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athena

athena

athena Sentence Examples

  • Before the east front was the altar of Athena Nike.

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  • At Pellene in Achaea, and at Plataea he made two other statues of Athena, also a statue of Aphrodite in ivory and gold for the people of Elis.

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  • Here were the altar of Athena Areia and two stones, the Mhos "Tf3pewws, on which the accuser, and the XLOo 'AvatSetas, on which the accused, took their stand.

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  • 433, accepts the name "Rock of Athena" and yet puts the acropolis on the site of the modern town, arguing further that the cathedral hill was an acropolis within an acropolis (II.

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  • But among the Greeks themselves the two works of Pheidias which far outshone all others, and were the basis of his fame, were the colossal figures in gold and ivory of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena Parthenos at Athens, both of which belong to about the middle of the 5th century.

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  • The Epidaurians had been accustomed to make annual offerings to the Athenian deities Athena and Erechtheus in payment for the Athenian olive-wood of which the statues were made.

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  • At Delphi he erected a great group in bronze including the figures of Apollo and Athena, several Attic heroes, and Miltiades the general.

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  • On the Acropolis of Athens he set up a colossal bronze image of Athena, which was visible far out at sea.

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  • At Delphi he erected a great group in bronze including the figures of Apollo and Athena, several Attic heroes, and Miltiades the general.

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  • The northern portion of it consists of a lofty ridge with two summits, the westernmost of which is occupied by the modern town (985 ft.), while the easternmost, which is slightly higher, bears the name of Rock of Athena, owing to its identification in modern days with the acropolis of Acragas as described by Polybius, who places upon it the temple of Zeus Atabyrius (the erection of which was attributed to the half mythical Phalaris) and that of Athena.'

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  • Frazer maintains the hitherto current theory that the earlier temple of Athena and Erechtheus was on the site of the Erechtheum; that the Erechtheum inherited the name apXa ios veclis from its predecessor, and that the " opisthodomos " in which the treasures were kept was the west chamber of the Parthenon; Furtwangler and Milchh6fer hold the strange view that the " opisthodomos " was a separate building at the east end of the Acropolis, while Penrose thinks the building discovered by Dorpfeld was possibly the Cecropeum.

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  • The northern portion of it consists of a lofty ridge with two summits, the westernmost of which is occupied by the modern town (985 ft.), while the easternmost, which is slightly higher, bears the name of Rock of Athena, owing to its identification in modern days with the acropolis of Acragas as described by Polybius, who places upon it the temple of Zeus Atabyrius (the erection of which was attributed to the half mythical Phalaris) and that of Athena.'

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  • But he could hardly be said seriously to have oppressed the subject cities, and technically all the League money was spent on League business, for Athena, to whom the chief monuments in Athens were reared, was the patron goddess of the League.

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  • It was said that Zeus threw it down from heaven when Ilus was founding the city of Ilium, Odysseus and Diomedes carried it off from the temple of Athena, and thus made the capture of Troy possible.

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  • Athena has been variously described as the pure aether, the storm-cloud, the dawn, the twilight; but there is little evidence that she was regarded as representing any of the physical powers of nature, and it is better to endeavour to form an idea of her character and attributes from a consideration of her cultepithets and ritual.

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  • In Homer Athena already appears as the goddess of counsel, of war, of female arts and industries, and the protectress of Greek cities, this last aspect of her character being the most important and pronounced.

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  • (3) Athena Lemnia, so called because it had been dedicated by the Athenian cleruchies in Lemnos.

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  • According to the legend, Athena, who had invented the flute, threw it away in disgust, because it distorted the features.

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  • That according to which they were set up at Munich was in the main suggested by Cockerell; in the middle of each pediment was a figure of Athena, set well back, and a fallen warrior at her feet; on each side were standing spearmen, kneeling spearmen and bowmen, all facing towards the centre of the composition; the corners were filled with fallen warriors.

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  • A figure of Athena still occupies the centre of each pediment, but is set farther forward than in the old reconstruction.

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  • Furtwangler proposes to find in a statue of which the head is at Bologna, and the body at Dresden, a copy of the Lemnian Athena of Pheidias; but his arguments (Masterpieces, at the beginning) are anything but conclusive.

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  • Much more satisfactory as evidence are some 5th century torsos of Athena found at Athens.

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  • The very fine torso of Athena in the Ecole des Beaux Arts at Paris, which has unfortunately lost its head, may perhaps best serve to help our imagination in reconstructing a Pheidian original.

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  • A beautiful woman, it is said, by name Phya, was disguised as Athena and drove into the Agora with Peisistratus at her side, while proclamations were made that the goddess herself was restoring Peisistratus to Athens.

