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atomic-weight

atomic-weight

atomic-weight Sentence Examples

  • The atomic weight of the element has been determined by analysis.

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  • It is now agreed that the molecule of water contains two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, so that the atomic weight of oxygen becomes 16, and similarly that the molecule of ammonia contains three atoms of hydrogen and one of nitrogen, and that consequently the atomic weight of nitrogen is 14.

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  • One remarkable discovery, however, of general interest, was the outcome of a long series of delicate weighings and minute experimental care in the determination of the relative density of nitrogen gas - undertaken in order to determine the atomic weight of nitrogen - namely, the discovery of argon, the first of a series of new substances, chemically inert, which occur, some only in excessively minute quantities, as constituents of the 1 The barony was created at George IV.'s coronation in 1821 for the wife of Joseph Holden Strutt, M.P. for Maldon (1790-1826) and Okehampton (1826-1830), who had done great service during the French War as colonel of the Essex militia.

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  • BORON (symbol B, atomic weight ii), one of the non-metallic elements, occurring in nature in the form of boracic (boric) acid, and in various borates such as borax, tincal,.

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  • The atomic weight of boron has been determined by estimating the water content of pure borax (J.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Cleve.

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  • CADMIUM (symbol Cd, atomic weight I12.4 (0=16)), a metallic element, showing a close relationship to zinc, with which it is very frequently associated.

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  • The atomic weight of cadmium was found by 0.

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  • The atomic weight of cadmium has been revised by G.

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  • Many varying values have been given for the atomic weight of molybdenum.

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  • As the atomic weight of the element increases, it is found that the solubility of the sulphates in water decreases.

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  • GERMANIUM (symbol Ge, atomic weight 72.5); one of the metallic elements included in the same natural family as carbon, silicon, tin and lead.

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  • SULPHUR [[[symbol]] S, atomic weight 32.07 (0 = 16)], a non-metallic chemical element, known from very remote times and regarded by the alchemists, on account of its inflammable nature, as the principle of combustion; it is also known as brimstone.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Berzelius, Erdmann and Marchand, Dumas and Stas.

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  • RUTHENIUM [[[symbol]] Ru, atomic weight To' 7 (O = 0)1, in chemistry, a metallic element, found associated with platinum, in platinum ore and in osmiridium.

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  • The atomic weight of ruthenium was determined by A.

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  • This generalization was of great value inasmuch as it permitted the deduction of the atomic weight of a non-gasifiable element from a study of the densities of its gasifiable compounds.

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  • Dulong to investigate relations (if any) existing between specific heats and the atomic weight.

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  • This states that " the atomic heat (the product of the atomic weight and specific heat) of all elements is a constant quantity."

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  • This law-purely empirical in origin-was strengthened by Berzelius, who redetermined many specific heats, and applied the law to determine the true atomic weight from the equivalent weight.

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  • - Denoting the atomic weight by W and the specific heat by s, Dulong and Petit's law states that 6.4 = Ws.

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  • In the determination of the atomic weight of an element two factors must be considered: (I) its equivalent weight, i.e.

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  • C. Winkler decided the atomic weight of germanium by similar reasoning.

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  • If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.

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  • NITROGEN [[[symbol]] N., atomic weight 14.

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  • Numerous determinations of the atomic weight of nitrogen have been made by different observers, the values obtained varying somewhat according to the methods used.

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  • Guye has given a critical discussion of the relative accuracy of the gravimetric and physico-chemical methods, and favours the latter, giving for the atomic weight a value less than 14.01.

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  • plumbum), and atomic weight 207.10 (o=16).

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  • Thus a relation between susceptibility and atomic weight is clearly indicated.

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  • According to the notation adopted by Meyer the atomic susceptibility k=KX atomic-weight/ (density X 1000).

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  • COLUMBIUM, or Niobium (symbol Cb or Nb, atomic weight 94), one of the metallic elements of the nitrogen group, first detected in 1801 by C. Hatchett in a specimen of columbite (niobite) from Massachusetts (Phil.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by C. Marignac (Ann.

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  • URANIUM [[[symbol]] U, atomic weight 238.5 (0=16)], a metallic chemical element.

