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atmosphere

atmosphere

atmosphere Sentence Examples

  • The atmosphere felt stiff and formal, as if this was not part of their routine.

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  • It may also be prepared by heating ammonium oxalate; by passing induction sparks between carbon points in an atmosphere of nitrogen.

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  • In dry weather the electric potential in the atmosphere is normally positive relative to the earth, and increases with the height.

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  • There was an atmosphere of public distrust.

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  • He couldn't have asked for a better housekeeper, but the atmosphere between them had become strained.

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  • The wind in the upper atmosphere has extraordinary amounts of energy.

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  • The atmosphere in the room was tense, though apparently not hostile.

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  • His dark suit was inappropriate for the casual atmosphere, but she had to admit that he looked dashing.

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  • Having live music from the quartet can really add to the celebratory atmosphere as guests relax and enjoy themselves.

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  • The breakfast atmosphere was much better than supper.

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  • Helium is present in the atmosphere, of which it constitutes four parts in a million.

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  • They had to hold their noses and put their horses to a trot to escape from the poisoned atmosphere of these latrines.

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  • Wouldn't that be something: Plants that would convert nitrogen from the atmosphere directly into ammonia they could use or plants that gave off the odor of other plants that pests avoid?

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  • The school had an atmosphere of almost hysteria.

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  • There was a very intimate atmosphere on the course that lent itself well to working collaboratively, which is what acting is all about.

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  • Once people had their chat with the artist and had made their selections, they settled in and the atmosphere seemed more like a party.

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  • Once people had their chat with the artist and had made their selections, they settled in and the atmosphere seemed more like a party.

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  • Amid backslapping and handshaking, the station assumed a party atmosphere for much of the afternoon.

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  • There is something electrifying in the atmosphere of the former place.

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  • The atmosphere on campus was electric!

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  • He had grown accustomed to women acting this way, yet today, in this atmosphere, it made him uncomfortable.

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  • It was not until the middle of the 18th century that experiments due to Benjamin Franklin showed that the electric phenomena of the atmosphere are not fundamentally different from those produced in the laboratory.

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  • Almond's brilliant characterization and ability to evoke atmosphere, time and place mixes the real and unreal in a totally believable way.

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  • The furniture creates a relaxing atmosphere in your garden, patio or balcony.

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  • Old and young people caught the carnival atmosphere and organizers said the event had been a great day.

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  • Think about this: Nearly four million exajoules of energy is absorbed by the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land each year.

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  • The electric arc is formed between cooled copper (positive) and carbon (negative) electrodes in an atmosphere of hydrogen or coal-gas.

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  • Their box was pervaded by that atmosphere of an affianced couple which Natasha knew so well and liked so much.

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  • Long ago, his ancestors had rigged the planet to blow the mines and turn the atmosphere into a toxic mix no one would survive.

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  • There was an atmosphere of warmth that is peculiar to Oldham.

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  • All rooms are on the same level with a wood beamed lounge, spacious yet retaining that cozy cottage atmosphere.

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  • Were the atmosphere non-existent or absolutely transparent, the sky would necessarily be black.

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  • The phenomenon is due to very fine particles of dust suspended in the high regions of the atmosphere that produce a scattering effect upon the component parts of white light.

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  • Food is served in the Stove Restaurant where the wooden beams and red brick create an olde worlde atmosphere.

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  • Advance in his religious ideas led him to seek the freer atmosphere of Strassburg in the autumn of 1529.

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  • At that time in the Rostovs' house there prevailed an amorous atmosphere characteristic of homes where there are very young and very charming girls.

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  • Over the following years these emission limits will be lowered to further encourage the driving of cars which pollute the atmosphere less.

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  • Unable to penetrate the Earth's atmosphere, the X-rays from the flare can only be detected from space.

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  • The relaxed, elegant atmosphere adds to the feeling of serenity inside the cabin.

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  • The courses are run in a friendly informal atmosphere by experienced radio amateurs.

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  • At Mayday Birth Center there is a midwife-only unit with birthing pools, beanbags, subtle lighting and a homely atmosphere.

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  • We think you made an excellent job of capturing the atmosphere of what we are trying to sell.

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  • It was located in an atmosphere of tranquility with a superb central location.

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  • It is obvious that the aerial particles are illuminated not only by the direct solar rays, but also by light dispersed from other parts of the atmosphere and from the earth's surface.

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  • The modern walled garden recreates the peaceful atmosphere traditionally associated with enclosed religious houses.

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  • Red House Hotel, Exeter and Devon Family run with a warm & friendly atmosphere.

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  • To prevent the atmosphere from becoming unduly dry a pan of water is fitted to the stove; this serves to moisten the air before it passes into the distributing flues.

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  • This second matter is atmosphere or firmament, which envelops and revolves around the central accumulation of first matter.

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  • Wilson considers that convection currents in the upper atmosphere would be quite inadequate, but conduction may, he thinks, be sufficient alone.

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  • The nitrogen of the atmosphere is not called into requisition, except by a few plants and under special conditions, as will be explained later.

