The world's our atlas if we have the guts to flip a coin and take a chance.
You will need an atlas to use for your geography homework.
We should use an atlas for our cross-country road trip.
The family packed an atlas with road maps, just in case they got lost.
The atlas was crucial in learning about the geography of Asian countries.
The pages of the atlas were worn and the maps needed to be updated, so it was not very helpful.
USA road trip maps found inexpensively at convenience stores while traveling or a nicely bound atlas of maps keeps vacationers on the right track when behind the wheel.
On the bright side, the CD version of Trip Maker comes with a bound road atlas, so if your personalized printable maps don't feature the street or city you are looking for, you can refer to the atlas for help.
Additionally, the directory includes a complete road Atlas, so you can use it to map out your road trip route as well as locating campsites in the different towns you will travel through along the way.
Madonna Nudes 1979 for Women contains top notes of lotus petals, pomegranate and tangerine; middle notes of gardenia, orange flower and magnolia; and base notes of amber, atlas cedar and cashmere musk.
It originated with Mahommed ibn Tumart, a member of the Masmuda, a Berber tribe of the Atlas.
While Fred continued his conversation, Dean rummaged through the front hall closet until he located an atlas.
Ibn Tumart, who had been driven from several other towns for exhibitions of reforming zeal, now took refuge among his own people, the Masmuda, in the Atlas.
27), he ascended Mount Atlas to observe the motions of the stars, and was suddenly swept away by a whirlwind.
ATLAS MOUNTAINS, the general name for the mountain chains running more or less parallel to the coast of North-west Africa.
The Atlas consist of many distinct ranges, but they can be roughly divided into two main chains: (I) the Maritime Atlas, i.e.
The maritime Atlas and the inner ranges in Algeria and Tunisia are then treated under the heading Eastern Ranges.
- This section of the Atlas, known to the inhabitants of Morocco by its Berber name, Idraren Draren or the " Mountains of Mountains," consists of five distinct ranges, varying in length and height, but disposed more or less parallel to one another in a general direction from south-west to north-east, with a slight curvature towards the Sahara.
The main range, that known as the Great Atlas, occupies a central position in the system, and is by far the longest and loftiest chain.
The lower portion of the Moroccan Atlas (sometimes called the Middle Atlas), extending north - east and east from an undefined point to the north of the Great Atlas to near the frontier of Algeria, is crossed by the pass from Fez to Tafilalt.
The Anti-Atlas or Jebel Saghru, also known as the Lesser Atlas, running parallel to and south of the central range, is one of the least elevated chains in the system, having a mean altitude of not more than 5000 ft., although some peaks and even passes exceed 6000 ft.
As to the relation of the Anti-Atlas to the Atlas proper at its western end nothing certain is known.
in its central parts; and (5) the Mountains of Ghaiata, north of the Middle Atlas, not a continuous range, but a series of broken mountain masses from 3000 to 3500 ft.
The eastern division of the Atlas, which forms the backbone of Algeria and Tunisia, is adequately known with the exception of the small portion in Morocco forming the province of Er-Rif.
The lesser range, nearer the sea, known to the French as the Maritime Atlas, calls for little detailed notice.
In Algeria the Maritime Atlas has five chief ranges, several mountains rising over 5000 ft.
The southern or main range of the Eastern division is known by the French as the Saharan Atlas.
The Saharan Atlas is essentially one chain, though known under different names: Jebel K'sur and Jebel Amur on the west, and Jebel Aures in the east.
The central part, the Zab Mountains, is of lower elevation, the Saharan Atlas reaching its culminating point, Jebel Shellia (7611 ft.
This range sends a branch northward which joins the Mejerda range of the Maritime Atlas, and another branch runs south by Gafsa to the Gulf of Gabes.
In the Saharan Atlas the passes leading to or from the desert are numerous, and in most instances easy.
The name Atlas given to these mountains by Europeans - but never used by the native races - is derived from that of the mythical Greek god represented as carrying the globe on his shoulders, and applied to the high and distant mountains of the west, where Atlas was supposed to dwell.
From time immemorial the Atlas have been the home of Berber races, and those living in the least accessible regions have retained a measure of independence throughout their recorded history.
The ancient caravan route from Mauretania to the western Sudan crossed the lower Moroccan Atlas by the pass of Tilghemt and passed through the oasis of Tafilalt, formerly known as Sajilmasa [" Sigilmassa "1, on the east side of the Anti-Atlas.
Maw, explored the central part of the Great Atlas with the special object of investigating its flora and determining its relation to that of the mountains of Europe.
Dr Oskar Lenz in 1879-1880 surveyed a part of the Great Atlas north of Tarudant, determined a pass south of Iligh in the Anti-Atlas, and penetrated thence across the Sahara to Timbuktu.
Such were parts of the first and middle ranges, crossed once; three routes over the Great Atlas, which was, moreover, followed along both flanks for nearly its whole length; and six journeys across the Anti-Atlas, with a general survey of the foot of this range and several passages over the Jebel Bani.
Harris, who explored some of the southern slopes and crossed the Atlas at two points during his expedition to Tafilalt in 1894.
He crossed the Great Atlas in its central section, explored its southern border, and, in part, the Middle and Anti-Atlas ranges.
A member of his expeditions, de Flotte Rocquevaire, made a triangulation of part of the western portion of the main Atlas, his labours affording a basis for the co-ordination of the work of previous explorers.
de Foucauld, Reconnaissance au Maroc 1883-1884 (Paris, 1888, almost the sole authority for the geography of the Atlas; his book gives the result of careful surveys, and is illustrated with a good collection of maps and sketches); Hooker, Ball and Maw, Marocco and the Great Atlas (London, 1879, a most valuable contribution, always scientific and trustworthy, especially as to botany and geology); Joseph Thomson, Travels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco (London, 1889, valuable geographical and geological data); Louis Gentil, Mission de Segonzac, &c. (Paris, 1906; the author was geologist to the 1905 expedition); Gerhard Rohlfs, Adventures in Morocco (London, 1874); Walter B.
Climatological Atlas of the Russian Empire, by the Physical Observatory (St Petersburg, 1900), gives data and observations covering the period 1849-1899.
