These years mark the zenith of Athenian greatness.
These years mark the zenith of Athenian greatness.
The peaceful development of Athenian power was interrupted by the revolt of Samos in 440.
Subsequently, however, they succeeded in winning a victory over the Athenian fleet.
The Epidaurians had been accustomed to make annual offerings to the Athenian deities Athena and Erechtheus in payment for the Athenian olive-wood of which the statues were made.
of the kneeling posture of the images of Damia and Auxesia, of the use of native ware instead of Athenian in their worship, and of the change in women's dress at Athens from the Dorian to the Ionian style.
Even in their new home they were not safe from Athenian rancour.'
Even in their new home they were not safe from Athenian rancour.'
To avenge the death of his son, Minos demanded that seven Athenian youths and seven maidens should be sent every ninth year to be devoured by the Minotaur.
In 445 a revulsion of feeling led the Megarians to massacre their Athenian garrison.
PERICLES (49 0 -4 2 9 B.C.), Athenian statesman, was born about 490 B.C., the son of Xanthippus and Agariste.
His fathers took a prominent part in Athenian politics, and in 479 held high command in the Greek squadron which annihilated the remnants of Xerxes' fleet at Mycale; through his mother, the niece of Cleisthenes, he was connected with the former tyrants of Sicyon and the family of the Alcmaeonidae.
The beginning of his ascendancy is marked by an unprecedented outward expansion of Athenian power.
In 447 an Athenian army, which had marched into Boeotia to quell an insurrection, had to surrender in a body at Coronea, and the price of their ransom was the evacuation of Boeotia.
Upon news of this disaster Phocis, Locris and Euboea revolted, and the Megarians massacred their Athenian garrison, while a Spartan army penetrated into Attica as far as Eleusis.
In his home policy Pericles carried out more fully Ephialtes' project of making the Athenian people truly self-governing.
In connexion with this system of salaries should be mentioned a somewhat reactionary law carried by Pericles in 451, by which an Athenian parentage on both sides was made an express condition of retaining the franchise and with it the right of sitting on paid juries.
In the following spring he fastened a quarrel upon Potidaea, a town in Chalcidice, which was attached by ancient bonds to Corinth, and in the campaign which followed Athenian and Corinthian troops came to blows.
His standpoint was at all times purely Athenian.
At first, joining to Cimon's antiPersian ambitions and Themistocles' schemes of Western expansion a new policy of aggression on the mainland, he endeavoured to push forward Athenian power in every direction, and engaged himself alike in Greece Proper, in the Levant and in Sicily.
His dying boast, that "no Athenian had put on mourning through his doing," perhaps refers to his forbearance towards his political rivals, whom he refused to ruin by prosecution.
In his attitude towards the members of the Delian League Pericles likewise maintained a purely Athenian point of view.
For the site of the Athenian P. see E.
The sympathies of Dinarchus were in favour of an Athenian oligarchy under Macedonian control; but it should be remembered that he was not an Athenian citizen.
The chief town is Aegina, situated at the north-west end of the island, the summer residence of many Athenian merchants.
The plot failed owing to the late arrival of the Athenian force, when Nicodromus had already fled the island.
The Athenian tradition, which he follows in the main, would naturally seek to obscure their services.
In view of these considerations it becomes difficult to credit the number of the vessels that is assigned to them by Herodotus (30 as against 180 Athenian vessels, cf.
The change in Athenian foreign policy, which was consequent upon the ostracism of Cimon in 461, led to what is sometimes called the First Peloponnesian War, in which the brunt of the fighting fell upon Corinth and Aegina.
He used for the decoration of his own city the money furnished by the Athenian allies for defence against Persia: it is very fortunate that after the time of Xerxes Persia made no deliberate attempt against Greece.
It thus abundantly appears that Pheidias was closely connected with Pericles, and a ruling spirit in the Athenian art of the period.
This town, which was laid out on an exceptionally fine site according to a scientific plan by the architect Hippodamus of Miletus, soon rose to considerable importance, and attracted much of the Aegean and Levantine commerce which had hitherto been in Athenian hands.
1 It was said to have been founded by a band of emigrants from Phocis, under the guidance of two Athenian leaders, named Philogenes and Damon, but it joined the Ionian confederacy by accepting the government of Athenian rulers of the house of Codrus.
The story of Silenus was often the subject of Athenian satyric drama.
The Athenian eb rarpl8at, who were thus gradually brought down from their privileged position, seem to have been quite as proud and exclusive as the Roman patricians; but when they lost their privileges they lost them far more thoroughly, and they did not, as at Rome, practically hand on many of them to a new nobility, of which they formed part, though not the whole.
The four Ionic tribes at Athens seem to have answered very closely to the three patrician tribes at Rome; but the Athenian demos grew up in a different way from the Roman plebs.