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  • The steam is introduced into the pipes at about the pressure of the atmosphere, and is sucked through the system by means of a vacuum pump, which at the same operation frees the pipes from air and from condensation water.

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  • This arrangement is a method of checking transpiration by creating a still atmosphere above the pore of the stoma, so that water vapour collects in it and diminishes the further outflow of vapour.

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  • This arrangement is a method of checking transpiration by creating a still atmosphere above the pore of the stoma, so that water vapour collects in it and diminishes the further outflow of vapour.

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  • I did not need to go outdoors to take the air, for the atmosphere within had lost none of its freshness.

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  • Her living room furniture was aesthetically positioned for a peaceful and comfortable atmosphere.

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  • Poulsen immensely improved this process by placing the arc in an atmosphere of hydrogen, coal-gas or some other nonoxidizing gas, and at the same time arranging it in a strong magnetic field.'

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  • During his reign the atmosphere of Roman society was heavily charged with the popular Greek philosophy to which, ethics apart, Christianity was diametrically opposed.

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  • To ascertain how the increase in the voltage varies as the height in the free atmosphere increases, it is necessary to employ kites or balloons.

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  • Mache thinks that the ionization observed in the atmosphere may be wholly accounted for by the radioactive emanation.

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  • The tsar himself lived in an atmosphere of apprehension, imagining that every man's hand was against him.

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  • The sensation of sound is produced by rapid fluctuation in the pressure of the atmosphere on the tympanum of the Charac- ear.

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  • A very common function of hairs is to diminish transpiration, by creating a still atmosphere between them, as in the case of the sunk stomata already mentioned.

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  • The philanthropist too often surrounds mankind with the remembrance of his own castoff griefs as an atmosphere, and calls it sympathy.

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  • In Petersburg, as in Moscow, Pierre found the same atmosphere of gentleness and affection.

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  • He brought with him into our rearguard all the freshness of atmosphere of the French army, which was so alien to us.

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  • Here, as elsewhere, he was surrounded by an atmosphere of subservience to his wealth, and being in the habit of lording it over these people, he treated them with absent-minded contempt.

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  • To keep one another back, to breathe in that stifling atmosphere, to be unable to stir, and to await something unknown, uncomprehended, and terrible, was becoming unbearable.

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  • She brought into Princess Mary's strenuous, mournful, and gloomy world a quite different atmosphere, careless, lighthearted, and self-satisfied.

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  • The bar's atmosphere is modern and mystic-like where it seems like anything is possible.

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  • The atmosphere of the restaurant is casual, and this environment, along with pizza choices, make it a good place to take children.

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  • The restaurant's dress code is casual and the atmosphere romantic.

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  • A fun, family-friendly atmosphere and affordable price tag make this restaurant a great place to take the kids for a night out on the town.

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  • The steakhouse has a cozy atmosphere with minimal lighting and a wood panel floor.

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  • The restaurant's skylights allow natural lumination to filter into the room, and the natural stones, metals, and earth tones in the décor create a calm, soothing atmosphere.

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  • Visitors can take their meal in the outdoor eating area to fully immerse themselves in the world class atmosphere.

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  • She held her breath, staring at the configuration as she flew through the atmosphere.

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  • Dine in a casual atmosphere or take out--they even offer online ordering.

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  • The family-run restaurant has an elegant atmosphere, outdoor seating available, and a cozy bar for a more casual experience.

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  • The atmosphere is casual and friendly with comfortable booths.

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  • Mela serves lunch, dinner and a weekend buffet brunch in a trendy and casual atmosphere.

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  • Diners can sit outdoors when the weather is nice, and enjoy the warm atmosphere year round.

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  • Surrounded by picturesque mountains, the hotel's serene atmosphere is ideal for honeymooners or couples looking for a romantic getaway.

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  • Noah's provides you with a relaxing atmosphere where you can enjoy fine dining.

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  • The restaurant's warm and welcoming atmosphere makes up for the short and predictable menu.

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  • The restaurant offers booths, and has a bright, warm atmosphere built with sky lights, a fireplace and an outdoor garden area.

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  • The atmosphere of the restaurant is earthy, with neutral tones and natural stone lining the walls.

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  • The clubhouse serves as a family fun center during the day and afternoon, adopting a nightclub atmosphere late in the evenings.

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  • The cafe's atmosphere is causal and there is an outdoor patio.

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  • The cafe offers a comfortable atmosphere and outdoor seating when the weather is fitting.

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  • This restaurant offers a variety of entrees in an upscale atmosphere.

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  • Beyond providing their customers with quality ethnic food, they also give a warm atmosphere consisting of a helpful staff.

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  • The venue has an upbeat atmosphere thanks to fun cocktails and nightly live music.

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  • This new venue features a top shelf bar, an extensive wine list and plenty of atmosphere.

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  • Bubby's offers a casual atmosphere and outdoor seating is available.

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  • Stonington has a bit of a rural atmosphere rolled into a port town that makes it an interesting place to visit.

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  • Luigi's atmosphere is laid back and welcoming, inviting all diners, to come in and enjoy their delicious array of menu options.

