Two other passes, farther to the west, were crossed by the roads from Plataea to Athens and to Megara respectively.
That Athens had the worst of it in this war is certain.
That Athens had the worst of it in this war is certain.
Mr. Anagnos is in Athens now.
He died at Athens on the 10th of October 1907.
He quoted the passages in which she explains that college is not the "universal Athens" she had hoped to find, and cited the cases of other remarkable persons whose college life had proved disappointing.
for Athens against Sparta.
Dinarchus died at Athens about 291.
for Athens against Sparta.
In the struggle between Syracuse and Athens (415-413) the city remained absolutely neutral.
After 445 Athens was hardly in a position to summon such a congress, and would not have sent to envoys out of 20 to northern and central Greece, where she had just lost all her influence; nor is it likely that the building of the Parthenon (begun not later than 447) was entered on before the congress.
This site of the Prytaneum at Athens cannot be definitely fixed; it is generally supposed that in the course of time several buildings bore the name.
As the final victory of Athens over Aegina was in 458 B.C., the thirty years of the oracle would carry us back to the year 488 B.C. as the date of the dedication of the precinct and the outbreak of hostilities.
The inhabitants sided with Athens during the Peloponnesian War, and during the Roman invasion their city was of considerable importance.
In recent years attempts have been made by Albanians resident abroad to propagate the national idea among their compatriots at home; committees have been formed at Brussels, Bucharest, Athens and elsewhere, and books, pamphlets and newspapers are surreptitiously sent into the country.
Plato, while admiring Pericles' intellect, accuses him of pandering to the mob; Aristotle in his Politics and especially in the Constitution of Athens, which is valuable in that it gives the dates of Pericles' enactments as derived from an official document, accepts the same view.
Gardner, Ancient Athens (London, 1902), for his strategy, H.
At the same time Athens embarked on several wars in Greece Proper.
I hope you will go with me to Athens to see the maid of Athens.
Please give my love to your good Greek friends, and tell them that I shall come to Athens some day.
The best known of these is that of Dryoscephalae, which must then, as slow, have been the direct route from Athens to Thebes.
Athens at once appealed to Sparta to punish this act of medism, and Cleomenes I., one of the Spartan kings, crossed over to the island, to arrest those who were responsible for it.
the thirty years that were to elapse between the dedication of the precinct to Aeacus and the final victory of Athens (Herod.
By the terms of the Thirty Years' Truce (445 B.C.) Athens covenanted to restore to Aegina her autonomy, but the clause remained a dead letter.
In the first winter of the Peloponnesian War (431 B.C.) Athens expelled the Aeginetans, and established a cleruchy in their island.
the thirty years that were to elapse between the dedication of the precinct to Aeacus and the final victory of Athens (Herod.
a bribe, and hastened to reconquer Euboea; but the other land possessions could not be recovered, and in a thirty years' truce which was arranged in 445 Athens definitely renounced her predominance in Greece Proper.
The combined complaints of the injured parties led Sparta to summon a Peloponnesian congress which decided on war against Athens, failing a concession to Megara and Corinth (autumn 432).
But he could hardly be said seriously to have oppressed the subject cities, and technically all the League money was spent on League business, for Athena, to whom the chief monuments in Athens were reared, was the patron goddess of the League.
See ATHENS: History; GREECE: Ancient History; and GREEK ART.
Many cases occur where such an office was hereditary; thus the family of Callias at Athens were proxeni of the Spartans.
Thebes, after the defeat by Athens about 507 B.C., appealed to Aegina for assistance.
"Oh, yes!" she replied; "because last hour I was thinking very hard of Mr. Anagnos, and then my mind,"--then changing the word--"my soul was in Athens, but my body was here in the study."
Local and regional peculiarities, however, disappear almost wholly in the 5th and 4th centuries, under the overpowering influence of Athens.
Anaxagoras was threatened with a law against atheists, and felt compelled to leave Athens.
In the latter half of the century large colonies of Tosks were planted in the Morea by the despots of Mistra, and in Attica and Boeotia by Duke Nerio of Athens.
He sent large armies into European Greece, and his generals occupied Athens.
DINARCHUS, last of the "ten" Attic orators, son of Sostratus (or, according to Suidas, Socrates), born at Corinth about 361 B.C. He settled at Athens early in life, and when not more than twenty-five was already active as a writer of speeches for the law courts.