If we could believe that the Athenian demos arose out of the union of the 1 See further Athens: History, and Eupatridae.
Athenian At Athens, as at Rome, an old patriciate, a nobility of by commerce.
PEISISTRATUS, (605?-527 B.C.), Athenian statesman, was the son of Hippocrates.
Partly owing to this, and partly to ancient feuds whose origin we cannot trace, the Athenian people was split up into three great factions known as the Plain (Pedieis) led by Lycurgus and Miltiades, both of noble families; the Shore (Parali) led by the Alcmaeonidae, represented at this time by Megacles, who was strong in his wealth and by his recent marriage with Agariste, daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon; the Hill or Upland (Diacreis, Diacrii) led by Peisistratus, who no doubt owed his influence among these hillmen partly to the possession of large estates at Marathon.
He came finally to Eretria, and, with the help of the Thebans and Lygdamis of Naxos, whom he afterwards made ruler of that island, he passed over to Attica and defeated the Athenian forces at the battle of Pallenis or Pellene.
In the heyday of the Athenian democracy, citizens both conservative and progressive, politicians, philosophers and historians were unanimous in their denunciation of "tyranny."
From the mines of Thrace, and perhaps from the harbour dues and from the mines of Laurium, he derived a large revenue; under his encouragement, Miltiades had planted an Athenian colony on the shores of the Thracian Chersonese; he had even made friends with Thessaly and Macedonia, as is evidenced by the hospitality extended by them to Hippias on his final expulsion.
From this period we must date the beginning of Athenian literary ascendancy.
A dispute between Selinus and Segesta (probably the revival of a similar quarrel about 454, when an Athenian force appears to have taken part 2) was one of the causes of the Athenian expedition of 415 B.C. At its close the former seemed to have the latter at its mercy, but an appeal to Carthage was responded 1 The plant was formerly thought to be wild parsley.
and 352 B.C., Citium led the side loyal to Persia and was besieged by an Athenian force in 449 B.C.; its extensive necropolis proves that it remained a considerable city even after the Greek cause triumphed with Alexander.
In 455 B.C., during the first Peloponnesian War, it was burned by the Athenian admiral Tolmides.
An Athenian came to be the missionary of Hellenism and to direct its ceremonies, which were established by force up and down the country.
He also spent some time in Greece, and on his return to England founded the Athenian Society, membership of which was confined to those who had travelled in that country.
Moreover, he wrote an article in the Edinburgh Review of July 1805 criticizing Sir William Gill's Topography of Troy, and these circumstances led Lord Byron to refer to him in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers as "the travell'd thane, Athenian Aberdeen."
OSTRACISM, a political device instituted, probably by Cleisthenes in 508 B.C., as a constitutional safeguard for the Athenian democracy.
Its effect was to remove from Athens for a period of ten years any person who threatened the harmony and tranquillity of the body politic. A similar device existed at various times in Argos, Miletus, Syracuse and Megara, but in these cities it appears to have been introduced under Athenian influence.
The subsequent decline of Athenian land-power had the effect of weakening this new connexion; at the time of the Peloponnesian War Phocis was nominally an ally and dependent of Sparta, and had lost control of Delphi.
Lycabettus, the most prominent feature in the Athenian landscape, directly overhung the ancient city, but was not included in its walls; its peculiar shape rendered it unsuitable for fortification.
At the same time the relative proximity of three natural harbours, Peiraeus, Zea and Munychia, favoured the development of maritime commerce and of the sea power which formed the basis of Athenian hegemony.
The Dutchman Joannes Meursius (1579-1639) wrote three disquisitions on Athenian topography.
The systematic study of Athenian topography was begun in the 17th century by French residents at Athens, the consuls Giraud and Chataignier and the Capuchin monks.
The monumental work of James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who spent three years at Athens (1751-1754), marked an epoch in the progress of Athenian topography and is still indispensable to its study, owing to the demolition of ancient buildings which began about the middle of the 18th century.
The attention of many students has naturally been concentrated on the ancient city, the birthplace of European art and literature, and a great development of investigation and discussion in the special domain of Athenian archaeology has given birth to a voluminous literature.
Since the foundation of the German Institute in 1874, Athenian topography has to a large extent become a speciality of German scholars, among whom Wilhelm DOrpfeld occupies a pre-eminent position owing to his great architectural attainments and unrivalled local knowledge.
These structures, however, are of comparatively minor importance in point of dimensions and decoration; they were apparently designed as places of sepulture for local chieftains, whose domains were afterwards incorporated in the Athenian realm by the vuvoucccr,u6 (synoecism) attributed 1/ Attal}is y?