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  • The restaurant's atmosphere is casual, and the menu is extensive and authentic.

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  • Although Mount Everest appears fairly bright at 100 miles' distance, as seen from the neighbourhood of Darjeeling, we cannot suppose that the atmosphere is as transparent as is implied in the above numbers; and, of course, this is not to be expected, since there is certainly suspended matter to be reckoned with.

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  • The fineness of the hair may perhaps be ascribed to some peculiarity in the atmosphere, for it is remarkable that the cats, dogs and other animals of the country are to 'a certain extent affected in the same way, and that they all lose much of their distinctive beauty when taken from their native districts.

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  • Hard on this came the recognition of the fact that freely charged positive and negative ions are always present in the atmosphere, and that a radioactive emanation can be collected.

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  • Linss (6) found that an insulated conductor charged either positively or negatively lost its charge in the free atmosphere; the potential V after time t being connected with its initial value Vo by a formula of the type V = Voe - at where a is constant.

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  • In 1901 Elster and Geitel found that a radioactive emanation is present in the atmosphere.

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  • If V be the potential, p the density of free electricity at a point in the atmosphere, at a distance r from the earth's centre, then assuming statical conditions and neglecting variation of V in horizontal directions, we have r2 (d/dr) (r 2 dV/dr) - - 4.rp = o.

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  • The difficulty is in accounting for the continuance in extensive fine weather districts of large positive charges in the atmosphere in face of the processes of recombination always in progress.

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  • Not only is the whole atmosphere Christian in colouring, but we actually find the Greek gods in the guise of Enoch, Elijah, &c., while Philip is a Christian martyr, and Alexander himself a great apostle, even a saint; quotations from the Bible are frequent.

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  • The best form of stove is that with which perfect combustion is most nearly attained, and to which a pan of water is affixed to supply a desirable humidity to the air, the gas having the effect of drying the atmosphere.

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  • And the Directory of Public Worship has shaped and coloured, perhaps too thoroughly, the ritual and atmosphere of every group of Protestant Anglo-Saxon worshippers throughout the world, except Episcopalians.

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  • earth's atmosphere.

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  • In the southern and early-settled parts of the state the mean temperature is about 64°, but in the more northern portions the heat is excessive, though the dryness of the atmosphere makes it preferable to moist tropical climates.

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  • In allowing the air to expand from a pressure of 21 atmospheres to that of i atmosphere the value of the mechanical equivalent of heat obtained was 821.89 foot-pounds.

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  • It is used as a pigment (cadmium yellow), for it retains its colour in an atmosphere containing sulphuretted hydrogen; it melts at a white heat, and on cooling solidifies to a lemon-yellow micaceous mass.

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  • He proposed to make the armature partake of the vibrations of the atmosphere either by converting it into a suitable vibrator or by controlling its vibrations by a stretched membrane of parchment armature had the form of a hinged lever one end, which pressed against the centre.

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  • When overtaken by a dust-storm it falls on its knees, and stretching its neck along the sand, closes its nostrils and remains thus motionless till the atmosphere clears; and in this position it affords some shelter to its driver, who, wrapping his face in his mantle, crouches behind his beast.

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  • This system of channels is in communication with the outer atmosphere through numerous small apertures, known as stomata, which are abundant upon the leaves and young twigs, and gaseous interchange between the plant and the air is by their assistance rendered constant and safe.

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  • This system of intercellular spaces, extending throughout the plant, constitutes a reservoir, charged with an atmosphere which differs somewhat in its composition from the external air, its gaseous constituents varying from time to time and from place to place, in consequence of the interchanges between itself and the protoplaste.

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  • Atmosphere.

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  • The distribution of the mass of the atmosphere over the surface of the earth is also controlled by the relief of the crust, its greater or lesser density at the surface corresponding to the lesser or greater elevation of the surface.

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  • vapour of the atmosphere is caused in part by vertical movements of the atmosphere involving heat changes and apparently independent of the surface upon which precipitation occurs; but in greater part it is dictated by the form and altitude of the land surface and the direction of the prevailing winds, which itself is largely influenced by the land.

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  • This is not by the supply of food alone, but also by the withdrawal of carbonic acid from the atmosphere, by which vegetation maintains the composition of the air in a state fit for the support of animal life.

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  • In the log-glass the time is measured by running sand, which, however, is apt to be affected by the humidity of the atmosphere.

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  • Deposits of sulphur are frequently formed by the decomposition of hydrogen sulphide, on exposure to the atmosphere: hence natural sulphureous waters, especially hot springs, readily deposit sulphur.

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  • The atmosphere is no longer Jewish but fully Greek.

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  • In such an atmosphere, deism readily uttered its protest against mysterious revelation.

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  • The entire atmosphere, so to speak, of the play is stifling, and is not rendered less so by the underplot with Hippolita.

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  • The difference of pressure between the outside air and the smoke-box gases may be measured by the difference of the water levels in the limbs of a U tube, one limb being in communication with the smokebox, the other with the atmosphere.

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  • That is to say, the engine actually utilized 61% of the energy which it was possible to utilize by means of a perfect engine working with the same initial pressure against a back pressure equal to;the atmosphere.