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  • It is considered probable that the festival was originally held in honour of Athena, but that the growing importance of the Eleusinia caused it to be attached to Demeter and Kore.

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  • According to Apollodorus (iii, 12, 3) it was made by order of Athena, and was intended as an image of Pallas, the daughter of Triton, whom she had accidentally slain, Pallas and Athena being thus regarded as two distinct beings.

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  • Firenze, Florence); the patron goddess, Athena, was probably called after the place of her cult.

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  • On this spot was apparently the primitive sanctuary of Athena, the rich temple (nicov vn6s) of Homer (Il.

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  • According to DBrpfeld, this was the " old temple " of Athena Polias, frequently mentioned in literature and inscriptions, in which was housed the most holy image (oavov) of the goddess which fell from heaven; it was burnt, but not completely destroyed, during the Persian War, and some of its external decorations were afterwards built into the north wall of the Acropolis; it was subsequently restored, he thinks, with or without its colonnade - in the former case a portion of the peristyle must have been removed when the Erechtheum was built so as to make room for the porch of the maidens; the building was set on fire in 406 B.C. (Xen.

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  • From the inner exit of the Propylaea a passage led towards the east along the north side of the Parthenon; almost directly facing the entrance was the colossal bronze statue of Athena (afterwards called Athena Promachos) by Pheidias, probably set up by Cimon in commemoration of the Persian defeat.

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  • On both sides of the passage were numerous statues, among them that of Athena Hygeia, set up by Pericles to commemorate the recovery of a favourite slave who was injured during the building of the Parthenon, a colossal bronze image of the wooden horse of Troy, and Myron's group of Marsyas with Athena throwing away her flute.

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  • Beyond the Parthenon, a little to the north-east, was the great altar of Athena, and near it the statue and altar of Zeus Polieus.

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  • The site of this precinct, in which the sacred olive tree of Athena grew, has been almost certainly fixed by an inscription found in the bastion of Odysseus.

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  • Between this precinct and the Propylaea were a number of statues, among them the celebrated heifer of Myron, and perhaps his Erechtheus; the Lemnian Athena of Pheidias, and his effigy of his friend Pericles.

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  • Among the first of these benefactions was the great gymnasium of Ptolemy, built in the neighbourhood of the Agora about 250 B.C. Successive princes of the dynasty of Pergamum interested themselves in the adorn western entrance being the well-known Doric portico of Athena Archegetis with an inscription recording its erection from donations of Julius Caesar and Augustus.

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  • Already it had been robbed of many of its works of art, among them the Athena Promachos and the Parthenos of Pheidias, for the adornment of Constantinople, and further spoliation took place when the church of St Sophia was built in A.D.

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  • Athena and Nike alone figured upon Alexander's gold; Heracles and Zeus upon his silver.

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  • The goddess Athena herself superintended its construction, and inserted in the prow a piece of oak from Dodona, which was endowed with the power of speaking and delivering oracles.

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  • Among the objects of interest described by Pausanias as extant in Epidaurus are the image of Athena Cissaea in the Acropolis, the temple of Dionysus and Artemis, a shrine of Aphrodite, statues of Asclepius and his wife Epione, and a temple of Hera.

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  • ATHENA (the Attic form of the Homeric Athene, also called Athenaia, Pallas Athene, Pallas), one of the most important goddesses in Greek mythology.

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  • No satisfactory derivation of the name Athena has been given 1; Pallas, at first an epithet, but after Pindar used 1 0.

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  • According to the legend, her father Zeus swallowed his wife Metis ("counsel"), when pregnant with Athena, since he had been warned that his children by her might prove stronger than himself and dethrone him.

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  • Hephaestus (or Prometheus) subsequently split open his head with a hatchet, and Athena sprang forth fully armed, uttering a loud shout of victory (Hesiod, Theogony, 886; Pindar, Olympia, vii.

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  • The cult of Athena Itonia, whose earliest seat appears to have been amongst the Thessalians, who used her name as a battle-cry, made its way to Coronea in Boeotia, where her sanctuary was the seat of the Pamboeotian confederacy.

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  • The meaning of Itonia is obscure: Dummler connects it with iTEwves, the "willow-beds" on the banks of the river Coralios (the river stated that Athena was sometimes called or 'Aeon.

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  • At Thebes she was worshipped as Athena Onka or Onga, of equally uncertain derivation (possibly from 6yKos, " a height").

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  • The Attic bouleutae took the oath by Athena Boulaia; at Sparta she was ayopaia, presiding over the popular assemblies in the market-place; in Arcadia µnXavZTts, the discoverer of devices.

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  • Her oldest priestesses, the dew-sisters - Aglauros, Herse, Pandrosos - signify the fertilization of the earth by the dew, and were probably at one time identified with Athena, as surnames of whom both Aglauros and Pandrosos are found.