HAWFINCH, a bird so called from the belief that the fruit of the hawthorn (Crataegus Oxyacantha) forms its chief food, the Loxia coccothraustes of Linnaeus, and the Coccothraustes vulgaris of modern ornithologists, one of the largest of the finch family (Fringillidae), and found over nearly the whole of Europe, in Africa north of the Atlas and in Asia from Palestine to Japan.
In 1875 he was appointed director of the new astrophysical observatory established by the French government at Meudon, and set on foot there in 1876 the remarkable series of solar photographs collected in his great Atlas de photographies solaires (1904).
He had already taken to journalism, and in 1832 he became joint founder and editor of a daily newspaper, the Boston Atlas.
In 1837 he wrote for the Atlas a series of articles vigorously opposing the annexation of Texas.
In 1838 he resumed his editorial duties on the Atlas, but in 1840 removed, on account of his health, to British Guiana, where he lived for three years and was editor of two weekly newspapers in succession at Georgetown.
By him the term was confined to the territory of Carthage and the regions composing the eastern group of the Atlas.
Mercier, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale (1888); Charles Tissot, Geographic comparee de la province romaine d'Afrique (1884-1888), with atlas; Vivien de SaintMartin, LeNord de l'Afrique dans l'antiquite grecque et romaine (1883); Gaston Boissier, L'Afrique romaine (1895); Cl.
Drapeyron, Essai sur l'origine, le diveloppement et les resultats de la lutte entre la Neustrie et lAustrasie (Paris, 1867); Auguste Longnon, Atlas historique, 1st and 2nd parts.
In the first group are found Infinite Time, or Cronus; Tellus and Atlas supporting the globe, representing the union of Earth and Heaven; Oceanus; the Fates; Infinite Time giving into the hand of his successor Ormazd the thunderbolt, the symbol of authority; Ormazd struggling with a giant of evil - the Mithraic gigantomachy.
and atlas (Milan, 1818, 1822); Descrizione geologica della provincia di Milano (1822).
The comparative consumption of tobacco in various countries is best appreciated by expressing it in pounds per head, and the following figures are taken from Bartholomew's Atlas of the World's Commerce: Belgium 6.21 lb, United States 5.4 0 lb, Germany 3.44 Ib, Austria 3.02 lb, Australasia 2.20 lb, Canada 2.54 lb, Hungary 2.42 lb, France 2.16 lb, United Kingdom 1.95 lb, Russia 1 10 lb.
Mulert, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte, Map III.
Dr John Lindley considered that some of the cedartrees sent by Hiram, king of Tyre, to Jerusalem might have been procured from Mount Atlas, and have been identical with Callitris quadrivalvis, or arar-tree, the wood of which is hard and durable, and was much in request in former times for the building of temples.
The genus Cedrus contains two other species closely allied to C. Libani - Cedrus Deodara, the deodar, or "god tree" of the Himalayas, and Cedrus atlantica, of the Atlas range, North Africa.
C. atlantica, the Atlas cedar, has shorter and denser leaves than C. Libani; the leaves are glaucous, sometimes of a silvery whiteness, and the cones smaller than in the other two forms; its wood also is hard, and more rapid in growth than is that of the ordinary cedar.
The range of the Saharan Atlas of Algeria divides (roughly speaking) into two at the Tunisian frontier.
"The Country of the Filali," as its inhabitants are called, because descended from the Arabian tribe of Hilal, settled here in the ttth century), the most important oasis of the Moroccan Sahara, ten days' journey south of Fez, across the Atlas.
Calculating from sheet A I of the Prince of Monaco's Atlas of Ocean Depths,' Kriimmel obtained a mean angle of slope of 0° 2 7 ' 44" or an average fall of i in 124 for the North Atlantic between o° and 47° N., the enclosed seas being left out of account.
atlas and text, 1869-1880); W.
of the magnificent Atlas of Representative Stellar Spectra, published in 1899, by Sir William and Lady Huggins conjointly, for which they were adjudged the Actonian prize of the Royal Institution.
of Atlas of Stellar Spectra, containing a history of the Tulse Hill observatory; Sir W.
Flathe (1867-1873); Sturmhofel, Geschichte der sachsischen Lande and ihrer Herrscher (Chemnitz, 1897-1898); and Tutzschmann, Atlas zur Geschichte der sdchsischen Lander (Grimma, 1852).
In 1861 he published his great atlas of the republic of Peru, and in 1868 the first volume of his history of Peru after the acquisition of her independence.
Of this species Crowther's bear from the Atlas Mountains, the Syrian bear (Ursus arctus pyriacus) and the snow or isabelline bear (Ursus arctus isabellinus) of the Himalaya are local races, or at most subspecies.'
1905) and in the Atlas of the Russian General Staff.
Of the books published since 1890 the most important are Sven Hedin's Scientific Results of a Journey in Central Asia, 1899-1902 (Stockholm, 1905-1907, 6 vols.), with an elaborate atlas and a general map of Tibet on the scale of I: 1,000,000; H.
824) Phorcys was a king of Corsica and Sardinia, who, having been defeated by King Atlas in a naval engagement in the course of which he was drowned, was subsequently worshipped as a marine divinity.
- The United States government's Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (70 vols., most of which are divided into two or three "parts," and atlas, 1880-1900) include every important official document of either side that it was possible to obtain in the course of many years' work.
To the south this region is divided by the Great Atlas from the deserts of the Sahara, with its oases, in which the boundary of Algeria is lost.
The country is traversed by lofty ranges of the Atlas system, which run nearly parallel to the coast, and rise in places over 7000 ft.
These are commonly divided into two leading chains, distinguished as the Great 1 and Little Atlas.
The Great, or Saharan Atlas contains some of the highest points in the country.
The Little Atlas, otherwise the Tell or Maritime Atlas, lies between the sea and the Saharan Atlas, and is composed of many distinct ranges, generally of no great elevation and connected by numerous transverse chains forming extensive table-lands and elevated valleys.
The principal ranges of the Little Atlas - from west to east - are the Tlemcen (5500 ft.); the Warsenis (with Kef Sidi Omar, 650o ft.); the Titeri (4900 ft.); the Jurjura, with the peak of Lalla Kedija (7542 ft.) and Mount Babor (6447 ft.); and the Mejerda (3700 ft.), which extends into Tunisia.
Most 1 The name " Great " Atlas is more correctly applied to the main range in Morocco.
across the high plateau, piercing the little Atlas between the Warsenis and Titeri ranges.
