquinones or to paraquinones; metaquinones do not appear to have been isolated.
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  • It combines directly with two and four atoms of bromine.
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  • In 1815 he published anonymously in the Annals of Philosophy a paper "On the relation between the specific gravities of bodies in their gaseous state and the weights of their atoms," in which he calculated that the atomic weights of a number of the elements are multiples of that of hydrogen; and in a second paper published in the same periodical the following year he suggested that the rrpcbrn iiXrl of the ancients is realized in hydrogen, from which the other elements are formed by some process of condensation or grouping.
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  • Bunsen first announced their discovery, for according to their view every combination of an element showed the characteristic spectrum of its constituent atoms; it did not matter according to this view whether a salt,' e.g.
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  • In both cases an increased number of carbon atoms increases the absorption at the most refrangible end.
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  • He determined that definite absorption bands are only produced by substances in which three pairs of carbon atoms are doubly linked together, as in the benzene ring.
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  • While Leucippus's notion of Being agreed generally with that of the Eleatics, he postulated its plurality (atoms) and motion, and the reality of not-Being (the void) in which his atoms moved.
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  • He not only agrees with Laplace and Lyell about the evolution of the solar system, but also supposes that the affinities, pointed out by Lothar Meyer and Mendeleeff, between groups of chemical elements prove an evolution of these elements from a primitive matter (prothyl) consisting of homogeneous atoms. These, however, are not ultimate enough for him; he thinks that everything, ponderable and imponderable or ether, is evolved from a primitive substance, which condenses first into centres of condensation (pyknatoms), and then into masses, which when they exceed the mean consistency become ponderables, and when they fall below it become imponderables.
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  • He supposes that aesthesis and tropesis, as rudimentary sensation and will, are the very causes of condensation; that they belong to pyknatoms, to ponderables and imponderables, to chemical atoms and molecules.
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  • It appears to his imagination that the affinity of two atoms of hydrogen to one of oxygen, the attraction of the spermatozoon to the ovum, and the elective affinity of d pair of lovers are all alike due to sensation and will.
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  • In his Belfast address (1874), while admitting that matter as understood by Democritus is insufficient, because atoms without sensation cannot be imagined to produce sensation, he contended, nevertheless, that matter properly understood is " the promise and potency of all terrestrial life."
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  • His theory of bodies involved an idealistic analysis neither into bodily atoms nor into mathematical units, but into mentally endowed simple substances.
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  • For a time, under the influence of Fechner's Psychophysics, he thought that Nature has two sides, a physical and a psychological, and added that all atoms have feeling.
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  • If he has any originality, it consists in substituting for the association of ideas the " economy of thinking," by which he means that all theoretical conceptions of physics, such as atoms, molecules, energy, &c., are mere helps to facilitate our consideration of things.
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  • According to him, whatever inferences we make, certain or uncertain, are mere economies of thought, adapting ideas to sensations, and filling out the gaps of experience by ideas; whatever we infer, whether bodies, or molecules, or atoms, or space of more than three dimensions, are all without distinction equally provisional conceptions, things of thought; and " bodies or things are compendious mental symbols for groups of sensations - symbols which do not exist outside thought."
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  • atoms, which are never given to any consciousness, he returns the familiar Kantian answer that, though unperceived, they are perceptible.
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  • atoms. But he limits psychological and ontological " ideals " entirely to imaginary transcendence, The result is that he confines metaphysical transcendence to " a process into the imaginary " as regards the substantial and causal content of cosmological " ideals," and altogether as regards psychological and ontological " ideals."
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  • The study of the structure of atoms has suggested a connexion of mass with electrical phenomena which implies its dependence on motion; but this is not inconsistent with the observed fact of its practical constancy, to a high degree of accuracy, for bodies composed of atoms.
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  • But from a study of Dalton's own MS. laboratory notebooks, discovered in the rooms of the Manchester society, Roscoe and Harden (A New View of the Origin of Dalton's Atomic Theor y, 1896) conclude that so far from Dalton being led to the idea that chemical combination consists in the approximation of atoms of definite and characteristic weight by his search for an explanation of the law of combination in multiple proportions, the idea of atomic structure arose in his mind as a purely physical conception, forced upon him by study of the physical properties of the atmosphere and other gases.
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  • He proceeds to give what has been quoted as his first table of atomic weights, but on p. 248 of his laboratory notebooks for 1802-1804, under the date 6th of September 1803, there is an earlier one in which he sets forth the relative weights of the ultimate atoms of a number of substances, derived from analysis of water, ammonia, carbon-dioxide, &c. by chemists of the time.
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  • de Phys., 1811), in which he enunciated the hypothesis known by his name (Avogadro's rule) that under the same conditions of temperature and pressure equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of smallest particles or molecules, whether those particles consist of single atoms or are composed of two or more atoms of the same or different kinds.
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  • On such a hypothesis, the relatively unstable normal diazo hydroxides would be the syn-compounds, since here the nitrogen atoms would be more easily eliminated, whilst the stable iso-diazo derivatives would be the anti-compounds, thus: R N R N HO-N N OH Normal hydroxide Iso hydroxide (Syn-compound) (Anti-compound) In support of this theory, Hantzsch has succeeded in isolating a series of syn - and anti-diazo-cyanides and -sulphonates (Ber.,1895,28, p.666; 1900, 33, P. 2161; 1901, 34, p. 4166).
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  • The constitution of the diazo fatty esters is inferred from the fact that the two nitrogen atoms, when split off, are replaced by two monovalent elements or groups, thus leading to the formula N >CH CO 2 C 2 H 5, for diazoacetic ester.
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  • These phenomena were quite in accordance with the atomic conception of matter, since a compound containing the same number of atoms of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen as another in the same weight might differ in internal structure by different arrangements of those atoms. Even in the time of Berzelius the newly introduced conception proved to include two different groups of facts.
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  • the vapour densities of the isomers were the same, as in butylene and isobutylene, to take the most simple case; here the molecular conception admits that the isolated groups in which the atoms are united, i.e.
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  • the molecules, are identical, and so the molecule of both butylene and isobutylene is indicated by the same chemical symbol C4118, expressing that each molecule contains, in both cases, four atoms of carbon (C) and eight of hydrogen (H).