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  • Yahweh ceased to be exclusively regarded as god of the atmosphere, worshipped in a distant mountain, Horeb-Sinai, situated in the south country (negebh),and moving in the clouds of heaven before the Israelites in the desert, but he came to be associated with Israel's life in Canaan.

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  • Only one external source can be named: the falling of meteors into the sun must yield some heat just as a shooting star yields some heat to our atmosphere, but the question is whether the quantity of heat obtainable from the shooting stars is at all adequate for the purpose.

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  • The Rival Kingdoms. - The Palestine of the Hebrews was but part of a great area breathing the same atmosphere, and there was little to distinguish Judah from Israel except when they were distinct political entities.

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  • The atmosphere is also purified by the fierce te7nporales, or "northers," which occasionally sweep down over the Gulf and across this open region.

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  • Eckhart was a distinguished son of the Church; E but in reading his works we feel at once that we have passed into quite a different sphere of thought from that of the churchly mystics; we seem to leave the cloister behind and to breathe a freer atmosphere.

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  • The mountain mass, moreover, is not less important in causing a complete separation between the atmospheric conditions on its opposite flanks, by reason of the extent to which it penetrates that stratum of the atmosphere which is in contact with the earth's surface and is effective in determining climate.

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  • of mercury it boils at 170° C. In an atmosphere of steam it distils without decomposition under ordinary barometric pressure.

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  • Are these invisible germs which cause fermentation always present in the atmosphere?

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  • It is, in fact, fully established that these leguminous crops acquire a considerable amount of nitrogen by the fixation of the free nitrogen of the atmosphere under the influence of the symbiotic growth of their root-nodule-microbes and the higher plant.

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  • carbon from the atmosphere, and produce, besides nitrogenous food materials, a very large amount of the carbohydrate sugar, as respiratory and fat-forming food for the live stock of the farm.

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  • Table XIII., in which the totals for the United Kingdom include those for the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, illustrates the preponderance of the sheep-breeding industry in the drier climate of Great Britain, and of the cattle-breeding industry in the more humid atmosphere of Ireland.

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  • It is the adrectal gland, and in the genera Murex and Purpura secretes a colourless liquid which turns purple upon exposure to the atmosphere, and was used by the ancients as a dye.

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  • The atmosphere around him was a dangerous one for a philosopher and theologian to breathe, but he kept his spiritual health unimpaired, and even his sense of truth suffered less injury than was the case with most of his contemporaries.

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  • It thrives in a warm atmosphere, even in a very hot one, provided that it is moist and that the transpiration is not in excess of the supply of water.

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  • Thousands must have joined the Third Crusade in order to escape paying either their taxes or the interest on their debts; and the atmosphere of the gold-digger's camp (or of the cave of Adullam) must have begun more than ever to characterize the crusading armies.

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  • The men of that nation and of that epoch were bent on creating a new intellectual atmosphere for Europe by means of vital contact with antiquity.

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  • The Solomonic authorship has long since been given up: the historical setting of the work and its atmosphere - the silent assumption of monotheism and monogamy, the nonnational tone, the attitude towards kings and people, the picture of a complicated social life, the strain of philosophic reflection - are wholly at variance with what is known of the 10th century B.C. and with the Hebrew literature down to the 5th or 4th century B.C. The introduction of Solomon, the ideal of wisdom, is a literary device of the later time, and probably deceived nobody.

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  • 1872), who from 1894 had assisted him at University College, London, and in 1903 was appointed professor of chemistry at University College, Bristol, enabled him to announce the existence in the atmosphere of three new gases, neon, krypton and xenon.

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  • The rainfall of the province is considerably heavier than in northern India, and the result of this is a cooler and more pleasant atmosphere during the monsoon season.

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  • Cavendish, who had isolated the nitrogen of the atmosphere, had failed to decide conclusively what had really happened to the air which disappeared during combustion.

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  • From Reicher's determinations, the exact transition point is 95.6°; it rises with increasing pressure about 0.05° for one atmosphere; the density of the rhombic form is greater than that of the monoclinic. The equilibria of these modifications may be readily represented on a pressure-temperature diagram.

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  • But the more serious difficulties which to many minds still stand in the way of the acceptance of the epistle have come from the developed phase of Pauline theology which it shows, and from the general background and atmosphere of the underlying system of thought, in which the absence of the well-known earlier controversies is remarkable, while some things suggest the thought of John and a later age.

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  • The points on which special stress is laid are: - (i) the share of responsibility resting on each individual, whether called to vocal service or not, for the right spiritual atmosphere of the Meeting, and for the welfare of the congregation; (2) the privilege which may be enjoyed by each worshipper of waiting upon the Lord without relying on spoken words, however helpful, or on other outward matters; (3) freedom for each individual (whether a Friend or not) to speak, for the help of others, such message as he or she may feel called to utter; (4) a fresh sense of a divine call to deliver the message on that particular occasion, whether previous thought has been given to it or not.

