The largest pond is as sensitive to atmospheric changes as the globule of mercury in its tube.
Atmospheric railway >>
At atmospheric pressure the discharge is able to pass through a far greater distance in helium than in the common gases.
If experimental plants are grown in ster1lized soil, these swellings do not appear, and the plant can then use no atmospheric nitrogen.
The part of this atmospheric circulation which is steadiest in its action is the trade winds, and this is, therefore, the most effective in producing drift movement of the surface waters.
His chief books on chemistry were six volumes of Experiments and Observations on different Kinds of Air, published between 1774 and 1786; Experiments on the Generation of Air from Water (1793) Experiments and Observations relating to the Analysis of Atmospheric Air, and Considerations on the Doctrine of Phlogiston established and that of the Composition of Water refuted (1800).
Kopp, begun in 1842, on the molecular volumes, the volume occupied by one gramme molecular weight of a substance, of liquids measured at their boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, brought to light a series of additive relations which, in the case of carbon compounds, render it possible to predict, in some measure, the cornposition of the substance.
The atmospheric temperature should range from 60° to 65° till the mushrooms appear, when it may drop a few degrees, but not lower than 55°.
Climatic factors include all those relating to atmospheric temperature, rainfall, atmospheric humidity, and light and shade.
There is no doubt that under average conditions of atmospheric density, the .005 should be replaced by 003, for many independent authorities using different methods have found values very close to this last figure.
It should be noted that the oxidation of sulphur itself by atmospheric influence may give rise to sulphuric acid, which in the presence of limestone will form gypsum: thus the sulphur-deposits of Sicily suffer alteration of this kind, and have their outcrop marked by a pale earthy gypseous rock called briscale.
The latter façade was completely reconstructed upon 2200 piles driven to great depths, with the result that the general harmony of the monument - the effect of time and of atmospheric conditions - was completely lost.
In the interest of euphony some harmonious sound is needed to bridge the great gap which almost always exists between the bass and the upper instruments, but this filling out must be of the softest and most atmospheric kind.
Rhombic sulphur may be obtained artificially by slowly crystallizing a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide, or, better, by exposing pyridine saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen to atmospheric oxidation (Ahrens, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 2708).
It is customary to speak of the disastrous effect, of cold winds, snow, hail and frost, lightning, &c., under the heading of atmospheric influences, which only shows once more how impossible it is to separate causes individually.
Whilst no small amount of observational work has been done in these new branches of atmospheric electricity, the science has still not developed to a considerable extent beyond preliminary stages.
The " minus pressure " steam system, sometimes termed " atmospheric " or " vacuum," is of more recent introduction than those just described.
In the desert he was worshipped as an atmospheric deity, who manifested himself in thunder and lightning, whose abode was in the sky, whose sanctuary was on the mountain summit of Horeb-Sinai, and whose movable palladium was the ark of the covenant.
It is, however, requisite to make provision for the effect of changes in atmospheric temperature.
Changes of atmospheric temperature affect both wires equally and do not tilt the mirror.
Lemstrbm believed atmospheric electricity to play an important part in the natural growth of vegetation, and he assigned a special role to the needles of fir and pine trees.
These were due to an enormous amount of exceedingly fine dust blown to a great height by that terrific explosion, and then universally diffused by the high atmospheric currents.
Starting from an observation of Marconi's, a number of interesting facts have been accumulated on the absorbing effect of sunlight on the propagation of long Hertzian waves through space, and on the disturbing effects of atmospheric electricity as well as upon the influence of earth curvature and obstacles of various kinds interposed in the line between the sending and transmitting stations.4 Electric wave telegraphy has revolutionized our means of communication from place to place on the surface of the earth, making it possible to communicate instantly and certainly between places separated by several thousand miles, whilst The Electrician, 1904, 5 2, p. 407, or German Pat.
When the connecting string is held taut and sounds, such as those of ordinary speech, are produced in front of one of the membranes, pulses corresponding to the fluctuations of the atmospheric pressure are transmitted along the string and communicated to the other membrane, which in its turn communicates them to the air, thus reproducing the sound.
The introduction of inductance coils into such circuits renders them more susceptible to trouble from atmospheric electricity and more sensitive to leakage variations.
The name of the god signifies the "high one" and he was probably a god of the atmospheric region above the earth - perhaps a storm god like Adad, or like Yahweh among the ancient Hebrews.
Many insects have aquatic larvae, some of which take in atmospheric air at intervals, while others breathe dissolved air by means of tracheal gills.
But a survey of the Hexapoda as a whole, and especially a comparative study of the tracheal system, can hardly leave room for doubt that this system is primitively adapted for atmospheric breathing, and that the presence of tracheal gills in larvae must be regarded as a special adaptation for temporary aquatic life.
long upheld by a box kite, and, employing a sensitive coherer and telephone as a receiver, he was able, on December 12, 1901, to hear " S " signals on the Morse code, consisting of three dots, which he had arranged should be sent out from Poldhu at stated hours, according to a preconcerted programme, so as to leave no doubt they were electric wave signals sent across the Atlantic and not accidental atmospheric electric disturbances.
Diogenes made this conception of a vital and intelligent air the ground of a teleological view of climatic and atmospheric phenomena.
The mountain mass, moreover, is not less important in causing a complete separation between the atmospheric conditions on its opposite flanks, by reason of the extent to which it penetrates that stratum of the atmosphere which is in contact with the earth's surface and is effective in determining climate.
Atmospheric air gains access to the air-tubes through paired spiracles or stigmata, which usually occur laterally on most of the body-segments.
6 1.86 3.01 o 88 1.03 Since at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure liquids are in corresponding states, the additive nature of the critical coefficient should also be presented by boiling-points.
The controversy on this question was waged with spirit on both sides; but in the end Pasteur came off victorious, and in a series of the most delicate and most intricate experimental researches he proved that when the atmospheric germs are absolutely excluded no changes take place.
The investigation was carried out with scrupulous scientific rigour upon samples of water taken in every part of the city, at all states of the tide and under various atmospheric conditions.
This view is supported by the fact that petroleum is found on the Sardinian and Swedish coasts as a product of the decomposition of seaweed, heated only by the sun, and under atmospheric pressure.
The process of distillation of lubricating oils under reduced atmospheric pressure is now in very general use, especially for obtaining the heavier products.
Theoretical considerations as to how far Kopp was justified in choosing the boiling-points under atmospheric pressure as being comparable states for different substances now claim our attention.
In view of the extremely slight compressibility of liquids, atmospheric pressure may be regarded as a coincident condition; also C. M.
Lovejoy at Niagara Falls, who passed atmospheric air, or air enriched with oxygen, about a high tension arc made as long as possible; but the company (the Atmospheric Products Company) was a failure.
This large quantity of air is forced through the furnace by means of the difference of pressure established between the external atmospheric pressure in the ash-pan and the pressure in the smoke-box.
The south-westerly winds which prevail north of the equator during the hot half of the year, to which navigators have given the name of the south-west monsoon (the latter word being a corruption of the Indian name for season), arise from the great diminution of atmospheric pressure over Asia, which begins to be strongly marked with the great rise of temperature in April and May, and the simultaneous relatively higher pressure over the equator and the regions south of it.
This was met in a very large measure by deposits of natural nitre and the products of artificial nitrieres, whilst additional supplies are available in the ammoniacal liquors of the gas-manufacturer, &c. The possible failure of the nitre deposits led to attempts to convert atmospheric nitrogen into manures by processes permitting economic success.
Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
Lord Rayleigh in 1894 found that the density of atmospheric nitrogen was about 2% higher than that of chemically prepared nitrogen, a discovery which led to the isolation of the rare gases of the atmosphere.
The heating of the latter causes great differences of pressure, which in turn set up changes of atmospheric circulation.
This diminution of pressure, which continues as the heat increases till it reaches its maximum in July soon after the solstice, is followed by the corresponding development of the south-west monsoon; and as the barometric pressure is gradually restored, and becomes equalized within the tropics soon after the equinox in October, with the general fall of temperature north of the equator, the south-west winds fall off, and are succeeded by a north-east monsoon, which is developed during the winter months by the relatively greater atmospheric pressure which then occurs over Asia, as compared with the equatorial region.
These aldols generally lose the elements of water readily and pass into unsaturated compounds; aldol itself on distillation at ordinary atmospheric pressure gives crotonaldehyde, CH 3 ï¿½ CH: CH.
Arago, the index, u for air at t° C. and at atmospheric pressure is given by 00029 iu 1-1 + 0037t.
According to this view the chromatic effects depend entirely upon atmospheric dispersion.
The mean atmospheric pressure in Singapore during 1906 was 29.908 in.
The great turgidity which is thus caused exerts a considerable hydrostatic pressure on the stele of the root, the vessels of the wood of which are sometimes filled with water, but at other times contain air, and this often under a pressure less than the ordinary atmospheric pressure.