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  • In the case of metamerism we can imagine that the atoms are differently linked, say in the case of butylene that the atoms of carbon are joined together as a continuous chain, expressed by CC C C, normally as it is called, whereas in isobutylene the fourth atom of carbon is not attached to the third but to the second carbon atom, i.e.
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  • that atoms attached to carbon, to express it in the atomic style, cling more intensely to it than, for instance, when combined with oxygen.
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  • the conception as to the order in which the atoms composing a molecule are linked together.
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  • By Wilhelm Ostwald especially, attempts have been made to substitute the notion of atoms and molecular structure by less hypothetical conceptions; these ideas may some day receive thorough confirmation, and when this occurs science will receive a striking impetus.
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  • Considering the hydrocarbons given by the general formula C x H y, the internal linkages of the carbon atoms need at least xi bonds, using up 2(xI) valencies of the 4x to be accounted for, and thus leaving no more than 2(x-11) for binding hydrogen: a compound C 3 H 9 is therefore impossible, and indeed has never been met.
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  • Considering the predicted series of compounds C7,H2,,+2, which is the well-known homologous series of methane, the first member, the possible of isomerism lies in that of a different linking of the carbon atoms. This first presents itself when four are present, i.e.
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  • The third most valuable indication which molecular structure gives about these isomers is how to prepare them, for instance, that normal hexane, represented by CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH3, may be obtained by action of sodium on propyl iodide, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 I, the atoms of iodine being removed from two molecules of propyl iodide, with the resulting fusion.
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  • of the two systems of three carbon atoms into a chain of six carbon atoms. But it is not only the formation of different isomers which is included in their constitution, but also the different ways in which they will decompose or give other products.
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  • Now in oxidizing, or introducing more oxygen, for instance, by means of a mixture of sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate, and admitting that oxygen acts on both compounds in analogous ways, the two alcohols may give (as they lose two atoms of hydrogen) CH 3 CH 2 COH and CH 3 C0 CH 3.
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  • In this equation a relates to molecular attraction; and it is not improbable that in isomeric molecules, containing in sum the same amount of the same atoms, those mutual attractions are approximately the same, whereas the chief difference lies in the value of b, that is, the volume occupied by the molecule itself.
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  • For what reason this volume may differ from case to case lies close at hand; in connexion with the notion of negative and positive atoms, like chlorine and hydrogen, experience tends to show that the former, as well as the latter, have a mutual repulsive power, but the former acts on the latter in the opposite sense; the necessary consequence is that, when those negative and positive groups are distributed in the molecule, its volume will be smaller than if the negative elements are heaped together.
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  • Now taking the isomers H 3 C CC1 3 (M„ = 108) and C1H 2 C CHC1 2 (M„ = we see the negative chlorine atoms heaped up in the left hand formula, but distributed in the second; the former therefore may be presumed to occupy a larger space, the molecular volume, that is, the volume in cubic centimetres occupied by the molecular weight in grams, actually being 108 in the former, and 103 in the latter case (compare Chemistry: Physical).
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  • ESTERS, in organic chemistry, compounds formed by the condensation of an alcohol and an acid, with elimination of water; they may also be considered as derivatives of alcohols, in which the hydroxylic hydrogen has been replaced by an acid radical, or as acids in which the hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. In the case of the polybasic acids, all the hydrogen atoms can be replaced in this way, and the compounds formed are known as "neutral esters."
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  • Radium itself emits three types of rays: (1) the a rays, which are regarded as positively charged helium atoms; these rays are stopped by a single sheet of paper; (2) the s rays, which are identified with the cathode rays, i.e.
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  • Frankland, when in 1858 Kekule published a paper in which, after giving reasons for regarding carbon as a tetravalent element, he set forth the essential features of his famous doctrine of the linking of atoms. He explained that in substances containing several carbon atoms it must be assumed that some of the affinities of each carbon atom are bound by the affinities of the atoms of other elements contained in the substance, and some by an equal number of the affinities of the other carbon atoms. The simplest case is when two carbon atoms are combined so that one affinity of the one is tied to one affinity of the other; two, therefore, of the affinities of the two atoms are occupied in keeping the two atoms together, and only the remaining six are available for atoms of other elements.
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  • Some writers have supposed that the ultimate atoms are conductors, and that heat is transferred through them when they are in contact.
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  • Weber's hypothesis of electric atoms, capable of diffusing through metallic bodies and conductors of electricity, but capable of vibration only in non-conductors, it is possible that the ultimate mechanism of conduction may be reduced in all cases to that of diffusion in metallic bodies or internal radiation in dielectrics.
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  • The high conductivity of metals is then explained by the small mass and high velocity of diffusion of these electric atoms. Assuming the kinetic energy of an electric atom at any temperature to be equal to that of a gaseous molecule, its velocity, on Sir J.
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  • The fundamental postulates of Epicureanism are atoms and the void (iiroya Kai Kevov).
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  • Space is infinite, and there is an illimitable multitude of indestructible, indivisible and absolutely compact atoms in perpetual motion in this illimitable space.
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  • These atoms, differing only in size, figure and weight, are perpetually moving with equal velocities, but at a rate far surpassing our conceptions; as they move, they are for ever giving rise to new worlds; and these worlds are perpetually tending towards dissolution, and towards a fresh series of creations.
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  • Even in the movement of the atoms he introduces a sudden change of direction, which is supposed to render their aggregation easier, and to break the even law of destiny.
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  • The chlorine is not completely precipitated by silver nitrate in nitric acid solution, the ionization apparently not proceeding to all the chlorine atoms. Thallic iodide, T11 3, is interesting on account of its isomorphism with rubidium and caesium tri-iodides, a resemblance which suggests the formula T11 (12) for the salt, in which the metal is obviously monovalent.
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  • It acts as a powerful oxidizing agent, both in acid and alkaline solution; in the first case two molecules yield five atoms of available oxygen and in the second, three atoms: 2KMnO 4 +3H 2 SO 4 = K2S04+2MnS04+3H20+50; 2KMnO 4 +3H 2 O =2Mn02 H20+2KHO+30.