The situation of the Acropolis, dominating the surrounding plain and possessing easy communication with the sea, favoured the formation of a relatively powerful state - inferior, however, to Tiryns and Mycenae; the myths of Cecrops, Erechtheus and Theseus bear witness to the might of the princes who ruled in the Athenian citadel, and here we may naturally expect to find traces of massive fortifications resembling in some degree those of the great Argolid cities.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
The age of the Peisistratids (560-511 B.C.) marked an era in the history of Athenian topography.
155); its "opisthodomos " served as the Athenian treasury in the 5th and 4th centuries; the temple is the apXa ios veWS Tijs lloAcaSos mentioned by Strabo (ix.
The worship of Pan was introduced after the Persian wars, in consequence of an apparition seen by Pheidippides, the Athenian courier, in the mountains of Arcadia.
g g of Themistocles, Cimon and Pericles, while the rapid growth of the Athenian empire provided the state with the necessary means for the execution of these sumptuous projects.
In the harbours of Zea and Munychia traces may be seen of the remarkable series of galley-slips in which the Athenian fleet was built and repaired.
At either corner of the Propylaea entrance were equestrian statues dedicated by the Athenian knights; the bases with inscriptions have lately been recovered.
With the loss of political liberty the age of creative genius in Athenian architecture came to a close.
This centralization of power (Synoecism), to which many Greek peoples never attained, laid the first foundations of Athenian greatness.
By his economic legislation Solon placed Athenian agriculture once more upon a sound footing, and supplemented this source of wealth by encouraging commercial enterprise, thus laying the foundation of his country's material prosperity.
By making effective the powers of the Ecclesia (Popular Assembly) the Boule (Council) and Heliaea, Cleisthenes became the true founder of Athenian democracy.
In 483 Themistocles overcame the opposition of Aristides, and passed his famous measure providing for a large increase of the Athenian fleet.
The year 461 marks the reversal of Athenian policy at home and abroad.
The years of the supremacy of Pericles (443-429) are on the whole the most glorious in Athenian history.
The Delian confederacy lay completely under Athenian control, and the points of strategic importance were largely held by cleruchies (q.v.; see also Pericles) and garrisons.
Indeed the spread of democracy elsewhere increased the prestige of the Athenian administration, which had now reached a high pitch of efficiency.
Athenian art and literature in the 4th century declined but slightly from their former standard; philosophy and oratory reached a standard which was never again equalled in antiquity and may still serve as a model.
Philip and Alexander, who sincerely admired Athenian culture and courted a zealous co-operation against Persia, treated the conquered city with marked favour.
If Athens lost her supremacy in the fields of science and scholarship to Alexandria, she became more than ever the home of philosophy, while Menander and the other poets of the New Comedy made Athenian life and manners known throughout the civilized world.
In return for help against King Perseus she acquired some new possessions, notably the great mart of Delos, which became an Athenian cleruchy (166).
C. Penrose, Principles of Athenian Architecture (London, 1888); J.
Gardner, Plans and Drawings of Athenian Buildings (London, 1900); E.
All nations have similar harvest homes, especially with reference to the vintage feasts; as, for instance, the Athenian Oschophoria.
Antiochus IV., of course, the enthusiastic Hellenist, filled Antioch with Greek artists and gave a royal welcome to Athenian philosophers.
If ransomed, the victim became by Athenian law the slave of his redeemer till he paid in money or labour the price which had been given for him.
Nor did Athenian law leave the slave without protection.
By manumission the Athenian slave became in relation to the state a metic, in relation to his master a client.
CLEISTHENES is also the name of an Athenian, pilloried by Aristophanes (Clouds, 354; Thesm.
Epiphanius tells us that some said Clement was an Alexandrian, others that he was an Athenian (Haer.
'ARISTIDES' ['Apurre18rls] (c. 530-468 B.C.), Athenian statesman, called "the Just," was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune.
Of his early life we are told merely that he became a follower of the statesman Cleisthenes and sided with the aristocratic party in Athenian politics.
In the campaign of Salamis he rendered loyal support to Themistocles, and crowned the victory by landing Athenian.
In 479 he was re-elected strategus, and invested with special powers as commander of the Athenian contingent at Plataea; he is also said to have judiciously suppressed a conspiracy among some oligarchic malcontents in the army, and to have played a prominent part in arranging for the celebration of the victory.
But in spite of statements in which ancient authors have represented Aristides as a democratic reformer, it is certain that the period following the Persian wars during which he shaped Athenian policy was one of conservative reaction.
But in 416 B.C. the Athenians, having attacked the island and compelled the Melians to surrender, slew all the men capable of bearing arms, made slaves of the women and children, and introduced 500 Athenian colonists.
The Athenian hero Erechtheus (Erichthonius), originally an earth-god, is her foster-son, with whom she was honoured in the Erechtheum on the Acropolis.