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  • Athena also gave the Athenians the olive-tree, which was supposed to have sprung from the bare soil of the Acropolis, when smitten by her spear, close to the horse (or spring of water) produced by the trident of Poseidon, to which he appealed in support of his claim to the lordship of Athens.

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  • This god, whose worship was introduced into Athens at a later date by the Ionian immigrants, was identified with ErechtheusErichthonius (for whose birth Athena was in a certain sense responsible), and thus was brought into connexion with the goddess, in order to effect a reconciliation of the two cults.

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  • Athena was said to have invented the plough, and to have taught men to tame horses and yoke oxen.

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  • The legend that Athena, observing in the water the distortion of her features caused by playing that instrument, flung it away, probably indicates that the Boeotians whom the Athenians regarded with contempt, used the flute in their worship of the Boeotian Athena.

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  • The story of the slaying of Medusa by Athena, in which there is no certain evidence that she played a direct part, explained by Roscher as the scattering of the storm-cloud, probably arose from the fact that she is represented as wearing the Gorgon's head as a badge.

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  • As in the case of Aphrodite and Apollo, Roscher in his Lexikon deduces all the characteristics of Athena from a single conception - that of the goddess of the storm or the thunder-cloud (for a discussion of such attempts see Farnell, Cults, i.

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  • Harrison in Classical Review (June 1894), Athena Ergane is the goddess of the fruits of the field and the procreation of children.

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  • ceremony, at which the xoanon (ancient wooden statue) of Athena was washed in the river Inachus, a symbol of her purification after the Gigantomachia.

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  • The usual attributes of Athena were the helmet, the aegis, the round shield with the head of Medusa in the centre, the lance, an olive branch, the owl, the cock and the snake.

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  • (1) Athena Parthenos, in the Parthenon.

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  • No satisfactory derivation of the name Athena has been given 1; Pallas, at first an epithet, but after Pindar used 1 0.

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  • It was disputed in earlier times whether the temple was dedicated to Zeus or Athena.

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  • Arrived there he slays the dragon and carries the apples to Argos; and finally, like Perseus, he gives them to Athena.

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  • in height, decorated on the outside with beautiful reliefs representing a number of winged Victories engaged in the worship of Athena.

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  • Gregorovius, Athena's (Leipzig, 1892); C. Diehl, Figures byzantines (Paris, 1906), pp. 25-49; also Theodosius.

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  • Here some local divinity, a daughter of Poseidon, connected with the water and also of a warlike character, was identified by the colonists with their own Athena.

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  • As early as Homer she takes especial interest in the occupations of women; she makes Hera's robe and her own peplus, and spinning and weaving are often called "the works of Athena."

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  • From Greece the worship of Athena extended to Magna Graecia, where a number of temples were erected to her in various places.

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  • Voigt, "Beitrage zur Mythologie des Ares and Athena," in Leipziger Studien, iv.

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  • 21 represents Athena in the act of striking a prostrate giant; fig.

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  • 38 a statuette of Athena Parthenos, a replica of the work of Pheidias.

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  • It may be due partly to the natural conformation of the rock and the differences of level, partly to the necessity of enclosing within a single building several objects of ancient sanctity, such as the mark of Poseidon's trident and the spring that arose from it, the sacred olive tree of Athena, and the tomb of Cecrops.

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  • This part was the temple of Athena Polias.

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  • It contained the ancient image of Athena Polias, and three altars, one to Poseidon and Erechtheus, one to Butes and one to Hephaestus; there were portraits of the family of the Butadae on the walls.

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  • 29); this was the fashion in which the Athena Parthenos of Pheidias was draped.

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  • It is generally regarded as the temple of Athena.

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  • The laws of Zaleucus, which he declared had been communicated to him in a dream by Athena, the patron goddess of the city, were few and simple, but so severe that, like those of Draco, they became proverbial.

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  • At Thebes there was a statue of Fortune holding the child Plutus in her arms; at Athens he was similarly represented in the arms of Peace; at Thespiae he was represented standing beside Athena the Worker.

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  • Neith, the goddess of Sais, was identified with Athena, and Osiris was worshipped there in a great festival.

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  • Others said that Athena (or Artemis) blinded him because he had seen her naked in the bath; when his mother prayed Athena to restore his sight, the goddess, being unable to do so, purged his ears so that he could understand the speech of birds, and gave him a staff wherewith to guide his steps (Apollodorus iii.

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  • The records of the tribute are preserved in the so-called quota lists, which give the names of the cities and the proportion, one-sixtieth, of their several tributes, which was paid to Athena.

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  • The ground round it has been left rough like the space on the Acropolis at Athens identified as the ancient altar of Athena.