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  • Perceiving a molecular isonomy between them and the inorganic compounds of the metals from which they may be formed, he saw their true molecular type in the oxygen, sulphur or chlorine compounds of those metals, from which he held them to be derived by the substitution of an organic group for the oxygen, sulphur, &c. In this way they enabled him to overthrow the theory of conjugate compounds, and they further led him in 1852 to publish the conception that the atoms of each elementary substance have a definite saturation capacity, so that they can only combine with a certain limited number of the atoms of other elements.
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  • This Gives A Series Of Ratios 5/3, 7/5, 9/7, Ii/9, &C., For I, 2, 3, 4, &C., Atoms In The Molecule, Values Which Fall Within The Limits Of Experimental Error In Many Cases.
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  • For example, from the evidence of molar changes due to the obvious parts of bodies, science first comes to believe in molecular changes due to imperceptible particles, and then tries to conceive the ideas of particles, molecules, atoms, electrons.
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  • atoms by minute bodies not nearly small enough.
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  • In the inference from phenomena to their non-phenomenal causes, the atoms with their inaccessibility to sense, a different canon of validity obtains, that of non-contradiction.'
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  • He distinguishes too between the inference to combination of atoms as universal cause, and inference to special causes beyond the range of sense.
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  • 1900) adopted the mean value n=3.5, and also assumed the specific heat at constant volume s =3.5 R (which gives So=4.5 R) on the basis of an hypothesis, doubtfully attributed to Maxwell, that the number of degrees of freedom of a molecule with m atoms is 2m +I.
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  • In a third, " On some important points in the theory of heat " (1819), they stated that the specific heats of thirteen solid elements which they had investigated were nearly proportional to their atomic weights - a fact otherwise expressed in the " law of Dulong and Petit " that the atoms of simple substances have equal capacities for heat.
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  • This theory was founded on the following principles: - (I) the particles of the electric fluid repel each other with a force decreasing as the distance increases; (2) the particles of the electric fluid attract the atoms of all bodies and are attracted by them with a force obeying the same law; (3) the electric fluid exists in the pores of all bodies, and while it moves without any obstruction in conductors such as metals, water, &c., it moves with extreme difficulty in so-called non-conductors such as glass, resin, &c.; (4) electrical phenomena are produced either by the transference of the electric fluid of a body containing more to one containing less, or from its attraction and repulsion when no transference takes place.
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  • Berzelius early in the 19th century had advanced the hypothesis that chemical combination was due to electric attractions between the electric charges carried by chemical atoms. The notion, however, that electricity is atomic in structure was definitely put forward by Hermann von Helmholtz in a well-known Faraday lecture.
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  • Helmholtz says: " If we accept the hypothesis that elementary substances are composed of atoms, we cannot well avoid concluding that electricity also is divided into elementary portions which behave like atoms of electricity."
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  • 2 Towards the end of the third quarter of the 19th century it therefore became clear that electricity, whatever be its nature, was associated with atoms of matter in the form of exact multiples of an indivisible minimum electric charge which may be considered to be " Nature's unit of electricity."
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  • The final outcome of these investigations was the hypothesis that Thomson's corpuscles or particles composing the cathode discharge in a high vacuum tube must be looked upon as the ultimate constituent of what we call negative electricity; in other words, they are atoms of negative electricity, possessing, however, inertia, and these negative electrons are components at any rate of the chemical atom.
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  • Atoms of matter are composed of congeries of electrons and the inertia of matter is probably therefore only the inertia of the electromagnetic medium.'
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  • In every solid body there is a continual atomic dissociation, the result of which is that mixed up with the atoms of chemical matter composing them we have a greater or less percentage of free electrons.
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  • This can only be discovered by analysis, which will disclose the ultimate constituents (natural particles, not atoms) of bodies, and lead back the discussion to forms or simple natures, whereby alone can true light be thrown on these obscure questions.
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  • OXAZOLES, a group of organic compounds containing a ring complex (shown below) composed of three carbon atoms, and one oxygen and one nitrogen atom; they are isomeric with the isoxazoles.
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  • All three hydrogen atoms are replaceable by organic radicals and the resulting compounds combine with compounds of the type RC1, RBr and RI to form stibonium compounds.
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  • Compounds of antimony with all the halogen elements are known, one atom of the metal combining with three or five atoms of the halogen, except in the case of bromine, where only the tribromide is known.
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  • It is the idea of tension or tonicity as the essential attribute of body, in contradistinction to passive inert matter, which is distinctively Stoic. The Epicureans leave unexplained the primary constitution and first movements of their atoms or elemental solids; chance or declination may account for them.
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  • On the one hand, soul is corporeal, else it would have no real existence, would be incapable of extension in three dimensions (and therefore of equable diffusion all over the body), incapable of holding the body together, as the Stoics contended that it does, herein presenting a sharp contrast to the Epicurean tenet that it is the body which confines and shelters the light vagrant atoms of soul.
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  • The Atoms and Cosmology (adopted in part at least from the doctrines of Leucippus, though the relations between the two are hopelessly obscure).
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  • Being is the Full i pes, plenum); not-Being is the Void (nEvov, vacuum), the infinite space in which moved the infinite number of atoms into which the single:Being of the Eleatics was broken up. These atoms are eternal and invisible; absolutely small, so small that their size cannot be diminished (hence the name IITOµos, "indivisible"); absolutely full and incompressible, they are without pores and entirely fill the space they occupy; homogeneous, differing only in figure (as A from N), arrangement (as AN from NA), position (as N is Z on its side), magnitude (and consequently in weight, although some authorities dispute this).
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  • But while the atoms thus differ in quantity, their differences of quality are only apparent, due to the impressions caused on our senses by different configurations and combinations of atoms. A thing is only hot or cold, sweet or bitter, hard or soft by convention (v6,4; the only things that exist in reality (TEfj) are the atoms and the void.
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  • Thus, the atoms of water and iron are the same, but those of the former, being smooth and round, and therefore unable to hook on to one another, roll over and over like small globes, whereas the atoms of iron, being rough, jagged and uneven, cling together and form a solid body.
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  • the modern "indestructibility of matter" and "conservation of energy"), although the compounds of the atoms are liable to increase and decrease, appearance and disappearance - in other words, to birth and death.
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  • As the atoms are eternal and uncaused, so is motion; it has its origin in a preceding motion, and.
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  • An infinite number of atoms was carried downwards through infinite space.
