How to use Atmospheric in a sentence
The largest pond is as sensitive to atmospheric changes as the globule of mercury in its tube.
At atmospheric pressure the discharge is able to pass through a far greater distance in helium than in the common gases.
Kopp, begun in 1842, on the molecular volumes, the volume occupied by one gramme molecular weight of a substance, of liquids measured at their boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, brought to light a series of additive relations which, in the case of carbon compounds, render it possible to predict, in some measure, the cornposition of the substance.
If experimental plants are grown in ster1lized soil, these swellings do not appear, and the plant can then use no atmospheric nitrogen.
According to this view the chromatic effects depend entirely upon atmospheric dispersion.Advertisement
The mean atmospheric pressure in Singapore during 1906 was 29.908 in.
The atmospheric opener will draw you right in.
The great turgidity which is thus caused exerts a considerable hydrostatic pressure on the stele of the root, the vessels of the wood of which are sometimes filled with water, but at other times contain air, and this often under a pressure less than the ordinary atmospheric pressure.
By the action of the acetic acid and atmospheric oxygen, the lead is converted superficially into a basic acetate, which is at once decomposed by the carbon dioxide, with formation of white lead and acetic acid, which latter then acts de novo.
In primitive forms the respiratory lamellae of the appendages of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th, or of the 1st and 2nd mesosomatic somites are sunk beneath the surface of the body, and become adapted to breathe atmospheric oxygen, forming the leaves of the so-called lung-books.Advertisement
According to him, the myths arose from definite local (especially atmospheric and aquatic) phenomena, and represented the annually recurring processes of nature as the acts of gods and heroes; thus, in Achill (1853), the Trojan War is the winter conflict of the elements in that district.
Some sands contain as much as 50% of air of nearly the same composition as atmospheric air.
The demand for saltpetre as an ingredient of gunpowder led to the formation of saltpetre plantations or nitriaries, which at one time were common in France, Germany, and other countries; the natural conditions were simulated by exposing heaps of decaying organic matter mixed with alkalies (lime, &c.) to atmospheric action.
Wall-saltpetre or lime saltpetre, calcium nitrate, Ca(N03)2, is found as an efflorescence on the walls of stables; it is now manufactured in large quantities by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, i.e.
The contents of the barn are therefore left till moist weather occurs, and then by the admission of atmospheric air the leaf blades absorb moisture and become soft and pliant.Advertisement
Great care is given to the cultivation, and damp atmospheric conditions are desirable during the ripening stages.
Zinc is largely used for "galvanizing" iron, sheets of clean iron being immersed in a bath of the molten metal and then removed, so that a coat of zinc remains on the iron, which is thereby protected from atmospheric corrosion.
The electric furnace has several advantages as compared with some of the ordinary types of furnace, arising from the fact that the heat is generated from within the mass of material operated upon, and (unlike the blastfurnace, which presents the same advantage) without a large volume of gaseous products of combustion and atmospheric nitrogen being passed through it.
Since many substances decompose either at, or below, their boiling-points under ordinary atmospheric pressure, it is necessary to lower the boiling-point by reducing the pressure if it be desired to distil them.
His works are marked by admirable appreciation of nature, and by a rare understanding of wave-form and colour and of the subtleties of atmospheric effect; and as a sea-painter he may fairly be regarded as almost without a rival.Advertisement
But during the warm season, from May to September, these conditions of atmospheric pressure are reversed, that in the Pacific rising to 767 mm.
A calamitous atmospheric feature is the periodical arrival of storms called typhoons (Japanese tai-fu or great wind).
The chief errors to which the stereometer is liable are (I) variation of temperature and atmospheric pressure during the experiment, and (2) the presence of moisture which disturbs Boyle's law.
Lord Rayleigh has made many investigations of the absolute densities of gases, one of which, namely on atmospheric and artificial nitrogen, undertaken in conjunction with Sir William Ramsay, culminated in the discovery of argon.
Hecker took the opportunity of a voyage from Hamburg to La Plata, and in 1904 and 1905 of voyages in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to determine the local attraction over the ocean by comparing the atmospheric pressure measured by means of a mercurial barometer and a boiling-point thermometer, and obtained results similar to Scott Hansen's.Advertisement
Atmospheric precipitation poured into the sea by the great rivers must necessarily create a permanent rise of the sea-level at their mouths, and from this cause the level round the coasts of rainy lands must be greater than in mid-ocean.
In the north tropical belt of high pressure south of the Azores the atmospheric pressure in January is o 87 in.
Fox, of the Central Laboratory of the International Council at Christiania, has investigated the relation of the atmospheric gases to sea-water by very exact experimental methods and arrived at the following expressions for the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen by sea-water of different degrees of concentration.
Gases, consisting principally of light carburetted hydrogen or marsh gas, are of ten present in considerable quantity in coal, in a dissolved or occluded state, and the evolution of these upon exposure to the air, especially when a sudden diminution of atmospheric pressure takes place, constitutes one of the most formidable dangers that the coal miner has to encounter.
The brine is cooled in a tank filled with spiral pipes, in which anhydrous ammonia, previously liquefied by compression, is vaporized in vacuo at the atmospheric temperature by the sensible heat of the returncurrent of brine, whose temperature has been slightly raised in its passage through the circulating tubes.Advertisement
Fire-damp when mixed with from four to twelve times its volume of atmospheric air is explosive; but when the proportion is above or below these limits it burns quietly with a pale blue flame.
The constancy of composition shown by repeated analyses of atmospheric air led to the view that it was a chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen; but there was no experimental confirmation of this idea, and all observations tended to the view that it is simply a mechanical mixture.
Thus, the gases are not present in simple multiples of their combining weights; atmospheric air results when oxygen and nitrogen are mixed in the prescribed ratio, the mixing being unattended by any manifestation of energy, such as is invariably associated with a chemical action; the gases may be mechanically separated by atmolysis, i.e.
Ozone occurs, in an amount supposed to be associated with the development of atmospheric electricity (lightning, &c.); this amount varies with the seasons, being a maximum in spring, and decreasing through summer and autumn to a minimum in winter.
Nitric acid and lower nitrogen oxides are present, being formed by electrical discharges, and by the oxidation of atmospheric ammonia by ozone.Advertisement
Boulton and Watt's screw press, invented in 1788 and used at the Royal Mint until 1881, was worked by atmospheric pressure applied to a piston.