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  • The sculptures found have been assigned to this building, probably to the gables, as they are archaic in character, and show a remarkable resemblance to the sculptures from the pediment of the early temple of Athena at Athens.

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  • Similarly the early presence of Phoenician traders is attested by the survival of Sidonian cults (Aphrodite Urania, Athena Phoenicice, Melicertes, i.e.

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  • Here it was that Athena helped Bellerophon to bridle Pegasus; and hence she received the epithet of "the Bridler," Chalinitis.

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  • There is no hope of finding the great bronze Athena, which stood in the middle of the agora.

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  • To the west, beyond the theatre, one might find the temple of Athena Chalinitis and the fountain Lerna, and somewhere near Glauce, the Odeum and the tomb of Medea's children; but it is more likely that they have disappeared.

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  • Outside the gate, apparently, was the famous Craneion, shaded by cypress trees, and near it the tombs of Lais and Diogenes, a precinct of Bellerophon and of Athena Melaenis.

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  • - The temple of Athena Alea at Tegea is described by Pausanias as excelling all others in the Peloponnese both in size and in beauty of construction.

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  • Some assume it to be Erichthonius, son of Athena and Hephaestus, who was translated to the skies by Zeus on account of his invention of chariots or coaches.

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  • The older amphorae were oval-shaped, such as the vases filled with oil for prizes at the Panathenaic festival, having on one side a figure of Athena, on the other a representation of the contest; the latter were tall and slender, with voluted handles.

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  • The " Resting " (avalravOyEvos) Hercules is, as at Thermopylae and near Himera, the natural tutelar of hot springs in conjunction with his protectress Athena, who is usually depicted attending him on ancient vases.

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  • His guardian goddess was Athena (Homer, viii.

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  • On the second, Anarrhysis (from &vappuecv, to draw back the victim's head), a sacrifice of oxen was offered at the public cost to Zeus Phratrius and Athena.

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  • All the gods, even Zeus, hate him, but his bitterest enemy is Athena, who fells him to the ground with a huge stone.

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  • Thus, he engages in combat with Heracles on two occasions to avenge the death of his son Cycnus; once Zeus separates the combatants by a flash of lightning, but in the second encounter he is severely wounded by his adversary, who has the active support of Athena; maddened by jealousy, he changes himself into the boar which slew Adonis, the favourite of Aphrodite; and stirs up the war between the Lapithae and Centaurs.

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  • Voigt, "Beitrage zur Mythologie des Ares and Athena" in Leipziger Studien, iv.

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  • About the foundation of Halicarnassus various traditions were current; but they agree in the main point as to its being a Dorian colony, and the figures on its coins, such as the head of Medusa, Athena and Poseidon, or the trident, support the statement that the mother cities were Troezen and Argos.

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  • Bellerophon caught him as he drank of the spring Peirene on the Acrocorinthus at Corinth, or received him tamed and bridled at the hands of Athena (Pindar, 01.

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  • After her amour with Zeus, Electra fled to the Palladium as a suppliant, but Athena, enraged that it had been touched by one who was no longer a maiden, flung Electra and the image from heaven to earth, where it was found by Ilus, and taken by him to Ilium; according to another tradition, Electra herself took it to Ilium, and gave it to her son Dardanus (Schol.

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  • Tertullian in fact created Christian Latin literature; one might almost say that that literature sprang from him full-grown, alike in form and substance, as Athena from the head of Zeus.

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  • This temple has been identified, not improbably, with the so-called "Theseum"; it contained a statue of Athena, and the two deities are often associated, in literature and cult, as the joint givers of civilization to the Athenians.

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  • In archaic art Hephaestus is generally represented as bearded, though occasionally a younger beardless type is found, as on a vase (in the British Museum), on which he appears as a young man assisting Athena in the creation of Pandora.

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  • Closer intimacy with the Greek world naturally brought about modifications in the character of the native gods, which became apparent when Ba'al of Sidon or Baal-shamem was identified with Zeus, Tanith with Demeter or Artemis, 'Anath with Athena, &c.; the notion of a supreme Ba'al, which finds expression in the Greek 1 3 Xos and (aaXris or 131 7 XOns (the goddess of Byblus), was no doubt encouraged by foreign influences.

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  • to Athena); to this class probably belong the trophies erected by the victors on the field of battle; sometimes a captured ship was placed upon a hill as an offering to Poseidon (Neptune).

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  • In Homer he is one of the best and bravest of the heroes, and the favourite of Athena, whereas in later legend he is cowardly and deceitful.

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  • It was originally a religious celebration, founded by Erechtheus (Erichthonius), in honour of Athena Polias, the patron goddess of the city.

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  • The annual festival, probably held on the 28th and 29th of Hecatombaeon (about the middle of August), consisted solely of the sacrifices and rites proper to this season in the cult of Athena.