Atmospheric air was carefully investigated by Cavendish, who showed that it consisted of two elementary constituents: nitrogen, which was isolated by Rutherford in 1772, and oxygen, isolated in 1774; and Black established the presence, in minute quantity, of carbon dioxide (van Helmont's gas sylvestre).
Differences of temperature and atmospheric pressure must disturb this equilibrium, but the movements of both ocean and atmosphere lead to a high degree of uniformity in both envelopes as regards their gaseous constitutions.
heated in the presence of atmospheric oxygen) until all the sulphur is burned away and the lead left.
By the action of the acetic acid and atmospheric oxygen, the lead is converted superficially into a basic acetate, which is at once decomposed by the carbon dioxide, with formation of white lead and acetic acid, which latter then acts de novo.
as 0.001291 grm., 106 X 2760/0 2 for air at standard atmospheric pressure.
In primitive forms the respiratory lamellae of the appendages of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th, or of the 1st and 2nd mesosomatic somites are sunk beneath the surface of the body, and become adapted to breathe atmospheric oxygen, forming the leaves of the so-called lung-books.
According to him, the myths arose from definite local (especially atmospheric and aquatic) phenomena, and represented the annually recurring processes of nature as the acts of gods and heroes; thus, in Achill (1853), the Trojan War is the winter conflict of the elements in that district.
Mead's treatise on The Power of the Sun and Moon over Human Bodies (1704), equally inspired by Newton's discoveries, was a premature attempt to assign the influence of atmospheric pressure and other cosmical causes in producing disease.
Moreover, the height of the lift is conditioned by the atmospheric pressure, for this is the driving force; and since this equals 34 ft.
The piston, provided with a valve opening upwards, is packed in the cylinder by a leather cup which is securely pressed against the sides of the cylinder by the atmospheric pressure.
the power of resisting the disintegrating effects of atmospheric moisture and carbonic acid, depends largely upon the quantity of alkalis contained in the glass and their proportion to the lead, lime or barium present, the stability being generally less the higher the proportion of alkali.
In the walls and floor of the kiln special cooling channels or air passages are provided and by gradually opening these to atmospheric circulation the cooling is considerably accelerated while a very even distribution of temperature is obtained; by these means even the largest slabs can now be cooled in three or four days and are nevertheless sufficiently well annealed to be free from any serious internal stress.
If the fluid is a liquid, it can have a free surface without diffusing itself, as a gas would; and this free surface, being a surface of zero pressure, or more generally of uniform atmospheric pressure, will also be a surface of equal pressure, and therefore a horizontal plane.
For if the liquid of density a rises to the height h and of density p to the height k, and po denotes the atmospheric pressure, the pressure in the liquid at the level of the surface of separation will be ah+Po and pk +po, and these being equal we have Uh = pk.
The atmospheric pressure is thus due to an average head of 30 in.
In the more general case of the convective equilibrium of a spherical atmosphere surrounding the earth, of radius a, (1-1?-=(n+ I) Po --a 2 dr, (12) gravity varying inversely as the square of the distance r from the centre; so that, k = po/po, denoting the height of the homogeneous atmosphere at the surface, 0 is given by (n+I)k(I -9/6 0) =a(I -a/r), (13) or if c denotes the distance where 0=o, 0 _a (14) 0 r c -a' When the compressibility of water is taken into account in a deep ocean, an experimental law must be employed, such as p - po=k(P - Po), or P/po=I+(p-p0)/A, A=kpo, (15) so that A is the pressure due to a head k of the liquid at density under atmospheric pressure po; and it is the gauge pressure required on this law to double the density.
If homogeneous liquid is drawn off from a vessel so large that the motion at the free surface at a distance may be neglected, then Bernoulli's equation may be written H = PIP--z - F4 2 / 2g = P/ p +h, (8) where P denotes the atmospheric pressure and h the height of the free surface, a fundamental equation in hydraulics; a return has been made here to the gravitation unit of hydrostatics, and Oz is taken vertically upward.
Howard at any rate saw clearly what was one of the indispensable requisites for the economical manufacture of fine crystal sugar of good colour - the treatment of saccharine solutions at temperatures very considerably lower than 212° F., which is the temperature of water boiling at normal atmospheric pressure.
Some sands contain as much as 50% of air of nearly the same composition as atmospheric air.
The demand for saltpetre as an ingredient of gunpowder led to the formation of saltpetre plantations or nitriaries, which at one time were common in France, Germany, and other countries; the natural conditions were simulated by exposing heaps of decaying organic matter mixed with alkalies (lime, &c.) to atmospheric action.
Wall-saltpetre or lime saltpetre, calcium nitrate, Ca(N03)2, is found as an efflorescence on the walls of stables; it is now manufactured in large quantities by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, i.e.
The contents of the barn are therefore left till moist weather occurs, and then by the admission of atmospheric air the leaf blades absorb moisture and become soft and pliant.
Great care is given to the cultivation, and damp atmospheric conditions are desirable during the ripening stages.
It fuses at 415° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.
Zinc is largely used for "galvanizing" iron, sheets of clean iron being immersed in a bath of the molten metal and then removed, so that a coat of zinc remains on the iron, which is thereby protected from atmospheric corrosion.
The electric furnace has several advantages as compared with some of the ordinary types of furnace, arising from the fact that the heat is generated from within the mass of material operated upon, and (unlike the blastfurnace, which presents the same advantage) without a large volume of gaseous products of combustion and atmospheric nitrogen being passed through it.
Since many substances decompose either at, or below, their boiling-points under ordinary atmospheric pressure, it is necessary to lower the boiling-point by reducing the pressure if it be desired to distil them.
The simple distillation of sea-water, and the production thereby of a certain proportion of chemically fresh water, is a very simple problem; but it is found that water which is merely evaporated and recondensed has a very disagreeable flat taste, and it is only after long exposure to pure atmospheric air, with continued agitation, or repeated pouring from one vessel to another, that it becomes sufficiently aerated to lose its unpleasant taste and smell and become drinkable.
perEwpa, literally " things in the air," from yerb., beyond, and a€ipav, to lift up), a term originally applied by the ancient Greeks to many atmospheric phenomena - rainbows, halos, shooting stars, &c. - but now specially restricted to those luminous bodies known as shooting stars, falling stars, fireballs and bolides.
His works are marked by admirable appreciation of nature, and by a rare understanding of wave-form and colour and of the subtleties of atmospheric effect; and as a sea-painter he may fairly be regarded as almost without a rival.
between the atmospheric pressure (750 mm.) in the Pacific and that (772 mm.) in the Japanese islands.
But during the warm season, from May to September, these conditions of atmospheric pressure are reversed, that in the Pacific rising to 767 mm.
A calamitous atmospheric feature is the periodical arrival of storms called typhoons (Japanese tai-fu or great wind).
Joule failed to observe any change of temperature in his apparatus, and was therefore justified in assuming that the increase of intrinsic energy of a gas in isothermal expansion was very small, and that the absorption of heat observed in a similar experiment in which the gas was allowed to do external work by expanding against the atmospheric pressure was equivalent to the external work done.
It vaporizes in a vacuum at 292°, and its boiling-point, under atmospheric pressure, is between 1090° and 1450° (T.
In commerce, however, other expressions are met with, as, for example, "pounds per cubic foot" (used for woods, metals, &c.), "pounds per gallon," &c. The standard substances employed to determine relative densities are: water for liquids and solids, and hydrogen or atmospheric air for gases; oxygen (as 16) is sometimes used in this last case.
The chief errors to which the stereometer is liable are (I) variation of temperature and atmospheric pressure during the experiment, and (2) the presence of moisture which disturbs Boyle's law.
Lord Rayleigh has made many investigations of the absolute densities of gases, one of which, namely on atmospheric and artificial nitrogen, undertaken in conjunction with Sir William Ramsay, culminated in the discovery of argon.
pressure, W i the weight in water, atmospheric conditions remaining very nearly the same; p is the density of the water in which the body is weighed, a is (I +at°) in which a is the coefficient of cubical expansion of the body, and S is the density of the air at t°, p mm.
Hecker took the opportunity of a voyage from Hamburg to La Plata, and in 1904 and 1905 of voyages in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to determine the local attraction over the ocean by comparing the atmospheric pressure measured by means of a mercurial barometer and a boiling-point thermometer, and obtained results similar to Scott Hansen's.
Atmospheric precipitation poured into the sea by the great rivers must necessarily create a permanent rise of the sea-level at their mouths, and from this cause the level round the coasts of rainy lands must be greater than in mid-ocean.
In the north tropical belt of high pressure south of the Azores the atmospheric pressure in January is o 87 in.
Fox, of the Central Laboratory of the International Council at Christiania, has investigated the relation of the atmospheric gases to sea-water by very exact experimental methods and arrived at the following expressions for the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen by sea-water of different degrees of concentration.