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  • stannum, whence the chemical symbol "Sn"; atomic weight =117.6, 0= 16), a metallic chemical element.

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  • SILICON [[[symbol]] Si, atomic weight 28.3 (0=16)], a nonmetallic chemical element.

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  • The atomic weight of silicon has been determined usually by analysis of the halide compounds or by conversion of the halides into silica.

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  • ZINC, a metallic chemical element; its symbol is Zn, and atomic weight 65.37 (0= 16).

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  • TITANIUM [[[symbol]] Ti, atomic weight 48.

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  • Rose determined the atomic weight to be 47.72 (H =1).

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  • The atomic weight of indium has been determined by C. Winkler and by R.

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  • STRONTIUM [[[Symbol]] Sr, atomic weight 87.62 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element belonging to the alkaline earth group. It is found in small quantities very widely distributed in various rocks and soils, and in mineral waters; its chief sources are the minerals strontianite, celestine and barytocelestine.

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  • Recent determinations of the atomic weight of strontium are due to T.

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  • GOLD [[[symbol]] Au, atomic weight 1 95.7(11 = I),197 2(O =16)], a metallic chemical element, valued from the earliest ages on account of the permanency of its colour and lustre.

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  • The atomic weight of gold was first determined with accuracy by Berzelius, who deduced the value 195.7 (H= i) from the amount of mercury necessary to precipitate it from the chloride, and 195.2 from the ratio between gold and potassium chloride in potassium aurichloride, KAuC1 4.

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  • It seems also that the charge would increase with the atomic weight of the element.

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  • BISMUTH, a metallic chemical element; symbol Bi, atomic weight 208.5 (0 = 16).

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  • TELLURIUM [[[Symbol]] Te, atomic weight 127.5 (0=16)], a chemical element, found to a certain extent in nature in the uncombined condition, but chiefly in combination with other metals in the form of tellurides, such, for example, as sylvanite, black tellurium, and tetradymite.

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  • A considerable amount of work has been done on determinations of the atomic weight of tellurium, the earlier results giving the value 128.

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  • Recent investigations of the atomic weight are due to G.

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  • TANTALUM [[[symbol]] Ta, atomic weight 181 o (0=16)], a metallic chemical element, sparingly distributed in nature and then almost invariably associated with columbium.

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  • Marignac determined the atomic weight to be 181, but Henrichsen and N.

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  • CAESIUM (symbol Cs, atomic weight 132.9), one of the alkali metals.

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  • The atomic weight of caesium has been determined by the analysis of its chloride and bromide.

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  • OSMIUM [[[symbol]] Os., atomic weight 190.9 (0= 16)], in chemistry, a metallic element, found in platinum ore in small particles, consisting essentially of an alloy of osmium and iridium and known as osmiridium.

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  • The atomic weight of the metal has been determined by K.

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  • ZIRCONIUM [[[symbol]] Zr, atomic weight 90 6 (0= 16)], a metallic chemical element.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Marignac to be 90.03; Bailey (Proc. Roy.

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  • Atomic weight.

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  • CALCIUM [[[symbol]] Ca, atomic weight 40.0 (0= 16)], a metallic chemical element, so named by Sir Humphry Davy from its occurrence in chalk (Latin calx).

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  • FLUORINE (symbol F, atomic weight iv), a chemical element of the halogen group. It is never found in the uncombined condition, but in combination with calcium as fluor-spar CaF2 it is widely distributed; it is also found in cryolite Na3A1F6, in fluor-apatite, CaF 2.3Ca 3 P 2 O 8, and in minute traces in seawater, in some mineral springs, and as a constituent of the enamel of the teeth.

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  • The atomic weight of fluorine has been determined by the conversion of calcium, sodium and potassium fluorides into the corresponding sulphates.

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  • natrium; atomic weight 23.00 (O= r6)], a chemical element belonging to the group of alkali metals.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Stas to be 22.87 (H = i); T.

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  • CARBON (symbol C, atomic weight 12), one of the chemical non-metallic elements.

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  • Weber (Jahresberichte, 1874, p. 63): - The atomic weight of carbon has been determined by J.