If while the air within the receiver is at atmospheric pressure the bell is set ringing continuously, the sound is very audible.
In September 1839 a 3-foot speculum was finished and mounted on an altazimuth stand similar to Herschel's; but, though the definition of the images was good (except that the diffraction at the joints of the speculum caused minute rays in the case of a very bright star), and its peculiar skeleton form allowed the speculum to follow atmospheric changes of temperature very quickly, Lord Rosse decided to cast a solid 3-foot speculum.
A comparison of this distribution with that of atmospheric pressure is of great interest.
High temperature in the depth may be taken to mean descending water, just as high atmospheric pressure means descending air, and hence it would seem that the slow vertical movement of water in the Pacific reproduces to some extent the phenomena of the " doldrums " and " horse latitudes," with this difference, that the centres of maximum intensity lie off the east of the land instead of the west as in the case of the continents.Advertisement
In the verification of a precise standard of length there may be taken into account the influence of the variation of atmospheric pressure.
Among his happy conjectures may be mentioned that of the sun's axial rotation, postulated by him as the physical cause of the revolutions of the planets, and soon after confirmed by the discovery of sun-spots; the suggestion of a periodical variation in the obliquity of the ecliptic; and the explanation as a solar atmospheric effect of the radiance observed to surround the totally eclipsed sun.
Various processes involving the use of atmospheric nitrogen have been devised, but in most cases they do not yield good results.
It dissolves gold (q.v.) in the presence of water and atmospheric oxygen.
The charm of the Orkneys does not lie in their ordinary physical features, so much as in beautiful atmospheric effects, extraordinary examples of light and shade, and rich coloration of cliff and sea.Advertisement
Appended to the London edition of the solar and lunar tables are two short tracts - the one on determining longitude by lunar distances, together with a description of the repeating circle (invented by Mayer in 1752), the other on a formula for atmospheric refraction, which applies a remarkably accurate correction for temperature.
The manuscript residue includes papers on atmospheric refraction (dated 1755), on the motion of Mars as affected by the perturbations of Jupiter and the Earth (1756), and on terrestrial magnetism (1760 and 1762).
At that point, however, quartz and even atmospheric air become strongly absorbent and the expensive fluorspar becomes the only medium that can be used.
Gases, like atmospheric air, hydrogen or carbon dioxide do not become luminous if they are placed in tubes, even when heated up far beyond white heat as in the electric furnace.
Under different conditions we obtain (a) a continuous spectrum most intense in the yellow and green, (b) the spectrum dividing itself into two families of series, (c) a spectrum of lines which appears when a strong spark passes through oxygen at atmospheric pressure, (d) a spectrum of bands seen in the kathode glow.Advertisement
The Royal Society in 1894 bestowed the Rumford medal upon him for his work in the production of low temperatures, and in 1899 he became the first recipient of the Hodgkins gold medal of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, for his contributions to our knowledge of the nature and properties of atmospheric air.
The pressure at each point should be that of the vapour, but since the solubility of a solid does not change much with pressure, measurements under the constant atmospheric pressure give a curve practically identical with the theoretical one.
Under the influence of the heat the atmospheric oxygen unites with the hydrogen of the ammonia, and when the excess of the latter is removed with sulphuric acid, the gas properly desiccated should be pure nitrogen, derived in part from the ammonia, but principally from the air.
In one experiment, specially undertaken for the sake of measurement, the total air employed was 9250 c.c., and the oxygen consumed, manipulated with the aid of partially deaerated water, amounted to 10,820 c.c. The oxygen contained in the air would be 1942 c.c.; so that the quantities of atmospheric nitrogen and of total oxygen which enter into combination would be 7308 c.c. and 12,762 c.c. respectively.
The argon ultimately found was 75 o c.c., or a little more than I% of the atmospheric nitrogen used.
The optical phenomena produced by atmospheric water and ice may be divided into two classes, according to the relative position of the luminous ring and the source of light.
Within this zone the crust of the earth has been ridged up into a complex system of creases or folds, out of which the great mountain chains of southern Europe and Asia have been carved by atmospheric agencies.
In such an exploration of the sun's atmosphere it might be anticipated that definite currents, or some evidences of atmospheric circulation analogous to those familiar in terrestrial meteorology, would be discovered.
Hence sparks can be obtained of more than double the length at ordinary atmospheric pressure.
As a result convection currents are produced in the air which are sufficient to catch the basidiospores in their fall and carry them, away from the regions of comparative atmospheric stillness near the ground, to the upper air where more powerful air-currents can bring about their wide distribution.
If the pig iron is to follow path 2, the purification which converts it into wrought iron or steel consists chiefly in oxidizing and thereby removing its carbon, phosphorus and other impurities, while it is molten, either by means of the oxygen of atmospheric air blown through it as in the Bessemer process, or by the oxygen of iron ore stirred into it as in the puddling and Bell-Krupp processes, or by both together as in the open hearth process.
Interpenetrating this descending column of solid ore, limestone and coke, there is an upward rushing column of hot gases, the atmospheric nitrogen of the blast from the tuyeres, and the FIG.
If by pre-heating the blast we add to the sum of the heat available; or if by drying it we subtract from the work to be done by that heat the quantity needed for decomposing the atmospheric moisture; or if by removing part of its nitrogen we lessen the mass over which the heat developed has to be spread - if by any of these means we raise the temperature developed by the combustion of the coke, it is clear that we increase the proportion of the total heat which is available for this critical work in exactly the way in which we should increase the proportion of the water of a stream, initially too in.
This in turn is in part because of the greater care which can be used in making these small lots, but probably in chief part because the crucible process excludes the atmospheric nitrogen, which injures the metal, and because it gives a good opportunity for the suspended slag and iron oxide to rise to the surface.
Theodolites are designed to measure horizontal angles with greater accuracy than vertical, because it is on the former that the most important work of a survey depends; measures of vertical angles are liable to be much impaired by atmospheric refraction, more particularly on long lines, so that when heights have to be determined with much accuracy the theodolite must be discarded for a levelling instrument.
This temperature is somewhat different from the ordinary melting-point, the latter corresponding to atmospheric pressure, the former to the maximum vapour-pressure; and so we come to a third relation for polymorphism.
The esters of the higher fatty acids, when distilled under atmospheric pressure, are decomposed, and yield an olefine and a fatty acid.