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  • The peplus was a costly, saffron-coloured garment, embroidered with scenes from the battle between the gods and giants, in which Athena had taken part.

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  • There were in addition several minor contests: the Pyrrhic, or war dance, celebrating the victory of Athena over the giants; the Euandria, whereby a certain number of men, distinguished for height, strength and beauty, were chosen as leaders of the procession; the Lampadedromia, or torch-race; the Naumachia (Regatta), which took place on the last day of the festival.

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  • In the musical contests, a golden crown was given as first prize; in the sports, a garland of leaves from the sacred olive trees of Athena, and vases filled with oil from the same.

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  • Many specimens of these Panathenaic vases have been found; on one side is the figure of Athena, on the other a design showing the nature of the competition in which they were given as prizes.

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  • Farnell, Cults of the Greek States; also article Athena and works quoted.

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  • Recent excavations have discovered the early temple of Athena Lindia on the Acropolis, and splendid Propylaea and a staircase, resembling those at Athens.

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  • The sculptors of the Laocoon are among the priests of Athena Lindia, whose names are recorded by inscriptions.

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  • See Memoir of Anne Jemima Clough, by Blanche Athena Clough (1897).

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  • In the Iliad he is the favourite of Athena, by whose aid he not only overcomes all mortals who venture to oppose him, but is even enabled to attack the gods.

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  • At Argos, his native place, during the festival of Athena, his shield was carried through the streets as a relic, together with the Palladium, and his statue was washed in the river Inachus.

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  • How far to the east the distinctive influence of Greece went is shown by the seal-impressions with Athena and Eros types found by Dr Stein in the buried cities of Khotan (Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan, p. 396), and according to Mr E.

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  • The festival, which was certainly ancient, was held not only in Argos, Samos, Euboea and other centres of Hera-worship, but also in Athens, where the goddess was obscured by the predominance of Athena.

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  • As the patron of these cities (1roXtoi Xos) she held a place corresponding to that of Athena in Athens.

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  • The city-goddess, whether Hera or Athena, must be chief alike in peace and war.

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  • About twenty had been found up to 1921, among them Zeus with the aegis, Hermes, Alexander as a Dioscurus, Eros stringing a bow, three groups of the Graces, two satyrs, a headless Aphrodite, and a head of Athena found by the Americans.

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  • Among the new finds are a head of Athena, a large statuette of Hermes, and a dog.

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  • There the temple of Athena was excavated by P. Orsi from 1912 to 1917.

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  • It was given out that the child's father was Poseidon, the great god of Troezen, and that Aethra raised a temple to Athena Apaturia, at which Troezenian maids used to dedicate their girdles before marriage.

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  • With this agrees the legend of the contest between Athena and Poseidon for supremacy on the acropolis of Athens, for Theseus is intimately connected with Poseidon, the great Ionian god.

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  • Athena >>

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  • Poseidon was also the god of springs, which he produced by striking the rock with his trident, as he did on the acropolis of Athens when disputing with Athena for the sovereignty of Athens (Herodotus viii.

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  • In regard to the contest with Athena, it is probable that Poseidon is really Erechtheus, a local deity ousted by Athena and transformed into an agricultural hero.

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  • In the deme of Colonus he was worshipped with Athena, the reputed inventor of the bridle.

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  • 8r - is borne witness to by Pausanias's mention of the bronze temple of Athena X aXKioucos in Sparta, and the bronze chamber dedicated to Myron in 648 B.C., as well as by the discovery of the stains and bronze nails, which show that the whole interior of the so-called treasury of Atreus at Mycenae was once covered with a lining of bronze plates.

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  • The colossal statues of ivory and gold by Pheidias were the most notable examples of this use of gold, especially his statue of Athena in the Parthenon, and the one of Zeus at Olympia.

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  • It is probable that the face, neck, arms and feet were of ivory, while the rest of the figure was draped in gold, Like the Olympian Zeus of Pheidias, Hera was seated on an elaborately decorated throne, holding in her left hand the sceptre, surmounted in her case by the cuckoo (as that of Zeus had an eagle), and in her right, instead of an elaborate figure of Victory (such as the Athena Parthenos and the Olympian Zeus held), simply a pomegranate.

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  • A temple of Athena, the chief goddess of Scyros, was on the shore near the town.

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  • The temple was shown by an inscription found in 1898 to be dedicated to Poseidon, not, as formerly supposed, to Athena, the remains of whose temple are to be seen about a quarter of a mile away to the north-east; they are of a peculiar plan, consisting of a hall with a colonnade on two sides only.

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  • - Meeting with Glaucus - Visit of Hector to the (I-31 I) city, and offering of a peplus to Athena.