4282 t +0 0074527 t20.0000-5494 t3 Cl(o 2149 - o o07117 / 2 +0.0000931 13) In the case of ocean water with a salinity of 35 per mille, this gives for saturation with atmospheric gases in cc. per litre: The reduction of the absorption of gas by rise of temperature is thus seen to be considerable.
Gases, consisting principally of light carburetted hydrogen or marsh gas, are of ten present in considerable quantity in coal, in a dissolved or occluded state, and the evolution of these upon exposure to the air, especially when a sudden diminution of atmospheric pressure takes place, constitutes one of the most formidable dangers that the coal miner has to encounter.
p. 273), differences in composition are mainly original, the denser and more anthracitic varieties representing plant substance which has been more completely macerated and deprived of its putrescible constituents before submergence, or of which the deposition had taken place in shallow water, more readily accessible to atmospheric oxidizing influences than the deeper areas where conditions favourable to the elaboration of compounds richer in hydrogen prevailed.
The brine is cooled in a tank filled with spiral pipes, in which anhydrous ammonia, previously liquefied by compression, is vaporized in vacuo at the atmospheric temperature by the sensible heat of the returncurrent of brine, whose temperature has been slightly raised in its passage through the circulating tubes.
Fire-damp when mixed with from four to twelve times its volume of atmospheric air is explosive; but when the proportion is above or below these limits it burns quietly with a pale blue flame.
capacity containing air at a little above atmospheric pressure; it was carried on the back like a knapsack and supplied the means of respiration.
in., was supplied for respiration through a reducing valve which brought it down nearly to atmospheric pressure.
xiv.), who finds that no special difficulty has been met with in workings above 1100 metres deep from increased temperature or atmospheric pressure.
Ansdell show that if the gas be subjected to a pressure of 21ï¿½53 atmospheres at a temperature of o° C., it is converted into the liquid state, the pressure needed increasing with the rise of temperature, and decreasing with the lowering of the temperature, until at - 82° C. it becomes liquid under ordinary atmospheric pressure.
When liquefied acetylene is allowed to escape from the cylinder in which it is contained into ordinary atmospheric pressure, some of the liquid assumes the gaseous condition with such rapidity as to cool the remainder below the temperature of - 90° C., and convert it into a solid snow-like mass.
Hess, who showed that acetone will absorb twenty-five times its own volume of acetylene at a temperature of 15° C. under atmospheric pressure, and that, providing the temperature is kept constant, the liquid acetone will go on absorbing acetylene at the rate of twentyfive times its own volume for every atmosphere of pressure to which the gas is subjected.
The constancy of composition shown by repeated analyses of atmospheric air led to the view that it was a chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen; but there was no experimental confirmation of this idea, and all observations tended to the view that it is simply a mechanical mixture.
Thus, the gases are not present in simple multiples of their combining weights; atmospheric air results when oxygen and nitrogen are mixed in the prescribed ratio, the mixing being unattended by any manifestation of energy, such as is invariably associated with a chemical action; the gases may be mechanically separated by atmolysis, i.e.
Ozone occurs, in an amount supposed to be associated with the development of atmospheric electricity (lightning, &c.); this amount varies with the seasons, being a maximum in spring, and decreasing through summer and autumn to a minimum in winter.
Nitric acid and lower nitrogen oxides are present, being formed by electrical discharges, and by the oxidation of atmospheric ammonia by ozone.
Atmospheric electricity >>
Boulton and Watt's screw press, invented in 1788 and used at the Royal Mint until 1881, was worked by atmospheric pressure applied to a piston.
If while the air within the receiver is at atmospheric pressure the bell is set ringing continuously, the sound is very audible.
It can be shown by Isambert's results that the compound AgC1.3NH 3 cannot be formed above 20° C., by the action of ammonia on silver chloride at atmospheric pressure; whilst 2AgC1.3NH 3, under similar conditions, cannot be formed above about 68° C. Liquid ammonia is used for the artificial preparation of ice.
In September 1839 a 3-foot speculum was finished and mounted on an altazimuth stand similar to Herschel's; but, though the definition of the images was good (except that the diffraction at the joints of the speculum caused minute rays in the case of a very bright star), and its peculiar skeleton form allowed the speculum to follow atmospheric changes of temperature very quickly, Lord Rosse decided to cast a solid 3-foot speculum.
The Liquefied Gas Boils At 47° C. Under Atmospheric Pressure.
A comparison of this distribution with that of atmospheric pressure is of great interest.
High temperature in the depth may be taken to mean descending water, just as high atmospheric pressure means descending air, and hence it would seem that the slow vertical movement of water in the Pacific reproduces to some extent the phenomena of the " doldrums " and " horse latitudes," with this difference, that the centres of maximum intensity lie off the east of the land instead of the west as in the case of the continents.
(a) The unit of volume for determinations of a high degree of accuracy is the volume occupied by the mass of 1 kilogram of pure water at its maximum density and under the normal atmospheric pressure; this volume is called litre.
of distilled water of the temperature of 4° C., under an atmospheric pressure equal to 760 millimetres at 0° C. at sea-level and latitude 45°; the weighing being made in air, but reduced by calculation to a vacuum.
In the measurement of the cubic inch it has been found that 2 the specific mass of the cubic inch of distilled water freed from air, and weighed in air against brass weights (= 8.13), at the temperature of 62° F., and under an atmospheric pressure equal to 30 in.
For the specific mass of the cubic decimetre of water at 4° C., under an atmospheric pressure equal to 760 mm., Guillaume and Chappuis of the Comite International des Poids et Mesures at Paris (C.I.P.M.) have obtained 0.9999707 kg., which has been accepted by the committee.
In the verification of a precise standard of length there may be taken into account the influence of the variation of atmospheric pressure.
is caused by the variation of atmospheric pressure from 28 to 31 in.
In standardizing a weight for use in India, correction has to be made for the weight of air displaced by the material standard, and for such purpose the normal temperature of 85°, atmospheric pressure 29.8 inches, latitude 22° 35` 6.5" (Calcutta), g at 0.9982515 of g at 45° are taken.
Among his happy conjectures may be mentioned that of the sun's axial rotation, postulated by him as the physical cause of the revolutions of the planets, and soon after confirmed by the discovery of sun-spots; the suggestion of a periodical variation in the obliquity of the ecliptic; and the explanation as a solar atmospheric effect of the radiance observed to surround the totally eclipsed sun.
It melts at 114.2° C. and boils at 184.35° C. under atmospheric pressure (W.
Various processes involving the use of atmospheric nitrogen have been devised, but in most cases they do not yield good results.
It dissolves gold (q.v.) in the presence of water and atmospheric oxygen.
It is a liquid which boils in vacuo at 150°, but at 192-195° C. under ordinary atmospheric pressure, with partial decomposition into carbon monoxide and ammonia.
The charm of the Orkneys does not lie in their ordinary physical features, so much as in beautiful atmospheric effects, extraordinary examples of light and shade, and rich coloration of cliff and sea.
Appended to the London edition of the solar and lunar tables are two short tracts - the one on determining longitude by lunar distances, together with a description of the repeating circle (invented by Mayer in 1752), the other on a formula for atmospheric refraction, which applies a remarkably accurate correction for temperature.
The manuscript residue includes papers on atmospheric refraction (dated 1755), on the motion of Mars as affected by the perturbations of Jupiter and the Earth (1756), and on terrestrial magnetism (1760 and 1762).
At that point, however, quartz and even atmospheric air become strongly absorbent and the expensive fluorspar becomes the only medium that can be used.
Gases, like atmospheric air, hydrogen or carbon dioxide do not become luminous if they are placed in tubes, even when heated up far beyond white heat as in the electric furnace.
Under different conditions we obtain (a) a continuous spectrum most intense in the yellow and green, (b) the spectrum dividing itself into two families of series, (c) a spectrum of lines which appears when a strong spark passes through oxygen at atmospheric pressure, (d) a spectrum of bands seen in the kathode glow.
Liveing, one of his colleagues at Cambridge, he began in 1878 a long series of spectroscopic observations, the later of which were devoted to the spectroscopic examination of various gaseous constituents separated from atmospheric air by the aid of low temperatures; and he was joined by Professor J.
The Royal Society in 1894 bestowed the Rumford medal upon him for his work in the production of low temperatures, and in 1899 he became the first recipient of the Hodgkins gold medal of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, for his contributions to our knowledge of the nature and properties of atmospheric air.
Thus oxygen, 4.89 volumes of which dissolve at atmospheric pressure in I volume of water at o° C., only dissolves to the extent of 3 Io volumes at 20° and 1 70 volumes at 100°.
The pressure at each point should be that of the vapour, but since the solubility of a solid does not change much with pressure, measurements under the constant atmospheric pressure give a curve practically identical with the theoretical one.
it-, privative, and g pyov, work; hence meaning "inert"), a gaseous constituent of atmospheric air.
Under the influence of the heat the atmospheric oxygen unites with the hydrogen of the ammonia, and when the excess of the latter is removed with sulphuric acid, the gas properly desiccated should be pure nitrogen, derived in part from the ammonia, but principally from the air.