Hot desert conditions are primarily found along the tropical belts of high atmospheric pressure in which the conditions of warmth and dryness are most fully realized, and on their equatorial sides, but the zonal arrangement is considerably modified in some regions by the monsoonal influence of elevated land.
The soil must get dry at stated intervals in order that the atmospheric air may come in contact with it and penetrate it.
It is rather a disputed point whether this dark segment - through which starlight has been seen to passrepresen is a real atmospheric condition or is merely a contrast effect.
The height has also been calculated on the hypothesis that auroral light has its source where the atmospheric pressure is similar to that at which most brilliancy is observed when electric discharges pass in vacuum tubes.
This line is so characteristic that its presence or absence is the usual criterion for deciding whether an atmospheric light is aurora.
If, as is now generally believed, aurora represents some form of electrical discharge, it is only reasonable to suppose that the auroral lines arise from atmospheric gases.
Usually the electric potential near the ground is positive compared to the earth and increases with the height (see Atmospheric Electricity).
As in the rest of the Mediterranean, tides are scarcely observable; but at several points on the west and south coasts a curious oscillation in the level of the waters, known to the natives as the marrobbio (or marobia), is sometimes noticed, and is said to be always preceded by certain atmospheric signs.
The atmospheric pressure varies between a maximum in January and a minimum in July, the mean difference being about 029 in.
On the other hand, certain undoubted animals (Stentor, Hydra, Bonellia) are provided with a green colouring matter by means of which they make use of atmospheric carbonic acid.
In suitable atmospheric conditions its beauty is unique.
Prior to Young, halos and coronae had not been clearly differentiated; they were both regarded as caused by the refraction of light by atmospheric moisture and ice, although observation had shown that important distinctions existed between these phenomena.
The object of the latter is to convert the manganous hydroxide by the atmospheric oxygen into manganese dioxide, but this would take place much too slowly if there was not an excess of lime present ready to combine with the manganese dioxide to form a calcium manganite.
The Deacon process, like the Weldon process, effects its object by the oxidizing action of atmospheric air, but in a very different manner.
The sulphides can be removed by " oxidizing " them into thiosulphates by means of atmospheric air, with or without the assistance of other agents, such as manganese peroxide; or by " carbonating " them with lime-kiln or other gases containing carbon dioxide; or by precipitating them with lead or zinc oxide.
The same apparatus is used for " oxidizing " by means of atmospheric air passed through by means of an injector; sometimes both air and carbon dioxide are passed in at the same time.
The space below the sieve thus formed is connected by means of an outlet tap with a closed tank, and this again communicates with a vacuum pump. By this means the filtration is quickened by the atmospheric pressure, and goes on very rapidly, as also does the subsequent washing.
He also studied the alkaloids and organic acids, introduced a classification of the metals according to the facility with which they or their sulphides are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, and effected a comparison of the chemical composition of atmospheric air from all parts of the world.
The results of the Australian and German expeditions, which were for a great part of the time synchronous with those of Scott and Amundsen, required to be taken into consideration before a general theory of the atmospheric circulation within the Antarctic circle could be established.
The heated products of combustion from the burner B impinge on a metal box H, through which water is circulating, and then pass downwards and outwards through a spiral cooler which reduces them practically to the atmospheric temperature.
The body to be tested is placed in a special scale-pan, suspended by a fine wire from the arm of a balance inside an enclosure which can be filled with steam at atmospheric pressure.
The approximate equation of Rankine (23) begins to be I or 2% in error at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, owing to the coaggregation of the molecules of the vapour and the variation of the specific heat of the liquid.
The quantity of work whic produces a British unit of heat (or so much heat as elevates the temperature of one pound of pure water, at or near ordinary atmospheric temperatures, by 1 F.) is 772 foot-pounds.
Native copper is found in most copper-mines, usually in the upper workings, where the deposit has been exposed to atmospheric influences.
It may be prepared artificially by heating copper wire to a white heat, and afterwards at a red heat, by the atmospheric oxidation of copper reduced in hydrogen, or by the slow oxidation of the metal under water.
Atmospheric refraction causes the sun to be visible for periods varying from south to north for a quarter to half an hour after it has actually sunk below the horizon.
If d is the distance between the plates at the edge of the film and II the atmospheric pressure, the pressure 2T of the liquid in the film is II - d cos a, and if A is the area of the film between the plates and B its circumference, the plates will be pressed together with a force 2AT cos a +BT sin a, and this, whether the atmosphere exerts any pressure or not.
Even If The Tension At The Circumference Of The Tube Acted Vertically, And The Whole Of The Liquid Below This Level Passed Into The Drop, The Calculation Would Still Be Vitiated By The Assumption That The Internal Pressure At The Level In Question Is Atmospheric. It Would Be Necessary To Consider The Curvatures Of The Fluid Surface At The Edge Of Attachment.
If the bubble is in the form of a sphere of radius r this material surface will have an area S = 41rr 2 (I) If T be the energy corresponding to unit of area of the film the surface-energy of the whole bubble will be ST = 41rr 2 T (2) The increment of this energy corresponding to an increase of the radius from r to r-+dr is therefore TdS = 81rrTdr (3) Now this increase of energy was obtained by forcing in air at a pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure, and thus increasing the volume of the bubble.
Let II be the atmospheric pressure and II+p the pressure of the air within the bubble.
The only possible source for this increase was the atmospheric nitrogen.
They showed that, when grown on sterilized sand with the addition of mineral salts, the Leguminosae were no more able to use the atmospheric nitrogen than other plants such as oats and barley.
Beyerinck and Jegunow have shown that some partially anaerobic sulphur bacteria can only exist in strata at a certain depth below the level of quiet waters where SH 2 is being set free below by the bacterial decompositions of vegetable mud and rises to meet the atmospheric oxygen coming down from above, and that this zone of physiological activity rises and falls with the variations of partial pressure of the gases due to the rate of evolution of the SH 2.
The idea that this film of bacteria oxidizes the alcohol beneath by merely condensing atmospheric oxygen in its interstices, after the manner of spongy platinum, has long been given up; but the explanation of the action as an incomplete combustion, depending on the peculiar respiration of these organisms - much as in the case of nitrifying and sulphur bacteria - is not clear, though the discovery that the acetic bacteria will not only oxidize alcohol to acetic acid, but further oxidize the latter to CO 2 and 01-1 2 supports the view that the alcohol is absorbed by the organism and employed as its respirable substance.