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  • Apart from points of doctrine which can be more or less definitely stated (not always with unanimity) Quakerism is an atmosphere, a manner of life, a method of approaching questions, a habit and; attitude of mind.

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  • But he was entirely lacking in practical statesmanship. Brought up in a revolutionary atmosphere, his enthusiasm was uncontrolled by judgment.

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  • The majagua tree grows as high as 40 ft.; from its bark is made cordage of the finest quality, which is scarcely affected by the atmosphere.

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  • Nitrogen forms approximately 79% by volume (or 77% by weight) of the atmosphere; actual values are:% by volume-79.07 (Regnault), 79.20 (Dumas);% by weight76.87 (Regnault), 77.00 (Dumas), 77.002 (Lewy), 76.900 (Stas), 77.010 (Marignac).

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  • Nitrogen may be obtained from the atmosphere by the removal of the oxygen with which it is there mixed.

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  • Lord Rayleigh in 1894 found that the density of atmospheric nitrogen was about 2% higher than that of chemically prepared nitrogen, a discovery which led to the isolation of the rare gases of the atmosphere.

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  • Nitrous acid, HN02, is found to some extent in the form of its salts in the atmosphere and in rain water.

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  • The rock on the surface is as hard as flint, but underneath it gradually softens and furnishes an admirable stone for building which can be sawn into blocks of any size, hardening on exposure to the atmosphere.

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  • Owing to the extreme dryness of the atmosphere and the fact that there is always a breeze, usually from the N.W., this heat is felt much less than a greatly lower temperature in a more humid atmosphere.

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  • The streets of the entire business section of the city are roofed over in this manner, and in the summer months the shelter from the sun is very grateful, but in the winter these streets are extremely trying to the foreign visitor, owing to their darkness and their damp and chilly atmosphere.

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  • The reason is to be found in its geographical position, a cold ice-covered polar current 68' running south along the land, while not far outside there is an open warmer sea, a circumstance which, while producing a cold climate, must also give rise to much precipitation, the land being C', thus exposed to the alternate erosion of a rough atmosphere and large glaciers.

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  • to the surface of the ice from the ice-bare coast-land and partly the dust of the atmosphere brought down by the falling snow and accumulated on the surface of the glacier's covering by the melting during the summer.

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  • Minnesota has the characteristic climate of the North Central group of states, with a low mean annual temperature, a notably rarefied atmosphere that results in an almost complete absence of damp foggy weather, and an unusual dryness which during the rather long winters considerably neutralizes the excessive cold.

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  • Of the total quantity of energy incident on the earth about 40% is reflected back from the earth's atmosphere.

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  • Of the 60 °,o that penetrates only about onethird actually heats up the surface of the land or sea and the rest is absorbed by the atmosphere.

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  • Nitrogen is always being synthesized from the atmosphere (by plants, and by electrical discharges which combine nitrogen and oxygen), and this combined nitrogen is either utilized by land organisms or is washed down into the sea in the water of the rivers.

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  • Further, the ocean and the atmosphere stand in equilibrium with each other; if there is excess of carbonic acid anywhere in the sea it is absorbed by the atmosphere and vice versa, and so also with the oxygen.

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  • Differences of temperature and atmospheric pressure must disturb this equilibrium, but the movements of both ocean and atmosphere lead to a high degree of uniformity in both envelopes as regards their gaseous constitutions.

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  • Therefore a reduction in the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere, or a rise in the temperature of the water, or a violent agitation of the sea itself, will lead to precipitation of calcium carbonate.

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  • at night, while rain falls during about six months and the soil and atmosphere are moist throughout the year.

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  • Schmidt thinks that the author of the former made use of the latter, James that the Acts of Peter and of John were by one and the same author, but Ficker is of opinion that their affinities can be explained by their derivation from the same ecclesiastical atmosphere and school of theological thought.

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  • He investigated also the variations of temperature in the atmosphere and ocean.

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  • ST Elmo'S Fire, the glow accompanying the 'slow discharge of electricity to earth from the atmosphere.

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  • Above these, the chapadas lie open to the sun and wind and have a cool, bracing atmosphere even where high sun temperatures prevail.

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  • He lacked the lofty intellect of a Cosimo or a Lorenzo, and the atmosphere of libertyloving Siena with its ever-changing factions was in no way suited to his purpose.

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  • On the plains rain rarely falls during the heats of summer; and the showers though violent are generally of short duration, whilst the moisture is quickly evaporated owing to the aridity of the atmosphere.

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  • Such was the atmosphere of the court in which Richelieu had to maintain his authority.

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  • The imperishable Record invests the human race like a protective atmosphere, a new and yet a natural dispensation, giving to man, as compared with his animal ancestry, a new heaven and a new earth !

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  • The actual formation of On account of inequalities in the atmosphere giving a variable refraction, the light from a star would be irregularly distributed over a screen.

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  • 22: " Yea, for thy sake are we killed all the day long," &c. On the other hand, not only is the atmosphere of the second collection of psalms as a whole the atmosphere of godly Judaism in the 2nd century B.C., but it may fairly be claimed that this collection contains many psalms which may naturally be interpreted in the light of the history of that period, of which no satisfactory explanation (in their details) can be given if they are assigned to any other time.