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  • Sometimes Ulysses is represented as aged and worn by toil, so that Penelope, for instance, cannot recognize him; sometimes he is really in the prime of heroic vigour, and his appearing as a beggarly old man is the work of Athena's wand.

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  • He concludes that the aged Ulysses belongs to the " continuation " (the change wrought by Athena's wand being a device to reconcile the two views), and hence that the continuation is the work of a different author.

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  • Sometimes Athena disguises him as a decrepit beggar, sometimes she bestows on him supernatural beauty and vigour.

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  • Zeus has acquired the character of a supreme moral ruler; and although Athena and Poseidon are adverse influences in the poem, the notion of a direct contest between them is scrupulously avoided.

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  • For this he was brought to trial at Sparta, and to save his life fled to the temple of Athena Alea at Tegea.

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  • The elastic impalpable stuff of the spirit-body is apparently capable of compression or expansion, just as Athena can transform herself into a bird.

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  • Zeus gave laws to Minos; Apollo revealed the Spartan constitution to Lycurgus; Zaleucus received the laws for the Locrians from Athena in a dream; Vishnu and Manu condescended to draw up law-books in India.

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  • The claims of the three deities Hera, Aphrodite and Athena are decided by Paris in favour of Aphrodite, who as a reward assists him to gain possession of Helen (Hyginus, Fab.

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  • They were slain by a dragon, which was in turn destroyed by Cadmus; and by the instructions of Athena he sowed its teeth in the ground, from which there sprang a race of fierce armed men, called Sparti (sown).

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  • At the marriage all the gods were present; Harmonia received as bridal gifts a peplos worked by Athena and a necklace made by Hephaestus.

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  • Again, when Hera, Athena and Poseidon threatened to bind Zeus in chains, she sent the giant Aegaeon, who delivered him out of their hands.

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  • 26, § 6) mentions the golden lamp made by Callimachus which burned night and day in the sanctuary of Athena Polias on the Acropolis, and (vii.

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  • At last Athena receives him on the acropolis, of Athens and arranges a formal trial of the case before twelve Attic judges.

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  • the orders of Apollo; the votes of the judges are equally divided, and Athena gives her casting vote for acquittal.

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  • are propitiated by a new ritual, in which they are worshipped as Eumenides (the Kindly), and Orestes dedicates an altar to Athena Areia.

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  • Telephus, was priestess of Athena Alea at Tegea, and daughter of Aleus; fleeing from Tegea, she became the wife of Teuthras, the eponymous king of Teuthrania, and her son Telephus succeeded him.

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  • Athena Polias was the patron-goddess of Pergamum, and the legend combines the ethnological record of the connexion claimed between Arcadia and Pergamum with the usual belief that the hero of the city was son of its guardian deity, or at least of her priestess.

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  • In the interval are the Zeus altar; the great hexastyle Doric temple of Athena flanked by the palace on the east, by the theatre and its long terrace on the west, and by a library on the north; and a large Corinthian temple of Trajan.

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  • On the summit of Mount Cynthus, above the primitive cavetemple which has always been visible, there have been found the remains of a small precinct dedicated to Zeus Cynthius and Athena Cynthia.

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  • The natural cleavage of the trachyte into joint planes had already scarped out shelves which it was comparatively easy for human labour to shape; and so, high up this cone of trachyte, the Greek town of Assus was built, tier above tier, the summit of the crag being crowned with a Doric temple of Athena.

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  • The main object was to clear the Doric temple of Athena, built about 470 B.C. This temple is remarkable for a sculptured architrave which took the place of the ordinary frieze.

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  • But if we assume that he was the aboriginal Hellenic High God, we must be quite ready to admit that the separate communities were always liable to cherish other divinities with a more ardent and closer devotion, whether divinities that they brought with them or divinities that they found powerfully established in the conquered lands, Athena or Hera, for instance, in Attica or Argolis, or Poseidon in the Minyan settlements.

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  • Society may have at one time been matrilinear in the communities that become the historic Hellenes; but of this there is no trace in the worship of Zeus and Hera.18 In fact, the whole of the family morality in Hellas centred in Zeus, whose altar in the courtyard was the bond of the kinsmen; and sins against the family, such as unnatural vice and the exposure of children, are sometimes spoken of as offences against the High God.I" He was also the tutelary deity of the larger organization of the phratria; and the altar of Zeus c Pparpcos was the meetingpoint of the phrateres, when they were assembled to consider the legitimacy of the new applicants for admission into their circle.20 His religion also came to assist the development of certain legal ideas, for instance, the rights of private or family property in land; he guarded the allotments as Zein KAdpcos,2' and the Greek commandment " thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark " was maintained by Zeus " Opcos, the god of boundaries, a more personal power than the Latin Jupiter Terminus.22 His highest political functions were summed up in the title IIoXtfin, a cult-name of legendary antiquity in Athens, and frequent in the Hellenic world.23 His consort in his political life was not Hera, but his daughter Athena Polias.