He taught, previous to the Polish physicist Witclo, that vision does not result from the emission of rays from the eye, and wrote also on the refraction of light, especially on atmospheric refraction, showing, e.g.
Contemporary igneous outbursts are extremely common in some of the ancient formations, and add, by their resistance to atmospheric erosion, to the extreme ruggedness of the scenery.
They are all similar in the great features of their land-forms, which have been impressed upon them by the prolonged action of atmospheric denudation rather than by the original order and arrangement of the rocks; but each group has its own geological character, which has imparted something of a distinctive individuality to the scenery.
The cinchotannic acid apparently becomes altered by atmospheric oxidation into a red-colouring matter, known as cinchono-fulvic or cinchona red, which is very abundant in some species, as in C. succirubra.
Having through centuries undergone cruel injury, from technical imperfections at the outset, from disastrous atmospheric conditions, from vandalism and neglect, and most of all from unskilled repair, its remains have at last (1904-1908) been treated with a mastery of scientific resource and a tenderness of conscientious skill that have revived for ourselves and for posterity a great part of its power.
The total result, if adequate steps can be taken to counteract the effects of atmospheric change in future, will remain a splendid gain for posterity and a happy refutation of D'Annunzio's despairing poem, the Death of a Masterpiece.
Similar atmospheric condition sometimes prevail in the air over large bodies of water on cold autumn mornings.
The name is now ordinarily restricted to what is more accurately called atmospheric air - the air we breathe - the invisible elastic fluid which surrounds the earth (see ATMOSPHERE).
The rocks are deeply furrowed and cut into ridges, evidence of the long period over which they have been subjected to atmospheric influences.
Phosphoric oxide, or phosphorus pentoxide, P4010, formed when phosphorus is burned in an excess of air or oxygen, or from dry phosphorus and oxygen at atmospheric pressure (Jungfleisch, loc. cit.), was examined by Boyle and named " flowers of phosphorus " by Marggraf in 1740.
It is found that atmospheric absorption is generally greater in summer than in winter, a difference of 20% being found between March and August; morning hours show a rapid and often irregular increase of transparency, culminating shortly after noon, after which the diminution is slow and comparatively regular.
The ultra-violet and the visual portion are recorded photographically; Rowland's classical work shows some 5700 lines in the former, and 14,200 in the latter, on a graduated scale of intensities from moo to o, or 0000, for the faintest lines; between a quarter and a third of these lines have been identified, fully 2000 belonging to iron, and several hundred to water vapour and other atmospheric absorption.
Paschen in 1896 identified an unmistakable oxygen triplet in the infra-red, which is shown terrestrially only in the vacuum tube, where the spectrum is very different from that of atmospheric absorptions.
Here the reactions sketched above take place, so that "chamber-acid" as already described is formed, while a mixture of gases escapes containing all the atmospheric nitrogen, some oxygen in excess, about 0.5% of the total S02, and some oxides of nitrogen.
Fuming or Nordhausen Oil of Vitriol, a mixture or chemical com pound of H 2 SO 4, with more or less S03, has been made for centuries by exposing pyritic schist to the influence of atmospheric agents, collecting the solution of ferrous and ferric sulphate thus formed, boiling it down into a hard mass ("vitriolstein") and heating this to a low red heat in small earthenware retorts.
On the other hand, when food is not obtainable, life may be indefinitely prolonged if the tick be guarded from enemies and from atmospheric conditions inimical to existence.
The temperature and atmospheric pressure are simultaneously noted.
Exposed to atmospheric influences it is more or less rapidly corroded, giving the familiar rust.
It is manufactured by piling pyrites in heaps and exposing to atmospheric oxidation, the ferrous sulphate thus formed being dissolved in water, and the solution run into tanks, where any sulphuric acid which may be formed is decomposed by adding scrap iron.
His papers, which are numerous, are devoted in great part to atmospheric electricity, waterspouts, cyanometry and polarization of skylight, the temperature of water in the spheroidal state, and the boilingpoint at great elevations.
His theorem that a fluid issues from a small orifice with the same velocity (friction and atmospheric resistance being neglected) which it would have acquired in falling through the depth from its surface is of fundamental importance in hydraulics.
On the other hand, the most ordinary savage does not misunderstand so universal a custom as the imposition of names peculiar to animals or derived from atmospheric phenomena.
Thus Indra is mainly concerned with thunder and other atmospheric phenomena; but Vayu is the wind, the Maruts are wind-gods, Agni is fire or the god of fire, and so connected with lightning.
In this instrument the results of varying atmospheric pressure were not distinguishable from the expansive and contractive effects of heat and cold, and it became an efficient measure of temperature only when Rinieri, in 1646, introduced the improvement of hermetically sealing the liquid in glass.
Galileo's views, although erroneous, since he held comets to be mere atmospheric emanations reflecting sunlight after the evanescent fashion of a halo or a rainbow, were expressed with such triumphant vigour, and embellished with such telling sarcasms, that his opponent did not venture upon a reply.
It is, however, still possible to distinguish some traces of this formation towards the east, where atmospheric denudation has been less active.
Atmospheric pressure is probably the principal cause of their action; they are therefore termed " weather wells " in some localities.
Having this position, the conditions of visibility will be best when the ecliptic, and therefore the axis of the light, are nearly perpendicular to the horizon, and, as the angle between the ecliptic and horizon becomes acute, will deteriorate, slowly at first, more and more rapidly afterwards, owing to the increasing effect of atmospheric absorption.
He found that as the observer moved to the north or south the axis of the light appeared to be displaced in the direction of the motion, which is the opposite of the effect due to parallax, but in the same sense as the effect of the greater atmospheric absorption of the light on the side nearest the horizon.
The dynamical causes are atmospheric and oceanic currents.
Steel differs in many ways from iron in respect of atmospheric corrosion; the heterogeneous nature of steel gives occasion to a selective rusting, ferrite is much more readily attacked than the cementite and pearlite; moreover, the introduction of other elements may retard rusting; this is particularly the case with the nickel-steels.
The native chrome-ironstone (Cr 2 O 3 FeO) may be used in this way as a source of such compounds, being fused in a reverberatory furnace, along with soda-ash and lime, the oxidizing agent in this case being atmospheric oxygen.