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  • POTASSIUM [[[symbol]] K (from kalium), atomic weight 39.114 0=16)], a metallic chemical element, belonging to the group termed the metals of the alkalis.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Stas and more recently by T.

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  • The atomic weight of praseodymium is 140.5.

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  • IODINE (symbol I, atomic weight 126.92), a chemical element, belonging to the halogen group. Its name is derived from Gr.

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  • The atomic weight of iodine was determined by J.

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  • Stas, from the analysis of pure silver iodate, and by C. Marignac from the determinations of the ratios of silver to iodine, and of silver iodide to iodine; the mean value obtained for the atomic weight being 126.53.

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  • In 1902, in an "attempt at a chemical conception of the ether," he put forward the hypothesis that there are in existence two elements of smaller atomic weight than hydrogen, and that the lighter of these is a chemically inert, exceedingly mobile, all-penetrating and all-pervading gas, which constitutes the aether.

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  • The atomic weight of chromium has been determined by S.

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  • Roughly speaking the difference in frequency is proportional to the square of the atomic weight.

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  • The roots of the three series have frequencies which diminish as the atomic weight increases, but not according to any simple law.

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  • The velocities ranged from about 400 to 1900 metres, the metals of small atomic weight giving as a rule the higher velocities.

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  • As the atomic weight of the haloid increases the spectrum is displaced towards the red.

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  • MAGNESIUM [[[symbol]] Mg, atomic weight 24.32 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element.

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  • The atomic weight of magnesium has been determined by many observers.

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  • EUROPIUM, a metallic chemical element, symbol Eu, atomic weight 152 0 (0 =16).

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  • ALUMINIUM (symbol Al; atomic weight 27.0), a metallic chemical element.

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  • Deville accordingly returned to pure chemistry and invented a practicable method of preparing sodium which, having a lower atomic weight than potassium, reduced a larger proportion.

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  • Its atomic weight is 27 (26.77, H=I, according to J.

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  • HYDROGEN [[[symbol]] H, atomic weight 1 o08 (o=16)], one of the chemical elements.

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  • LANTHANUM [[[symbol]] La, atomic weight 139.0 (0=16)] one of the metals of the cerium group of rare earths.

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  • It is decomposed by water with the formation of acetylene, methane, ethylene, &c. Lanthanum carbonate, La 2 CO 3 8H 2 O, occurs as the rare mineral lanthanite, forming greyish-white, pink or yellowish rhombic prisms. The atomic weight of lanthanum has been determined by B.

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  • BERYLLIUM, or Glucinum (symbol Be, atomic weight 9.1), one of the metallic chemical elements, included in the same sub-group of the periodic classification as magnesium.

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  • Its atomic weight has been determined by L.

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  • THALLIUM [[[symbol]] Tl, atomic weight 204.0 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element.

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  • The atomic weight of thallium was determined very carefully by Crookes, who found T1=204.2 (0= 16); this figure was confirmed by Lepierre in 1893.

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  • H.*) 0 Xygen (symbol 0, atomic weight 16), a non-metallic chemical element.

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  • The atomic weight of oxygen is now generally taken as 16, and as such is used as the standard by which the atomic weights of the other elements are determined, owing to the fact that most elements combine with oxygen more readily than with hydrogen (see ELE Ment).

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  • The atomic weight of manganese has been frequently determined.

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  • CERIUM (symbol Ce, atomic weight 140.25), a metallic chemical element which occurs with the rare earths in the minerals cerite, samarskite, euxenite, monazite, parisite and many yttrium minerals.

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  • The atomic weight of cerium has been determined by B.

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  • SCANDIUM [[[symbol]] Sc, atomic weight 44.1 (0=16)1, one of the rare earth metals.

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  • GALLIUM (symbol Ga; atomic weight 69.9), one of the metallic chemical elements.

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  • The atomic weight of gallium has been determined by Lecoq de Boisbaudran by ignition of gallium ammonium alum, and also by L.

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  • 'THORIUM (symbol Th, atomic weight 232.42 [0 = 16]), a metallic chemical element.

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  • He concluded that the first contained the chloride of berzelium, having an atomic weight of 212, the second contained thorium chloride, and the third the chloride of carolinium, having an atomic weight of 255.6.