The most conspicuous group in the argon spectrum at atmospheric pressure is that first recorded by A.
In one experiment, specially undertaken for the sake of measurement, the total air employed was 9250 c.c., and the oxygen consumed, manipulated with the aid of partially deaerated water, amounted to 10,820 c.c. The oxygen contained in the air would be 1942 c.c.; so that the quantities of atmospheric nitrogen and of total oxygen which enter into combination would be 7308 c.c. and 12,762 c.c. respectively.
The argon ultimately found was 75 o c.c., or a little more than I% of the atmospheric nitrogen used.
p. 66, 1895) gave 1 186 c.c. as the amount of argon present in loo c.c. of mixed atmospheric nitrogen and argon.
over the weight of true nitrogen, the corresponding excess for the atmospheric mixture being only I I mg.
half the atmospheric proportion.
The optical phenomena produced by atmospheric water and ice may be divided into two classes, according to the relative position of the luminous ring and the source of light.
Within this zone the crust of the earth has been ridged up into a complex system of creases or folds, out of which the great mountain chains of southern Europe and Asia have been carved by atmospheric agencies.
In such an exploration of the sun's atmosphere it might be anticipated that definite currents, or some evidences of atmospheric circulation analogous to those familiar in terrestrial meteorology, would be discovered.
Hence sparks can be obtained of more than double the length at ordinary atmospheric pressure.
As a result convection currents are produced in the air which are sufficient to catch the basidiospores in their fall and carry them, away from the regions of comparative atmospheric stillness near the ground, to the upper air where more powerful air-currents can bring about their wide distribution.
Though not normal below Mhsp', yet like -y-iron it can be preserved in the cold by the presence of about 5% of manganese, which, though not enough to bring the lower boundary of region 4 below the atmospheric temperature and thus to preserve austenite in the cold, is yet enough to make the transformation of (3 into a iron so sluggish that the former remains untransformed even during slow cooling.
If the pig iron is to follow path 2, the purification which converts it into wrought iron or steel consists chiefly in oxidizing and thereby removing its carbon, phosphorus and other impurities, while it is molten, either by means of the oxygen of atmospheric air blown through it as in the Bessemer process, or by the oxygen of iron ore stirred into it as in the puddling and Bell-Krupp processes, or by both together as in the open hearth process.
Interpenetrating this descending column of solid ore, limestone and coke, there is an upward rushing column of hot gases, the atmospheric nitrogen of the blast from the tuyeres, and the FIG.
If by pre-heating the blast we add to the sum of the heat available; or if by drying it we subtract from the work to be done by that heat the quantity needed for decomposing the atmospheric moisture; or if by removing part of its nitrogen we lessen the mass over which the heat developed has to be spread - if by any of these means we raise the temperature developed by the combustion of the coke, it is clear that we increase the proportion of the total heat which is available for this critical work in exactly the way in which we should increase the proportion of the water of a stream, initially too in.
This in turn is in part because of the greater care which can be used in making these small lots, but probably in chief part because the crucible process excludes the atmospheric nitrogen, which injures the metal, and because it gives a good opportunity for the suspended slag and iron oxide to rise to the surface.
29, is liable to become oxidized by the diffusion of the atmospheric oxygen, in which case it can hardly be completely welded later, since welding implies actual contact of metal with metal; it thus forms a permanent flaw.
31, has three advantages - (1) that the temperature is adjusted with absolutely no consumption of fuel; (2) that the waste of iron due to the oxidation of the outer crust of the ingot is very slight, because the little atmospheric oxygen initially in the pit is not renewed, whereas in a common heating furnace the flame brings a constant fresh supply of oxygen; and (3) that the ingot remains upright during solidification, so that its pipe is concentrated at one end and is thus removable.
Theodolites are designed to measure horizontal angles with greater accuracy than vertical, because it is on the former that the most important work of a survey depends; measures of vertical angles are liable to be much impaired by atmospheric refraction, more particularly on long lines, so that when heights have to be determined with much accuracy the theodolite must be discarded for a levelling instrument.
This temperature is somewhat different from the ordinary melting-point, the latter corresponding to atmospheric pressure, the former to the maximum vapour-pressure; and so we come to a third relation for polymorphism.
The esters of the higher fatty acids, when distilled under atmospheric pressure, are decomposed, and yield an olefine and a fatty acid.
Hot desert conditions are primarily found along the tropical belts of high atmospheric pressure in which the conditions of warmth and dryness are most fully realized, and on their equatorial sides, but the zonal arrangement is considerably modified in some regions by the monsoonal influence of elevated land.
The soil must get dry at stated intervals in order that the atmospheric air may come in contact with it and penetrate it.
It is rather a disputed point whether this dark segment - through which starlight has been seen to passrepresen is a real atmospheric condition or is merely a contrast effect.
The height has also been calculated on the hypothesis that auroral light has its source where the atmospheric pressure is similar to that at which most brilliancy is observed when electric discharges pass in vacuum tubes.
This line is so characteristic that its presence or absence is the usual criterion for deciding whether an atmospheric light is aurora.
If, as is now generally believed, aurora represents some form of electrical discharge, it is only reasonable to suppose that the auroral lines arise from atmospheric gases.
Usually the electric potential near the ground is positive compared to the earth and increases with the height (see Atmospheric Electricity).
As in the rest of the Mediterranean, tides are scarcely observable; but at several points on the west and south coasts a curious oscillation in the level of the waters, known to the natives as the marrobbio (or marobia), is sometimes noticed, and is said to be always preceded by certain atmospheric signs.
The atmospheric pressure varies between a maximum in January and a minimum in July, the mean difference being about 029 in.
On the other hand, certain undoubted animals (Stentor, Hydra, Bonellia) are provided with a green colouring matter by means of which they make use of atmospheric carbonic acid.
In suitable atmospheric conditions its beauty is unique.
Prior to Young, halos and coronae had not been clearly differentiated; they were both regarded as caused by the refraction of light by atmospheric moisture and ice, although observation had shown that important distinctions existed between these phenomena.
The object of the latter is to convert the manganous hydroxide by the atmospheric oxygen into manganese dioxide, but this would take place much too slowly if there was not an excess of lime present ready to combine with the manganese dioxide to form a calcium manganite.
The Deacon process, like the Weldon process, effects its object by the oxidizing action of atmospheric air, but in a very different manner.
(Sectional Elevation.) Scale C, Stone steam column resting in stone socket process, by employing the active oxygen of manganese dioxide to convert hydrochloric acid into free chlorine, and he employed the atmospheric oxygen only indirectly, for the recovery of manganese dioxide from the manganese chloride formed.
The sulphides can be removed by " oxidizing " them into thiosulphates by means of atmospheric air, with or without the assistance of other agents, such as manganese peroxide; or by " carbonating " them with lime-kiln or other gases containing carbon dioxide; or by precipitating them with lead or zinc oxide.
The same apparatus is used for " oxidizing " by means of atmospheric air passed through by means of an injector; sometimes both air and carbon dioxide are passed in at the same time.
The space below the sieve thus formed is connected by means of an outlet tap with a closed tank, and this again communicates with a vacuum pump. By this means the filtration is quickened by the atmospheric pressure, and goes on very rapidly, as also does the subsequent washing.
He also studied the alkaloids and organic acids, introduced a classification of the metals according to the facility with which they or their sulphides are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, and effected a comparison of the chemical composition of atmospheric air from all parts of the world.
this circle to measure the polar distance of any star seen in the telescope, and these readings will also be true (apart from the effects of atmospheric refraction) if we rotate the instrument through any angle on the axis A A.
The results of the Australian and German expeditions, which were for a great part of the time synchronous with those of Scott and Amundsen, required to be taken into consideration before a general theory of the atmospheric circulation within the Antarctic circle could be established.
The heated products of combustion from the burner B impinge on a metal box H, through which water is circulating, and then pass downwards and outwards through a spiral cooler which reduces them practically to the atmospheric temperature.
The body to be tested is placed in a special scale-pan, suspended by a fine wire from the arm of a balance inside an enclosure which can be filled with steam at atmospheric pressure.
The weight of steam condensed on the body gives a means of calculating the quantity of heat required to raise it from the atmospheric temperature up to ioo° C. in terms of the latent heat of vaporization of steam at zoo° C. There can be no appreciable gain or loss of heat by radiation, if the admission of the steam is sufficiently rapid, since the walls of the enclosure are maintained at too C., very nearly.
The application of the method appears to be practically limited to the measurements of specific heat between the atmospheric temperature and loo° C. The results depend on the value assumed for the latent heat of steam, which Joly takes as 536.7 calories, following Regnault.
The specific heat of steam was determined shortly afterwards by Regnault (Comptes Rendus, 36, p. 676) by condensing superheated steam at two different temperatures (about 125° and 225° C.) successively in the same calorimeter at atmospheric pressure, and taking the difference of the total heats observed.