In the first refrigeration is produced by the expansion of atmospheric air, and in the second by the evaporation of a more or less volatile liquid.
The compressed air, leaving the compressor at the temperature T2, passes through the cooler, where it is cooled by means of water, and is then admitted to the expansion cylinder, where it is expanded to atmospheric pressure, performing work on the piston.
An insurrection was planned, and a solar eclipse in February 1831 and peculiar atmospheric conditions on the 13th of August were accepted as the signal for beginning the work.
In anticipation for the arrival of the band, the stage came alive with strobe lights and atmospheric smoke.
Figure 2. Atmospheric carbon dioxide mirrors plankton abundance over much shorter timescale of hours in the Atlantic.
This final track is an atmospheric instrumental piece which is of a fairly ambient / repetitive nature.
When coupled with sonic anemometry, fast response sensors can provide information on atmospheric fluxes, as well as gas concentrations.
Hull Ice rink was a small, sweaty venue, which made the experience even more atmospheric for everyone involved.
Jay Lake's The American Dead is a wonderfully atmospheric telling of a homeless boy's life.
This would have drowned the Anglers Inn that enjoyed a hauntingly atmospheric location right on the lake shore.
The Portrait is a darkly atmospheric, psychologically complex, macabre and chilling novel from a master storyteller.
The sounds and music are taken from the TV program and are suitably atmospheric and realistic.
It also boasts the longest Gothic vault in Europe - superbly atmospheric.
Mucuna also produces its own fertilizer, fixing atmospheric N and storing it in the ground where it can be utilized by other plants.
In reality, the Davis Vantage Pro Plus measures atmospheric pressure, but then translates this to barometric pressure.
Atmospheric pressure is also displayed using a bar graph for the last 24 hours.
Hmmmm It was certainly very atmospheric with spoken lyrics and occasional bongo beat for emphasis.
If the exposure times, atmospheric transparency or sky brightness have varied, then data must be ` normalized ' before combination.
Figure 1. atmospheric carbon dioxide mirrors plankton growth in inverse relationship.
The result is both intimate and powerfully atmospheric, shedding new and memorable light on what usually comes across as a massive choral spectacular.
Also, the general case for more violent atmospheric circulation globally is not borne out by palaeo-climate data.
This movement can influence climate by changing the atmospheric and oceanic circulation and by altering the distribution of radiative heating and cooling.
AtmDCC An atmospheric dispersion compensator and field corrector (AtmDCC) is required to correct for atmospheric refraction and field curvature.
The short wavelength limit is due to atmospheric absorption and depends on atmospheric composition such as the presence of cloud cover.
The current increase in atmospheric concentration of CO 2 is considered to be one of the most important long-term changes occurring on this planet.
Recent developments with cw diode lasers have realized the potential for compact instruments to perform in-situ measurements of atmospheric trace gas constituents.
ClO, OH, O 3 and NO 3) with selected atmospheric constituents (e.g.
Probably adding atmospheric convection would help to even things out.
Radiometric corrections may be necessary due to variations in scene illumination and viewing geometry, atmospheric conditions, and sensor noise and response.
The music is strongly atmospheric and suitably creepy, and the opening promises much.
The effect of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on Calluna vulgaris in upland Britain.
The models for atmospheric dispersion are based on the Gaussian plume model.
His first published poems were praised for their atmospheric evocation of working class life.
Glenn Carver (Cambridge, Chemistry) The British Atmospheric Data Center The BADC is undergoing a major face-lift.
Its purpose is to study hadron production for the neutrino factory and to aid understanding of the atmospheric neutrino flux.
Cinque Ports Pottery enjoys the most atmospheric of settings in an Augustinian friary founded in 1379 and commonly known as the Monastery.
Gamma Ray Astronomy Primary cosmic gamma ray Astronomy Primary cosmic gamma rays (300 GeV) are studied using the atmospheric Cerenkov radiation technique.
With extremely atmospheric sound design and a suitably grandiose score, the success of The Roof Of The World is complete.
Atmospheric perspective particles and vapor in the atmosphere cause scattering of light that makes very distant surface appear hazy.
His works are very atmospheric and his technique became very impressionistic toward the latter part of his life.
The Hell Candidate is an atmospheric chiller with a political background, that features a novel slant on the Faust legend.
Phil Anderson, interests are mainly meteorological, but includes work on interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the snow surface.
It will be necessary for the student to gain a thorough understanding of boundary-layer meteorology and atmospheric turbulence.
In the past two centuries the concentration of atmospheric methane has more than doubled.
The oceans are the major source of the atmospheric moisture that is obtained through evaporation.
See the story of Maiden Castle and walk on roman mosaics in the atmospheric Victorian Hall.
The Haber process is the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen.
An accurate way of measuring atmospheric ozone is by using an Ozone Monitor.
In these exposures the atmospheric phase perturbations are compensating for the errors in the figure of the telescope mirror.
They also emit higher levels of other major atmospheric pollutants.
For example, atmospheric pressure is greater at sea-level than on a mountain top.
White Towns to the Southern Plains (grade 2) Visit atmospheric pueblos blancos and descend to the coast via a rugged sierra.
Atmospheric effects contribute strongly to the visible bands - band 1 may have up to a 70% contribution from sky radiance.
Produced by smoldering fires, carbon monoxide reduces concentrations of reactive atmospheric chemicals called hydroxyl radicals that remove methane from the air.
The blurring evident in the image is thought to result from atmospheric refraction.
The focal point of this family-run hotel is the atmospheric restaurant the regional cooking is justly renowned locally, with delicious truffle specialities.
It conceals one of the most atmospheric Victorian restorations in East Anglia.
These techniques might include seismic, acoustic, magnetic resonance imaging, and atmospheric (aircraft and missile wake) detection.
Viewers expecting campy shenanigans on a par with the Santo movies will be surprised to find a well-made, atmospheric horror flick.
She will also visit scientists in the Center for Global Atmospheric Modeling, who work with the state-of-the-art Earth Simulator supercomputer in Japan.
This has indicated the presence of atmospheric gravity wave signatures in the high-latitude thermosphere.
It occurs mostly during the summer months, when atmospheric heating can cause convection in the mid troposphere.
Under average seeing conditions, atmospheric turbulence limits the highest useful magnification to 25 to 30 times per unit of aperture.
A vertical slice through an atmospheric layer becoming turbulent.