(3) Athena Lemnia, so called because it had been dedicated by the Athenian cleruchies in Lemnos.
ANTHESTERIA, one of the four Athenian festivals in honour of Dionysus, held annually for three days (II th - r3th) in the month of Anthesterion (February - March).
she was assisted by fourteen Athenian matrons, called geraerae, chosen by the basileus and sworn to secrecy.
CHALCONDYLES 1 (or [[Chalcocondylas), Laonicus]], the only Athenian Byzantine writer.
ryepovaia, Doric ^yfpwia), the ancient council of elders at Sparta, corresponding in some of its functions to the Athenian Boule.
The oracle of Delphi determined that the city had no founder but Apollo, and in the Athenian War in Sicily Thurii was at first neutral, though it finally helped the Athenians.
Middleton, Plans and Drawings of Athenian Buildings (1900), pls.
Although we hear of attempts to seize the tyranny and of an institution called petalism, like the Athenian ostracism, designed to guard against such dangers, popular government was not seriously threatened for more than fifty years.
Yet all that we read of Syracusan military and naval action during the former part of the Athenian siege shows how Syracuse had lagged behind the cities of old Greece, constantly practised as they were in warfare both by land and sea.
The Athenian siege (415-13) is of the deepest importance for the topography of Syracuse, and it throws some light on the internal politics.
At first complete incredulity prevailed as to the Athenian expedition (Thuc. vi.
When the Athenian fleet under Nicias, Alcibiades and Lamachus was at Rhegium in Italy, after the discovery of the trick that had been played by the Segestans, the question for the commanders was whether they should seek to strengthen themselves by fresh alliances on the spot or strike the blow at once.
They were beaten and driven back; but at the suggestion of Hermocrates they carried a counter-work up the slope of Epipolae, which, if completed, would cut in two the Athenian lines and frustrate the blockade.
complete, and the Athenian fleet had at the same time entered the Great Harbour.
He left a gap to the north of the circular fort which formed the centre of the Athenian lines, the point where Epipolae slopes down to the sea, and he omitted to occupy Euryelus.
The military skill of Gylippus enabled the Syracusan militia to meet the Athenian troops on equal terms, to wrest from them their fortified position on Plemmyrium, which Nicias had occupied as a naval station shortly after Gylippus's arrival, and thus to drive them to keep their ships on the low beach between their double walls, to take Labdalum, an Athenian fort on the northern edge of Epipolae, and make a third counter-work right along Epipolae in a westerly direction, to the north of the circular fort.
The naval preparations of the Syracusans, under the advice of Hermocrates, had led them, too, to confidence in their powers of giving battle to the Athenian fleet.
On the very next day, however, a second Athenian fleet arrived under Demosthenes and Eurymedon, with seventy-three ships of war and a large force of heavy infantry and light troops.
The despatch of this expedition seems to prove an almost blind confidence in Nicias, whose request to be superseded the Athenian people refused to grant.
Demosthenes decided at once to make a grand attack on Epipolae, with a view to recovering the Athenian blockading lines and driving the Syracusans back within the city walls.
The affair seems to have been well planned up to a certain point, and well executed; but the Athenian van, flushed with a first success, their ranks broken and disordered by a pursuit of the enemy over rough ground, were repulsed with great loss by a body of heavy-armed Boeotians, and driven back in disorder.
(It must be remembered that the Spartans were all this time in occupation of Deceleia; see Peloponnesian War.) But Nicias could not bring himself to face the Athenian people at home, nor could he be prevailed on to retire promptly to some position on the coast, such as Catania or Thapsus.
At the time of the Athenian siege Syracuse consisted of two quarters - the island and the "outer city" of Thucydides, generally known as Achradina, and bounded by the sea on the north and east, with the adjoining suburbs of Apollo Temenites farther inland at the foot of the southern slopes of Epipolae and Tyche west of the north-west corner of Achradina.
Profiting by the experience gained during the Athenian siege, he included in his new lines the whole plateau of Epipolae, with a strong fortress at Euryelus, its apex on the west; the total length of the outer lines (excluding the fortifications of the island) has been calculated at about 12 m.
wide, which is its only link with the hills to the west, had thrice proved during the Athenian siege to be the key to Syracuse.
Earlier writers make this the site of Labdalum, and put Euryelus farther west; but Labdalum must be sought somewhat farther east, near the northern edge of the plateau, in a point not visible from the Athenian central fort (KUKXos) with a view over Megara - not therefore in the commanding position of Dionysius's fort, with an uninterrupted view on all sides.
1), while a colossal tomb, attributable also to the time of the Athenian invasion, was found there in 1899.