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  • images of Simon-under the form of Zeus, and of Helen under that of Athena.

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  • 3 Hippolytus speaks in language similar to that of Irenaeus about the variety of magic arts practised by the Simonians, and also of their having images of Simon and Helen under the forms of Zeus and Athena.

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  • 14-16) into agreement with his own identification of the " ennoia " with Athena.

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  • After her death she was placed by Athena amongst the constellations in the northern sky, near Perseus and Cassiopeia.

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  • She had acquired such skill in the art of weaving that she ventured to challenge Athena.

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  • Her work was so perfect that Athena, enraged at being unable to find any blemish in it, tore it to pieces.

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  • There was a statue of Athena on the mountain.

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  • The most important temples of Surrentum were those of Athena and of the Sirens (the latter the only one in the Greek world in historic times); the former gave its name to the promontory.

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  • Farther west again are villas, as far as the temple of Athena on the promontory named after her at the extremity of the peninsula (now Punta Campanella).

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  • The already existing worship of Athena Hygieia had nothing to do with Hygieia the goddess of health, but merely denoted the recognition of the power of healing as one of the attributes of Athena, which gradually became crystallized into a concrete personality.

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  • In the neighbourhood of Poros-Calauria are two small islands, the more westerly of which contains the ruins of a small temple, and is probably the ancient Sphaeria or Hiera mentioned by Pausanias as the seat of a temple of Athena Apaturia.

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  • A theatre and a temple of Athena Poliuchus existed in the ancient city.

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  • So great was the esteem in which it was held, that in the early legend of the struggle between the gods of sea and land, Poseidon and Athena, for the patronage of the country, the sea-god is represented as having to retire vanquished before the giver of the olive; and at a later period the evidences of this contention were found in an ancient olive tree in the Acropolis, together with three holes in the rock, said to have been made by the trident of Poseidon, and to be connected with a salt well hard by.

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  • Of the other classical ruins in Attica the best-known is the temple of Athena at Sunium, which forms a conspicuous object on the headland, to which it gave the name of Cape Colonnae, still used by the peasants.

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  • Their occupation was hunting and war; their arms the bow, spear, axe, a half shield, nearly in the shape of a crescent, called pelta, and in early art a helmet, the model before the Greek mind having apparently been the goddess Athena.

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  • the reliefs from the frieze of the temple of Apollo at Bassae, now in the British Museum), vases and sarcophagus reliefs; at Athens it was represented on the shield of the statue of Athena Parthenos, on wall-paintings in the Theseum and in the Poikile Stoa.

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  • The Attic tradition, reproduced in Euripides (Ion 1002), regarded the Gorgon as a monster, produced by Gaea to aid her sons the giants against the gods and slain by Athena (the passage is a locus classicus on the aegis of Athena).

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  • The head, which had the power of turning into stone all who looked upon it, was given to Athena, who placed in her shield; according to another account, Perseus buried it in the marketplace of Argos.

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  • Heracles is said to have obtained a lock of Medusa's hair (which possessed the same powers as the head) from Athena and given it to Sterope, the daughter of Cepheus, as a protection for the town of Tegea against attack (Apollodorus ii.

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  • 378) gives examples of the superstition that cut hair caused storms. According to the later idea of Medusa as a beautiful maiden, whose hair had been changed into snakes by Athena, the head was represented in works of art with a wonderfully handsome face, wrapped in the calm repose of death.

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  • Sphinxes were represented on the throne of Apollo at Amyclae and on the metopes at Selinus; in the best period of Greek art a sphinx was sculptured on the helmet of the statue of Athena in the Parthenon at Athens; and sphinxes carrying off children were sculptured on the front feet of the throne of Zeus at Olympia.

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  • In 1907 the sanctuary of Athena "of the Brazen House" (X aX KlocKos) was located on the Acropolis immediately above the theatre, and though the actual temple is almost completely destroyed, fragments of the capitals show that it was Doric in style, and the site has produced the longest extant archaic inscription of Laconia, numerous bronze nails and plates and a considerable number of votive offerings, some of them of great interest.

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  • Various accounts of their origin are given: they were earth-born, sons of Cronus, sons of Zeus and Calliope, sons of Rhea, of Ops, of the Great Mother and a mystic father, of Apollo and Thalia, of Athena and Helios.

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  • According to Homer, who knows nothing of Erichthonius, he was the son of Aroura (Earth), brought up by Athena, with whom his story is closely connected.