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  • The atomic weight has been variously given.

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  • NICKEL (symbol Ni, atomic weight 58.68 (0 =16)), a metallic element.

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  • Numerous determinations of the atomic weight of nickel have been published, the values obtained varying from 58 o to approximately 59.5 The more recent work of T.

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  • News, 18 99, 79, 163, 174, 185) gives for the atomic weight of the metal the values 58.69 and 58.70.

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  • RUBIDIUM [[[symbol]] Rb, atomic weight 85.45 (0= 16)], a metallic element belonging to the group of the alkali metals.

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  • The atomic weight of rubidium was determined by R.

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  • TUNGSTEN [[[symbol]] W, atomic weight 184 o (0=16)], a metallic chemical element found in the minerals wolfram, an iron and manganese tungstate, scheelite, a calcium tungstate, stolzite, a lead tungstate, and in some rarer minerals.

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  • The atomic weight has been determined by many investigators; the chief methods employed being the analysis and synthesis of the trioxide and the analysis of the hexachloride.

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  • Thus, as the atomic weight increases, the state of aggregation changes from that of a gas in the case of fluorine and chlorine, to that of a liquid (bromine) and finally to that of the solid (iodine); at the same time the melting and boiling points rise with increasing atomic weights.

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  • The halogen of lower atomic weight can displace one of higher atomic weight from its hydrogen compound, or from the salt derived from such hydrogen compound, while, on the other hand, the halogen of higher atomic weight can displace that of lower atomic weight, from the halogen oxy-acids and their salts; thus iodine will liberate chlorine from potassium chlorate and also from perchloric acid.

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  • All four of the halogens unite with hydrogen, but the affinity for hydrogen decreases as the atomic weight increases, hydrogen and fluorine uniting explosively at very low temperatures and in the dark, whilst hydrogen and iodine unite only at high temperatures, and even then the resulting compound is very readily decomposed by heat.

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  • CHLORINE (symbol Cl, atomic weight 35.46 (0=16), a gaseous chemical element of the halogen group, taking its name from the colour, greenish-yellow (Gr.

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  • The atomic weight of chlorine was determined by J.

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  • COPPER (symbol Cu, atomic weight 63.1, H =1, or 63.6, O =16), a metal which has been known to and used by the human race from the most remote periods.

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  • BARIUM (symbol Ba, atomic weight 137.37 [0=,6]), one of the metallic chemical elements included in the group of the alkaline earths.

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  • The atomic weight of the element has been determined by C. Marignac by the conversion of barium chloride into barium sulphate, and also by a determination of the amount of silver required to precipitate exactly a known weight of the chloride; the mean value obtained being 136.84; T.

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  • ANTIMONY (symbol Sb, atomic weight 120.2), one of the metallic chemical elements, included in the same natural family of the elements as nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, and bismuth.

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  • The atomic weight of antimony has been determined by the analysis of the chloride, bromide and iodide.

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  • SILVER (symbol Ag, from the Latin argentum, atomic weight 107.88 (0= 16)), a metallic chemical element, known from the earliest times and of great importance as a "noble" metal for articles of value - coinage, ornamentation and jewelry.

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  • SELENIUM [[[symbol]] Se, atomic weight 79.2 (0 =16)], a nonmetallic chemical element, discovered in 1817 by J.

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  • Numerous determinations of the atomic weight of selenium have been made.

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  • LITHIUM [[[symbol]] Li, atomic weight 7.00 (0=16)], an alkali metal, discovered in 1817 by J.

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  • The atomic weight of lithium was determined by J.

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  • BROMINE (symbol Br, atomic weight 79-96), a chemical element of the halogen group, which takes its name from its pungent unpleasant smell (0pW,uos, a stench).

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  • The atomic weight of bromine has been determined by J.

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  • The atomic weight of phosphorus was determined by Berzelius, Pelouze, Jacquelin, Dumas, Schrotter, Brodie and van der Plaats.