EUPOLIS (c. 446-411 B.C.), Athenian poet of the Old Comedy, flourished in the time of the Peloponnesian War.
These legends seem primarily to belong to Crete; and the Athenian element in them which connected Daedalus with the royal house of Erechtheus is a later fabrication.
The Siegestor (or gate of victory) is a modern imitation of the arch of Constantine at Rome, while the stately Propylaea, built in 1854-1862, is a reproduction of the gates of the Athenian Acropolis.
c. the Athenian envoys were shown the treasure of the temple at Eryx as available for the expenses of the war, which treasure turned out to be only silver-gilt and not of solid gold (Thucydides vi.
The greatest hindrance to its prosperity was the miscellaneous character of the population, partly Lacedaemonian and partly Athenian, who flocked to it under Pausanias.
About seven years after its second colonization, the Athenian Cimon wrested it from the Lacedaemonians; but in 440 B.C. it returned to its former allegiance.
After having withstood an attempt under Epaminondas to restore it to the Lacedaemonians, Byzantium joined with Rhodes, Chios, Cos, and Mausolus, king of Caria, in throwing off the yoke of Athens, but soon after sought Athenian assistance when Philip of Macedon, having overrun Thrace, advanced against it.
The sea-coast, like the rest of the south shore of the Euxine, was studded with Greek colonies founded from the 6th century onwards: Amisus, a colony of Miletus, which in the 5th century received a body of Athenian settlers, now the port of Samsun; Cotyora, now Ordu; Cerasus, the later Pharnacia, now Kerasund; and Trapezus (Trebizond), a famous city from Xenophon's time till the end of the middle ages.
Soon after the introduction of the literary journal in England, one of a more familiar tone was started by the eccentric John Dunton in the Athenian Gazette, or Casuistical Mercury, resolving all the most Nice and Curious Questions (1689-1690 to 1695-1696), afterwards called The Athenian Mercury, a kind of forerunner of Notes and Queries, being a penny weekly sheet, with a quarterly critical supplement.
In 339, as one of the Athenian deputies (pylagorae) in the Amphictyonic Council, he made a speech which brought about the Sacred War.
It is probable that after the time of the synoecism the nobles who had hitherto governed the various independent communities were obliged to reside in Athens, now the seat of government; and at the beginning of Athenian history the noble clans form a class which has the monopoly of political privilege.
His Athenian elegance affords the strongest contrast to the Italian rudeness of Cato's De Re Rustica.
This confederacy, which after many modifications and vicissitudes was finally broken up by the capture of Athens by Sparta in 404, was revived in 378-7 (the "Second Athenian Confederacy") as a protection against Spartan aggression, and lasted, at least formally, until the victory of Philip II.
The Athenian contingent which was sent to aid Pausanias in the task of driving the Persians finally out of the Thraceward towns was under the command of the Athenians, Aristides and Cimon, men of tact and probity.
His assessment, of the details of which we know nothing, was so fair that it remained popular long after the league of autonomous allies had become an Athenian empire.
It is, therefore, a profound mistake to regard the history of the league during the first twenty years of its existence as that of an Athenian empire.
Thucydides expressly describes the predominance of Athens as riyEgovia (leadership, headship), not as apyi 7 (empire), and the attempts made by Athenian orators during the second period of the Peloponnesian War to prove that the attitude of Athens had not altered since the time of Aristides are manifestly unsuccessful.
In these years the Athenian sailors reached a high pitch of training, and by their successes strengthened that corporate pride which had been born at Salamis.
During the ensuing years, apart from a brief return to the Cimonian policy, the resources of the league, or, as it has now become, the Athenian empire, were directed not so much against Persia as against Sparta, Corinth, Aegina and Boeotia.
The first years of the land war brought the Athenian empire to its zenith.
An important event must be referred probably to the year 451, - the law of Pericles, by which citizenship (including the right to vote in the Ecclesia and to sit on paid juries) was restricted to those who could prove themselves the children of an Athenian father and mother (E d,u001v avroiv).
The indolent Ionians had seen the result of secession at Naxos and rebellion at Thasos; the Athenian fleet was perpetually on guard in the Aegean.
Therefore, even though Athenian domination may have been highly salutary in its effects, there can be no doubt that the allies did not regard it with affection.
Though it appears that Athens made individual agreements with various states, and therefore that we cannot regard as general rules the terms laid down in those which we possess, it is undeniable that the Athenians planted garrisons under permanent Athenian officers (¢poi papxoc) in some cities.
Moreover the practice among Athenian settlers of acquiring land in the allied districts must have been vexatious to the allies, the more so as all important cases between Athenians and citizens of allied cities were brought to Athens.
Even on the assumption that the Athenian dicasteries were scrupulously fair in their awards, it must have been peculiarly galling to the self-respect of the allies and inconvenient to individuals to be compelled to carry cases to Athens and Athenian juries.