The museum was the first institution of its kind in Greece, but the collection was transferred to Athens in 1834.
The history of Aegina, as it has come down to us, is almost exclusively a history of its relations with the neighbouring state of Athens.
At the end of the Peloponnesian War Lysander restored the scattered remnants of the old inhabitants to the island, which was used by the Spartans as a base for operations against Athens in the Corinthian War.
It is probable that the power of Aegina had steadily declined during the twenty years after Salamis, and that it had declined absolutely, as well as relatively, to that of Athens.
For the criticism of Herodotus's account of the relations of Athens and Aegina, Wilamowitz, Aristoteles and Athen, ii.
PHEIDIAS, son of Charmides, universally regarded as the greatest of Greek sculptors, was born at Athens about 500 B.C. We have varying accounts of his training.
Hegias of Athens, Ageladas of Argos, and the Thasian painter Polygnotus, have all been regarded as his teachers.
According to Plutarch he was made an object of attack by the political enemies of Pericles, and died in prison at Athens.
On the other hand, inscriptions prove that the marble blocks intended for the pedimental statues of the Parthenon were not brought to Athens until 434 B.C., which was probably after the death of Pheidias.
On the Acropolis of Athens he set up a colossal bronze image of Athena, which was visible far out at sea.
But among the Greeks themselves the two works of Pheidias which far outshone all others, and were the basis of his fame, were the colossal figures in gold and ivory of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena Parthenos at Athens, both of which belong to about the middle of the 5th century.
Much more satisfactory as evidence are some 5th century torsos of Athena found at Athens.
In 412 the island revolted from Athens and became the headquarters of the Peloponnesian fleet.
In the 4th century its political development was arrested by constant struggles between oligarchs and democrats, who in turn brought the city under the control of Sparta (4 12 -395, 39 1 -37 8), of Athens (395-39 1, 37 8 -357), and of 'the Carian dynasty of Maussollus (357-340).
He was worshipped at Oropus, Athens and Sparta.
He not only spent large sums in the acquisition of his library, but stole original documents from the archives of Athens and other cities of Greece.
The characters in his plays are the stock characters of the new comedy of Athens, and they remind us also of the standing figures of the Fabulae atellanae (Maccus, Bucco, Dossennus, &c.).
It sits at Athens.
The metropolitan of Athens is president, and there are four other members appointed by the government in annual rotation from the senior bishops.
The word signifies horned cattle, and is found in Shakespeare's own writing, in the restored line "It is the pasture lards the rother's sides" (Timon of Athens), '' where "brother's" was originally the accredited reading.
Athens, the headquarters of the Mithradatic cause, was taken and sacked in 86; and in the same year, at Chaeroneia, the scene of Philip II.
There seems no doubt that he lived some time at Athens, where it is said that he became so unpopular (probably owing to his supposed atheistical opinions) that his life was in danger.
The name is especially given to the great entrance hall of the Acropolis at Athens, which was begun in 437 B.C. by Pericles, to take the place of an earlier gateway.
Owing probably to political difficulties and to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, the building was never completed according to the original plans; but the portion that was built was among the chief glories of Athens, and afforded a model to many subsequent imitators.
In medieval times the Propylaea served (Redrawn from the Athenische Mitteilungen by permission of the Kaiserliches Archaeologisches Institut.) as the palace of the dukes of Athens; they were much damaged by the explosion of a powder magazine in 1656.
But both at Rome and at Athens we see, at a stage earlier than the final reform, an attempt to set up a standard of wealth, either instead of or alongside of the older standard of birth.
At Athens, at any rate after Aristides, the eupatrid was neither better nor worse off than another man.
But, what is of far greater importance, there never arose at Athens any body of men which at all answered to the nobilitas of Rome.
We have at Athens the exact parallel to the state of things when Appius Claudius shrank from the thought of the consulship of Gaius Licinius; we have no exact parallel to the state of things when Quintus Metellus shrank from the thought of the consulship of Gaius Marius.
The cause of the difference seems to be that, while the origin of the patriciate was exactly the same at Rome and at Athens, the origin of the commons was different.
The four Ionic tribes at Athens seem to have answered very closely to the three patrician tribes at Rome; but the Athenian demos grew up in a different way from the Roman plebs.
If we could believe that the Athenian demos arose out of the union of the 1 See further Athens: History, and Eupatridae.