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  • The absence of lines of the spectrum of any element from the solar spectrum is no proof that the element is absent from the sun; apart from the possibility that the high temperature and other circumstances may show it transformed into some unknown mode, which is perhaps the explanation of the absence of nitrogen, chlorine and other non-metals; if the element is of high atomic weight we should expect it to be found only in the lowest strata of the sun's atmosphere, where its temperature was nearly equal to that of the central globe, and so any absorption line which it showed would be weak.

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  • IRON (symbol: Fe, atomic weight 55.85), a metallic chemical element.

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  • A recent atomic weight determination by Richards and Baxter (Zeit.

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  • ARSENIC (symbol As, atomic weight 75.0), a chemical element, known to the ancients in the form of its sulphides.

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  • The atomic weight of arsenic has been determined by many different chemists.

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  • INDIUM (symbol In, atomic weight 114.8), a metallic chemical element, included in the sub-group of the periodic classification of the elements containing aluminium, gallium and thallium.

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  • The atomic weight of indium has been determined by C. Winkler and by R.

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  • Another 21% of the air is oxygen, with the molecules having an atomic weight of 32.

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  • Another 21% of the air is oxygen, with the molecules having an atomic weight of 32.

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  • IRIDIUM (symbol Ir.; atomic weight 193.1), one of the metals of the platinum group, discovered in 1802 by Smithson Tennant during the examination of the residue left when platinum ores are dissolved in aqua regia; the element occurs in platinum ores in the form of alloys of platinum and iridium, and of osmium and iridium.

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  • The atomic weight of the element has been determined in various ways, C. Seubert (Ber., 1878, I I, p. 1770), by the analysis of potassium chloriridate obtaining the value 192.74, and A.

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  • He thus arrived at the conception of a definite atomic weight peculiar to the particles of each gas, and he thought that he could determine these atomic weights, in terms of one of them, by means of the quantitative analysis of compounds.

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  • To take the simplest possible case, if Dalton had been correct in assuming that the molecule of water was made up of one atom of oxygen and one of hydrogen, then the experimental fact that water contains eight parts by weight of oxygen to one part of hydrogen, would at once show that the atom of oxygen is eight times as heavy as the atom of hydrogen, or that, taking the atomic weight of hydrogen as the unit, the.

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  • Similarly, Dalton's diagram for ammonia, together with the fact that ammonia contains 4.67 parts of nitrogen to one of hydrogen, at once leads to the conclusion that the atomic weight of nitrogen is 4.67.

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  • It is now agreed that the molecule of water contains two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, so that the atomic weight of oxygen becomes 16, and similarly that the molecule of ammonia contains three atoms of hydrogen and one of nitrogen, and that consequently the atomic weight of nitrogen is 14.

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  • The symbol, like that of Dalton, always stands for the atomic weight of the element, that is, while H stands for one part by weight of hydrogen, 0 stands for 16 parts of oxygen, and so on.

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  • COBALT (symbol Co, atomic weight 59), one of the metallic chemical elements.

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  • The atomic weight of cobalt has been frequently determined, the earlier results not being very concordant (see R.

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  • The accepted atomic weight is accordingly double the density, i.e.

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  • One remarkable discovery, however, of general interest, was the outcome of a long series of delicate weighings and minute experimental care in the determination of the relative density of nitrogen gas - undertaken in order to determine the atomic weight of nitrogen - namely, the discovery of argon, the first of a series of new substances, chemically inert, which occur, some only in excessively minute quantities, as constituents of the 1 The barony was created at George IV.'s coronation in 1821 for the wife of Joseph Holden Strutt, M.P. for Maldon (1790-1826) and Okehampton (1826-1830), who had done great service during the French War as colonel of the Essex militia.

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  • BORON (symbol B, atomic weight ii), one of the non-metallic elements, occurring in nature in the form of boracic (boric) acid, and in various borates such as borax, tincal,.

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  • The atomic weight of boron has been determined by estimating the water content of pure borax (J.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Cleve.

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  • TERBIUM [[[symbol]] Tb, atomic weight 159.2 (0=16)], a metallic chemical element belonging to the rare earth group; it was originally called erbia by its discoverer Mosander (see Rare Earth).