North of the Atlas it belongs to the European type, in the south it contains a fauna of oysters and sea-urchins belonging to the facies " africano-syrian " of Zittel.
On the southern slopes of the Great Atlas, 2437 ft.
Near Jelfa, in the Great Atlas, and at Mechera-Sfa (" ford of the flat stones"), a peninsula in the valley of the river Mina not far from Tiaret in the department of Oran, are vast numbers of megalithic monuments.
The principal bays on the mainland coast are Olas Atlas, which is the harbour of Mazatlan, San Blas, Banderas, Manzanillo, Acapulco, Salina Cruz and Tonala.
Humboldt, Essai politique sur la royaume de la Nouvelle Espagne (Paris, 1811, 2 vols., and atlas; also an English translation).
One of his most important publications was La Geographie du moyen age (5 vols., Brussels, 1852-1857), with an atlas (1849) of fifty plates entirely engraved by himself, for he rightly attached such importance to the accuracy of his maps that he would not allow them to be executed by any one else.
from the northern underfalls of the Atlas, and 96 m.
(2) As regards plays, in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Timur is described as tall of stature, straightly fashioned, large of limb, having joints strongly knit, long and sinewy arms, a breadth of shoulders to "bear old Atlas's burden," pale of complexion, and with "amber hair wrapp'd in curls."
and atlas, Washington, 1870-1880); George M.
(I) One of the seven Pleiades, daughter of Atlas and PleIone.
White (the Dominion geographer), Atlas of Canada (1906); J.
4, 136, "whose love was [as] a bond to all our loves": a similar omission in Witch of Atlas, 599 599
Other kinds of repetition are Shelley's Witch of Atlas, 6 i i seq., "Like one asleep in a green hermitage, I With gentle sleep about its eyelids playing" (sleep for smiles has come from the previous line); Revolt of Islam, 4749, "Where" for "When" appears to have come from "Where" in 4750 or 4751.
The mezankoorie moth of the Assamese, Antheraea mezankooria, yields a valuable cocoon, as does also the Atlas moth, Attacus atlas, which has an omnivorous larva found throughout India, Ceylon, Burmah, China and Java.
In 1867 he was appointed geologist-in-charge of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, and from his twelve years of labour there resulted a most valuable series of volumes in all branches of natural history and economic science; and he issued in 1877 his Geological and Geographical Atlas of Colorado.
C. Geddes, Administrative Experience in Former Famines (1874); Statistical Atlas of India (1895); F.
And in general it may be stated that the hypothesis of such an intermixture of forms from neighbouring dialects has been rendered in recent years far more credible by the striking evidence of such continual intermixture going on within quite modern periods of time afforded by the Atlas linguistique de la France, even in the portion which has already been published.
A magnetic observatory was equipped at Bogen Atlas range the food of this bird is said to consist chiefly of the Testudo mauritanica, which "it carries to some height in the air, and lets fall on a stone to break the shell" (Ibis, 18 59, p. 1 77).
Out of his endeavours sprang a new organization, the China Inland ' For complete directory see Statistical Atlas of Foreign Missions (1910).
Smirnoff, Russian Orthodox Missions; an article in The East and the West (April, 1904); and the Statistical Atlas (1910), p. 99.
The figures are for 1907 and should be compared with those in the Statistical Atlas.
For two years preceding the conference eight representative commissions investigated the following questions: 1 The Statistical Atlas (1910) puts it at £5,071,225, of which British and American societies each find about £2, 000,000, and German societies £427,455.
The reports on these subjects in eight volumes, together with a ninth volume giving the proceedings of the conference itself, and a statistical atlas, will for some time be the vade mecum of information on Christian missions, and precludes the need of any attempt at a bibliography here, an attempt which would indeed be doomed to failure.
Dwight (1907); and the already mentioned Statistical Atlas of Missions (1910) by H.
But the most splendid Government map of all is that put forth by the Swiss Federal Topographical Bureau, under the title of Siegfried Atlas (scale 1 :50,000 for the Alpine districts), which has quite superseded the Dufour Map (scale 1: loo,000), the history of which was published in 1896.
- The Alps form but a small portion of a great zone of crumpling which stretches, in a series of curves, from the Atlas Mountains to the Himalayas.
The best book of coloured plates is the Atlas der Alpenflora, in 5 vols., pub.
TIARET (Taheri), a town of Algeria, in the Tell Atlas, department of Oran, 122 m.
Verbeek, Topographische en geologische Beschrijving van een Deel van Sumatra's Westkust, with atlas (Batavia, 1883);; similar work dealing with south Sumatra, Jaarb.
P. van der Stok, Regenwaarnemingen and Atlas of Wind and Weather (Batavia, 1897).
See Sartorius von Waltershausen, Atlas des Atna (Leipzig, 1880); E.
ATLAS, in Greek mythology, the "endurer," a son of the Titan Iapetus and Clymene (or Asia), brother of Prometheus.
But as the Greeks' knowledge of the west increased, the name of Atlas was transferred to a hill in the north-west of Africa.
Finally, Atlas was explained as the name of a primitive astronomer, who was said to have made the first celestial globe (Diodorus iii.
The Farnese statue of Atlas in the Naples museum is well known.
A figure of Atlas supporting the heavens is often found as a frontispiece in early collections of maps, and is said to have been first thus used by Mercator.
The name "atlas," an Arabic word meaning "smooth," applied to a smooth cloth, is sometimes found in English, and is the usual German word, for "satin."
Atlas Mountains >>
Mushketov, Turkestan (St Petersburg, 1886), with bibliographical references; Ivashintsev, Hydrographic Exploration of the Caspian Sea (in Russian), with atlas (2 vols., 1866); Philippov, Marine Geography of the Caspian Basin (in Russian, 1877); Memoirs of the Aral-Caspian Expedition of 1876-1877 (2 vols., in Russian), edited by the St Petersburg Society of Naturalists; Andrusov, "A Sketch of the Development of the Caspian Sea and its Inhabitants," in Zapiski of Russ.
Towards the south we may suppose it bounded by the Atlas range, and it.
On the other hand, the Gaetulians to the south of the Atlas range, on the date-producing slopes towards the Sahara, seem to have owned a precarious subjection to the kings of Mauretania, as afterwards to the Roman government.