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  • This caused various lateral and contrary movements, resulting in a whirling movement (Slvn) resembling the rotation of Anaxagoras, whereby similar atoms were brought together (as in the winnowing of grain) and united to form larger bodies and worlds.
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  • Atoms and void being infinite in number and extent, and motion having always existed, there must always have been an infinite number of worlds, all consisting of similar atoms, in various stages of growth and decay.
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  • - Democritus devoted considerable attention to the structure of the human body, the noblest portion of which he considered to be the soul, which everywhere pervades it, a psychic atom being intercalated between two corporeal atoms. Although, in accordance with his principles, Democritus was bound to regard the soul as material (composed of round, smooth, specially mobile atoms, identified with the fire-atoms floating in the air), he admitted a distinction between it and the body, and is even said to have looked upon it as something divine.
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  • These all-pervading soul atoms exercise different functions in different organs; the head is the seat of reason, the heart of anger, the liver of desire.
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  • Life is maintained by the inhalation of fresh atoms to replace those lost by exhalation, and when respiration, and consequently the supply of atoms, ceases, the result is death.
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  • Certain emanations (airobpoac, airoppocac) or images (e'bwXa), consisting of subtle atoms, thrown off from the surface of an object, penetrate the body through the pores.
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  • The organs are thus merely conduits or passages through which the atoms pour into the soul.
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  • At the same time Democritus distinguished between obscure (UKOTG1j) cognition, resting on sensation alone, and genuine (yvrjoL), which is the result of inquiry by reason, and is concerned with atoms and void, the only real existences.
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  • The system of Democritus was altogether antitheistic. But, although he rejected the notion of a deity taking part in the creation or government of the universe, he yielded to popular prejudice so far as to admit the existence of a class of beings, of the same form as men, grander, composed of very subtle atoms, less liable to dissolution, but still mortal, dwelling in the upper regions of air.
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  • It receives application in synthetic organic chemistry by virtue of its power to remove the halogen atoms from alkyl haloids, and so effect the combination of the two alkyl residues.
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  • He was at issue, however, with the atomistic materialism of Democritus in regard to its twin assumptions of absolute atoms and infinite space.
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  • In the same way, physics may be said to assume the notion of material atoms and forces.
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  • The name of the organization was changed from Congress to National Council as soon as the assembly ceased to be a fortuitous concourse of atoms, and consisted of duly appointed representatives from the local councils of every part of England.
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  • Oxford he did not find wholly congenial to his intensely earnest spirit, but he read hard, and, as he afterwards said, "Plato, Aristotle, Butler, Thucydides, Sterne, Jonathan Edwards, passed like the iron atoms of the blood into my mental constitution."
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  • Although nominally tribasic the commonest metallic salts are dibasic. Organic ethers, however, are known in which one, two and three of the hydrogen atoms are substituted (Michaelis and Becker, Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1003).
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  • Force, naturally expansive and operating on the homogeneous atoms which constitute elemental matter, is subject to the law of equilibrium, or equivalence of action and reaction.
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  • A source which seems plausible, perhaps only because it is less easy to test, is rearrangement of the structure of the elements' atoms. An atom is no longer figured as indivisible, it is made up of more or less complex, and more or less permanent, systems in internal circulation.
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  • It is worthy of notice that while many metals dissolve in cold dilute sulphuric acid, with the liberation of hydrogen, in accordance with the typical equation: M -{- H 2 50 4 = MSO 4 -1H2 (M denoting one atom of divalent or two atoms of a monovalent metal), there are several (copper, mercury, antimony, tin, lead and silver) which are insoluble in the cold dilute acid, but dissolve in the hot strong acid with evolution of sulphur dioxide, thus: M -}- 2H 2 250 4 = MSO 4 SO 2 + 2H 2 0.
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  • Thus 0 2.4 indicates the presence of two double bonds in the molecule situated immediately after the carbon atoms 2 and 4; for example II.
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  • Aschan (Ber., 1902, 35, p. 33 8 9) depicts these cases by representing the plane of the carbon atoms of the ring as a straight line and denoting the substituted hydrogen atoms by the letters X, Y, Z.
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  • Cyclo-pentane Group. Derivatives may be prepared in many cases by the breaking down of the benzene ring when it contains an accumulation of negative atoms (T.
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  • Pseudopelletierine (methyl granatonine), C9H15N0, an alkaloid of the pomegranate, is a derivative of cyclo-octane, and resembles tropine in that it contains a nitrogen bridge between two carbon atoms. It is an inactive base, and also has ketonic properties.
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  • The word the Jains use for soul is jiva, which means life; and there is much analogy between many of the expressions they use and the view that the ultimate cells and atoms are all, in a more or less modified sense, alive.
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  • For natural science depends, he thinks, on knowledge of the relations between their secondary qualities on the one hand, and the mathematical qualities of their atoms on the other, or else " on something yet more remote from our comprehension."
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  • Now, as perception of these atoms and their relations is beyond us, we must be satisfied with inductive presumptions, for which " experimental verification " affords, after all, only conclusions that wider experience may prove to be inadequate.
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  • Pb0+503) Two species of basic peroxides may be distinguished: (I) the superoxides or peroxidates, containing the oxygen atoms in a chain, e.g.
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  • Na 0 0 Na, Bab, which yield hydrogen peroxide with acids; and (2) the polyoxides, having the oxygen atoms doubly linked to the metallic atom, e.g.
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  • Ignoring processes of oxidation or reduction simply brought about by heat or some other form of energy, we may regard an oxidizing agent as a substance having a strong affinity for electro-positive atoms or groups, and a reducing agent as having a strong affinity for electro-negative atoms or groups; in the actual processes the oxidizing agent suffers reduction and the reducing agent oxidation.
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  • 1 The genial fellowship of the philosophic community that he collected in his garden remained a striking feature in the traditions of his school; and certainly the ideal which Stoics and Epicureans equally cherished of a brotherhood of sages was most easily realized on the Epicurean plan of withdrawing from political and dialectical conflict to simple living and serene leisure, in imitation of the gods apart from the fortuitous concourse of atoms that we call a world.
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  • ALCOHOLS, in organic chemistry, a class of compounds which may be considered as derived from hydrocarbons by the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl groups.
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  • In methane, CH 4, the hydrogen atoms are of equal value, and hence only one alcohol, viz.