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  • CADMIUM (symbol Cd, atomic weight I12.4 (0=16)), a metallic element, showing a close relationship to zinc, with which it is very frequently associated.

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  • The atomic weight of cadmium was found by 0.

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  • The atomic weight of cadmium has been revised by G.

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  • Many varying values have been given for the atomic weight of molybdenum.

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  • As the atomic weight of the element increases, it is found that the solubility of the sulphates in water decreases.

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  • GERMANIUM (symbol Ge, atomic weight 72.5); one of the metallic elements included in the same natural family as carbon, silicon, tin and lead.

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  • The atomic weight of the element was determined by C. Winkler by analysis of the pure chloride GeCl4, the value obtained being 72.32, whilst Lecoq de Boisbaudran (Comptes rend us, 1886, 103, 45 2), by a comparison of the lines in the spark spectrum of the element, deduced the value 72.3.

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  • SULPHUR [[[symbol]] S, atomic weight 32.07 (0 = 16)], a non-metallic chemical element, known from very remote times and regarded by the alchemists, on account of its inflammable nature, as the principle of combustion; it is also known as brimstone.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Berzelius, Erdmann and Marchand, Dumas and Stas.

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  • RUTHENIUM [[[symbol]] Ru, atomic weight To' 7 (O = 0)1, in chemistry, a metallic element, found associated with platinum, in platinum ore and in osmiridium.

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  • The atomic weight of ruthenium was determined by A.

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  • He called this proportion the " atom," since it invariably enters compounds without division, and the weight of this atom is the atomic weight.

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  • This generalization was of great value inasmuch as it permitted the deduction of the atomic weight of a non-gasifiable element from a study of the densities of its gasifiable compounds.

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  • Dulong to investigate relations (if any) existing between specific heats and the atomic weight.

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  • This states that " the atomic heat (the product of the atomic weight and specific heat) of all elements is a constant quantity."

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  • This law-purely empirical in origin-was strengthened by Berzelius, who redetermined many specific heats, and applied the law to determine the true atomic weight from the equivalent weight.

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  • - Denoting the atomic weight by W and the specific heat by s, Dulong and Petit's law states that 6.4 = Ws.

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  • In the determination of the atomic weight of an element two factors must be considered: (I) its equivalent weight, i.e.

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  • C. Winkler decided the atomic weight of germanium by similar reasoning.

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  • If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.

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  • NITROGEN [[[symbol]] N., atomic weight 14.

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  • Numerous determinations of the atomic weight of nitrogen have been made by different observers, the values obtained varying somewhat according to the methods used.

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  • Guye has given a critical discussion of the relative accuracy of the gravimetric and physico-chemical methods, and favours the latter, giving for the atomic weight a value less than 14.01.

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  • plumbum), and atomic weight 207.10 (o=16).

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  • Thus a relation between susceptibility and atomic weight is clearly indicated.

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  • According to the notation adopted by Meyer the atomic susceptibility k=KX atomic-weight/ (density X 1000).

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  • COLUMBIUM, or Niobium (symbol Cb or Nb, atomic weight 94), one of the metallic elements of the nitrogen group, first detected in 1801 by C. Hatchett in a specimen of columbite (niobite) from Massachusetts (Phil.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by C. Marignac (Ann.

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  • URANIUM [[[symbol]] U, atomic weight 238.5 (0=16)], a metallic chemical element.

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  • stannum, whence the chemical symbol "Sn"; atomic weight =117.6, 0= 16), a metallic chemical element.

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  • SILICON [[[symbol]] Si, atomic weight 28.3 (0=16)], a nonmetallic chemical element.

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  • The atomic weight of silicon has been determined usually by analysis of the halide compounds or by conversion of the halides into silica.

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  • ZINC, a metallic chemical element; its symbol is Zn, and atomic weight 65.37 (0= 16).

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  • TITANIUM [[[symbol]] Ti, atomic weight 48.

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  • Rose determined the atomic weight to be 47.72 (H =1).

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  • STRONTIUM [[[Symbol]] Sr, atomic weight 87.62 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element belonging to the alkaline earth group. It is found in small quantities very widely distributed in various rocks and soils, and in mineral waters; its chief sources are the minerals strontianite, celestine and barytocelestine.