If so, there would be no place in Athens for those great plebeian houses, once patrician in some other commonwealth, out of which the later Roman nobilitas was so largely formed.
Thus the history of nobility at Athens supplies a close analogy to the earlier stages of its history at Rome, but it has nothing answering to its later stages.
At Sparta we have a third instance of a people shrinking up into a nobility, but it is a people whose position differs altogether from anything either at Rome or at Athens.
As Athens supplies us with a parallel to the older nobility of Rome without any parallel to the later, so Venice supplies us with a parallel to the later nobility of Rome without any parallel to the earlier.
Athens has Fabii and Claudii, but no Catuli or Metelli; Venice has Catuli and Metelli, but no Fabii or Claudii.
Thus at Athens 1 its history is in its main outlines very much the same as its history at Rome up to a Y Y P certain point, while there is nothing at Athens which at all answers to the later course of things at Rome.
Athenian At Athens, as at Rome, an old patriciate, a nobility of by commerce.
We have seen that this was the case at Athens; it was largely the case in the democratic cantons of Switzerland; indeed the nobility of Rome itself, after the privileges of the patricians were abolished, rested on no other foundation.
She was regarded as the ancestress of the Heracleidae, and worshipped at Thebes and Athens.
Aristotle's Constitution of Athens (ch.
To enter here into an exhaustive account of the various theories which even before, though especially after, the appearance of the Constitution of Athens have been propounded as to the chronology of the Peisistratean tyranny, is impossible.
Sandys's edition of the Constitution of Athens (p. 56, c. 14 note).
With this force he proceeded to make himself master of the Acropolis and tyrant of Athens.
A beautiful woman, it is said, by name Phya, was disguised as Athena and drove into the Agora with Peisistratus at her side, while proclamations were made that the goddess herself was restoring Peisistratus to Athens.
From this time till his death he remained undisputed master of Athens.
Yet there is no doubt that the rule of Peisistratus was most beneficial to Athens both in her foreign and in her internal relations.
(I) During his enforced absence from Athens he had evidently acquired a far more extended idea of the future of Athens than had hitherto dawned on the somewhat parochial minds of her leaders.
1 It should be noted as against this, the general account, that Thucydides, speaking apparently with accuracy, describes the tax as (5%); the Constitution of Athens speaks of (the familiar) SEKar7 (10%).
What Solon said of him in his youth was true throughout, "there is no better-disposed man in Athens, save for his ambition."
Shortly, his services to Greece and to the world may be summed up under three heads: In foreign policy, he sketched out the plan on which Athens was to act in her external relations.
By means of his sons and his deputies (or viceroys) and by his system of matrimonial alliances he gave Athens a widespread influence in the centres of commerce, and brought her into connexion with the growing sources of trade and production in the eastern parts of the Greek world.
(3) It was under his auspices that Athens began to take the lead in literature.
But see Athens.
12, 5-1315 b.; Constitution of Athens (Ath.
ANTISTHENES (c. 444-365 B.C.), the founder of the Cynic school of philosophy, was born at Athens of a Thracian mother, a fact which may account for the extreme boldness of his attack on conventional thought.
So eager was he to hear the words of Socrates that he used to walk daily from Peiraeus to Athens, and persuaded his friends to accompany him.
His extensive knowledge, combined with great oratorical powers, raised him to eminence both in Athens and in Rome.
When the servile Athenians, feigning to share the emperor's displeasure with the sophist, pulled down a statue which they had erected to him, Favorinus remarked that if only Socrates also had had a statue at Athens, he might have been spared the hemlock.
Having made a fortune by teaching and lecturing in Chalcedon he spent the rest of his life chiefly at Athens, where he died.
This chapter has also appeared in Polish (Cracow, 1844) and Greek (Athens, 1840).
Haloa, obviously connected with aces (" threshing-floor "), begun at Athens and finished at Eleusis, where there was a threshing-floor of Triptolemus, in the month Poseideon (December).
After studying at the Ecole Normale Superieure he was sent to the French school at Athens in 1853, directed some excavations in Chios, and wrote an historical account of the island.
He died at Athens on the 19th of September 1860.
When Seleucus was assassinated by Heliodorus, Antiochus IV., his brother, who had been chief magistrate at Athens, came xv.