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  • The idea is not in itself inadmissible, at least for post-exilic portions, for Zoroastrian ideas were in the intellectual atmosphere of Jewish writers in the Persian age.

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  • Welch produced oedema of the lungs experimentally by increasing the pressure in the pulmonary vessels by ligature of the aorta and its branches, but this raised the blood pressure only about one-tenth of an atmosphere, while in some of Loeb's experiments the osmotic pressure, due to retained metabolic products, was equal to over thirty atmospheres.

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  • The recognition of the dangers accompanying the drinking of polluted water or milk, or of those attached to the breathing of a germ-polluted atmosphere, has been the natural sequence of an improved knowledge of pathology in its bacteriological relationships.

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  • Life depended upon a universally diffused ether, which animals breathe in from the atmosphere, and which is contained in all parts of the body.

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  • The atmosphere of London is almost invariably misty in a greater or less degree, but the denser fogs are generally local and of no long duration.

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  • The smoke-laden atmosphere has been found not infrequently to exercise a deleterious effect upon the stonework of important buildings; and through the same cause the appearance of London as a whole is by some condemned as sombre.

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  • Portland stone is frequently employed in the larger buildings, as in St Paul's Cathedral, and under the various influences of weather and atmosphere acquires strongly contrasting tones of light grey and black.

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  • The inlet opening of the pressure fan is in free communication with the outside air, the discharge connecting with the mine air-way; in the more generally used exhaust fan the inlet is connected with the airway, the fan discharging into the atmosphere.

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  • In cold climates men coming from the warm atmosphere of a mine, often in wet clothing, are liable to suffer in health unless proper provision is made for the necessary change of clothing.

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  • Ankylostomiasis is a disease which finds a congenial habitat in the warm damp atmosphere of mines, and has become a veritable scourge in some mining regions.

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  • On raising the piston, the valve F remains closed and a vacuum tends to be created in the cylinder, but the pressure of the atmosphere forces the liquid up the tube D and it raises the valve E and passes into the cylinder.

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  • The action is as follows: On raising the piston it cuts off communication with the inlet pipe and then compresses the air above, forcing it through the upper valve and oil into the atmosphere.

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  • At the upper end of A is a glass two-way stop-cock, by turning which the vessel A can either be made to communicate with the vessel to be exhausted, or with the atmosphere, or can be shut off from both when the cock holds an intermediate position.

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  • lifting B to a sufficient level, turning the cock Geisler's Air-Pump. so as to communicate with the atmosphere and letting the mercury flow into A until it gets to the other side of the stop-cock, which is then placed in the intermediate position.

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  • of mercury to balance the pressure of the atmosphere, a Geisler pump necessarily is a somewhat long-legged and unwieldy instrument; in addition, the long tube is liable to breakage.

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  • Calcium cyanamide has assumed importance in agriculture since the discovery of its economic production in the electric furnace, wherein calcium carbide takes up nitrogen from the atmosphere to form the cyanamide with the simultaneous liberation of carbon.

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  • A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.

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  • All metals, when exposed in an inert atmosphere to a sufficient temperature, assume the form of liquids, which all present the following characteristic properties.

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  • (I) The principle is illustrated in the article Barometer, where a column of mercury of density a and height h, rising in the tube to the To:ricellian vacuum, is balanced by a column of air of density p, which may be supposed to rise as a homogeneous fluid to a height k, called the height of the homogeneous atmosphere.

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  • The pressure of the air is a convenient unit to employ in practical work, where it is called an " atmosphere "; it is made the equivalent of a pressure of one kg/cm'; and one ton/inch 2, employed as the unit with high pressure as in artillery, may be taken as 150 atmospheres.

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  • These equations can be made to represent the state of convective equilibrium of the atmosphere, depending on the gas-equation p = pk =RA (6) where 0 denotes the absolute temperature; and then d9 d p R dz - dz (p) n+ 1' so that the temperature-gradient deldz is constant, as in convective equilibrium in (I I).

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  • From the gas-equation in general, in the atmosphere n d dp _ I dp 1 de _ d0 de i de (8) z p dz-edz-p-edz-k-edz' which is positive, and the density p diminishes with the ascent, provided the temperature-gradient de/dz does not exceed elk.

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  • With uniform temperature, taking h constant in the gas-equation, dp / dz= =p / k, p=poet/ k, (9) so that in ascending in the atmosphere of thermal equilibrium the pressure and density diminish at compound discount, and for pressures p 1 and 1, 2 at heights z 1 and z2 (z1-z2)11?

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  • = loge(P2891) =2.3 logio(p2/p1) (io) In the convective equilibrium of the atmosphere, the air is supposed to change in density and pressure without exchange of heat by conduction; and then PIN = (e/e0) n+1, d5 -(n-{--I) P -(n+I)R ' y - where is the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure and constant volume.