Higher atmospheric water vapor would be expected near cities on a continuing basis, as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels.
The variation in turbulent viscosity within an atmospheric flow field impinging on a building.
But itÃ¢s just as impressive as ever, constructed around atmospheric guitar riffs, haunting vocals and a generally epic style.
Residual jitter can arises from uncorrected atmospheric turbulence as well as telescope wind shake.
Geitel (7) that even the most perfectly insulated conductors lose their charge, and that this loss depends on atmospheric conditions.
What is aimed at in ordinary observations of atmospheric potential is the measurement of the difference of potential between the earth and a point a given distance above it, or of the difference of potential betweeen two points in the same vertical line a given distance apart.
Exner (24) and others, that the 12-hour term is largely if not entirely a local phenomenon, due to the action of the lower atmospheric strata, and tending to disappear even in summer at high altitudes.
He was subsequently continuously engaged in extending the applications of the doctrine of electrolytic conduction in relation not only to the problems of chemical action but also, on the supposition that in certain conditions the air conducts electrolytically, to the phenomena of atmospheric electricity.
Meteor- g P Y The tropical belt of high atmospheric pressure is very marked in winter; it is weaker during the summer months, and at that season the greater relative fall of pressure over the land cuts it off into an oval-shaped anticyclone, the centre of which rests on the coolest part of the sea surface in that latitude, near the Gulf of Guinea.
In the latter case, which is the standard practice, mechanical vibration of the siphon is substituted in the place of electrification of the ink, so as to eliminate the effect of atmospheric conditions which frequently caused discontinuity in the flow of ink.
The problem of syntonic electric wave telegraphy is then to construct a transmitter and a receiver of such kind that the receiver will be affected by the waves emitted by the corresponding or syntonic transmitter, but not by waves of any other wavelength or by irregular electric impulses due to atmospheric electricity.
The power of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by the higher plants seems to be confined to this solitary group, though it has been stated by various observers with more or less emphasis that it is shared by others.
His interest in this subject made it natural that he should be selected - as himself a working man - to be parliamentary secretary 6 Leonard Hill," Atmospheric Conditions which affect Health,"G.
The changes of temperature and climate caused by difference of elevation are quite comparable in their magnitude and effect on all organized creatures with those due to differences of latitude; and the relative position of the high and low lands on the earth's surface, by modifying the direction of the winds, the fall of rain, and other atmospheric phenomena, produce effects in no sense less important than those due to the relative distribution of the land and sea.
The highest summits create serious obstructions to the movements of nearly three-fourths of the mass of the air resting on this part of the earth, and of nearly the whole of the moisture it contains; the average height of the entire chain is such as to make it an almost absolute barrier to one-half of the air and three-fourths of the moisture; while the lower ranges also produce important atmospheric effects, one-fourth of the air and one-half of the watery vapour it carries with it lying below 9000 ft.
In many aquatic larvae we find that all the spiracles are closed up, or become functionless, except a pair at the hinder end which are associated with some arrangement - such as the valvular flaps of the gnat larva or the telescopic " tail " of the drone-fly larva - for piercing the surface film and drawing periodical supplies of atmospheric air.
The latter faÃ§ade was completely reconstructed upon 2200 piles driven to great depths, with the result that the general harmony of the monument - the effect of time and of atmospheric conditions - was completely lost.
Lord Rayleigh in 1894 found that the density of atmospheric nitrogen was about 2% higher than that of chemically prepared nitrogen, a discovery which led to the isolation of the rare gases of the atmosphere (see Argon).
Now it is probable that the main cause of oceanic circulation is the driving force of the winds upon the superficial layers of water; hence periodic and irregular changes in the direction and velocities of ocean currents are probably due to changes in atmospheric circulation traceable to changes in the quantities of heat absorbed from the sun by the earth's atmosphere.
Two antagonistic processes proceed simultaneously, the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and the reverse change, and either process is accelerated by an increase and retarded by a decrease in temperature.
Bamberger, Ber., 1893.26, p. 49 6); by the oxidation of nitrosobenzene (below) with atmospheric oxygen; or by the decomposition of benzene diazonium nitrate mercury nitrite, Hg(NO 2) 2.2C 6 H 5 N 2 NO 3, with copper powder (A.
Volta then proved that all metals could be arranged in an electromotive 1 Modern researches have shown that the loss of charge is in fact dependent upon the ionization of the air, and that, provided the atmospheric moisture is prevented from condensing on the insulating supports, water vapour in the air does not per se bestow on it conductance for electricity.
He was the first to apply the telegraph to meteorological research, to have the atmospheric conditions daily indicated on a large map, to utilize the generalizations made in weather forecasts, and to embrace a continent under a single system - British America and Mexico being included in the field of observation.
He maintained with full conviction to the end of his life a grossly erroneous hypothesis of the tides, early adopted from Andrea Caesalpino; the " triplicate " appearance of Saturn always remained an enigma to him; and in regarding comets as atmospheric emanations he lagged far behind Tycho Brahe.
Atmospheric profiles will be measured using tethered balloon and radiosonde launches.
Como 's atmospheric medieval quarter is centered on the Duomo, renowned for its elegant melding of gothic and renaissance styles.
Rhizobium bacteria in the nodules fix atmospheric nitrogen and make it available to the legume plant.
The cyanobacteria and algae that make up the crusts can fix atmospheric nitrogen and sequester carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere.
As if on a whim, the hard rock crumbles away to reveal a low, atmospheric synth and spaced-out guitars.
Following an atmospheric timpani roll, cellos, basses and bassoons play a sustained thematic line in the depths of the orchestra.
Jangly guitars, slap bass and squidgy synth basslines also make an appearance, alongside trippy effects, disco strings and atmospheric chords.
At Arles sur Tech, an atmospheric hotel awaits, with peaceful gardens and wisteria vines covering the terrace.
We were upstairs on wooden benches which was not terribly comfortable or atmospheric.
This is an atmospheric whodunit wreathed in winter mists and mystery, but given legs by a sturdy cast of rustic functionaries.
Will the thermostat be placed in a convenient location as well as away from atmospheric conditions that might turn it on accidentally?
In fact, this theory is clearly depicted by the atmospheric chart shown on the United States Department of Energy Information Administration website.
In addition to atmospheric variables, there are also zoning restrictions to consider.