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  • By replacing two of the hydrogen atoms, either by the same or different alkyls, compounds of the formula (R�R 1)CH�OH (i.e.
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  • The primary alcohols are first oxidized to aldehydes, which, on further oxidation, yield acids containing the same number of carbon atoms as in the original alcohol.
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  • The normal alcohols containing r to 16 carbon atoms are liquids at the ordinary temperatures; the higher members are crystalline, odourless and tasteless solids, closely resembling the fats in appearance.
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  • Nor is his theory of the weight essential to atoms as being due to an inner force impelling them to motion in any way reconcilable with his general doctrine of mechanical causes.
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  • The question is rather that of the infinity of forms that matter may assume, including that most attenuated form found in the nebulae, which seem to be composed of matter more refined than even the atoms supposed to make up the matter around us.
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  • The chlorides AsCl2CH3 and AsCl(CH3)2 as well as As(CH3)3 are capable of combining with two atoms of chlorine, the arsenic atom apparently changing from the tri- to the penta-valent condition, and the corresponding oxygen compounds can also be oxidized to compounds containing one oxygen atom or two hydroxyl groups more, forming acids or oxides.
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  • In 1791 France was pulverized into innumerable administrative atoms incapable of cohesion; and the result was that Paris became more than ever the brain and nerve-centre of France.
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  • Space they looked upon as pervaded by atoms possessing no quality or extension, and time was similarly divided into innumerable instants.
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  • Each change in the constitution of the atoms is a direct act of the Almighty.
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  • van't Hoff and others have established, corresponds to the presence of one or more asymmetric atoms of carbon - that is, atoms directly united to elements or radicles all different from one another - and in every case there exists an isomer that rotates the plane of polarization to the same degree in the opposite direction.
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  • Ann., 1875), who regarded electricity as consisting of atoms much smaller than those of matter, and supposed that heat was the kinetic energy of these electric atoms. If we suppose that an electric current in a metal is a flow of negative electric atoms in one direction, the positive electricity associated with the far heavier material atoms remaining practically stationary, and if the atomic heat of electricity is of the same order as that of an equivalent quantity of hydrogen or any other element, the heat carried per ampere-second at o C., namely P, would be of the order of 030 of a joule, which would be ample to account for all the observed effects on the convection theory.
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  • A few of the blubber oils, like dolphin jaw and porpoise jaw oils (used for lubricating typewriting machines), have exceedingly high saponification values ` owing to their containing volatile fatty acids with a small number of carbon atoms. Notable also are coco-nut and palm-nut oils, the saponification numbers of which vary from 240 to 260, and especially butter-fat, which has a saponification value of about 227.
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  • The Department operates two accelerators, causing charged atoms (ions) to reach 10% of the speed of light.
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  • Is it all part of a divine plan, or is our being here a purely accidental assemblage of atoms?
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  • The dissociated molecules can undergo thermal reactions with neighboring surface atoms or with other adsorbates.
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  • The following rules apply to branched chain alkanes: Choose the longest chain of carbon atoms for the parent name.
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  • In a tertiary amine there aren't any hydrogen atoms attached directly to the nitrogen.
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  • DIHED Utility: Calculates the dihedral angle between four atoms.
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  • If Al is present, angles between atoms separated by less than AL angstroms are computed.
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  • argon atoms that Ghandi breathed in his long life.
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  • arrangement of atoms within a protein is X-ray crystallography.
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  • We can detect these small motions by looking at the Doppler shift in spectral lines emitted by atoms in the solar surface.
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  • Finally, the dynamical aspects of Bose condensation are further investigated by studying the evolution of excited atoms.
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  • Selecting the Reduce menu option will then write a unique set of voids to the Shelx INS file as dummy atoms.
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  • The User should make a list of the names of all the polar atoms in the Probe Molecule.
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  • Type 2 Type 2 are diamonds that absorbed no, or very few, nitrogen atoms.
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  • atoms in the original molecules are found in the bigger one.
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  • atoms in residues closer than two residues from the central residue.
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  • A molecule of water (H20) consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.
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  • scientific atomism viewed the world as the precise and predictable concourse of atoms (or more basic particles) in space and time.
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  • The key assumption of Dalton's chemical atomism is that chemical elements are composed of ' ultimate particles ' or atoms.
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  • backbone atoms are tricky for a number of reasons.
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  • The geometry of the polypeptide hydrogen bonds involving the peptide backbone atoms were also analyzed and shown to be fairly independent of sidechain influences.
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  • The exact positions of the atoms within the surface repeat unit (the 'unit mesh ') govern the intensities of the diffracted beams.
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  • billionth of a meter, or approximately the length of 10 hydrogen atoms strung together.
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  • bitty atoms of N and O Steve.. .
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  • In the last lesson we saw that atoms can lose or gain electrons to form ionic bonds.
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  • boron atoms is substituted with iodine.
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  • carbon atoms which may be branched.
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  • carbonyl oxygen atoms point toward backbone amino N atoms of the adjacent strand.
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  • Note how, within the plane of the sheet, backbone carbonyl oxygen atoms point toward backbone amino N atoms of the adjacent strand.
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  • Such hydrogen bonding induces a more negative charge on the carboxyl oxygen atoms leading to an increase in the carboxyl oxygen atoms leading to an increase in the carboxylate pK a.
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  • Along its path, an individual projectile may create fast recoil atoms which in turn may initiate collision cascades of moving target atoms.
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  • catabolism of fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms or including double bonds.
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  • The residue option uses residue centroids calculated from the currently selected atoms for the calculation.
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  • chelate complex with chromium atoms.
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  • chlorine atoms are said to be joined by a covalent bond.
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  • cluster of galaxies they found a mass of hydrogen atoms a hundred million times the mass of the Sun.
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  • condensates of sodium atoms moving at different velocities relative to one another.
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  • Residues with alternate conformations (using shelx occupancies) were getting marked as zero occupancy atoms.
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  • Note that ASPASyA give us a lot of information: The violated constraints are the atoms of the security property formula which are false.
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  • Hydrogen atoms for which 3D coordinates are available are taken into account and assigned U iso values of 0.06 Ã… 2.
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  • An OH - nucleophile forms a dative covalent bond with one of the hydrogen atoms.