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  • In the more general case of the convective equilibrium of a spherical atmosphere surrounding the earth, of radius a, (1-1?-=(n+ I) Po --a 2 dr, (12) gravity varying inversely as the square of the distance r from the centre; so that, k = po/po, denoting the height of the homogeneous atmosphere at the surface, 0 is given by (n+I)k(I -9/6 0) =a(I -a/r), (13) or if c denotes the distance where 0=o, 0 _a (14) 0 r c -a' When the compressibility of water is taken into account in a deep ocean, an experimental law must be employed, such as p - po=k(P - Po), or P/po=I+(p-p0)/A, A=kpo, (15) so that A is the pressure due to a head k of the liquid at density under atmospheric pressure po; and it is the gauge pressure required on this law to double the density.

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  • In particular, for a jet issuing into the atmosphere, where p=P, q 2 /2g = h - z, (9) or the velocity of the jet is due to the head k-z of the still free surface above the orifice; this is Torricelli's theorem (1643), the foundation of the science of hydrodynamics.

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  • NEW Testament Apocalyptic When we pass from Jewish literature to that of the New Testament, we enter into a new and larger atmosphere at once recalling and transcending what had been best in the prophetic periods of the past.

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  • The eyes being selected from well-ripened shoots of the previous year are planted about the end of January, singly, in small pots of light loamy compost, and after standing in a warm place for a few days should be plunged in a propagating bed, having a bottom heat of 75°, which should be increased to 85° when they have produced several leaves, the atmosphere being kept at about the same temperature or higher by sun heat during the day, and at about 75° at night.

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  • A moist growing atmosphere is necessary both for the swelling fruit and for maintaining the health of the foliage.

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  • for a few moments, on its way to a steam and juice separator, where the steam due to the superheated juice flashes off, and is either utilized for aiding the steam supplied to the multiple effect evaporators, or for heating cold juice on its way to the main heater, or it is allowed to escape into the atmosphere.

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  • Some crystallizers are made entirely cylindrical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manufacture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be for the manufacturer.

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  • These organisms reduce nitrates to nitrites and finally to ammonia and gaseous free nitrogen which escapes into the atmosphere.

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  • An important group of soil organisms are now known which have the power of using the free nitrogen of the atmosphere for the formation of the complex nitrogenous compounds of which their bodies are largely composed.

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  • By far the most satisfactory crops as green manures are those of the leguminous class, since they add to the land considerable amounts of the valuable fertilizing constituent, nitrogen, which is obtained from the atmosphere.

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  • Rejecting the old notion that plants derive their nourishment from humus, he taught that they get carbon and nitrogen from the carbon dioxide and ammonia present in the atmosphere, these compounds being returned by them to the atmosphere by the processes of putrefaction and fermentation - which latter he regarded as essentially chemical in nature - while their potash, soda, lime, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., come from the soil.

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  • These were held responsible for the misfortunes of the army, and to escape the atmosphere of popular odium retired to their country seats and the provincial capitals.

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  • Of these (3) and (4) are of marked eschatological character, and show little contact with definite historical events ' Driver, op. cit., p. 229, who also refers to the differences of Messianic outlook, and the substitution of an atmosphere of war for one of peace.

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  • TiN 2 is a dark blue powder obtained when the oxide is ignited in an atmosphere of ammonia; while TiN is obtained as a bronze yellow mass as hard as the diamond by heating the oxide in an atmosphere of nitrogen in the electric furnace.

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  • His work won him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1838, and in 1843 he received its Royal medal for a paper on the "Transparency of the Atmosphere and the Laws of Extinction of the Sun's Rays passing through it."

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  • At the Oxford botanic garden he conducted numerous experiments upon the effect of changes in soil, light and the composition of the atmosphere upon vegetation.

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  • Sometimes, especially at early dawn, there is a musical noise in the desert, like the sound of distant drums, which is caused by the eddying of grains of sand in the heated atmosphere, on the crests of the medanos.

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  • They shared the worldly spirit in its various forms, particularly the desire for wealth and the luxuries it affords, and for a place in " good society " - which meant a pagan atmosphere.

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  • With substances prone to discolorization, as, for example, certain amino compounds, the operation may be conducted in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide, or the water may be saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • The mixture consequently distils at the temperature at which the sum of the partial pressures equals that of the atmosphere.

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  • Though these objects only become visible in the atmosphere they are extra-terrestrial planetary bodies, and properly belong to the domain of astronomy.

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  • It is computed that twenty millions of meteors enter the atmosphere every day and would be visible to unassisted vision in the absence of sunlight, moonlight and clouds, while if telescopic meteors are included the number will be increased twentyfold.

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  • From some of these peoples and at one of these holy places, a group of Israelite tribes adopted the religion of Yahweh, the God who, by the hand of Moses, had delivered them from Egypt.2 The tribes of this region probably belonged to some branch of the great Arab stock, and the name Yahweh has, accordingly, been connected with the Arabic hawa, " the void " (between heaven and earth), " the atmosphere," or with the verb hawa, cognate with Heb.

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  • In faith healing proper not only are powerful direct suggestions used, but the religious atmosphere and the autosuggestions of the patient co-operate, especially where the cures take place during a period of religious revival or at other times when large assemblies and strong emotions are found.