The conditions which led to the second Athenian or Delian Confederacy were fundamentally different, not only in virtue of the fact that the allies had learned from experience the dangers to which such a league was liable, but because the enemy was no longer an oriental power of whose future action there could be no certain anticipation, but Sparta, whose ambitious projects since the fall of Athens had shown that there could be no safety for the smaller states save in combination.
Gradually individual cities which had formed part of the Athenian empire returned to their alliance with Athens, until the Spartans had lost Rhodes, Cos, Nisyrus, Teos, Chios, Mytilene, Ephesus, Erythrae, Lemnos, Imbros, Scyros, Eretria, Melos, Cythera, Carpathus and Delos.
Athenian relations were with individual states only, and the terms of alliance were various.
Directly, this arrangement prevented an Athenian empire; indirectly, it caused the sacrificed cities and their kinsmen on the islands to look upon Athens as their protector.
The Athenians at once invited their allies to a conference, and the Second Athenian Confederacy was formed in the archonship of Nausinicus on the basis of the famous decree of Aristoteles.
At this point Sparta was roused to a sense of the significance of the new confederacy, and the Athenian corn supply was threatened by a Spartan fleet of sixty triremes.
The same dislike would be roused by the Athenian alliance with Alexander of Pherae (368-367).
The next important event was the serious attempt on the part of Epaminondas to challenge the Athenian naval supremacy.
In the next year the Athenian generals failed in the north in their attempt to control the Hellespont.
On the other hand, though the Athenian fleet became stronger and several cities were captured, the league itself did not gain any important voluntary adherents.
The generals were compelled to support their forces by plunder or out of their private resources, and, frequently failing, diverted their efforts from the pressing needs of the allies to purely Athenian objects.
In 346 the peace of Philocrates was made between the league and Philip on terms which were accepted by the Athenian Boule.
There is no doubt that, with very few exceptions, the cities were held to their allegiance solely by the superior force of the Athenian navy.
Marshall, The Second Athenian Confederacy (1905), one of the Cambridge Historical Essays (No.
Farther north, where the path turns again, is the Athenian treasury.
Above the Athenian treasury is an open space, in which is a rock which has been identified as the Sybil's rock.
In the autumn of the same year he took the Athenian colony, Amphipolis, which commanded the gold-mines of Mt Pangaeus.
Later in the century the rapid development of Athenian trade and naval power became a serious menace.
Apollodorus, an Athenian who flourished in the middle of the and century B.C., wrote a metrical chronicle of events, ranging from the supposed period of the fall of Troy to his own day.
The active and energetic Persian general Pharnabazus succeeded in creating a fleet by the help of Evagoras, king of Salamis in Cyprus, and the Athenian commander Conon, and destroyed the Spartan fleet at Cnidus (August 394).
(For the ancient Athenian Xetrovpyiat, as forms of taxation, see Finance.) In order to understand terms and references it will be convenient to give the tabular form the chief component parts of a liturgy, selecting the Liturgy of Rome as characteristic of Western, and that of Constantinople as characteristic of Eastern, Christendom; at the same time appending an explanation of some of the technical words which must be employed in enumerating those parts.
AESCHINES (5th century B.C.), an Athenian philosopher.
ALCMAEONIDAE, a noble Athenian family, claiming descent from Alcmaeon, the great-grandson of Nestor, who emigrated from Pylos to Athens at the time of the Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus.
Under the inspiration of his friend Demetrius of Phalerum, the Athenian orator, statesman and philosopher, this Ptolemy laid the foundations of the great Alexandrian library and originated the keen search for all written works, which resulted in the formation of a collection such as the world has seldom seen.
Euergetes (247-222) largely increased the library by seizing on the original editions of the dramatists laid up in the Athenian archives, and by compelling all travellers who arrived in Alexandria to leave a copy of any work they possessed.
This school ended under Damascius when Justinian closed the Athenian schools (A.D.
In a war (606) between the Mytilenaeans and Athenians for the possession of Sigeum on the Hellespont he slew the Athenian commander Phrynon in single combat.
KX'gpovxia, from KMpos, a lot, XEcv, to have), in ancient Greek history a kind of colony composed of Athenian citizens planted, practically as a garrison, in a conquered country.
the Periclean cleruchies, 45 o -445); indeed, this follows from their status as Athenian citizens, which is emphasized by the fact that they retained their membership of deme and tribe.
in the matter of jurisdiction, some case being tried by the Nautodicae at Athens); in fact we may assume that the more important cases, particularly those between a cleruch and a citizen at home, were tried before the Athenian dicasts.
Monte Matto, hence the modern name Trello Vouni), a mountain in Attica, bounding the Athenian plain on the S.E.