A large part of the country is of great natural fertility, and in ancient times produced large quantities of corn, while the slopes of Atlas were clothed with forests, which, besides other kinds of timber, produced the celebrated ornamental wood called citrum (Plin.
Under him the Murabtis soon began to spread their power beyond the desert, and subjected the tribes of the Atlas.
and atlas of 10 vols.
and atlas (Cairo, 1894).
Reinke, Atlas deutscher Meeresalgen (Berlin, 1889-1892); F.
In the atlas illustrating the voyage of La Perouse a plan of the island is given, with the position of several of the platforms. Two of the images are also represented in a plate.
This group is particularly rich in bright stars, and is full of nebulosity, but there are fewer faint stars than in equal areas of the surrounding sky; the central star is Alcyone (3rd magnitude); PleIone and Atlas are also of the 3rd magnitude.
Guettard (1715-1786) in preparing his mineralogical atlas of France.
Besides the interesting folio atlas of von Buch (Paris, 1836), good modern maps have been published by E.
His Danske Atlas (7 vols.
In the villages of the western Atlas the greater part of the upper storey consists of a sort of rough verandah.
The Beni-Abbas tribe in the Algerian Atlas is famed for its walnuts, and many tribes keep bees, chiefly for the commercial value of the wax.
Imperial Gazetteer of India (new edition, 1907-1909); Census of India (1901); Statistical Atlas of India (1895); G.
His most valuable works include the Bengal Atlas (1779), the first approximately correct map of India (1783), the Geographical System of Herodotus (1800), the Comparative Geography of Western Asia (1831), and important studies on the geography of northern Africa - in introductions to the Travels of Mungo Park and Hornemann - and the currents of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
This species ranges throughout the continent of Europe,' and occurs in the islands of the Mediterranean and in the firwoods of the Atlas.
566-574; Longnon, Atlas historique de la France, both atlas and text.
The people of India already possessed their Brahmi alphabet, of these alphabets is drawn from this work and from the same author's Indische Palciographie in the Grundriss der indo-arischen Philologie, to which is attached an atlas of plates (Strassburg, 1896), and in which a full bibliography is given.
His zoological labours may be said to conclude with the atlas Icones zootomicae (Leipzig, 1841).
This was supplemented by an atlas, Icones physiologicae (Leipzig, 1839).
The"meridional ridges which formerly used to be traced here along the main water-partings do not exist in reality, and the country appears on the hypsometrical map in the Atlas de Finlande as a plateau of 350 ft.
And finally, the researches of Aspelin (Foundations of Finno-Ugrian Archaeology,,in Finnish, and Atlas of Antiquities) led the Finnish ethnologists to direct more and more their attention to the basin of the Yenisei and the Upper Selenga.
The Atlas de Finlande, published in 1899 by the Geographical Society of Finland, is a remarkably well executed and complete work.
Ragozin's Volga (3 vols., St Petersburg, 1880-81, with atlas; in Russian); N.
P. di Cesnola, A Descriptive Atlas of the Cesnola Collection of Cypr.
Nord-Syrien, Atlas, plate xlix.
A place called Mogador is marked in the 1351 Portulan of the Laurentian library, and the map in Hondius's Atlas minor shows the island of Mogador, I.
vi.; Lehmann and Neumann, Atlas and Essentials of Bacteriology; also the works of Migula and Fischer already cited.
The other most extensive centres of dense population are the coal-mining or manufacturing districts of Northumberland and Durham, of the midlands (parts of Warwickshire, Worcestershire and Leicestershire), and of South Wales and Monmouthshire; and it is in these districts, and others smaller, but of similar character, that the greatest increase of population has been recorded, since the extensive development of 'As in Bartholomew's Survey Atlas of England and Wales (1903).
For ordinary detailed work the best series of maps is found in Bartholomew's Survey Atlas of England and Wales (Edinburgh Geographical Institute, 1903), which, besides small distributional, physical and other maps and letterpress, contains a magnificent series of colouredcontour maps on the scale of z in.
His remaining publications were the Recollections of Paris in the years 1802-3-4-5 (1806); a very useful General Collection of Voyages and Travels (1808-1814); a New Modern Atlas (1808-1819); and his Petralogy (1811)
and atlas, 3 vols., Paris, 18 45-54); Elisee Reclus, Nouvelle geographie universelle, vol.
Geographical description has had a peculiar fascination for Colombian writers, and there have been a number of books issued since the appearance of Codazzi's Resumen and Atlas.
Perez, Atlas geogrdfico e historico de la Republica de Colombia (1893); R.
The appearance of the Atlas coelestis, corresponding to the British Catalogue, was delayed until 1729.
Meanwhile, the elementary requirement of making visual acquaintance with the stellar heavens was met, as regards the unknown southern skies, when Johann Bayer published at Nuremberg in 1603 a celestial atlas depicting twelve new constellations Bayer.
Loewy and P. Puiseux, Atlas photographique de la lune (Imprimerie Royale, Paris, 1896-1908); W.
ZENATA, or Zanata, a Berber tribe of Morocco in the district of the central Atlas.
Gallieni, Rapport d'ensemble sur la situation generale de Madagascar (2 vols., Paris, 1899); Revue de Madagascar, mensuelle, illustree (1895, et seq.); Guide de ?immigrant a Madagascar (3 vols., with atlas, Paris, 1899); Collection des anciens ouvrages relatifs a Madagascar, par les soins du comite de Madagascar (a collection and translation of all works relating to the island from 1500 to 1800, in To vols.), (Paris, 1899 et seq.); Bulletin trimestriel de l'academie de Malgache (quarterly) (Antananarivo, 1902 et seq.); G.
Wustmann, Aus Leipzigs Vergangenheit (Leipzig, 1898); Bilderbuch aus der Geschichte der Stadt Leipzig (Leipzig, 1897); Leipzig durch drei Jahrhunderte, Atlas zur Geschichte des Leipziger Stadtbildes (Leipzig, 1891); Quellen zur Geschichte Leipzigs (Leipzig, 1889-1895); and Geschichte der Stadt Leipzig (Leipzig, 1905); F.
Apart from the lowlands and the Atlas range, the continent may be divided into two regions of higher and lower plateaus, the dividing line (somewhat concave to the north-west) running from the middle of the Red Sea to about 6° S.
(2) The Atlas range, which, orographically, is distinct from the rest of the continent, being unconnected with any other area of high ground, and separated from the rest of the continent on the south by a depressed and desert area (the Sahara), in places below sea-level.