While these gases occur in lower atmospheric concentrations than carbon dioxide, they are substantially more potent.
An increase in atmospheric and ocean temperatures is associated with the increased number of violent storms in recent years, as tropical cyclones thrive in warmer sea waters.
The increase in El Nino and La Nina systems may also result from warmer ocean and atmospheric temperatures.
The university specializes in teaching the research of infectious disease, atmospheric science, clean energy technologies, and environmental science.
Considered the most violent of all types of atmospheric storms, a tornado is a column of air that reaches from a thunderstorm, or the cloud base, down to the ground.
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service, commonly referred to as NOAA, there are many parts of the world with tornado activity.
Due to the filtering properties of the earth's atmospheric ozone layer, practically all of the ultraviolet light that reaches the earth's surface is the long-wave UVA, while the UVC is necessary to the generation of ozone.
The atmospheric taxi ride at the beginning of the game is actually a clever trick to get information from you.
Though simplistic (most games at the time were), the game was remarkably atmospheric.
The atmospheric birds chirping on the castle grounds sounds as good as ever, and the music is the usual toe-tapping Mario fare.
Children with Marfan should avoid sports or occupations that require heavy weightlifting, rough physical contact, or rapid changes in atmospheric pressure (e.g., scuba diving).
At normal atmospheric pressures, but breathing 100 percent oxygen, the half-life for the elimination of CO from the body is 50 to 70 minutes.
Cooking times many vary slightly depending on the wattage of the rice cooker, voltage of the power source, atmospheric pressure or the temperature of the environment.
They bring an atmospheric touch to a wedding, whether it is held inside or out, and are a lovely way too add light to an evening wedding celebration.
Atmospheric clock experimentation began with inventor Cornelius Drebbel, who created clocks for King James I and King James VI of Britain and Rudolf II of Bohemia.
In 1928, Jean-Léon Reutter, a Swiss engineer, built the first Atmos prototype, which used a mercury-in-glass expansion device that utilized temperature alone rather than temperature combined with atmospheric pressure.
Post-rock is generally guitar-centred and instrumental, avoiding the use of common riffs and song structures in favour of atmospheric and cyclical movements.
Black Mountains is an especially atmospheric track.
The song begins with an atmospheric a cappella verse before kicking in to a mid-tempo pop rhythm reminiscent of some of U2's bigger hits.
The band moved past the more atmospheric sound to be more progressive, focusing more on creating large musically creative tracks rather than singles.
Within the Galactica universe this means these ships are able to fly through space and capable of atmospheric combat.
The part of this atmospheric circulation which is steadiest in its action is the trade winds, and this is, therefore, the most effective in producing drift movement of the surface waters.
In the interest of euphony some harmonious sound is needed to bridge the great gap which almost always exists between the bass and the upper instruments, but this filling out must be of the softest and most atmospheric kind.
Rhombic sulphur may be obtained artificially by slowly crystallizing a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide, or, better, by exposing pyridine saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen to atmospheric oxidation (Ahrens, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 2708).
The investigation was carried out with scrupulous scientific rigour upon samples of water taken in every part of the city, at all states of the tide and under various atmospheric conditions.
This view is supported by the fact that petroleum is found on the Sardinian and Swedish coasts as a product of the decomposition of seaweed, heated only by the sun, and under atmospheric pressure.
The process of distillation of lubricating oils under reduced atmospheric pressure is now in very general use, especially for obtaining the heavier products.
Changes of atmospheric temperature affect both wires equally and do not tilt the mirror.
Theoretical considerations as to how far Kopp was justified in choosing the boiling-points under atmospheric pressure as being comparable states for different substances now claim our attention.
Lovejoy at Niagara Falls, who passed atmospheric air, or air enriched with oxygen, about a high tension arc made as long as possible; but the company (the Atmospheric Products Company) was a failure.
Differences of temperature and atmospheric pressure must disturb this equilibrium, but the movements of both ocean and atmosphere lead to a high degree of uniformity in both envelopes as regards their gaseous constitutions.
Mead's treatise on The Power of the Sun and Moon over Human Bodies (1704), equally inspired by Newton's discoveries, was a premature attempt to assign the influence of atmospheric pressure and other cosmical causes in producing disease.
Moreover, the height of the lift is conditioned by the atmospheric pressure, for this is the driving force; and since this equals 34 ft.
The piston, provided with a valve opening upwards, is packed in the cylinder by a leather cup which is securely pressed against the sides of the cylinder by the atmospheric pressure.
In the walls and floor of the kiln special cooling channels or air passages are provided and by gradually opening these to atmospheric circulation the cooling is considerably accelerated while a very even distribution of temperature is obtained; by these means even the largest slabs can now be cooled in three or four days and are nevertheless sufficiently well annealed to be free from any serious internal stress.
If the fluid is a liquid, it can have a free surface without diffusing itself, as a gas would; and this free surface, being a surface of zero pressure, or more generally of uniform atmospheric pressure, will also be a surface of equal pressure, and therefore a horizontal plane.
For if the liquid of density a rises to the height h and of density p to the height k, and po denotes the atmospheric pressure, the pressure in the liquid at the level of the surface of separation will be ah+Po and pk +po, and these being equal we have Uh = pk.
The atmospheric pressure is thus due to an average head of 30 in.
If homogeneous liquid is drawn off from a vessel so large that the motion at the free surface at a distance may be neglected, then Bernoulli's equation may be written H = PIP--z - F4 2 / 2g = P/ p +h, (8) where P denotes the atmospheric pressure and h the height of the free surface, a fundamental equation in hydraulics; a return has been made here to the gravitation unit of hydrostatics, and Oz is taken vertically upward.
The simple distillation of sea-water, and the production thereby of a certain proportion of chemically fresh water, is a very simple problem; but it is found that water which is merely evaporated and recondensed has a very disagreeable flat taste, and it is only after long exposure to pure atmospheric air, with continued agitation, or repeated pouring from one vessel to another, that it becomes sufficiently aerated to lose its unpleasant taste and smell and become drinkable.
Joule failed to observe any change of temperature in his apparatus, and was therefore justified in assuming that the increase of intrinsic energy of a gas in isothermal expansion was very small, and that the absorption of heat observed in a similar experiment in which the gas was allowed to do external work by expanding against the atmospheric pressure was equivalent to the external work done.