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  • The researchers can cool a beam of hydrogen atoms using a helium cryostat to just 10 degrees above absolute zero.
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  • dative bonducleophile forms a dative covalent bond with one of the hydrogen atoms.
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  • desorb individual H atoms, whilst leaving the vacancies intact.
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  • deuterium atoms in the glass flask.
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  • diamagnetic material the atoms have no net magnetic moment when there is no applied field.
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  • Pairs of neighboring atoms on the surface bind to each other to make silicon dimers.
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  • The four atoms which make up the distorted square are shown by filled circles, the substrate dimer atoms are shown by open circles.
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  • We now have an attraction between the atoms (instantaneous dipole - induced dipole interaction ).
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  • Each of the hydrogen atoms in each of the molecules of water in your brain is a tiny magnetic dipole.
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  • Radioactivity The phenomenon whereby atoms undergo spontaneous random disintegration, usually accompanied by the emission of radiation.
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  • displacements of the atoms as possible.
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  • For the removal of H atoms, the method of sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) in FT-ICR has been applied.
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  • Our recent work on GaInNAs has provided an understanding of these effects (related to the lattice distortion associated with N atoms ).
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  • Atomic level defects, such as atoms of differing mass, vacancies etc. can be introduced by adding dopants or by ion bombardment.
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  • dopant atoms into the silicon to make these layers; ion implantation.
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  • dummy atoms can be used; these will be removed at the start of the run.
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  • Edward viii chose of atoms the this view see.
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  • Gaseous hydrogen can also be made when it is separated from the oxygen atoms in water using electricity via a process called electrolysis.
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  • Carefully controlled electrolysis migrates metal atoms to the mandrel until the desired thickness is attained.
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  • Metal atoms of a metal electrode can also be oxidized to form positive metal ions which pass into the liquid electrolyte.
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  • A powerful electromagnet causes the nuclei of atoms (particularly hydrogen in water molecules) to align magnetically.
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  • The hydrogen atoms aren't involved in any way with the delocalised electrons.
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  • A picture of a high resolution electron microscope, which is able to see atoms, is shown in Fig.
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  • These atoms lie at each end of the principal axis of the original atoms anisotropic adp ellipsoid.
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  • emitted by atoms in the solar surface.
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  • Since our atoms cannot absorb photons emitted by ethereal atoms, the ethereal atoms, the ethereal world is invisible to us.
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  • The Reverend Green says evolutionists regard humans as simply an unfeeling concourse of atoms, so how can we have ethical or esthetic values.
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  • Several neutrons are also produced which may go on to strike the nuclei of other atoms causing further fission.
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  • Creating francium artificially has not been a problem; however, it has been a major challenge to trap francium atoms and study them.
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  • fullerene molecules, was able to insert one or more yttrium atoms.
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  • hetero atoms that are not solvent atoms.
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  • heterogenous atoms in the molecule.
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  • The object of the Game is to find hidden " Atoms " by shooting " Rays " into a Matrix.
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  • However, steric hindrance is not fully considered in this Version of the Programs for KIND 10 atoms.
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  • hydrogen atoms a hundred million times the mass of the Sun.
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  • hydrogen bond routine is slower but more accurate and requires the presence of the polar hydrogen atoms.
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  • hydrogen bonds to water molecules (ie isolated oxygen atoms) are found, and also hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
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  • impurity atoms you can further alter the resistance of the material.
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  • insulator transition and of state-dependent transport of atoms in a lattice provide other tools needed to execute quantum information processing.
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  • iodine atoms joined by a covalent bond.
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  • negative ions Negative ions are bigger than the atoms they come from.
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  • Atomic or molecular transitions are often induced by the screened Coulomb potentials of atoms or partially ionized ions.
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  • Isomerism in the alkenes Structural isomerism in the alkenes Structural isomerism All the alkenes with 4 or more carbon atoms in them show structural isomerism.
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  • In structural isomerism, the atoms are arranged in a completely different order.
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  • jigglean manipulate an atom and we can move an atom around but a few atoms jiggling about is not much good for society.
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  • krypton atoms followed by refinement yielded values which were significantly greater than the sum of their e.s.d. 's.
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  • lattice of Cu atoms by pushing their neighbors out a bit.
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  • Number of ligand atoms forming bad clashes: The total number of ligand atoms forming bad clashes: The total number of ligand atoms that clash with protein atoms.
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  • The relation between bulk properties and the properties of individual atoms and molecules, including macromolecules.
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  • manganate ion, MnO 4 - loses two oxygen atoms and is reduced to insoluble manganese dioxide MnO 2.
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  • A special segment examines the properties of atoms, explaining how atomic mass and atomic numbers are calculated.
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  • The icosahedral global minima with more than 55 atoms are shown in Fig.
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  • Atoms are found to be spherical but they are not miniscule billiard balls.
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  • Amount of substance mole mole mol The amount of substance that contains as many elementary units as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12.
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  • This " optical molasses " can slow millions of atoms to temperatures just millionths of a degree above absolute zero.
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  • mole of non-interacting sodium atoms is placed in a magnetic field B.
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  • Most of these free radicals are oxygen molecules or atoms.
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  • Anyone who expects a source of power from the transformation of these atoms is talking moonshine.
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  • neighboring atoms ' .
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  • Early in 1932 James Chadwick discovered the neutron, a particle in the nuclei of most atoms.
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  • neutrons released during fission are too hot to be absorbed by other uranium atoms, which is necessary for the reaction to continue.
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  • In other words, the energy emitted by the object 's constituent atoms was itself atomized.
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  • All atoms belonging to the same occupancy group have the same shift applied during occupancy refinement.
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  • occupancyial approach was to set the occupancies of the atoms to 0 and then refine in Refmac.
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  • For example, in the bulk palladium, less than 4% of the palladium atoms were on surface of the particle.
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  • Quasicrystals are surprising because the arrangement of their atoms is regular but not periodic.
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  • phonon density of states onto given sets of atoms.
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  • phosphorous acid, the two hydrogen atoms in the -OH groups are acidic, but the other one isn't.
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  • phosphorous atoms are commonly added to parts of the silicon to increase conductivity.
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  • phosphorus atoms via double bonds.
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  • photoelectron diffraction is a method used to determine the geometry of molecules or atoms on single crystal surfaces.