Towards the extreme west the Futa Jallon highlands form an important diverging point of rivers, but beyond this, as far as the Atlas chain, the elevated rim of the continent is almost wanting.
by the Atlas range, to the N.E.
The Atlas range, the north-westerly part of the continent, between its seaward and landward heights encloses elevated steppes in places 100 m.
of coast the arid region reaches to the Atlantic. Farther north are the streams, with comparatively short courses, which reach the Atlantic and Mediterranean from the Atlas mountains.
South of the Atlas range the conditions alter.
Of the grasses of Africa alfa is very abundant in the plateaus of the Atlas range.
Bears are confined to the Atlas region, wolves and foxes to North Africa.
In northern Africa the folded region of the Atlas belongs to the comparatively recent date of the Alpine system.
The effect of the Glacial epoch in Europe is shown in northern Africa by the moraines of the higher Atlas, and the wider extension of the glaciers on Kilimanjaro, Kenya and Ruwenzori, and by the extensive accumulations of gravel over the Sahara.
In the north the chief movements gave rise to the system of latitudinal folding and faulting of the Moroccan and Algerian Atlas, the last stages being represented by the formation of the Algerian and Moroccan coast-outline and the sundering of Europe from Africa at the Straits of Gibraltar.
above the sea, at the base of the Little Atlas, on the southern edge of the fertile plain of the Metija, and the right bank of the Wad-el-Kebir affluent of the Chiffa.
The best maps are those published by the French and British War Offices; an Atlas du tours du Niger de Tombouctou aux rapides de Boussa in 50 sheets on the scale of I: 50,000, by Lieut.
Its posterior end rests against the anterior surface of the transverse process of the atlas, from which it extends forwards and downwards, slightly curved, to beneath the ramus of the jaw.
p. 46, 1879; Leisering, Atlas der Anatomic des Pferdes (Leipzig, 1861); O.
Vt', Atlas; Vt2, second vertebrae; a, intercondyloid process of the atlas; b, the articular surfaces for the occipital condyles.
Aglaosthenes or Agaosthenes, an early writer, knew Ursa minor as Kvv600vpa, Cynosura, and recorded the translation of Aquila; Epimenides the Cretan (c. 600 B.C.) recorded the translation of Capricornus and the star Capella; Pherecydes of Athens (c. 500-450 B.C.) recorded the legend of Orion, and stated the astronomical fact that when Orion sets Scorpio rises; Aeschylus (525-456 B.C.) and Hellanicus of Mytilene (c. 496-411 B.C.) narrate the legend of the seven Pleiades - the daughters of Atlas; and the latter states that the Hyades are named either from their orientation, which resembles v (upsilon), " or because at their rising or setting Zeus rains "; and Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 470 B.C.) treated the legend of the Hydra.
Atlas of the biosphere and links to journals and various organizations.
Atlas of human anatomy for clinical imaging diagnosis.
Atlas of mortality.
For the rest of the 1950s, Regent sold a single spiral bound Atlas of Great Britain at 10 miles to the inch.
MapMate then compiles the Atlas and asks you to wait while the Atlas is being generated.
A Provisional Atlas of the True Bugs of Warwickshire.
Out of This World: The Golden Age of the Celestial Atlas.
Updated Maps The deadline for records included in the provisional Atlas was the end of 2000.
However it has sold lubricants, and in 1984 produced a hardback Atlas for use by its German subsidiary.
The historical Atlas of New York City takes.. .
Atlas mountains visible through our balcony window, all memories of London stress forgotten.
Esso appears to have abandoned sheet maps, but did issue a special value softback Atlas in 2000.
Appendix in A plankton Atlas of the north Atlantic and North Sea.
Map Map of Sicily, Italy [Based on AA Europe road Atlas, 1997] .
The brain Atlas can be shown either alongside the patients own scan or overlaid on top.
berth caravan is an Atlas Sahara Super.
The TOPS Atlas The atlas of topology cartoons was generated from the version of the PDB current on 1st July 1997.
chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax Good numbers of this species noted in the High Atlas around Er Rachidia on the 28th.
Traveling with ATLAS into the micro cosmos into an area of unknown physics.
This again is a county map, part of a very decorative atlas for the whole country.
Atlas 1 group package Featuring everything you need to start serving espresso / cappuccino straight away.
The Gardeners ' Atlas The on-line way to buy a regularly updated atlas to take on your UK garden hunting expeditions.
And there's an all-too-rare gig by the rather fab Booster Atlas on Friday 25th August.
foothills surrounded by the snowcapped peaks of the High Atlas Mountains.
hardback Atlas for use by its German subsidiary.
Wheater's functional histology - A Text & Color Atlas 4th edition Churchill Livingstone 1999.
histology Atlas of the mouse mammary gland.
kilim rugs and cushions from many regions, from the high Atlas mountains in Morocco to Anatolia, Iran and Afghanistan.
longhorn Atlas, Ireland is not covered.
most of the work with involve putting the study in context, with an explanation of the ATLAS TDAQ system.
particle physics detectors ever built, ATLAS will also pose a computing challenge of monumental scale.
plankton Atlas of the north Atlantic and North Sea.
For my part I chose the ATLAS EXPLORER from the mountain snow range of cables that are available here in the UK.
recommend downloading Virtual Moon Atlas.
The Atlas 2 carried a U.S. reconnaissance satellite into orbit.
The screen to the left of the wheel is the Atlas Fishfinder, which locates shoals of fish by sonar.
For each sector the atlas includes three maps: spatial distribution of firms; spatial distribution of firms; spatial distribution of ' clustered firms '; cluster zones.
tetrads occupied in the Essex Breeding Atlas.
No gone from many tetrads occupied in the Essex Breeding Atlas.
tremendous in scope, breathtaking in its suspense, Atlas Shrugged is unlike any other book you have ever read.
This fossil trilobite from the Atlas Mountains is 7, nearly 8, centimeters long.
trophoblast cell line with choriocarcinoma cells on the Atlas membranes.
BLUE TIT Parus caeruleus Noted in small numbers from the Middle Atlas northwards, all displaying the dark ultramarine " cap " .
The Atlas vertebra meets with the occipital condyles which flank the foramen magnum in the basilar part of the occipital bone of the skull.