Caimi the present Jewish communities of Greece are divisible into five groups: (r) Arta (Epirus); (2) Chalcis (Euboea); (3) Athens (Attica); (4) Volo, Larissa and Trikala (Thessaly); and (5) Corfu and Zante (Ionian Islands).
It is difficult, moreover, not to connect the repeated wall-paintings and reliefs of the palace illustrating the cruel bull sports of the Minoan arena, in which girls as well as youths took part, with the legend of the Minotaur, or bull of Minos, for whose grisly meals Athens was forced to pay annual tribute of her sons and daughters.
Minoan culture under its mainland aspect left its traces on the Acropolis at Athens, - a corroboration of the tradition which made the Athenians send their tribute children to Minoan influences Minos.
- Near this village, lying on the easternmost coast of Crete, the British School at Athens has excavated a section of a considerable Minoan town.
Hall, " Keftiu and the Peoples of the Sea," Annual of British School at Athens, viii.
The cabinet of Athens, however, declined to recall the expeditionary force, which remained in the interior till the 9th of May, when, after the Greek reverses in Thessaly and Epirus, an order was given for its return.
Zaimis had made a further advance towards the annexation of the island to Greece by a visit to Athens, where he arranged for a loan with the Greek National Bank and engaged Greek officers for the new gendarmerie.
Stillman, The Cretan Insurrection of 1866-68 (New York, 1874); Edwardes, Letters from Crete (London, 1887); Stavrakis, ETaTLUTLai (Athens, 1890); J.
He also posed as an author and patron of literature; his poems, severely criticized by Philoxenus, were hissed at the Olympic games; but having gained a prize for a tragedy on the Ransom of Hector at the Lenaea at Athens, he was so elated that he engaged in a debauch which proved fatal.
ancient philosophy was dying out in the schools of Athens, that the speculative mysticism of Neoplatonism made a.
Thomas graduated at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, in 1815, and in August 1816 was admitted to the bar at Lancaster, where he won high rank as an advocate.
decided to continue the war against Athens and give strong support to the Spartans, he sent in 408 the young prince into Asia Minor, as satrap of Lydia and Phrygia Major with Cappadocia, and commander of the Persian troops, "which gather into the field of Castolos" (Xen.
Dawkins, Annual of British School at Athens, ix.
He had resided at Rome as a hostage, and afterwards for his pleasure at Athens, and had brought to his kingdom an admiration for republican institutions and an enthusiasm for Hellenic culture - or, at any rate, for its externals.
He spent lavishly on public buildings at home and in the older centres of Hellenism, like Athens.
He was educated at Franklin College, Athens, Georgia, and at South Carolina College, Columbia, and was admitted to the bar in 1829.
We find him again in Nicomedia, in Athens, and twice in Arabia.
From 1886 dates the finding of Mycenaean sepulchres outside the Argolid, from which, and from the continuation of Tsountas's exploration of the buildings and lesser graves at Mycenae, a large treasure, independent of Schliemann's princely gift, has been gathered into the National Museum at Athens.
During the excavations on the Acropolis at Athens, terminated in 1888, many potsherds of the Mycenaean style were found; but Olympia had yielded either none, or such as had not been recognized before being thrown away, and the temple site at Delphi produced nothing distinctively Aegean.
Melos, long marked as a source of early objects, but not systematically excavated until taken in hand by the British School at Athens in 1896, yielded at Phylakope remains of all the Aegean periods, except the Neolithic. A map of Cyprus in the later Bronze Age (such as is given by J.
- Much of the evidence is contained in archaeological periodicals, especially Annual of the British School at Athens (1900-); Monumenti Antichi and Rendiconti d.
Noack, Homerische Paldste (1903); Excavations at Phylakopi, by members of the British School at Athens (1904); Harriet A.
There is more than one meaning of Athens discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
The whole design was modified in 1688 so as to represent a triumphal arch in honour of Morosini Peloponnesiaco, who brought from Athens to Venice the four lions in Pentelic marble which now stand before the gate.
There are 29 counties in which coal is produced, but 81.4% of it in 1908 came from Belmont, Athens, Jefferson, Guernsey, Perry, Hocking, Tuscarawas and Jackson counties.
There are hospitals for the insane at Athens, Columbus, Dayton, Cleveland, Carthage (to m.