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  • photolysis of ozone, and subsequent reaction of electronically excited oxygen atoms with water vapor.
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  • These fatty acids with more than 20 carbon atoms are called long chain polyunsaturated, LCPs for short.
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  • So we have certain atoms that fall apart and produce positrons, which are promptly annihilated by the first electron they meet.
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  • positronium formation in positron collisions with atoms having zero threshold energy, Nucl.
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  • positronium atoms.
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  • p-type atomic orbitals of carbon atoms.
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  • radius radius rad Set the sphere radius for building a mask out of atoms.
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  • recoil atoms which in turn may initiate collision cascades of moving target atoms.
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  • repulsion between the various lone pairs on all the atoms surrounding the carbon.
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  • reversepan>reversing the polarity of the voltage, the atoms can be re-deposited anywhere on the silicon surface.
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  • rubidium atoms in a vacuum cell.
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  • selenium atoms in a protein the atomic resolution data is not needed.
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  • semiclassical methods for Atoms and Molecules (University of Nottingham, Great Britain ).
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  • side chain atoms for each chain separately.
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  • Amorphous silicon, a solid in which atoms are arranged in a non- periodic jumble, rivals crystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications.
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  • Solute atoms of similar size to those in the host lattice may substitute for host atoms - these are known as substitutional solute atoms of similar size to those in the host lattice may substitute for host atoms - these are known as substitutional solutes.
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  • spacing of the planes of atoms inside the crystal, according to his son Bragg's Law.
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  • splitting atoms and a riddle for sifting genes, the mutant appears.
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  • splitting of these atoms gives off large amounts of heat energy which heats a gas used to cool the fuel rods.
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  • steric hindrance is not fully considered in this Version of the Programs for KIND 10 atoms.
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  • subsets of atoms in the protein.
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  • Once you have included all the atoms you want in the subset, hit Save to define the subset.
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  • Protein substructures are displayed in blue, ligand substructures in black and water atoms in pink in the sketcher window.
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  • sulfur atoms.
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  • tertiary amine there aren't any hydrogen atoms attached directly to the nitrogen.
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  • tetragonal phase, with an accompanying movement of the atoms.
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  • Using isotopic tracers, it was initially found that N & C atoms of heme are derived from glycine and acetate.
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  • ultrashort pulse lasers are used to manipulate atoms and molecules and to generate non-classical radiation using non-linear optical processes.
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  • valence electrons are shared equally is between identical atoms.
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  • vapor in the atmosphere, containing two atoms of hydrogen, assures an adequate supply.
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  • The other vertices are then pairs of adjacent atoms running around the ring.
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  • water vapor in the atmosphere, containing two atoms of hydrogen, assures an adequate supply.
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  • The barium sulfate is highly insoluble and the very heavy barium atoms are very effective at scattering X-radiation.
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  • Their view was that "matter is not indefinitely divisible, but that all substances are formed of indivisible particles or atoms which are eternal and unchangeable, that the atoms are separated from one another by void, and that these atoms, by their combinations, form the matter we are conscious of."
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  • (r 810), are reproduced here, in which gases are represented as composed of atoms. Knowing that the gas which he called "nitrous gas" was composed of oxygen and nitrogen, and believing it to be the simplest compound of these two elements, he naturally represented its atom as formed of an atom of oxygen and an atom of nitrogen in juxtaposition.
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  • When two elements form more than one compound, as is the case with oxygen and carbon, he assigned to the compound which he thought the more complex an atom made up of two atoms of the one element and one atom of the other; the diagram for carbonic acid illustrates this, and an extension of the same plan enabled him to represent any compound, however complex its structure.
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  • The table here given contains some of Dalton's diagrams of atoms. They are not all considered to be correct at the present time; for example, we now think that the ultimate particle of water is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, and that that of ammonia contains three atoms of hydrogen to one of nitrogen.
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  • 00 O (DOG The diagrams show that Dalton formed a very definite conception of the nature of chemical combination; it was the union of a small number of atoms of one kind with a small number of another kind to form a compound atom, or as we now say a "molecule," this identical process being repeated millions of times to form a perceptible amount of a compound.
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  • Thus if Dalton's diagram for the molecule, propor- or compound atom, of water be correct, it follows that in all samples of water the total number of the hydrogen atoms is equal to that of the oxygen atoms; consequently, the ratio of the weight of oxygen to that of hydrogen in water is the same as the ratio of the weights of an oxygen and a hydrogen atom, and this is invariable.
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  • If we compare Dalton's diagrams of the two oxides of carbon or of the three oxides of nitrogen that are given in the preceding table, we at once see the necessity of this law; for the more complex molecule has to be formed from the simpler one by the addition of one or more whole atoms. In the oxides of carbon the same weight of carbon must be combined with weights of oxygen that are as 2, and in the oxides of nitrogen a fixed weight of nitrogen must be in union with weights of oxygen that are as 1: 2: 2, which are the same ratios as 2: 4: r.
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  • It is evident that these laws all follow from the idea that a compound molecule can only alter through the addition or subtraction of one or more complete atoms, together with the idea that all the molecules in a pure substance are alike.
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  • Dalton was of the opinion that it was possible to determine the weights of the elementary atoms in terms of any one by the analysis of compounds.
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  • But, unfortunately, the assumption as to the number of atoms in the molecules of these two compounds was an arbitrary one, based on no valid evidence.
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  • The superiority of this notation over that of Dalton is not so obvious when we consider such simple cases as the above, but chemists are now acquainted with very complex molecules containing numerous atoms; cane sugar, for example, has the formula C 12 H 22 0, 1.
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  • We now believe that the molecule of an element is frequently made up of two or more atoms; thus the formulae for the gases hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are 112, 02, N2, while gaseous phosphorus and sulphur are probably P4 and S 6, and gaseous mercury is Hg i, - that is, the molecule of this element is monatomic. This view, as to the frequently complex nature of the elementary molecule, is logically and historically connected with the striking hypothesis of Amadeo Avogadro and A.
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  • In 1879 C. Nageli formulated his well-known molecularphysical theory, which supported Liebig's chemical theory on the one hand and Pasteur's physiological hypothesis on the other: "Fermentation is the transference of the condition of motion of the molecules, atomic groups and atoms of the various compounds constituting the living plasma, to the fermenting material, in consequence of which equilibrium in the molecules of the latter is destroyed, the result being their disintegration."