RIFFIANS, the name given to the Berbers of the Rif district of Morocco, the mountain region bordering the north coast from Ceuta eastward nearly to the borders of Algeria and forming part of the Atlas range.
(2) The daughter of Atlas and wife of Sisyphus.
When Ibn Tumart died in 1128 at the monastery or ribat which he had founded in the Atlas at Tinmal, after suffering a severe defeat by the Murabtis, `Abd-el-Mumin kept his death secret for two years, till his own influence was established.
Brown; folios 26, 28, 32, 34, 44, 69, 7 2, 77 and 160 of the Geologic Atlas of the United States; M.
In the colossal temple of Zeus the huge Atlantes (figures of Atlas), 25 ft.
In 42, during the reign of Claudius, he put down a revolt in Mauretania, and was the first of the Romans to cross the Atlas range.
Lowe soon made his mark in the political world by his clever speeches, particularly on finance and education; and besides obtaining a large legal practice, he was one of the principal writers for the Atlas newspaper.
(2133 m.) on the Atlas Mountains.
Some sclerophyllous forests of the eastern Atlas Mountains are, owing to a comparatively high rainfall, characterized by many deciduotis trees, such as Fraxinus oxyphylla, Ulmus campestris (auct.
(914 metres) high, between the southern slopes of the Tell Atlas and the northern slopes of the Saharan Atlas.
It includes the Azores and Canaries, the Mediterranean basin, northern Africa as far as the Atlas and Sahara, Asia Minor, Persia and the countries eastward as far as Sind, being bounded to the north by the mountains which run from the Caucasus to the Hindu-Kush.
From these surveys were constructed the well-known maps which were forwarded to Duhalde, and which D'Anville utilized for his atlas.
Rennell was indefatigable in collecting geographical information; his Bengal atlas appeared in 1781, his famous map of India in 1788 and the memoir in 1792.
They are six in number: (1) Palaearctic, including Europe, Asia north of the Himalaya, and Africa north of the Sahara; (2) Ethiopian, consisting of Africa south of the Atlas range, and Madagascar; (3) Oriental, including India, Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago north of Wallace's line, which runs between Bali and Lombok; (4) Australian, including Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and Pol y nesia; (5) Nearctic or North America, north of Mexico; and (6) Neotropical or South America.
There is, however, a tendency for people to remain rooted to the 2 See maps of density of population in Bartholomew's great largescale atlases, Atlas of Scotland and Atlas of England.
(2) Procoelous, concave in front; only in the atlas, for the reception of the occipital condyle.
The atlas is composed of three pieces; a pair of lateral ele ptz pt.z W " ments (the right and left dorsal arch pieces) joining above the spinal cord, and a ventral piece equivalent to the first basiventral elements, i.e.
In the adults the atlas forms a more or less solid ring.
Leuret and P. Gratiolet, Anatomie comparee du systeme nerveux (Paris, 1839-1857), with atlas; A.
Breschet, Recherches anatomiques et physiologiques sur l'organe de l'audition chez les oiseaux (Paris, 1836), with Atlas; C. Hasse, various papers in Zeitschr.
Ibsen, Atlas anatomicus auris internae (Copenhagen, 1846); G.
Reichenow, two maps with much detail, although badly arranged, in Berghaus' Physikalischer Atlas, pt.
According to Hesiod (Theogony, 215) they were the daughters of Erebus and Night; in later accounts, of Atlas and Hesperis, or of Phorcys and Ceto (schol.
and Atlas, Paris, 1869); W.
The northern portion of Asia, as far south as the Himalaya, is not zoologically distinct from Europe, and these two areas, with the strip of Africa north of the Atlas, constitute the Palaearctic region of Dr Sclater, whose zoological primary divisions of the earth have met with the general approval of naturalists.
His confidence that his vastly enhanced powers would enable him first to coerce, and thereafter to overthrow, the British empire may be illustrated by his allowing the appearance in 1807 of an official atlas of Australia in which about one-third of that continent figures as "Terre Napoleon."
Its professedly systematic form strictly relegates it to another group of works, but the presence of an " Atlas " (also in octavo) of one hundred and nineteen plates to some extent justifies its notice in this place.
In 1870 Anton Fritsch completed his Naturgeschichte der Vogel Europas (8vo, with atlas in folio); and in 1871 Messrs Sharpe and Dresser began the publication of their Birds of Europe, which was completed by the latter in 1879 (8 vols.
(1889); "Verslagen van de wetenschappelijke opnemingen en onderzoekingen op de Keij-Eilanden" (1889-1890), by Planten and Wertheim (1893), with map and ethnographical atlas of the south-western and south-eastern islands by Pleyte; Langen, Die Keyoder Kii-Inseln (Vienna, 1902).
Lastly, a collection of maps is called an atlas, after the figure of Atlas, the Titan, supporting the heavens, which ornamented the title of Lafreri's and Mercator's atlases in the 16th century.
Their variety is considerable, for they are designed to illustrate physical and political geography, travel and navigation, trade and commerce, and, in fact, every subject connected with geographical distribution and capable of being illustrated by means of a map. We thus have (1) physical maps in great variety, including geological, orographical and hydrographical maps, maps illustrative of the geographical distribution of meteorological phenomena, of plants and animals, such as are to be found in Berghaus's " Physical Atlas," of which an enlarged English edition is published by J.
Bartholomew of Edinburgh; (2) political maps, showing political boundaries; (3) ethnological maps, illustrating the distribution of the varieties of man, the density of population, &c.; (4) travel maps, showing roads or railways and ocean-routes (as is done by Philips' " Marine Atlas "), or designed for the special use of cyclists or aviators; (5) statistical maps, illustrating commerce and industries; (6) historical maps; (7) maps specially designed for educational purposes.
In adopting a scale for their maps, cartographers will do well to choose a multiple of loon if possible, for such a scale can claim to be international, while in planning an atlas they ought to avoid a needless multiplicity of scales.
They not only indicate the height of the land, but also enable us to compute the declivity of the mountain slopes; and if minor features of ground lying between two contours - such as ravines, as also rocky precipices and glaciers - are indicated, as is done on the Siegfried atlas of Switzerland, they fully meet the requirements of the scientific man, the engineer and the mountain-climber.