10, P. 349, 1867) investigated the form of the adiabatic for steam passing through the state p= 760 mm., 0=373° Abs., by observing the pressure of superheated steam at any temperature which just failed to produce a cloud on sudden expansion to atmospheric pressure.
He endeavours to support this value by reference to sixteen of Regnault's observations on the total heat of steam at atmospheric pressure with only 19° to 28° of superheat.
The approximate equation of Rankine (23) begins to be I or 2% in error at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, owing to the coaggregation of the molecules of the vapour and the variation of the specific heat of the liquid.
The following table contains the most probable values for a few of these points which have been determined with the greatest care or frequency: Table of Boiling-Points at Atmospheric Pressure on Centigrade Scale Alphabetical Index of Symbols Empirical constants in formulae; section 14.
It can be liquefied at - 34° C. under atmospheric pressure, and at - 102° C. it solidifies and crystallizes.
The quantity of work whic produces a British unit of heat (or so much heat as elevates the temperature of one pound of pure water, at or near ordinary atmospheric temperatures, by 1 F.) is 772 foot-pounds.
electricity is discussed in Electromagnetism, and these manifestations in nature in Atmospheric Electricity; Aurora Polaris and Terrestrial magnetism.
Native copper is found in most copper-mines, usually in the upper workings, where the deposit has been exposed to atmospheric influences.
It may be prepared artificially by heating copper wire to a white heat, and afterwards at a red heat, by the atmospheric oxidation of copper reduced in hydrogen, or by the slow oxidation of the metal under water.
Atmospheric refraction causes the sun to be visible for periods varying from south to north for a quarter to half an hour after it has actually sunk below the horizon.
With the long twilight, perhaps the most exquisite period of a season which provides a succession of beautiful atmospheric effects, daylight lasts without interruption from the 16th to the 27th of June as far south as Hernosand (62° 38' N.).
If d is the distance between the plates at the edge of the film and II the atmospheric pressure, the pressure 2T of the liquid in the film is II - d cos a, and if A is the area of the film between the plates and B its circumference, the plates will be pressed together with a force 2AT cos a +BT sin a, and this, whether the atmosphere exerts any pressure or not.
Even If The Tension At The Circumference Of The Tube Acted Vertically, And The Whole Of The Liquid Below This Level Passed Into The Drop, The Calculation Would Still Be Vitiated By The Assumption That The Internal Pressure At The Level In Question Is Atmospheric. It Would Be Necessary To Consider The Curvatures Of The Fluid Surface At The Edge Of Attachment.
If the bubble is in the form of a sphere of radius r this material surface will have an area S = 41rr 2 (I) If T be the energy corresponding to unit of area of the film the surface-energy of the whole bubble will be ST = 41rr 2 T (2) The increment of this energy corresponding to an increase of the radius from r to r-+dr is therefore TdS = 81rrTdr (3) Now this increase of energy was obtained by forcing in air at a pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure, and thus increasing the volume of the bubble.
Let II be the atmospheric pressure and II+p the pressure of the air within the bubble.
The only possible source for this increase was the atmospheric nitrogen.
They showed that, when grown on sterilized sand with the addition of mineral salts, the Leguminosae were no more able to use the atmospheric nitrogen than other plants such as oats and barley.
Beyerinck and Jegunow have shown that some partially anaerobic sulphur bacteria can only exist in strata at a certain depth below the level of quiet waters where SH 2 is being set free below by the bacterial decompositions of vegetable mud and rises to meet the atmospheric oxygen coming down from above, and that this zone of physiological activity rises and falls with the variations of partial pressure of the gases due to the rate of evolution of the SH 2.
The idea that this film of bacteria oxidizes the alcohol beneath by merely condensing atmospheric oxygen in its interstices, after the manner of spongy platinum, has long been given up; but the explanation of the action as an incomplete combustion, depending on the peculiar respiration of these organisms - much as in the case of nitrifying and sulphur bacteria - is not clear, though the discovery that the acetic bacteria will not only oxidize alcohol to acetic acid, but further oxidize the latter to CO 2 and 01-1 2 supports the view that the alcohol is absorbed by the organism and employed as its respirable substance.
He taught, previous to the Polish physicist Witclo, that vision does not result from the emission of rays from the eye, and wrote also on the refraction of light, especially on atmospheric refraction, showing, e.g.
Contemporary igneous outbursts are extremely common in some of the ancient formations, and add, by their resistance to atmospheric erosion, to the extreme ruggedness of the scenery.
They are all similar in the great features of their land-forms, which have been impressed upon them by the prolonged action of atmospheric denudation rather than by the original order and arrangement of the rocks; but each group has its own geological character, which has imparted something of a distinctive individuality to the scenery.
Buchan, " The Mean Atmospheric Temperature and Pressure of the British Islands " (with maps), Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society, vol.
above the Gulf of Finland, but it rises and falls about 7 ft., according to atmospheric conditions, a phenomenon very similar to the seiches of the Lake of Geneva being observed in connexion with this.
The cinchotannic acid apparently becomes altered by atmospheric oxidation into a red-colouring matter, known as cinchono-fulvic or cinchona red, which is very abundant in some species, as in C. succirubra.
Having through centuries undergone cruel injury, from technical imperfections at the outset, from disastrous atmospheric conditions, from vandalism and neglect, and most of all from unskilled repair, its remains have at last (1904-1908) been treated with a mastery of scientific resource and a tenderness of conscientious skill that have revived for ourselves and for posterity a great part of its power.
The total result, if adequate steps can be taken to counteract the effects of atmospheric change in future, will remain a splendid gain for posterity and a happy refutation of D'Annunzio's despairing poem, the Death of a Masterpiece.
Similar atmospheric condition sometimes prevail in the air over large bodies of water on cold autumn mornings.
The name is now ordinarily restricted to what is more accurately called atmospheric air - the air we breathe - the invisible elastic fluid which surrounds the earth (see ATMOSPHERE).
When boiled, the aqueous acid loses either acid or water until a solution of constant boiling point is obtained, containing 48% of the acid and boiling at 126° C. under atmospheric pressure; should the pressure, however, vary, the strength of the solution boiling at a constant temperature varies also.
It forms a colourless syrup, of specific gravity 1.2485 (1 5°/4°), and decomposes on distillation under ordinary atmospheric pressure; but at very low pressures (about i mm.) it distils at about 85° C., and then sets to a crystalline solid, which melts at about 18° C. It possesses the properties both of an acid and of an alcohol.
The rocks are deeply furrowed and cut into ridges, evidence of the long period over which they have been subjected to atmospheric influences.
Phosphonium Salts.-The chloride, PH 4 C1, was obtained as a crystalline solid by Ogier (Comptes rendus, 1879, 89, p. 705) by combining phosphine and hydrochloric acid gas under a pressure of from 14-20 atmospheres; it can also be obtained at -30° to -35° C. under ordinary atmospheric pressure.
Phosphoric oxide, or phosphorus pentoxide, P4010, formed when phosphorus is burned in an excess of air or oxygen, or from dry phosphorus and oxygen at atmospheric pressure (Jungfleisch, loc. cit.), was examined by Boyle and named " flowers of phosphorus " by Marggraf in 1740.
It is found that atmospheric absorption is generally greater in summer than in winter, a difference of 20% being found between March and August; morning hours show a rapid and often irregular increase of transparency, culminating shortly after noon, after which the diminution is slow and comparatively regular.
The ultra-violet and the visual portion are recorded photographically; Rowland's classical work shows some 5700 lines in the former, and 14,200 in the latter, on a graduated scale of intensities from moo to o, or 0000, for the faintest lines; between a quarter and a third of these lines have been identified, fully 2000 belonging to iron, and several hundred to water vapour and other atmospheric absorption.
The first problem of the spectrum is to identify the effects of atmospheric absorption, especially oxygen, carbonic acid and water vapour; this is done generally by comparing the spectra of the sun at great and small zenith-distances, or by reducing the atmospheric effect by observing from a great elevation, as did P. J.
Paschen in 1896 identified an unmistakable oxygen triplet in the infra-red, which is shown terrestrially only in the vacuum tube, where the spectrum is very different from that of atmospheric absorptions.
The first step towards securing this requirement was taken as early as 1827 by Gay-Lussac, who discovered that the nitrous fumes, otherwise carried away from the lead chambers by the waste atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen, could be retained by bringing the gases into contact with moderately strong sulphuric acid, the result being the formation of nitroso-sulphuric acid: 2H 2 SO 4 + N203 = 2S0 2 (OH) (ONO) + H 2 O, and the latter remaining dissolved in sulphuric acid as "nitrous vitriol."
Here the reactions sketched above take place, so that "chamber-acid" as already described is formed, while a mixture of gases escapes containing all the atmospheric nitrogen, some oxygen in excess, about 0.5% of the total S02, and some oxides of nitrogen.