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  • Recent determinations of the atomic weight of strontium are due to T.

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  • GOLD [[[symbol]] Au, atomic weight 1 95.7(11 = I),197 2(O =16)], a metallic chemical element, valued from the earliest ages on account of the permanency of its colour and lustre.

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  • The atomic weight of gold was first determined with accuracy by Berzelius, who deduced the value 195.7 (H= i) from the amount of mercury necessary to precipitate it from the chloride, and 195.2 from the ratio between gold and potassium chloride in potassium aurichloride, KAuC1 4.

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  • It seems also that the charge would increase with the atomic weight of the element.

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  • BISMUTH, a metallic chemical element; symbol Bi, atomic weight 208.5 (0 = 16).

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  • TELLURIUM [[[Symbol]] Te, atomic weight 127.5 (0=16)], a chemical element, found to a certain extent in nature in the uncombined condition, but chiefly in combination with other metals in the form of tellurides, such, for example, as sylvanite, black tellurium, and tetradymite.

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  • A considerable amount of work has been done on determinations of the atomic weight of tellurium, the earlier results giving the value 128.

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  • According to its position in the periodic classification of the elements one would expect its atomic weight to be less than that of iodine, instead of approximately equal, and on this account many efforts have been made to isolate another element from tellurium compounds, but none have as yet been successful.

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  • Recent investigations of the atomic weight are due to G.

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  • TANTALUM [[[symbol]] Ta, atomic weight 181 o (0=16)], a metallic chemical element, sparingly distributed in nature and then almost invariably associated with columbium.

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  • Marignac determined the atomic weight to be 181, but Henrichsen and N.

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  • CAESIUM (symbol Cs, atomic weight 132.9), one of the alkali metals.

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  • The atomic weight of caesium has been determined by the analysis of its chloride and bromide.

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  • SAMARIUM [[[symbol]] Sm, atomic weight 150.4 (0= 16)1, a rare earth metal (see Rare Earths).

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  • OSMIUM [[[symbol]] Os., atomic weight 190.9 (0= 16)], in chemistry, a metallic element, found in platinum ore in small particles, consisting essentially of an alloy of osmium and iridium and known as osmiridium.

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  • The atomic weight of the metal has been determined by K.

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  • ZIRCONIUM [[[symbol]] Zr, atomic weight 90 6 (0= 16)], a metallic chemical element.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Marignac to be 90.03; Bailey (Proc. Roy.

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  • Atomic weight.

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  • CALCIUM [[[symbol]] Ca, atomic weight 40.0 (0= 16)], a metallic chemical element, so named by Sir Humphry Davy from its occurrence in chalk (Latin calx).

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  • FLUORINE (symbol F, atomic weight iv), a chemical element of the halogen group. It is never found in the uncombined condition, but in combination with calcium as fluor-spar CaF2 it is widely distributed; it is also found in cryolite Na3A1F6, in fluor-apatite, CaF 2.3Ca 3 P 2 O 8, and in minute traces in seawater, in some mineral springs, and as a constituent of the enamel of the teeth.

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  • The atomic weight of fluorine has been determined by the conversion of calcium, sodium and potassium fluorides into the corresponding sulphates.

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  • natrium; atomic weight 23.00 (O= r6)], a chemical element belonging to the group of alkali metals.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Stas to be 22.87 (H = i); T.

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  • CARBON (symbol C, atomic weight 12), one of the chemical non-metallic elements.

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  • Weber (Jahresberichte, 1874, p. 63): - The atomic weight of carbon has been determined by J.

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  • POTASSIUM [[[symbol]] K (from kalium), atomic weight 39.114 0=16)], a metallic chemical element, belonging to the group termed the metals of the alkalis.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Stas and more recently by T.

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  • The atomic weight of neodymium is 143.6 (B.

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  • The atomic weight of praseodymium is 140.5.

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  • IODINE (symbol I, atomic weight 126.92), a chemical element, belonging to the halogen group. Its name is derived from Gr.

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  • The atomic weight of iodine was determined by J.