For use in the field, however, and for scientific work, a contoured map like Siegfried's atlas of Switzerland, or, in the case of hilly country, a map shaded on the assumption of a vertical light, will prove more useful than one of these, notwithstanding that truth to nature and artistic beauty are claimed on their behalf.
In the museum of Naples there is a celestial globe, 2 metres in diameter, supported upon the shoulders of an Atlas, which E.
Heis, j udging by the constellations engraved upon it (Atlas coelestis novus, Bonn, 1872) judges to date from the 4th century B.C. It may even be the work of Eudoxus (d.
- Globe in Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris a celestial globe (an older globe by Ho-shing-tien, 4 metres in circumference was produced in 450), and an atlas of the empire on a large scale by Thu-sie-pun (1311-1312) of which new enlarged editions with many maps were published in the 6th century and in 1799.
The " Atlas " was only published after Mercator's death, in 1595 It only contained nine maps, but after the plates had been sold to Jodocus (Jesse) Hondius the number of maps was rapidly increased, although Mercator's name was retained.
Barentszoon published a marine atlas of the Mediterranean, the major axis of which he reduced to 42 degrees.
1673) and grandson Cornelius, and before the end of the century turned out a Zee-Spiegel of 108 charts (1623), an Atlas novus (Nieuwe Atlas), 1642, enlarged in the course of time until it consisted of 12 folio volumes containing hundreds of maps.
Saxton (County Atlas of England and Wales 1 575), J.
A Novus atlas sinensis, based upon Chinese surveys, was published in 1655 by Martin Martini, S.J., a missionary recently returned from China.
his Atlas general (1737-1780); he swept away the fanciful lakes from off the face of Africa, thus forcibly bringing home to us the poverty of our knowledge (fig.
James Rennell (1742-1830), who was surveyor-general of India, published the Bengal Atlas (1781), and sagaciously arranged the vast mass of information collected by British travellers and others in India and Africa, but it is chiefly with the name of Aaron Arrowsmith, who came to London in 1778, and his successors, with which the glory of the older school of cartographers is most intimately connected.
Senex, whose atlas was published in 1725, and Dowet, whose atlas was brought out at the expense of the duke of Argyll.
Walser (Atlas novus Helvetiae, 1769), and W.
Meyer, Atlas der Schweiz (1786-1802).
Of Denmark a fine map was published under the auspices of the Academy of Science of Copenhagen (1766-1825) of Spain and Portugal an atlas in 102 sheets by Thomas Lopez (1765-1802); of Russia a map by J.
von Spruner's Historical Atlas (1438-1488), H.
Berghaus' Physical Atlas (1838-1842), E.
von Sydow's Wall Maps for Schools (1838-1840) and School Atlas (1847).
Delagrave (Levaseur's maps), Hachette (Vivien de St Martin's Atlas universel, in progress since 1875, F.
Schrader's Atlas de geographie moderne, 1880), and Armand Colin (Vidal de la Blache's Atlas general, 1894).
Arrowsmith established himself in London in 1770 (General Atlas, 1817), but the cartographical business ceased on the death of John Arrowsmith in 1873.
Johnston (founded 1825; Royal Atlas, 1855); J.
Bartholomew (Reduced Survey maps, Atlas of the World's Commerce, 1906); Philip & Sons (Imperial Atlas, 1890; Systematic Atlas by E.
Ravenstein, 1894; Mercantile Marine Atlas, 1904, globes), and E.
Lelewel's Geographie du moyen age, with an atlas (Brussels, 1850-1857), has in part been superseded by more recent researches.
Jomard's Monuments de la geographie (Paris, 1862), Santarem's Atlas compose de mappemondes et de portulans, &c. (Paris, 1842-1853, 78 plates).
Nordenskiold's Facsimile Atlas (Stockholm, 1889), Gabriel Marcell, Choix de cartes et de mappemondes X I V et X V siecles (Paris, 1896).
Harris, Tafilet, a Journey of Exploration in the Atlas Mountains, &c. (London, 1895), full of valuable information; Budgett Meakin, The Land of the Moors (London, 1901), first and last chapters; Dr Oskar Lenz, Timbuktu: Reise durch Marokko, vol.
du Comite des travaux historiques (1885), pp. 121 and 150; Revue archeologique (1884 and 1897); Bulletin des antiquites africaines (1884 and 1885); Bulletin de la Societe archeologique de Sousse (first published in 1903); Atlas archeol.
Toutain, Les Cites romaines de la Tunisie (1895); Atlas archeologique de la Tunisie, published by the Ministry of Public Instruction (1895 foll.); Atlas archeologique de l'Algerie, published by Stephane Gsell (1900 foil.); Toulotte, Geographic de l'Afrique chretienne (1892-1894); Corpus inscriptionum latinarum, vol.
He produced many valuable official reports and catalogues and a great number of memoirs and monographs on points connected with palaeography and the study of history and archaeology (see his Melanges de paleographie et de bibliographie (1880) with atlas; and his articles in the Album paleographique (1887).
Among representative serials are the following - Archaeology: Museo italiano di antichita classica (1885) with atlas in folio; Oriens christianus (1901); Nuovo bollettino di archeologia cristiana, quarterly at Rome (1895).
Calculating from sheet A I of the Prince of Monaco's Atlas of Ocean Depths,' Kriimmel obtained a mean angle of slope of 0Ã‚° 2 7 ' 44" or an average fall of i in 124 for the North Atlantic between oÃ‚° and 47Ã‚° N., the enclosed seas being left out of account.
The Dahra range (see Mostaganem) overlooks the sea, and is separated from the Warsenis by the valley of the Shelif (see Atlas Mountains, Sahara and Tuat).
de Gramont, Histoire d'Alger sous la domination turque (1887); Mercier, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale (1888-1891); Eugene Plantet, Correspondance des deys d'Alger avec la tour de France (1889-1892); Paul Masson, Histoire des etablissements et du commerce francais dans l'Afrique barbaresque (1903); General Faure-Biguet, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale sous la domination musulmane (1905); (b) for the French period: Camille Rousset, La Conquete d'Alger (8th ed., 1899), Les Commencements d'une conquete: l'Algerie de 1830 a 1840, with atlas (1887), and La Conquete de l'Algerie, 184118J7, with atlas (1889); Pelissier, Annales algeriennes (1854); Leon Roches, Trente-deux ans a travers l'Islam (1884-1887); Colonel Trumelet, Histoire de l'insurrection des Ouled-Sidi-Cheik (1887); Rinn, Histoire de l'insurrection de 1871 (1891).
transpose Laban and Pharao, are generally to a more usual order, as in Shelley's Witch of Atlas, 65, "She first was changed" to "she was first changed."