Three institutions for higher education are supported in large measure by the state: Ohio University at Athens, founded in 1804 on the proceeds derived from two townships granted by Congress to the Ohio Company; Miami University (chartered in 1809) at Oxford, which received the proceeds from a township granted by Congress in the Symmes purchase; and Ohio State University (1873) at Columbus, which received the proceeds from the lands granted by Congress under the act of 1862 for the establishment of agricultural and mechanical colleges, and reorganized as a university in 1878.
Its effect was to remove from Athens for a period of ten years any person who threatened the harmony and tranquillity of the body politic. A similar device existed at various times in Argos, Miletus, Syracuse and Megara, but in these cities it appears to have been introduced under Athenian influence.
In Athens in the sixth prytany of each year the representatives of the Boule asked the Ecclesia whether it was for the welfare of the state that ostracism should take place.
The ostracized person was compelled to leave Athens for ten years, but he was nOt regarded as a traitor or criminal.
Aristotle's Constitution of Athens (c. 22) gives a.
Thus in the Persian Wars, it deprived Athens of the wisdom of Xanthippus and Aristides, while at the battle of Tanagra and perhaps at the time of the Egyptian expedition the assistance of Cimon was lacking.
On the whole, the history of its effect in Athens, Argos, Miletus, Megara and Syracuse (where it was called Petalismus), furnishes no sufficient defence against its admitted disadvantages.
4, and note that in Athens, ostracism gratuitously anticipated a crime which, if committed, would have been punishable in the popular Heliaea.
SEXTUS EMPIRICUS (2nd and 3rd centuries A.D.), physician and philosopher, lived at Alexandria and at Athens.
In 107 Hadrian was legatus praetorius of lower Pannonia, in 108 consul suffectus, in 112 archon at Athens, legatus in the Parthian campaign (113117), in 117 consul designatus for the following year, in 119 consul for the third and last time only for four months.
Athens, however, was the favourite site of his architectural labours; here he built the temple of Olympian Zeus, the Panhellenion, the Pantheon, the library, a gymnasium and a temple of Hera.
The natural situation of Athens was such as to favour the growth of a powerful community.
On the other hand Athens, like Corinth, Megara and Argos, was sufficiently far from the sea to enjoy security against the sudden descent of a hostile fleet.
The earliest known description of Athens was that of Diodorus, o ireptryris, who lived in the second half of the 4th century B.C. Among his successors were Polemon of Ilium (beginning of 2nd century B.C.),whose great irepco)ynvcs gave a minute account of thevotiveofferings'on the Acropolis and the tombs on the Sacred Way; and Heliodorus (second half of the 2nd century) who wrote fifteen volumes on the monuments of Athens.
143 and 159 Pausanias visited Athens at a time when the monuments of the great age were still in their perfection and the principal embellishments of the Roman period had already been completed.
The first thirty chapters of his invaluable Description of Greece (7 EP/7-flOiS T17s 'EXX630s) are devoted to Athens, its ports and environs.
His accuracy, which has been called in question by some scholars, has been remarkably vindicated by recent excavations at Athens and elsewhere.
The notices of Athens during the earlier middle ages are scanty in the extreme.
In 1395 Niccolo da Martoni, a pilgrim from the Holy Land, visited Athens and wrote a description of a portion of the city.
The systematic study of Athenian topography was begun in the 17th century by French residents at Athens, the consuls Giraud and Chataignier and the Capuchin monks.
The visit of the French physician Jacques Spon and the Englishman, Sir George Wheler or Wheeler (1650-1723), fortunately took place before the catastrophe of the Parthenon in 1687; Spon's Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant, which contained the first scientific description of the ruins of Athens, appeared in 1678; Wheler's Journey into Greece, in 1682.
The monumental work of James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who spent three years at Athens (1751-1754), marked an epoch in the progress of Athenian topography and is still indispensable to its study, owing to the demolition of ancient buildings which began about the middle of the 18th century.
Leake (Topography of Athens and the Demi, 2nd ed., 1841) brought the descriptive literature to an end and inaugurated the period of modern scientific research, in which German archaeologists have played a distinguished part.
Athens has thus become a centre of learning, a meeting-place for scholars and a basis for research in every part of the Greek world.
- Numerous traces of the " Mycenaean " epoch have recently been brought to light in Athens and its" neighbourhood.
It seems inconceivable, however, that any other site should have been preferred by the primitive settlers to the Acropolis, which offered the greatest advantages for defence; the Pnyx, owing to its proximity to the centres of civic life, can never have been deserted, and that portion which lay within the city walls must have been fully occupied when Athens was crowded during the Peloponnesian War.