That island was an important member of the Athenian confederacy, and in making it his home Herodotus would have put himself under the protection of Athens.
The fact that Egypt was then largely under Athenian influence (see Cimon, Pericles) may have induced him to proceed, in 457 or 456 B.C., to that country.
It is certain, however, that Halicarnassus became henceforward a voluntary member of the Athenian confederacy.
3 We learn that Athens was the place to which he went, and that he appealed from the verdict of his countrymen to Athenian taste and judgment.
In Egypt, Amasis had the occupation of each individual annually registered, nominally to aid the official supervision of morals by discouraging disreputable means of subsistence; and this ordinance, according to Herodotus, was introduced by Solon into the Athenian scheme of administration, where it developed later into an electoral record.
Aristotle, however, discerned Theramenes' real policy, and, like Cicero and Caesar, in later years ranked him among the greatest Athenian statesmen.
Meton was an Athenian astronomer (fl.
The oldest known pieces are imitations of the Athenian mintage of the 4th century B.C., with the legend AOE and the owl standing on an overturned amphora.
As the standard of the coins of Attic type is not Attic but Babylonian, we must not think of direct Athenian influence.
From that time, apparently under the influence of Athenian sculptors, he was conceived as the ideal of a youthful warrior, and was for a time associated with Aphrodite and Eros.
In the old Athenian Anthesteria the blood of victims was poured over the unclean.
The Athenian Institute was founded in 1874.
ARCHIPPUS, an Athenian poet of the Old Comedy, who flourished towards the end of the 5th century B.C. His most famous play was the Fishes, in which he satirized the fondness of the Athenian epicures for fish.
Among Dr Murray's other official publications are three folio volumes on Terra-cotta Sarcophagi, White Athenian Vases and Designs from Greek Vases.
In Attic tradition and on the Athenian stage Minos is a cruel tyrant, the heartless exactor of the tribute of Athenian youths to feed the Minotaur.
The last president of the Athenian school was Damascius (q.v.).
A trigonon is represented on one of the Athenian red-figured vases from Cameiros in the island of Rhodes, dating from the 5th century B.C., which are preserved in the British, Museum.
It must be remembered that any Athenian citizen was at liberty to accuse another of a public offence, and the danger of such a privilege being abused is sufficiently obvious.
This rich district was afterwards occupied by Athenian cleruchs.
Averse at all events to the Athenian democracy, leaning towards Macedonian monarchy, and resting on Macedonian power, he maintained.
The young son of a doctor from the colonies proved too fond of this world to, stomach his Athenian master's philosophy of the supernatural..
Such is the great mind of Aristotle manifested in the large map of learning, by which we have now to determine the order of his extant philosophical writings, with a view to studying them in their real order, which is neither chronological nor traditional, but philosophical and scientific. Turning over the pages of the Berlin edition, but passing over works which are perhaps spurious, we should put first and foremost speculative philosophy, and therein the primary philosophy of his Metaphysics (980 a 211093 b 29); then the secondary philosophy of his Physics, followed by his other physical works, general and biological, including among the latter the Historia Animalium as preparatory to the De Partibus Animalium, and the De Anima and Parva Naturalia, which he called " physical " but we call " psychological" (184 a 10-967 b 27); next, the practical philosophy of the Ethics, including the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia as earlier and the Nicomachean Ethics as later (1094-124 9 b 25), and of the Politics (1252-1342), with the addition of the newly discovered Athenian Constitution as ancillary to it; finally, the productive science, or art, of the Rhetoric, including the earlier Rhetoric to Alexander and the later Rhetorical Art, and of the Poetics, which was unfinished (1354-end).
Sandys's Athenian Constitution, Jebb's Rhetoric (ed.
Terra-cotta statuettes of the god seem to have been placed before the hearths of Athenian houses.
During the festival of Artemis at Delos, Acontius saw Cydippe, a well-born Athenian maiden of whom he was enamoured, sitting in the temple of the goddess.
For a time the presidency of the Boeotian League was taken away from Thebes, but in 457 the Spartans reinstated that city as a bulwark against Athenian aggression.
For ten years the land remained under Athenian control, which was exercised through the newly installed democracies; but in 447 the oligarchic majority raised an insurrection, and after a victory at Coronea regained their freedom and restored the old constitutions.
They rendered good service at Syracuse and Arginusae; but their greatest achievement was the decisive victory at Delium over the flower of the Athenian army (424), in which both their heavy infantry and their cavalry displayed unusual efficiency.
These local councils, to which the propertied classes alone were eligible, were subdivided into four sections, resembling the prytaneis of the Athenian council, which took it in turns to take previous cognizance of all new measures.'