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  • Yet the social atmosphere of the place did not suit him.

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  • The first volume, Vegetable Staticks (1727), contains an account of numerous experiments in plant-physiology - the loss of water in plants by evaporation, the rate of growth of shoots and leaves, variations in root-force at different times of the day, &c. Considering it very probable that plants draw "through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air," he undertook experiments to show in "how great a proportion air is wrought into the composition of animal, vegetable and mineral substances"; though this "analysis of the air" did not lead him to any very clear ideas about the composition of the atmosphere, in the course of his inquiries he collected gases over water in vessels separate from those in which they were generated, and thus used what was to all intents and purposes a "pneumatic trough."

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  • He conceived it as " a religious monopoly " to which " the nation at large contributes," while " Presbyterians alone receive," and which placed him in " a relation to the state " so " seriously objectionable " as to be " impossible to hold."5 The invidious distinction it drew between Presbyterians on the one hand, and Catholics, Friends, freethinking Christians, unbelievers and Jews on the other, who were compelled to support a ministry they " conscientiously disapproved," offended his always delicate conscience; while possibly the intellectual and ecclesiastical atmosphere of the city proved uncongenial to his liberal magnanimity.

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  • The 19th century had no more reverent thinker than Martineau; the awe of the Eternal was the very atmosphere that he breathed, and he looked at man with the compassion of one whose thoughts were full of God.

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  • The charm of these methods is that certain parts of the decorative design seem to float, not on the surface of the metal, but actually within it, an admirable effect of depth and atmosphere being thus produced.

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  • In this exquisite and ingenious kind of work the design appears to be growing up from the depths of the metal, and a delightful impression of atmosphere and water is obtained.

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  • ,Even this wealth of detail, remarkable as it was, seemed less surprising than the fact that the weaver had succeeded in producing the effect of atmosphere and aerial perspective.

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  • Through the graceful cryptomerias distant mountains and the still more distant sky could be seen, and between the buildings in the foreground and those in the middle distance atmosphere appeared to be perceptible.

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  • So perfectly does the modern Japanese embroiderer elaborate his scheme of values that all the essential elements of pictorial effects chiaroscuro, aerial perspective and atmosphere are present in his work.

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  • Kawanabe ItchO is celebrated for his representations of flowers and foliage, and Morishita Morihachi and Asano Saburo (of Kaga) are admirable in all styles, but especially, perhaps, in the charming variety called togi-dashi (ground down), which is pre-eminent for its satin-like texture and for the atmosphere of dreamy softness that pervades the decoration.

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  • Crusoe's shipwreck and adventures, his finding the footprint in the sand, his man "Friday," - the whole atmosphere of romance which surrounds the position of the civilized man fending for himself on a desert island - these have made Defoe's great work an imperishable part of English literature.

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  • Suffocating in an atmosphere of cruelty and baseness, Chenier's agony found expression almost to the last in these murderous Iambes which he launched against the Convention.

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  • The later poetry of the Augus tan age had ended in trifling dilettantism, for the continuance of which the atmosphere of the court was no longer favourable.

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  • By experiments at different temperatures between o° and 00° C., they found that the cooling effect per atmosphere of pressure varied inversely as the square of the absolute temperature for air and CO 2.

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  • Sodium aurosulphide, NaAuS 4H 2 O, is prepared by fusing gold with sodium sulphide and sulphur, the melt being extracted with water, filtered in an atmosphere of nitrogen, and evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.

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  • Elsner recognized, in 1846, the part played by the atmosphere, and in 1879 Dixon showed that bleaching powder, manganese dioxide, and other oxidizing agents, facilitated the solution.

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  • By the spring they may have larger pots if required and should be kept in a hot and fairly moistened atmosphere; and by the end of June, when they have made new growth, they may be turned out under a south wall in the full sun, water being given only as required.

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  • Though he lived in an atmosphere of alchemy, he derided the notion of the alkahest or universal solvent, and denounced the deceptions of the adepts who pretended to effect the transmutation of metals; but he believed mercury to be a constituent of all metals and heavy minerals, though he held there was no proof of the presence of "sulphur comburens."

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  • James as a successor to Baron de Staal, the atmosphere seemed anything but favourable to such a rapprochement.

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  • The atmosphere of these schools was strictly ecclesiastical and the questions discussed by the scholars were often puerile, but the greatness of the educational work of Charles will not be doubted when one considers the rude condition of Frankish society half a century before.

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  • This hypothesis, however, does not accord with the theory of the development of the earth from the state of a sphere of molt s en rock surrounded by an atmosphere of gaseous metals by which the first-formed clouds of aqueous vapour must have been absorbed.

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  • Their experiments show that in similar conditions the evaporation of sea-water amounts to from 70 to 91% of the evaporation of fresh water, a fact of some importance in geophysics on account of the vast expanses of ocean the evaporation from which determines the rainfall and to a large extent the heat-transference in the atmosphere.

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  • The water of the ocean, like any other liquid, absorbs a certain amount of the gases with which it is in contact, and thus sea-water contains dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and carbonic acid absorbed from the atmosphere.

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