Atomic-theory Sentence Examples
Otherwise Berthollet's position would have been a much stronger one, and the atomic theory might have had to wait a long while for acceptance.
Before he had propounded the atomic theory he had already attained a considerable scientific reputation.
Since the period, a century ago, when Dalton and his contemporaries constructed from this idea a scientific basis for chemistry, the progress of that subject has been wonderful beyond any conception that could previously have been entertained; and the atomic theory in some form appears to be an indispensable part of the framework of physical science.
Dalton communicated his atomic theory to Dr Thomson, who by consent included an outline of it in the third edition of his System of Chemistry (1807), and Dalton gave a further account of it in the first part of the first volume of his New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808).
In the following year he published at Vienna his famous work, Theoria philosophiae naturalis redacta ad unicam legem virium in natura existentium, containing his atomic theory (see MOLECULE).Advertisement
By the theory of minute constituents of things, and his emphasis on mechanical processes in the formation of order, he paved the way for the atomic theory.
In the time, however, of Boyle 1 and Newton, we again find an atomic theory of matter; Newton 2 regarded a gas as consisting of small separate particles which repelled one another, the tendency of a gas to expand being attributed to the supposed repulsion between the particles.
Dalton (1803) gave the atomic theory a quantitative form, and showed that, by means of it, a vast number of the facts of chemistry could be predicted or explained.
Harden, New View of the Atomic Theory (1896), have shown, from a study of Dalton's manuscript notes, that we do not owe his atomic theory to such experiments.
Stas, that we find the most brilliant and vigorous verification of these laws, and therefore of the atomic theory.Advertisement
The evolution of the notion of elements is treated under Element; the molecular hypothesis of matter under Molecule; and the genesis of, and deductions from, the atomic theory of Dalton receive detailed analysis in the article Atom.
In the development of the atomic theory and the deduction of the atomic weights of elements and the formulae of compounds, Dalton's arbitrary rules failed to find complete acceptance.
The discovery of this law is due to Dalton; it is a direct deduction from his atomic theory.
The question is, however, vital to the atomic theory.
The above gives some idea of the evidence that has been accumulated in favour of the laws of chemical combination, laws which can be deduced from the atomic theory.Advertisement
The atomic theory has been of priceless value to chemists, but it has more than once happened in the history of science that a hypothesis, after having been useful in the discovery Present and the co-ordination of knowledge, has been aban- position doned and replaced by one more in harmony with later of the discoveries.
Torbern Olof Bergman used an elaborate system in his Opuscula physica et chemica (1783); the 1 Dalton's atomic theory is treated in more detail in the article Atom.
For the detailed chemical significance of these terms, see Chemistry; and for the atomic theory of the chemist (as distinguished from the atomic or molecular theory of the physicist) see Atom; reference may also be made to the article Matter.
The atomic theory is a theory of the constitution of bodies which asserts that they are made up of atoms. The opposite theory is that of the homogeneity and continuity of bodies, and asserts, at least in the case of bodies having no apparent organization, such, for instance, as water, that as we can divide a drop of water into two parts which are each of them drops of water, so we have reason to believe that these smaller drops can be divided again, and the theory goes on to assert that there is nothing in the nature of things to hinder this process of division from being repeated over and over again, times without end.
See Henry, Life of Dalton, Cavendish Society (1854); Angus Smith, Memoir of John Dalton and History of the Atomic Theory (1856), which on pp. 253-263 gives a list of Dalton's publications; and Roscoe and Harden, A New View of the Origin of Dalton's Atomic Theory (1896); also Atom.Advertisement
The development of the atomic theory and its concomitants - the laws of chemical combination and the notion of atoms and equivalents - at the hands of Dalton and Berzelius, the extension to the modern theory of the atom and molecule, and to atomic and molecular weights by Avogadro, Ampere, Dumas, Laurent, Gerhardt, Cannizzaro and others, have been noted.
The formulation of the atomic theory by John Dalton gave a fresh impetus to the development of quantitative analysis; and the determination of combining or equivalent weights by Berzelius led to the perfecting of the methods of gravimetric analysis.
In fact, he did so much to make the atomic theory of matter probable that he is popularly regarded as its originator.
Apart from the atomic theory there is no obvious reason why this should be so.
In 1850 he published a tragedy, Galileo Galilei, and two volumes of his Lectures on the Atomic Theory and Essays Scientific and Literary appeared in 1858, with a preface by his kinsman Dr John Brown, the author of Horae Subsecivae.Advertisement
But the most important of all Dalton's investigations are those concerned with the Atomic Theory in chemistry, with which his name is inseparably associated.
If chemical compounds can be proved by experiment to obey these laws, then the atomic theory acquires a high degree of probability; if they are contradicted by experiment then the atomic theory must be abandoned, or very much modified.