PHILOSTRATUS, the name of several, three (or four), Greek sophists of the Roman imperial period - (t) Philostratus "the Athenian" (c. 170-245), (2) his nephew (?) Philostratus "of Lemnos" (born c. 190); (3) a grandson (?) of (2).
Eunapius and Synesius call him a Lemnian; Photius a Tyrian; his letters refer to him as an Athenian.
The `HpcwLKoc, formerly attributed to Philostratus the Athenian, is probably the work of Philostratus the Lemnian.
Suidas thus appears to give to Philostratus the Athenian a life of 200 'years!
1 As Lemnos was an Athenian island, any Lemnian could be called an Athenian.
His literary abilities were shown at an early age by his collaboration with his brother Philip in the Athenian Letters.
Miltiades afterwards returned to Athens, and Lemnos continued an Athenian possession till the Macedonian empire absorbed it.
The latter was the chief town; its coins are found in considerable number, the types being sometimes the Athenian goddess and her owl, sometimes native religious symbols, the caps of the Dioscuri, Apollo, &c. Few coins of Myrina are known.
They belong to the period of Attic occupation, and bear Athenian types.
In 415 it refused to admit the Athenian fleet and remained an ally of Syracuse.
After a brief resistance, however, it again acknowledged the Athenian supremacy, and repelled a Lacedaemonian attack.
According to an Athenian decree (380 B.C.) asses were sacrificed to Apollo at Delphi, and Pindar (Pythia, x.
Yet their military strength was not to be despised: in 426 their archers and slingers easily repelled an Athenian invasion under Demosthenes.
PANATHENAEA, the oldest and most important of the Athenian festivals.
The inscription on the work describes it as the "Embassy of Athenagoras, the Athenian, a philosopher and a Christian concerning the Christians, to the Emperors Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, &c."
This was the year of the Petition of Right, extorted from the king in the third parliament he had tried within three years of his accession; and, in view of Hobbes's later activity, it is significant that he came forward just then, at the mature age of forty, with his version of the story of the Athenian democracy as the first production of his pen.
In 413 B.C. the Athenian armament in Sicily was annihilated.
During his later years Lysias - now probably a comparatively poor man owing to the rapacity of the tyrants and his own generosity to the Athenian exiles - appears as a hard-working member of a new profession - that of writing speeches to be delivered in the law-courts.
This was his only direct contact with Athenian politics.
The speech For Mantitheus (39 2 B.C.) is a graceful and animated portrait of a young Athenian lirirebs, making a spirited defence of his honour against the charge of disloyalty.
The speech Against Pancleon illustrates the intimate relations between Athens and Plataea, while it gives us some picturesque glimpses of Athenian town life.
drawn into alliance with one side or the other, till the main interest of Greek history gathers for a while round the Athenian attack on Syracuse.
But it was only in 427 an opportunity for Athenian interference was found in a quarrel between Syracuse and Leontini and their allies.
That city, an ally of Athens, asked for Athenian help against its Greek neighbour Selinus.
The details of the great Athenian expedition (415-413) belong partly to the political history of Athens (q.v.), partly to that of Syracuse (q.v.).
But its results make it a marked epoch in Sicilian history, and the Athenian plans, if successful, would have changed the whole face of the West.
57, 58) comments, the whole war was yet more remarkable for the large entrance of the barbarian element into the Athenian reckonings.
All chance of Athenian dominion in Sicily or elsewhere in the west came to an end.
One of the greatest losses in all Greek history is that:of the writings of Philistus (436-356), the Syracusan who had seen the Athenian siege and who died in the warfare between Dion and the younger Dionysius.
of the Macedonian king Perdiccas, formerly an Athenian ally.
The Athenian Phormio succeeded in blockading the city so that 1 The importance of this revolt lay in the fact that it immediately involved danger to Athens throughout the Chalcidic promontories, and her north-east possessions generally.
He now laid an embargo upon Megara by which the Megarians were forbidden on pain of death to pursue trading operations with any part of the Athenian Empire.
Megara, Phocis, Boeotia and Locris (which had formed part of the Athenian land empire), and the maritime colonies round the Ambracian Gulf.
The Athenian Empire is described elsewhere (Delian League, Athens).
Sparta could not only rely on voluntary co-operation but could undermine Athenian influence by posing as the champion of autonomy.
The Athenian army was undoubtedly smaller.
After delay in fruitless negotiations the Athenian Cleippides, and afterwards Paches,.
Meanwhile there occurred civil war in Corcyra, in which ultimately, with the aid of the Athenian admiral Eurymedon,.
The scheme, which probably originated with the atticizing party in Thebes, resulted in the severe defeat of Hippocrates at Delium by the Boeotians under Pagondas, and was a final blow to the policy of an Athenian land empire.
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