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  • The real world thus arising consists only of diverse combinations of atoms, having the properties of magnitude, figure, weight and hardness, all other qualities being relative only to the sentient organism.
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  • All living and sentient things are formed out of insentient atoms (e.g.
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  • Maupertuis, who, together with Voltaire, introduced the new idea of the universe as based on Newton's discoveries, sought to account for the origin of organic things by the hypothesis of sentient atoms. Buffon the naturalist speculated, not only on the structure and genesis of organic beings, but also on the course of formation of the earth and solar system, which he conceived after the analogy of the development of organic beings out of seed.
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  • So far back as 1850 he also suggested a view which, in a modified form, is of fundamental importance in the modern theory of ionic dissociation, for, in a paper on the theory of the formation of ether, he urged that in an aggregate of molecules of any compound there is an exchange constantly going on between the elements which are contained in it; for instance, in hydrochloric acid each atom of hydrogen does not remain quietly in juxtaposition with the atom of chlorine with which it first united, but changes places with other atoms of hydrogen.
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  • Led thereto by speculations on gases, Dalton assumed that matter was composed of atoms, that in the elements the atoms were simple, and in compounds complex, being composed of elementary atoms. Dalton furthermore perceived that the same two elements or substances may combine in different proportions, and showed that these proportions had always a simple ratio to one another.
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  • An immediate inference was that the Daltonian " atom " must have parts which enter into combination with parts of other atoms; in other words, there must exist two orders of particles, viz.
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  • A great advance was made by Dalton, who, besides introducing simpler symbols, regarded the symbol as representing not only the element or compound but also one atom of that element or compound; in other words, his symbol denoted equivalent weights.4 This system, which permitted the correct representation of molecular composition, was adopted by Berzelius in 1814, who, having replaced the geometric signs of Dalton by the initial letter (or letters) of the Latin names of the elements, represented a compound by placing a plus sign between the symbols of its components, and the number of atoms of each component (except in the case of only one atom) by placing Arabic numerals before the symbols; for example, copper oxide was Cu +0, sulphur trioxide S+30.
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  • He inferred that chromic acid must contain only three atoms of oxygen, as did sulphuric acid SO 3; consequently chromic oxide, which contains half the amount of oxygen, must be Cr 2 O 3, and hence ferric oxide must be Fe203.
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  • His terminology was vague and provoked caustic criticism from Berzelius; he assumed that all molecules contained two atoms, and consequently the atomic weights deduced from vapour density determinations of sulphur, mercury, arsenic, and phosphorus were quite different from those established by gravimetric and other methods.
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  • Laurent generally agreed, except when the theory compelled the adoption of formulae containing fractions of atoms; in such cases he regarded the molecular weight as the weight occupying a volume equal to four unit weights of hydrogen.
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  • Frankland showed that any particular element preferentially combined with a definite number (which might vary between certain limits) of other atoms; for example, some atoms always combined with one atom of oxygen, some with two, while with others two atoms entered into combination with one of oxygen.
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  • If an element or radical combined with one atom of hydrogen, it was termed monovalent; if with two (or with one atom of oxygen, which is equivalent to two atoms of hydrogen) it was divalent, and so on.
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  • The development of the atomic theory and its concomitants - the laws of chemical combination and the notion of atoms and equivalents - at the hands of Dalton and Berzelius, the extension to the modern theory of the atom and molecule, and to atomic and molecular weights by Avogadro, Ampere, Dumas, Laurent, Gerhardt, Cannizzaro and others, have been noted.
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  • (The term radical is given to a group of atoms which persist in chemical changes, behaving as if the group were an element; the commonest is the ammonium group, NH 4, which forms salts similar to the salts of sodium and potassium.) If the acid contains no oxygen it is a hydracid, and its systematic name is formed from the prefix hydro- and the name of the other element or radical, the last syllable of which has been replaced by the termination -ic. For example, the acid formed by hydrogen and chlorine is termed hydrochloric acid (and sometimes hydrogen chloride).
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  • Thus, hydrochloric acid is represented by the formula HC1, that is to say, it is a compound of an atom of hydrogen with an atom of chlorine, or of i part by weight of hydrogen with 35'5 parts by weight of chlorine; again, sulphuric acid is represented by the formula H 2 SO 4, which is a statement that it consists of 2 atoms of hydrogen, 1 of sulphur, and 4 of oxygen, and consequently of certain relative weights of these elements.
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  • In all cases it is usual to represent substances by formulae which to the best of our knowledge express their molecular composition in the state of gas, and not merely the relative number of atoms which they contain; thus, acetic acid consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion of one atom of carbon, two of hydrogen, and one of oxygen, but its molecular weight corresponds to the formula C211402, which therefore is always employed to represent acetic acid.
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  • Formulae which merely express the relative number of atoms of the different elements present in a compound are termed empirical formulae, and the formulae of all compounds whose molecular weights are undetermined are necessarily empirical.
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  • In addition to empirical and molecular formulae, chemists are in the habit of employing various kinds of rational formulae, called structural, constitutional or graphic formulae, &c., which not only express the molecular composition of the compounds to which they apply, but also embody certain assumptions as to the manner in which the constituent atoms are arranged, and convey more or less information with regard to the nature of the compound itself, viz.
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  • It is found that the number of atoms of a given element, of chlorine, for example, which unite with an atom of each of the other elements is very variable.
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  • Those elements which are equivalent in combining or displacing power to a single atom of hydrogen are said to be univalent or monad elements; whilst those which are equivalent to two atoms of hydrogen are termed bivalent or dyad elements; and those equivalent to three, four, five or six atoms of hydrogen triad, tetrad, pentad or hexad elements.
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  • For example, in phosphorus pentachloride the five units of affinity possessed by the phosphorus atom are satisfied by the five monad atoms of chlorine, but in the trichloride two are disengaged, and, it may be supposed, satisfy each other.
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  • The oxide NO 2 must be regarded as another instance of a compound in which an odd number of affinities of one of the contained elements are disengaged, since it contains two atoms of dyad oxygen united with a single atom of triad or pentad nitrogen.
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