Gardner, Anc. Athens, p. 505).
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
To this enlarged city was applied, probably about the second half of the 6th century, the special designation To ceITV, which afterwards distinguished Athens from its port, the Peiraeus; the Acropolis was already 17 7roAts (Thucyd.
In the fifty years between the Persian and the Peloponnesian wars architecture and plastic art attained their highest perfection in Athens.
The design of connecting Athens with the Peiraeus by long parallel walls is ascribed by Plutarch to Themistocles.
The operations, which were carried on at intervals till 1890, resulted in the discovery of the Dipylon Gate, the principal entrance of ancient Athens.
After 146 B.C. Athens and its territory were included in the Roman province of Achaea.
The capture and sack of Athens by Sulla (March 1, 86 B.e.) seems to have involved no great injury to its architectural monuments beyond the burning of the Odeum of mom,.
After this catastrophe the benefactors of Athens were for the most part Romans; the influence of Greek literature and art had begun to affect the conquering race.
have occupied the site of the Monastery of the Asomati Barges a great commonwealth; they were the tribute paid to the intellectual renown of Athens by foreign potentates or dilettanti, who desired to add their names to the list of its illustrious citizens and patrons.
This was the City of Hadrian (Hadrianapolis) or New Athens (Novae Athenae); a handsome suburb with numerous villas, baths and gardens; some traces remain of its walls, which, like those of Themistocles, were fortified with rectangular towers.
The Stadium had been already completed and the Odeum had not yet been built when Pausanias visited Athens; these buildings were the last important additions to the architectural monuments of the ancient city.
At the conclusion of the Greek War of Independence, Athens was little more than a village of the Turkish type, the poorly built houses clustering on the northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis.
The greater commercial advantages offered by Nauplia, Corinth and Patras were outweighed by the historic claims of Athens in the choice of a capital for the newly founded kingdom, and the seat of government was transferred hither from Nauplia in 1833.
The museums of Athens have steadily grown in importance with the progress of excavation.
161 by Herodes Minor; bronzes from Olympia, Delphi and elsewhere, and numerous painted vases, among them the unequalled white lekythi from Athens and Eretria.
Owing to the numbers and activity of its institutions, both native and foreign, for the prosecution of research and the encouragement of classical studies, Athens has become Scientific once more an international seat of learning.
Important researches at Epidaurus, Eleusis, Mycenae, Amyclae and Rhamnus may be numbered among its principal undertakings, in addition to the complete exploration of the Acropolis and a series of investigations in Athens and Attica.
The German Archaeological Institute, founded in 1874, has carried out excavations at Thebes, Lesbos, Paros, Athens and elsewhere; it has also been associated in the great researches at Olympia, Pergamum and Troy, and in many other important undertakings.
The British School, founded in 1886, has been unable, owing to insufficient endowment, to work on similar lines with the French and German institutions; it has, however, carried out extensive excavations at Megalopolis and in Melos, as well as researches at Abae, in Athens (presumed site of the Cynosarges), in Cyprus, at Naucratis and at Sparta.
Notwithstanding certain disadvantages inherent in its situation, the trade and manufactures of Athens have considerably increased in recent years.
When Athens became the capital in 1833 the ancient name of The P 33 Peiraeus.
The population of Athens has rapidly increased.
The total population of Athens in 1907 was 167,479 and of Peiraeus 67,982.
- The history of primitive Athens is involved in the same obscurity which enshrouds the early development of most of the Greek city-states.
In the Minoan epoch Athens is proved by the archaeological remains to have been a petty kingdom scarcely more important than many other Attic communities, yet enjoying a more unbroken course of development than the leading states of that period.
The Rise of Athens.
The age of despotism, which lasted, with interruptions, from 560 to 510, was a period of great prosperity for Athens.
Their vigorous foreign policy first made Athens an Aegean power and secured connexions with numerous mainland powers.
But a spirit of harmony and energy now breathed within the nation, and in the ensuing wars Athens worsted powerful enemies like Thebes and Chalcis (506).
The ascendancy acquired in these years eventually raised Athens to the rank of an imperial state.
For the moment it tended;to impair the good relations which had subsisted between Athens and Sparta since the first days of the Persian peril.