Fuming or Nordhausen Oil of Vitriol, a mixture or chemical com pound of H 2 SO 4, with more or less S03, has been made for centuries by exposing pyritic schist to the influence of atmospheric agents, collecting the solution of ferrous and ferric sulphate thus formed, boiling it down into a hard mass ("vitriolstein") and heating this to a low red heat in small earthenware retorts.
On the other hand, when food is not obtainable, life may be indefinitely prolonged if the tick be guarded from enemies and from atmospheric conditions inimical to existence.
The temperature and atmospheric pressure are simultaneously noted.
Exposed to atmospheric influences it is more or less rapidly corroded, giving the familiar rust.
It is manufactured by piling pyrites in heaps and exposing to atmospheric oxidation, the ferrous sulphate thus formed being dissolved in water, and the solution run into tanks, where any sulphuric acid which may be formed is decomposed by adding scrap iron.
His papers, which are numerous, are devoted in great part to atmospheric electricity, waterspouts, cyanometry and polarization of skylight, the temperature of water in the spheroidal state, and the boilingpoint at great elevations.
His theorem that a fluid issues from a small orifice with the same velocity (friction and atmospheric resistance being neglected) which it would have acquired in falling through the depth from its surface is of fundamental importance in hydraulics.
On the other hand, the most ordinary savage does not misunderstand so universal a custom as the imposition of names peculiar to animals or derived from atmospheric phenomena.
Thus Indra is mainly concerned with thunder and other atmospheric phenomena; but Vayu is the wind, the Maruts are wind-gods, Agni is fire or the god of fire, and so connected with lightning.
In this instrument the results of varying atmospheric pressure were not distinguishable from the expansive and contractive effects of heat and cold, and it became an efficient measure of temperature only when Rinieri, in 1646, introduced the improvement of hermetically sealing the liquid in glass.
Galileo's views, although erroneous, since he held comets to be mere atmospheric emanations reflecting sunlight after the evanescent fashion of a halo or a rainbow, were expressed with such triumphant vigour, and embellished with such telling sarcasms, that his opponent did not venture upon a reply.
It is, however, still possible to distinguish some traces of this formation towards the east, where atmospheric denudation has been less active.
above sea-level) it ffeezes so hard in December and January that skating is carried on on the sheet of water in the Buen Retiro; and, as winter throughout Spain, except in the maritime provinces of the north and north-west, is the season of greatest atmospheric precipitation, snowfalls are frequent, though the snow seldom lies long except at high elevations, The summers, on the other hand, are not only extremely warm but almost rainless, the sea-winds being deprived of their moisture on the edge of the plateau.
Atmospheric pressure is probably the principal cause of their action; they are therefore termed " weather wells " in some localities.
Having this position, the conditions of visibility will be best when the ecliptic, and therefore the axis of the light, are nearly perpendicular to the horizon, and, as the angle between the ecliptic and horizon becomes acute, will deteriorate, slowly at first, more and more rapidly afterwards, owing to the increasing effect of atmospheric absorption.
He found that as the observer moved to the north or south the axis of the light appeared to be displaced in the direction of the motion, which is the opposite of the effect due to parallax, but in the same sense as the effect of the greater atmospheric absorption of the light on the side nearest the horizon.
The dynamical causes are atmospheric and oceanic currents.
rost); in origin it is allied with "ruddy" and "red," the reddish-brown powdery substance which forms on the surface of iron or steel exposed to atmospheric corrosion.
Steel differs in many ways from iron in respect of atmospheric corrosion; the heterogeneous nature of steel gives occasion to a selective rusting, ferrite is much more readily attacked than the cementite and pearlite; moreover, the introduction of other elements may retard rusting; this is particularly the case with the nickel-steels.
The native chrome-ironstone (Cr 2 O 3 FeO) may be used in this way as a source of such compounds, being fused in a reverberatory furnace, along with soda-ash and lime, the oxidizing agent in this case being atmospheric oxygen.
In the first refrigeration is produced by the expansion of atmospheric air, and in the second by the evaporation of a more or less volatile liquid.
The compressed air, leaving the compressor at the temperature T2, passes through the cooler, where it is cooled by means of water, and is then admitted to the expansion cylinder, where it is expanded to atmospheric pressure, performing work on the piston.
The compressed air then passes through coolers in which it is cooled to within about 5° of the initial temperature of the cooling water, and is deprived of a portion of its moisture, after which it is admitted into the expansion cylinder and expanded nearly to atmospheric pressure.
at atmospheric pressure water will absorb about 760 times its own volume of ammonia vapour), and this produces an evaporation from the liquid in the vessel previously used as a condenser.
An insurrection was planned, and a solar eclipse in February 1831 and peculiar atmospheric conditions on the 13th of August were accepted as the signal for beginning the work.
In anticipation for the arrival of the band, the stage came alive with strobe lights and atmospheric smoke.
Figure 2. Atmospheric carbon dioxide mirrors plankton abundance over much shorter timescale of hours in the Atlantic.
Size distributions of trace metals in atmospheric aerosols in the United Kingdom.
Water formation as cloud droplets: Clouds are efficient cleansers of atmospheric pollution and clouds contribute to an increased global albedo.
This final track is an atmospheric instrumental piece which is of a fairly ambient / repetitive nature.
ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen that the plant can use.
When coupled with sonic anemometry, fast response sensors can provide information on atmospheric fluxes, as well as gas concentrations.
atmospheric at dusk and brims with stalls selling all manner of food goods.
Hull Ice rink was a small, sweaty venue, which made the experience even more atmospheric for everyone involved.
atmospheric nitrogen deposition on Calluna vulgaris in upland Britain.
atmospheric chemistry monitoring stations in Europe.
atmospheric circulation or the distribution of extreme weather events may change.
atmospheric turbulence Wind Engineering Series: titles.
Jay Lake's The American Dead is a wonderfully atmospheric telling of a homeless boy's life.
This would have drowned the Anglers Inn that enjoyed a hauntingly atmospheric location right on the lake shore.
The Portrait is a darkly atmospheric, psychologically complex, macabre and chilling novel from a master storyteller.
MORPHOLOGY is a powerfully atmospheric virtual instrument featuring.. .
The sounds and music are taken from the TV program and are suitably atmospheric and realistic.
It also boasts the longest Gothic vault in Europe - superbly atmospheric.
These test strips do not measure atmospheric Oxygen (O2 present in the water or bubbled in to the water via airstones etc.
NASA's ESE research focuses on the changes and variability in the Earth system, including atmospheric, oceanic, and geodetic areas.
Mucuna also produces its own fertilizer, fixing atmospheric N and storing it in the ground where it can be utilized by other plants.
In reality, the Davis Vantage Pro Plus measures atmospheric pressure, but then translates this to barometric pressure.
axial tilt have on its atmospheric dynamics?
barchan snow dunes Brief History of Atmospheric Acoustics.
Atmospheric pressure is also displayed using a bar graph for the last 24 hours.
NPL on-line barograph Where can I find a value of atmospheric pressure on a specified date in the past?
Hmmmm It was certainly very atmospheric with spoken lyrics and occasional bongo beat for emphasis.
Keywords: ATMOSPHERE, ROUGHNESS, SPEED, TERRAIN, WIND Strong winds in the atmospheric boundary layer.
bourdon bell being raised, is very atmospheric.
If the exposure times, atmospheric transparency or sky brightness have varied, then data must be ` normalized ' before combination.
Figure 1. atmospheric carbon dioxide mirrors plankton growth in inverse relationship.
Network requirements for advanced atmospheric chemistry monitoring stations in Europe.
But as a taut, atmospheric vampire chiller, Close Your Eyes scores.
The result is both intimate and powerfully atmospheric, shedding new and memorable light on what usually comes across as a massive choral spectacular.
Also, the general case for more violent atmospheric circulation globally is not borne out by palaeo-climate data.
This movement can influence climate by changing the atmospheric and oceanic circulation and by altering the distribution of radiative heating and cooling.
AtmDCC An atmospheric dispersion compensator and field corrector (AtmDCC) is required to correct for atmospheric refraction and field curvature.
The short wavelength limit is due to atmospheric absorption and depends on atmospheric composition such as the presence of cloud cover.
The current increase in atmospheric concentration of CO 2 is considered to be one of the most important long-term changes occurring on this planet.
condensation nuclei, which are generally atmospheric pollutants, natural or man-made.
Recent developments with cw diode lasers have realized the potential for compact instruments to perform in-situ measurements of atmospheric trace gas constituents.
ClO, OH, O 3 and NO 3) with selected atmospheric constituents (e.g.
contour advection calculations using winds derived from the UK Universities Global Atmospheric Modeling Program (UGAMP) model.
Probably adding atmospheric convection would help to even things out.
Description: The liquid coolant is held in a storage tank, which is maintained below atmospheric pressure by a vacuum pump.
Radiometric corrections may be necessary due to variations in scene illumination and viewing geometry, atmospheric conditions, and sensor noise and response.