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  • Stas, from the analysis of pure silver iodate, and by C. Marignac from the determinations of the ratios of silver to iodine, and of silver iodide to iodine; the mean value obtained for the atomic weight being 126.53.

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  • In 1902, in an "attempt at a chemical conception of the ether," he put forward the hypothesis that there are in existence two elements of smaller atomic weight than hydrogen, and that the lighter of these is a chemically inert, exceedingly mobile, all-penetrating and all-pervading gas, which constitutes the aether.

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  • The atomic weight of chromium has been determined by S.

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  • Roughly speaking the difference in frequency is proportional to the square of the atomic weight.

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  • The roots of the three series have frequencies which diminish as the atomic weight increases, but not according to any simple law.

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  • The velocities ranged from about 400 to 1900 metres, the metals of small atomic weight giving as a rule the higher velocities.

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  • As the atomic weight of the haloid increases the spectrum is displaced towards the red.

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  • MAGNESIUM [[[symbol]] Mg, atomic weight 24.32 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element.

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  • The atomic weight of magnesium has been determined by many observers.

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  • EUROPIUM, a metallic chemical element, symbol Eu, atomic weight 152 0 (0 =16).

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  • ALUMINIUM (symbol Al; atomic weight 27.0), a metallic chemical element.

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  • Deville accordingly returned to pure chemistry and invented a practicable method of preparing sodium which, having a lower atomic weight than potassium, reduced a larger proportion.

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  • Its atomic weight is 27 (26.77, H=I, according to J.

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  • HYDROGEN [[[symbol]] H, atomic weight 1 o08 (o=16)], one of the chemical elements.

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  • LANTHANUM [[[symbol]] La, atomic weight 139.0 (0=16)] one of the metals of the cerium group of rare earths.

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  • It is decomposed by water with the formation of acetylene, methane, ethylene, &c. Lanthanum carbonate, La 2 CO 3 8H 2 O, occurs as the rare mineral lanthanite, forming greyish-white, pink or yellowish rhombic prisms. The atomic weight of lanthanum has been determined by B.

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  • BERYLLIUM, or Glucinum (symbol Be, atomic weight 9.1), one of the metallic chemical elements, included in the same sub-group of the periodic classification as magnesium.

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  • Considerable discussion has taken place at different times as to the position which beryllium should occupy in the periodic classification of the elements, and as to whether its atomic weight should be 9.1 or 13.65, but the weight of evidence undoubtedly favours its position in Group II., with an atomic weight 9.1 (0= 16) (see Nilson and Pettersson, Berichte, 1880, 1 3, p. 1451 1884, 1 7, p. 987; B.

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  • Its atomic weight has been determined by L.

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  • THALLIUM [[[symbol]] Tl, atomic weight 204.0 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element.

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  • The atomic weight of thallium was determined very carefully by Crookes, who found T1=204.2 (0= 16); this figure was confirmed by Lepierre in 1893.

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  • H.*) 0 Xygen (symbol 0, atomic weight 16), a non-metallic chemical element.

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  • The atomic weight of oxygen is now generally taken as 16, and as such is used as the standard by which the atomic weights of the other elements are determined, owing to the fact that most elements combine with oxygen more readily than with hydrogen (see ELE Ment).

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  • The atomic weight of manganese has been frequently determined.

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  • CERIUM (symbol Ce, atomic weight 140.25), a metallic chemical element which occurs with the rare earths in the minerals cerite, samarskite, euxenite, monazite, parisite and many yttrium minerals.

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  • The atomic weight of cerium has been determined by B.

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  • SCANDIUM [[[symbol]] Sc, atomic weight 44.1 (0=16)1, one of the rare earth metals.

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  • GALLIUM (symbol Ga; atomic weight 69.9), one of the metallic chemical elements.

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  • The atomic weight of gallium has been determined by Lecoq de Boisbaudran by ignition of gallium ammonium alum, and also by L.

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  • 'THORIUM (symbol Th, atomic weight 232.42 [0 = 16]), a metallic chemical element.

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  • He concluded that the first contained the chloride of berzelium, having an atomic weight of 212, the second contained thorium chloride, and the third the chloride of carolinium, having an atomic weight of 255.6.

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  • The atomic weight has been variously given.

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