Similarly the internal policy of Athens continued to be shaped by the conservatives.
Besides securing her Aegean possessions and her commerce by the defeat of Corinth and Aegina, her last rivals on sea, Athens acquired an extensive dominion in central Greece and for a time quite overshadowed the Spartan land-power.
The rapid loss of the new conquests after 447 proved that Athens lacked a sufficient land-army to defend permanently so extensive a frontier.
The commerce of Athens extended from Egypt and Colchis to Etruria and Carthage, and her manufactures, which attracted skilled operatives from many lands, found a ready sale all over the Mediterranean.
Yet the material prosperity of Athens under Pericles was less notable than her brilliant attainments in every field of culture.
Besides producing numerous men of genius herself Athens attracted all the great intellects of Greece.
The brilliant summary of the historian Thucydides in the famous Funeral Speech of Pericles (delivered in 430), in which the social life, the institutions and the culture of his country are set forth as a model, gives a substantially true picture of Athens in its greatest days.
Moreover, all this prosperity was obtained at the expense of the confederates, whom Athens exploited in a somewhat selfish and illiberal manner.
After the complete defeat of Athens by land and sea, it was felt that her former services on behalf of Greece and her high culture should exempt her from total ruin.
Though stripped of her empire, Athens obtained very tolerable terms from her enemies.
In the wars of the period Athens took a prominent part with a view to upholding the balance of power, joining the Corinthian League in 395, and assisting Thebes against Sparta after 378, Sparta against Thebes after 369.
By the middle of the century Athens was again the leading power in Greece.
With her diminished resources Athens could not indeed hope to cope with the great Macedonian king; however much we may sympathize with the generous ambition of the patriots, we must admit that in the light of hard facts their conduct appears quixotic.
The outbreak headed by Athens after Alexander's death (323) led to a stubborn conflict with Macedonia.
After his victory the regent Antipater punished Athens by the loss of her remaining dependencies, the proscription of her chief patriots, and the disfranchisement of 12,000 citizens.
Cassander placed Athens under the virtual autocracy of Demetrius of Phalerum (317-307), and after the temporary liberation by Demetrius Poliorcetes (306-300), secured his interests through a dictator named Lachares, who lost the place again to Poliorcetes after a siege (295).
At this period Athens was altogether overshadowed in material strength by the great Hellenistic monarchies and even by the new republican leagues of Greece; but she could still on occasion display great energy and patriotism.
If Athens lost her supremacy in the fields of science and scholarship to Alexandria, she became more than ever the home of philosophy, while Menander and the other poets of the New Comedy made Athenian life and manners known throughout the civilized world.
In 228 Athens entered into friendly intercourse with Rome, in whose interest she endured the desperate attacks of Philip V.
By her treacherous attack upon the frontier-town of Oropus (156) Athens indirectly brought about the conflict between Rome and the Achaean League which resulted in the eventual loss of Greek independence, but remained herself a free town with rights secured by treaty.
In the great civil wars Athens sided with Pompey and held out against Caesar's lieutenants, but received a free pardon " in consideration of her great dead."
Antony repeatedly made Athens his headquarters and granted her several new possessions, including Eretria and Aegina - grants which Octavian subsequently revoked.
Under the new settlement Athens remained a free and sovereign city - a boon which she repaid by zealous Caesar-worship, for the favours bestowed upon her tended to pauperize her citizens and to foster their besetting sin of calculating flattery.
In the period of the Antonines the endowment of professors out of the imperial treasury gave Athens a special status as a university town.
267 and a temporary occupation by Alaric in 395, Athens spent the remaining centuries of the ancient world in quiet prosperity.
The rhetorical schools experienced a brilliant revival under Constantine and his successors, when Athens became the alma mater of many notable men, including Julian, Libanius, Basil and Gregory of Nazianzus, and in her professors owned the last representatives of a humane and moralized paganism.
The freedom of teaching was first curtailed by Theodosius I.; the edict of Justinian (529), forbidding the study of philosophy, dealt the death-blow to ancient Athens.
The authorities for the history of ancient Athens will mostly be found under Greece: History, and the various biographies.
The following books deal with special periods or subjects only: - (1) Early Athens: W.
(2) The fifth and fourth centuries: the "Constitution of Athens," ascribed to Xenophon; W.
Whibley, Political Parties at Athens (Cambridge, 1889); G.