The music is strongly atmospheric and suitably creepy, and the opening promises much.
The effect of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on Calluna vulgaris in upland Britain.
dine at the inn 's own atmospheric bistro (pay locally ), which serves American-style lunches and French-influenced dinners.
The models for atmospheric dispersion are based on the Gaussian plume model.
Ecological effects of atmospheric reactive nitrogen deposition on semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems.
Variations in atmospheric methane concentration during the Holocene epoch.
His first published poems were praised for their atmospheric evocation of working class life.
exotic dancerby the exotic belly Dancers to the uniquely atmospheric Fez Bar.
atmospheric extinction Not included; good choice of telluric standards should minimize problems.
Glenn Carver (Cambridge, Chemistry) The British Atmospheric Data Center The BADC is undergoing a major face-lift.
factorial analysis of the marine carbon cycle controls on atmospheric CO 2.
fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen.
Its purpose is to study hadron production for the neutrino factory and to aid understanding of the atmospheric neutrino flux.
Cinque Ports Pottery enjoys the most atmospheric of settings in an Augustinian friary founded in 1379 and commonly known as the Monastery.
Gamma Ray Astronomy Primary cosmic gamma ray Astronomy Primary cosmic gamma rays (300 GeV) are studied using the atmospheric Cerenkov radiation technique.
With extremely atmospheric sound design and a suitably grandiose score, the success of The Roof Of The World is complete.
Atmospheric perspective particles and vapor in the atmosphere cause scattering of light that makes very distant surface appear hazy.
honeey spent the next few years honing an atmospheric rock sound in their native Toronto and the dynamic was great.
atmospheric humidity Have you ever considered how much humidity will be released to the air of the room in one day?
His works are very atmospheric and his technique became very impressionistic toward the latter part of his life.
kidding aside, it is atmospheric, jarringly disturbing, and tends to defy classification or pigeon-holing.
The Hell Candidate is an atmospheric chiller with a political background, that features a novel slant on the Faust legend.
VENICE Among the waterways of Venice restored palaces and stately mansions are your atmospheric homes to explore its myriad alleys and canals.
Phil Anderson, interests are mainly meteorological, but includes work on interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the snow surface.
It will be necessary for the student to gain a thorough understanding of boundary-layer meteorology and atmospheric turbulence.
In the past two centuries the concentration of atmospheric methane has more than doubled.
The oceans are the major source of the atmospheric moisture that is obtained through evaporation.
See the story of Maiden Castle and walk on roman mosaics in the atmospheric Victorian Hall.
The lecture covers the topics: the Solar neutrino problem, atmospheric neutrinos, neutrino oscillations, neutrino mass and Majorana neutrinos.
The Haber process is the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen.
A record of atmospheric oxidant from polar ice cores over the past 100,000 years: dream or real possibility?
oxidation of this methane would have little impact on atmospheric oxygen levels.
An accurate way of measuring atmospheric ozone is by using an Ozone Monitor.
paint sealant seals surfaces against harmful acid rain and atmospheric pollutants.
perfect harmony, creating a great atmospheric song.
In these exposures the atmospheric phase perturbations are compensating for the errors in the figure of the telescope mirror.
For example, the role of carbon aerosols in atmospheric photochemistry.
Yu J.Z., H.E. Jeffries, and K.G. Sexton (1997 ), atmospheric photooxidation of alkylbenzenes.1.
Simo, R. Production of atmospheric sulfur by oceanic plankton: biogeochemical, ecological and evolutionary links.
They also emit higher levels of other major atmospheric pollutants.
For example, atmospheric pressure is greater at sea-level than on a mountain top.
prologueing the atmospheric prolog, we discover the wishing stairs are based just outside the grounds of a remote boarding school.
White Towns to the Southern Plains (grade 2) Visit atmospheric pueblos blancos and descend to the coast via a rugged sierra.
Atmospheric effects contribute strongly to the visible bands - band 1 may have up to a 70% contribution from sky radiance.
Produced by smoldering fires, carbon monoxide reduces concentrations of reactive atmospheric chemicals called hydroxyl radicals that remove methane from the air.
The blurring evident in the image is thought to result from atmospheric refraction.
The focal point of this family-run hotel is the atmospheric restaurant the regional cooking is justly renowned locally, with delicious truffle specialities.
It conceals one of the most atmospheric Victorian restorations in East Anglia.
rhizobium bacteria in the nodules fix atmospheric nitrogen and make it available to the legume plant.
gas in marine sediments: implications for slope stability and benthic ecology; natural gas seepages as a source of atmospheric methane.
These techniques might include seismic, acoustic, magnetic resonance imaging, and atmospheric (aircraft and missile wake) detection.
Viewers expecting campy shenanigans on a par with the Santo movies will be surprised to find a well-made, atmospheric horror flick.
She will also visit scientists in the Center for Global Atmospheric Modeling, who work with the state-of-the-art Earth Simulator supercomputer in Japan.
This has indicated the presence of atmospheric gravity wave signatures in the high-latitude thermosphere.
trippy effects, disco strings and atmospheric chords.
It occurs mostly during the summer months, when atmospheric heating can cause convection in the mid troposphere.
Under average seeing conditions, atmospheric turbulence limits the highest useful magnification to 25 to 30 times per unit of aperture.
A vertical slice through an atmospheric layer becoming turbulent.
Higher atmospheric water vapor would be expected near cities on a continuing basis, as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels.
The variation in turbulent viscosity within an atmospheric flow field impinging on a building.
But itÃ¢s just as impressive as ever, constructed around atmospheric guitar riffs, haunting vocals and a generally epic style.
Residual jitter can arises from uncorrected atmospheric turbulence as well as telescope wind shake.
wooden benches which was not terribly comfortable or atmospheric.
Geitel (7) that even the most perfectly insulated conductors lose their charge, and that this loss depends on atmospheric conditions.
What is aimed at in ordinary observations of atmospheric potential is the measurement of the difference of potential between the earth and a point a given distance above it, or of the difference of potential betweeen two points in the same vertical line a given distance apart.
Exner (24) and others, that the 12-hour term is largely if not entirely a local phenomenon, due to the action of the lower atmospheric strata, and tending to disappear even in summer at high altitudes.
The atmospheric temperature should range from 60Ã‚° to 65Ã‚° till the mushrooms appear, when it may drop a few degrees, but not lower than 55Ã‚°.
He was subsequently continuously engaged in extending the applications of the doctrine of electrolytic conduction in relation not only to the problems of chemical action but also, on the supposition that in certain conditions the air conducts electrolytically, to the phenomena of atmospheric electricity.
Meteor- g P Y The tropical belt of high atmospheric pressure is very marked in winter; it is weaker during the summer months, and at that season the greater relative fall of pressure over the land cuts it off into an oval-shaped anticyclone, the centre of which rests on the coolest part of the sea surface in that latitude, near the Gulf of Guinea.
In the latter case, which is the standard practice, mechanical vibration of the siphon is substituted in the place of electrification of the ink, so as to eliminate the effect of atmospheric conditions which frequently caused discontinuity in the flow of ink.
The problem of syntonic electric wave telegraphy is then to construct a transmitter and a receiver of such kind that the receiver will be affected by the waves emitted by the corresponding or syntonic transmitter, but not by waves of any other wavelength or by irregular electric impulses due to atmospheric electricity.
The power of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by the higher plants seems to be confined to this solitary group, though it has been stated by various observers with more or less emphasis that it is shared by others.
Indications in the Old Testament itself clearly point to the celestial or atmospheric character of the Yahweh of the Hebrews.
The atmospheric and celestial character which belonged from the first to the Hebrew conception of Yahweh explains to us the ease with which the idea of His universal sovereignty arose, which the Yahwistic creation account (belonging to the earlier stratum of J, Gen.
His interest in this subject made it natural that he should be selected - as himself a working man - to be parliamentary secretary 6 Leonard Hill," Atmospheric Conditions which affect Health,"G.
The changes of temperature and climate caused by difference of elevation are quite comparable in their magnitude and effect on all organized creatures with those due to differences of latitude; and the relative position of the high and low lands on the earth's surface, by modifying the direction of the winds, the fall of rain, and other atmospheric phenomena, produce effects in no sense less important than those due to the relative distribution of the land and sea.
The highest summits create serious obstructions to the movements of nearly three-fourths of the mass of the air resting on this part of the earth, and of nearly the whole of the moisture it contains; the average height of the entire chain is such as to make it an almost absolute barrier to one-half of the air and three-fourths of the moisture; while the lower ranges also produce important atmospheric effects, one-fourth of the air and one-half of the watery vapour it carries with it lying below 9000 ft.
In many aquatic larvae we find that all the spiracles are closed up, or become functionless, except a pair at the hinder end which are associated with some arrangement - such as the valvular flaps of the gnat larva or the telescopic " tail " of the drone-fly larva - for piercing the surface film and drawing periodical supplies of atmospheric air.