Konin, Atlas of Emission Spectra (Eng.
The name is hence applied to a volume of maps (see MAP), and similarly to a volume which contains a tabular conspectus of a subject, such as an atlas of ethnographical subjects or anatomical plates.
Apart from the lowlands and the Atlas range, the continent may be divided into two regions of higher and lower plateaus, the dividing line (somewhat concave to the north-west) running from the middle of the Red Sea to about 6Ã‚° S.
All living batrachians, and some of the Stegocephalia, have transverse processes on the vertebrae that succeed the atlas (fig.
If you would like to see a simulation of libration that really brings it to life then I recommend downloading Virtual Moon Atlas.
Provided by University of Iowa Health Care, this multimedia textbook provides a high-quality color atlas of sectional anatomy in the axial plane.
For each sector the atlas includes three maps: spatial distribution of firms; spatial distribution of ' clustered firms '; cluster zones.
The atlas is provided with tetrad maps produced by the Records Center.
Tremendous in scope, breathtaking in its suspense, Atlas Shrugged is unlike any other book you have ever read.
RESULTS: The expression of nine genes was strongly different comparing a normal trophoblast cell line with choriocarcinoma cells on the Atlas membranes.
BLUE TIT Parus caeruleus Noted in small numbers from the Middle Atlas northwards, all displaying the dark ultramarine " cap ".
The atlas vertebra meets with the occipital condyles which flank the foramen magnum in the basilar part of the occipital bone of the skull.
The atlas wascrucialin learning about the geography of Asian countries.
Sponsored by the United States government, National Atlas provides some unique maps of the United States.
National Atlas is the perfect site for those wanting general maps of the United States to print that you can't find anywhere else.
For interesting maps of the United States, go to National Atlas.
Kids will also learn about important people and enjoy special features like a color atlas that make learning new information fun and engaging.
The dictionary and atlas that are included with this version are more extensive and contain additional information about words and countries.
Atlas Tortoise Reading Glass: True to its name, the Atlas is done in a very attractive tortoise style that's coupled with a brown polarized lens.
Atlas Shield: These brown lenses are bold, modern and are accented by a silver, circular embellishment.
Del Dotto offers barrel tasting at their caves on Atlas Peak Road or visit their new winery in St. Helena.
If you're more of a pro a must-have is The World Atlas of Wine.
Smith, Audrey, et al. A Practical Atlas of Congenital Heart Disease.
Atlas of Amputations and Limb Deficiencies: Surgical, Prosthetic, and Rehabilitation Principles.
Prose and Leonard Kristal Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology New York: McGraw-Hill Health Professions Division, 1998.
Stack. Atlas of Emergency Medicine, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.
Atlas of Allergies and Clinical Immunology.
Idell Pyle's atlas of skeletal development and Tanner and White's method are the two major assessment tools for wrist radiography.
In addition, an ultrasound version of the Greulich-Pyle Atlas has proven to be as effective as wrist x rays.
Maps: Specialized maps of the chosen destination can be included for a single country gift basket, or a miniature globe or atlas is perfect for a worldwide theme.
As gifts, it's a rare travel enthusiast who doesn't get excited about a new map or atlas.
You can also hike, bike, enjoy the spa, enjoy souk trawling, and spend time in the High Atlas Mountains.
An atlas of the United States features a map of the country, along with individual pages covering single states and major metropolitan areas.
The Mediterranean, however, has apparently been a barrier to the southward passage of the arcto-alpine flora which is totally wanting on the Atlas.
Sometimes the pad is reduced to a ventral semi-ring or meniscus; it retains its largest almost original shape and size in the second vertebra, the axis or epistropheus, where it forms a separately ossifying piece which connects, and coossifies with, the odontoid process (the centrum of the atlas) and the centrum of the second vertebra.
The extreme south-west part of the continent constitutes a separate zoological district, comprising Arabia, Palestine and southern Persia, and reaching, like the hot desert botanical tract, to Baluchistan and Sind; it belongs to what Dr Sclater calls the Ethiopian region, which extends over Africa, south of the Atlas.
He is best known by his marine chart (1569) and his atlas.
Stanford (London Atlas).
Kretschmer's Atlas zur Entdeckung Amerikas (Berlin, 1892), G.
The original surveys, carefully revised, have been published since 1870 as a Topographical Atlas of Switzerland - the so-called Siegfried Atlas, in 552 sheets.
The results have been published on a scale of 1:25,000 (776 sheets, since 1866), 1:50,000 (Topographic and Military Map, 62 sheets, 1850-1864, and a Waterstaatskaart, 1864-1892), and 1:200,000 (Topographical Atlas, 21 sheets, 1868-1871).
Coello's Atlas de la Espana (1848-1890), the maps of which are on a scale of I: 200,000.
An Indian Atlas, on a scale of 1: 255,660, includes also Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula, but although begun so long ago as 1827 many of its sheets are unpublished.
von Richthofen's Atlas von China (1:750,000, and Spain.
For general purposes the Atlas der Nederlandsche Bezittingen in Oost-Indie by J.
Good maps of the Portuguese colonies are to be found in an Atlas colonial Portugues, a second edition of which was published by the Commissao de Cartographia in 1909.
Vergara y Velasco's Atlas de geografia colombiana (1906-1908); Ecuador is fairly well represented by Th.
Wolf (1892) and Hans Meier (1907); in the case of Peru we still largely depend upon Paz Soldan's Atlas geografica (1865-1867) and A.
de Beaurepaire-Rohan (1876) to prepare a map of Brazil on a scale of I: 200,000 has never been acted upon, and in the meantime we are dependent upon works like the Atlas do imperio do Brazil by Mendes de Almeida (1868) or the maps in our general atlases.
Seelstrang's Atlas (1886-1892) nor H.
His name first came before the public in 1683, when a prospectus was published in Edinburgh entitled An Account of the Scottish Atlas, stating that "the Privy Council of Scotland has appointed John Adair, mathematician and skilfull mechanick, to survey the shires."
Vesper), the evening star, son or brother of Atlas.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.