Gilbert, Beitrage zur inneren Geschichte Athens (Leipzig, 1877); J.
Capes, University Life in Ancient Athens (London, 1877); A.
(5) Constitutional History: The Aristotelian " Constitution of Athens "; U.
Headlam, Election by Lot at Athens (Cambridge, 1891).
The history of Athens for the next four centuries is almost a blank; the city is rarely mentioned by the Byzantine chronicles of this period.
In 869 the see of Athens became an archbishopric. In 995 Attica was ravaged by the Bulgarians under their tsar Samuel, but Athens escaped; after the defeat of Samuel at Belasitza (1014) the emperor Basil II., who blinded 15,000 Bulgarian prisoners, came to Athens and celebrated his triumph by a thanksgiving service in the Parthenon (1018).
Like the rest of Greece, Athens suffered greatly from the rapacity of its Byzantine administrators.
The letters of Acominatus, archbishop of Athens, towards the close of the 12th century, bewail the desolate condition of the city in language resembling that of Jeremiah in regard to Jerusalem.
After the Latin conquest of Constantinople in 1204, Otho de la Roche was granted the lordship of Athens by Bonif ace of Montferrat, king of Thessa lonica, with the title of Megaskyr (µ&ryas Ki pcos = great lord).
His nephew and successor, Guy I., obtained the title duke of Athens from Louis IX.
He was expelled in 1311 by his Catalonian mercenaries; the mutineers bestowed the duchy " of Athens and Neopatras " on their leader, Roger Deslaur, and, in the following year, on Frederick of Aragon, king of Sicily.
The Sicilian kings ruled Athens by viceroys till 1385, when the Florentine Nerio Acciajuoli, lord of Corinth, defeated the Catalonians and seized the city.
The sultan entered Athens in the following month; he was greatly struck by its ancient monuments and treated its inhabitants with comparative leniency.
- After the Turkish conquest Athens disappeared from the eyes of Western civilization.
Under Francesco Morosini the Venetians again attacked Athens in September 1687; a shot fired during the bombardment of the Acropolis caused a powder magazine in the Parthenon to explode, and the building was rent asunder.
Athens again fell into the hands of the Turks in 1826, who bombarded and took the Acropolis in the following year; the Erechtheum suffered greatly, and the monument of Thrasyllus was destroyed.
The Turks remained in possession of the Acropolis till 1833, when Athens was chosen as the capital of the newly established kingdom of Greece; since that date the history of the city forms part of that of modern Greece.
Harrison, Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens (London, 1890); E.
Gardner, Ancient Athens (London, 1902); W.
d'Ooge, Acropolis of Athens (1909); see also A.
Balanos in'E4n (Athens, August 25, 1898).
Reisch, Das griechische Theater (Athens, 1896); Puchstein, Die griechische Biihne (Berlin, 1901).
Instituts (Athens, from 1876); Bulletin de correspondence hellenique (Athens, from 1877); Papers of the American School (New York, 1882-1897); Annual of the British School (London, from 1894); Journal of Hellenic Studies (London, from 1880); American Journal of Archaeology (New York, from 1885); Jahrbuch des kais.
Athens, Georgia >>
322) she was slain by Artemis at the request of Dionysus in the island of Dia near Cnossus, before she could reach Athens with Theseus.
Theseus himself was said to have founded a festival at Athens in honour of Ariadne and Dionysus after his return from Crete.
AEGEUS, in Greek legend, son of Pandion and grandson of Cecrops, was king of Athens and the father of Theseus.
When Theseus set out for Crete to deliver Athens from the tribute to the Minotaur he promised Aegeus that, if he were successful, he would change the black sail carried by his ship for a white one.
Some improvement was now effected in the financial administration, but the genera] state of the country continued to grow worse; large funds were collected abroad by the committees at Athens, which despatched numerous bands largely composed of Cretans into the southern districts, the Servians displayed renewed activity in the north, while the Bulgarians offered a dogged resistance to all their foes.
Rev. ii., 188 7, p. 317 seq.; Niese, Historische Zeitschrift, lxxix., 18 97, p. 1, seq.); even the explicit statement in Arrian as to Alexander and the Arabians is given as a mere report; but we have wellauthenticated utterances of Attic orators when the question of the cult of Alexander came up for debate, which seem to prove that an intimation of the king's pleasure had been conveyed to Athens.
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