The latter faÃ§ade was completely reconstructed upon 2200 piles driven to great depths, with the result that the general harmony of the monument - the effect of time and of atmospheric conditions - was completely lost.
Lord Rayleigh in 1894 found that the density of atmospheric nitrogen was about 2% higher than that of chemically prepared nitrogen, a discovery which led to the isolation of the rare gases of the atmosphere (see Argon).
Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300Ã‚° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
Now it is probable that the main cause of oceanic circulation is the driving force of the winds upon the superficial layers of water; hence periodic and irregular changes in the direction and velocities of ocean currents are probably due to changes in atmospheric circulation traceable to changes in the quantities of heat absorbed from the sun by the earth's atmosphere.
Two antagonistic processes proceed simultaneously, the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and the reverse change, and either process is accelerated by an increase and retarded by a decrease in temperature.
These aldols generally lose the elements of water readily and pass into unsaturated compounds; aldol itself on distillation at ordinary atmospheric pressure gives crotonaldehyde, CH 3 Ã¯¿½ CH: CH.
Arago, the index, u for air at tÃ‚° C. and at atmospheric pressure is given by 00029 iu 1-1 + 0037t.
Himmel, Dutch hemel; there does not seem to be any connexion between the two words, and the ultimate derivation of the word is unknown; the suggestion that it is connected with "to heave," in the sense of something "lifted up," is erroneous), properly the expanse, taking the appearance of a domed vault above the earth, in which the sun, moon, planets and stars seem to be placed, the firmament; hence also used, generally in the plural, of the space immediately above the earth, the atmospheric region of winds, rain, clouds, and of the birds of the air.
He stated that " he had made a magma of sugar and water at atmospheric temperature, and heated the same to 190Ã‚° or 200Ã‚° F.
Howard at any rate saw clearly what was one of the indispensable requisites for the economical manufacture of fine crystal sugar of good colour - the treatment of saccharine solutions at temperatures very considerably lower than 212Ã‚° F., which is the temperature of water boiling at normal atmospheric pressure.
It fuses at 415Ã‚° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040Ã‚° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.
It vaporizes in a vacuum at 292Ã‚°, and its boiling-point, under atmospheric pressure, is between 1090Ã‚° and 1450Ã‚° (T.
pressure, W i the weight in water, atmospheric conditions remaining very nearly the same; p is the density of the water in which the body is weighed, a is (I +atÃ‚°) in which a is the coefficient of cubical expansion of the body, and S is the density of the air at tÃ‚°, p mm.
Ansdell show that if the gas be subjected to a pressure of 21Ã¯¿½53 atmospheres at a temperature of oÃ‚° C., it is converted into the liquid state, the pressure needed increasing with the rise of temperature, and decreasing with the lowering of the temperature, until at - 82Ã‚° C. it becomes liquid under ordinary atmospheric pressure.
When liquefied acetylene is allowed to escape from the cylinder in which it is contained into ordinary atmospheric pressure, some of the liquid assumes the gaseous condition with such rapidity as to cool the remainder below the temperature of - 90Ã‚° C., and convert it into a solid snow-like mass.
Hess, who showed that acetone will absorb twenty-five times its own volume of acetylene at a temperature of 15Ã‚° C. under atmospheric pressure, and that, providing the temperature is kept constant, the liquid acetone will go on absorbing acetylene at the rate of twentyfive times its own volume for every atmosphere of pressure to which the gas is subjected.
It can be shown by Isambert's results that the compound AgC1.3NH 3 cannot be formed above 20Ã‚° C., by the action of ammonia on silver chloride at atmospheric pressure; whilst 2AgC1.3NH 3, under similar conditions, cannot be formed above about 68Ã‚° C. Liquid ammonia is used for the artificial preparation of ice.
in., the work done is 2 7.73 p Av inch-tons, or (7) DE =2.31 pzv foot-tons; and the differences of being calculated from the observed values of p, a summation, as in the ballistic tables, would give E in a tabular form, and conversely from a table of E in terms of v, we can infer the value of p. On drawing off a little of the gas from the explosion vessel it was found that a gramme of cordite-gas at oÃ‚° C. and standard atmospheric pressure occupied 700 ccs., while the same gas compressed into 5 ccs.
The Liquefied Gas Boils At 47Ã‚° C. Under Atmospheric Pressure.
of distilled water of the temperature of 4Ã‚° C., under an atmospheric pressure equal to 760 millimetres at 0Ã‚° C. at sea-level and latitude 45Ã‚°; the weighing being made in air, but reduced by calculation to a vacuum.
In the measurement of the cubic inch it has been found that 2 the specific mass of the cubic inch of distilled water freed from air, and weighed in air against brass weights (= 8.13), at the temperature of 62Ã‚° F., and under an atmospheric pressure equal to 30 in.
For the specific mass of the cubic decimetre of water at 4Ã‚° C., under an atmospheric pressure equal to 760 mm., Guillaume and Chappuis of the Comite International des Poids et Mesures at Paris (C.I.P.M.) have obtained 0.9999707 kg., which has been accepted by the committee.
have adopted as a normal thermometric scale the Centigrade scale of the hydrogen thermometer, having for fixed points the temperature of pure melting ice (0Ã‚°C) and that of the vapour of boiling distilled water (100Ã‚°C), under a normal atmospheric pressure; hydrogen being taken under an initial manometric pressure of 1 metre, that is to say, at 1000/750 = 1.3158 times the normal atmospheric pressure.
In standardizing a weight for use in India, correction has to be made for the weight of air displaced by the material standard, and for such purpose the normal temperature of 85Ã‚°, atmospheric pressure 29.8 inches, latitude 22Ã‚° 35` 6.5" (Calcutta), g at 0.9982515 of g at 45Ã‚° are taken.
It melts at 114.2Ã‚° C. and boils at 184.35Ã‚° C. under atmospheric pressure (W.
It is a liquid which boils in vacuo at 150Ã‚°, but at 192-195Ã‚° C. under ordinary atmospheric pressure, with partial decomposition into carbon monoxide and ammonia.
Thus oxygen, 4.89 volumes of which dissolve at atmospheric pressure in I volume of water at oÃ‚° C., only dissolves to the extent of 3 Io volumes at 20Ã‚° and 1 70 volumes at 100Ã‚°.
is cooled suddenly by quenching in water, in which case the carbon present seems to act as a brake to retard the change; or completely, by the presence of a large quantity of manganese, nickel, tungsten or molybdenum, which in effect sink the lower boundary GHSa of region 4 to below the atmospheric temperature.
If pieces of porous clay are soaked in a solution of this salt and dried and kept at a temperature of 45Q 0 C. (in practice it is necessary to go to a rather higher temperature), it is possible continuously to convert a united stream of hydrochloric acid and atmospheric air, passed through the contactsubstance in a "decomposer" (fig.
Bamberger, Ber., 1893.26, p. 49 6); by the oxidation of nitrosobenzene (below) with atmospheric oxygen; or by the decomposition of benzene diazonium nitrate mercury nitrite, Hg(NO 2) 2.2C 6 H 5 N 2 NO 3, with copper powder (A.
The weight of steam condensed on the body gives a means of calculating the quantity of heat required to raise it from the atmospheric temperature up to iooÃ‚° C. in terms of the latent heat of vaporization of steam at zooÃ‚° C. There can be no appreciable gain or loss of heat by radiation, if the admission of the steam is sufficiently rapid, since the walls of the enclosure are maintained at too C., very nearly.
The application of the method appears to be practically limited to the measurements of specific heat between the atmospheric temperature and looÃ‚° C. The results depend on the value assumed for the latent heat of steam, which Joly takes as 536.7 calories, following Regnault.
The specific heat of steam was determined shortly afterwards by Regnault (Comptes Rendus, 36, p. 676) by condensing superheated steam at two different temperatures (about 125Ã‚° and 225Ã‚° C.) successively in the same calorimeter at atmospheric pressure, and taking the difference of the total heats observed.
10, P. 349, 1867) investigated the form of the adiabatic for steam passing through the state p= 760 mm., 0=373Ã‚° Abs., by observing the pressure of superheated steam at any temperature which just failed to produce a cloud on sudden expansion to atmospheric pressure.
He endeavours to support this value by reference to sixteen of Regnault's observations on the total heat of steam at atmospheric pressure with only 19Ã‚° to 28Ã‚° of superheat.
It can be liquefied at - 34Ã‚° C. under atmospheric pressure, and at - 102Ã‚° C. it solidifies and crystallizes.
Volta then proved that all metals could be arranged in an electromotive 1 Modern researches have shown that the loss of charge is in fact dependent upon the ionization of the air, and that, provided the atmospheric moisture is prevented from condensing on the insulating supports, water vapour in the air does not per se bestow on it conductance for electricity.
With the long twilight, perhaps the most exquisite period of a season which provides a succession of beautiful atmospheric effects, daylight lasts without interruption from the 16th to the 27th of June as far south as Hernosand (62Ã‚° 38' N.).