In 1875 the London Argand, giving a duty of 3.2 candles illuminating power per cubic foot of ordinary 16 candle gas, was looked upon as the most perfect burner of the day, and little hope was entertained that any burner capable of universal adoption would surpass it in its power of developing light from the combustion of coal gas; but the close of the century found the incandescent mantle and the atmospheric burner yielding six times the light that was given by the Argand for the consumption of an equal volume of gas, and to-day, by supplying gas at an increased pressure, a light of ten times the power may be obtained.
Such data for the atmospheric gases are tabulated below.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported that sea temperatures for June 2009 were the highest on record since record keeping began in 1880.
The atmospheric games place you on a mysterious planet armed with only your power suit and your wits.
Gone are the hard rock riffs and replaced with more atmospheric, fantasy style melodies.
Some of the background tunes are very atmospheric for this dark game.
They also have the advantage of being unaffected by atmospheric pressure, which is important when cooking and baking in geographic areas that are mountainous or considerably below sea level.
These are great for producing atmospheric and festive window displays.
The NOAA is the The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Diogenes made this conception of a vital and intelligent air the ground of a teleological view of climatic and atmospheric phenomena.
In the desert he was worshipped as an atmospheric deity, who manifested himself in thunder and lightning, whose abode was in the sky, whose sanctuary was on the mountain summit of Horeb-Sinai, and whose movable palladium was the ark of the covenant.
The south-westerly winds which prevail north of the equator during the hot half of the year, to which navigators have given the name of the south-west monsoon (the latter word being a corruption of the Indian name for season), arise from the great diminution of atmospheric pressure over Asia, which begins to be strongly marked with the great rise of temperature in April and May, and the simultaneous relatively higher pressure over the equator and the regions south of it.
It is, however, requisite to make provision for the effect of changes in atmospheric temperature.
Lord Rayleigh in 1894 found that the density of atmospheric nitrogen was about 2% higher than that of chemically prepared nitrogen, a discovery which led to the isolation of the rare gases of the atmosphere.
Lemstrbm believed atmospheric electricity to play an important part in the natural growth of vegetation, and he assigned a special role to the needles of fir and pine trees.
These were due to an enormous amount of exceedingly fine dust blown to a great height by that terrific explosion, and then universally diffused by the high atmospheric currents.
When the connecting string is held taut and sounds, such as those of ordinary speech, are produced in front of one of the membranes, pulses corresponding to the fluctuations of the atmospheric pressure are transmitted along the string and communicated to the other membrane, which in its turn communicates them to the air, thus reproducing the sound.
The introduction of inductance coils into such circuits renders them more susceptible to trouble from atmospheric electricity and more sensitive to leakage variations.
Climatic factors include all those relating to atmospheric temperature, rainfall, atmospheric humidity, and light and shade.
This large quantity of air is forced through the furnace by means of the difference of pressure established between the external atmospheric pressure in the ash-pan and the pressure in the smoke-box.
The mountain mass, moreover, is not less important in causing a complete separation between the atmospheric conditions on its opposite flanks, by reason of the extent to which it penetrates that stratum of the atmosphere which is in contact with the earth's surface and is effective in determining climate.
The name of the god signifies the "high one" and he was probably a god of the atmospheric region above the earth - perhaps a storm god like Adad, or like Yahweh among the ancient Hebrews.
Atmospheric air gains access to the air-tubes through paired spiracles or stigmata, which usually occur laterally on most of the body-segments.
Many insects have aquatic larvae, some of which take in atmospheric air at intervals, while others breathe dissolved air by means of tracheal gills.
But a survey of the Hexapoda as a whole, and especially a comparative study of the tracheal system, can hardly leave room for doubt that this system is primitively adapted for atmospheric breathing, and that the presence of tracheal gills in larvae must be regarded as a special adaptation for temporary aquatic life.
This was met in a very large measure by deposits of natural nitre and the products of artificial nitrieres, whilst additional supplies are available in the ammoniacal liquors of the gas-manufacturer, &c. The possible failure of the nitre deposits led to attempts to convert atmospheric nitrogen into manures by processes permitting economic success.
The heating of the latter causes great differences of pressure, which in turn set up changes of atmospheric circulation.
There is no doubt that under average conditions of atmospheric density, the .005 should be replaced by 003, for many independent authorities using different methods have found values very close to this last figure.
Starting from an observation of Marconi's, a number of interesting facts have been accumulated on the absorbing effect of sunlight on the propagation of long Hertzian waves through space, and on the disturbing effects of atmospheric electricity as well as upon the influence of earth curvature and obstacles of various kinds interposed in the line between the sending and transmitting stations.4 Electric wave telegraphy has revolutionized our means of communication from place to place on the surface of the earth, making it possible to communicate instantly and certainly between places separated by several thousand miles, whilst The Electrician, 1904, 5 2, p. 407, or German Pat.
It is customary to speak of the disastrous effect, of cold winds, snow, hail and frost, lightning, &c., under the heading of atmospheric influences, which only shows once more how impossible it is to separate causes individually.
This diminution of pressure, which continues as the heat increases till it reaches its maximum in July soon after the solstice, is followed by the corresponding development of the south-west monsoon; and as the barometric pressure is gradually restored, and becomes equalized within the tropics soon after the equinox in October, with the general fall of temperature north of the equator, the south-west winds fall off, and are succeeded by a north-east monsoon, which is developed during the winter months by the relatively greater atmospheric pressure which then occurs over Asia, as compared with the equatorial region.
The controversy on this question was waged with spirit on both sides; but in the end Pasteur came off victorious, and in a series of the most delicate and most intricate experimental researches he proved that when the atmospheric germs are absolutely excluded no changes take place.
The latter façade was completely reconstructed upon 2200 piles driven to great depths, with the result that the general harmony of the monument - the effect of time and of atmospheric conditions - was completely lost.
Whilst no small amount of observational work has been done in these new branches of atmospheric electricity, the science has still not developed to a considerable extent beyond preliminary stages.
The " minus pressure " steam system, sometimes termed " atmospheric " or " vacuum," is of more recent introduction than those just described.
His chief books on chemistry were six volumes of Experiments and Observations on different Kinds of Air, published between 1774 and 1786; Experiments on the Generation of Air from Water (1793) Experiments and Observations relating to the Analysis of Atmospheric Air, and Considerations on the Doctrine of Phlogiston established and that of the Composition of Water refuted (1800).