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  • In the later story, Erichthonius (son of Hephaestus and Atthis or Athena herself) was handed over by Athena to the three daughters of Cecrops - Aglauros (or Agraulos), Hen and.

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  • Athena herself then undertook the care of Erichthonius, who, when he grew up, drove out Amphictyon and took posse: n of the kingdom of Athens.

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  • Here he established the worst, of Athena, instituted the Panathenaea, and built an Erechtheum.

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  • (1906), who identifies Erechtheus, Erichthonius, Poseidon and Cecrops, all denoting the sacred serpent of Athena, whose cult she first contested, but then amalgamated with her own.

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  • MINERVA, an Italian goddess, subsequently identified with Athena.

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  • In every house also the quinquatrus was a holiday, for Minerva (like Athena Ergane) was patron of the women's weaving and spinning and the workmen's craft.

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  • The erection of a temple to her by Pompey out of the spoils of his eastern conquests shows that she was the bestower of victory, like Athena Nike, and the dedication of a vestibule in the senate house by Augustus recalls Athena the goddess of counsel (l30vXala).

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  • As the Romans learnt the use of the flute from the Etruscans, the fact of Minerva being the patron goddess of flute-players is in favour of her Etruscan origin, although it may merely be a reminiscence of the Greek story which attributed the invention of the flute to Athena.

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  • He is said to have acted as umpire during the dispute of Poseidon and Athena for the possession of Attica.

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  • In addition to the epitaph already mentioned, Proclus was the author of hymns, seven of which have been preserved (to Helios, Aphrodite, the Muses, the Gods, the Lycian Aphrodite, Hecate and Janus, and Athena), and of an epigram in the Greek Anthology (Anthol.

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  • He it was who, when Zeus had changed his wife into a fly, and swallowed her, broke open the god's head and let out his daughter Athena.

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  • The real mentoring was done by the goddess Athena, who is associated with wisdom another good reason for avoiding capitalization of the roles.

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  • colossal statue representing Athena, patron goddess of the city.

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  • divinityes away from Artemis, who runs to spread the news of Athena's birth to the other major divinities.

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  • Athena, reputed to be Zeus's favorite child, sprung full-grown from his forehead.

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  • It main purpose is to be used as a common superclass for the other simple Athena widgets.

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  • Athena also decides to visit Ithaca to see Odysseus ' son Telemachus.

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  • According to the legend, Athena, who had invented the flute, threw it away in disgust, because it distorted the features.

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  • 433, accepts the name "Rock of Athena" and yet puts the acropolis on the site of the modern town, arguing further that the cathedral hill was an acropolis within an acropolis (II.

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  • But he could hardly be said seriously to have oppressed the subject cities, and technically all the League money was spent on League business, for Athena, to whom the chief monuments in Athens were reared, was the patron goddess of the League.

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  • Alexander himself first visited the site of Troy and there went through those dramatic acts of sacrifice to the Ilian Athena, assumption of the shield believed to be that of Achilles and offerings to the great Homeric dead, which are significant of the poetic glamour shed, in the young king's mind, over the whole enterprise, and which men will estimate differently according to the part they assign to imagination in human affairs.

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  • That according to which they were set up at Munich was in the main suggested by Cockerell; in the middle of each pediment was a figure of Athena, set well back, and a fallen warrior at her feet; on each side were standing spearmen, kneeling spearmen and bowmen, all facing towards the centre of the composition; the corners were filled with fallen warriors.

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  • A figure of Athena still occupies the centre of each pediment, but is set farther forward than in the old reconstruction.

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  • It was disputed in earlier times whether the temple was dedicated to Zeus or Athena.

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  • The Epidaurians had been accustomed to make annual offerings to the Athenian deities Athena and Erechtheus in payment for the Athenian olive-wood of which the statues were made.

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  • On the Acropolis of Athens he set up a colossal bronze image of Athena, which was visible far out at sea.

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  • At Pellene in Achaea, and at Plataea he made two other statues of Athena, also a statue of Aphrodite in ivory and gold for the people of Elis.

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  • But among the Greeks themselves the two works of Pheidias which far outshone all others, and were the basis of his fame, were the colossal figures in gold and ivory of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena Parthenos at Athens, both of which belong to about the middle of the 5th century.

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  • Of the Athena Parthenos two small copies in marble have been found at Athens (see Greek Art, fig.

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  • Furtwangler proposes to find in a statue of which the head is at Bologna, and the body at Dresden, a copy of the Lemnian Athena of Pheidias; but his arguments (Masterpieces, at the beginning) are anything but conclusive.

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  • Much more satisfactory as evidence are some 5th century torsos of Athena found at Athens.

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  • The very fine torso of Athena in the Ecole des Beaux Arts at Paris, which has unfortunately lost its head, may perhaps best serve to help our imagination in reconstructing a Pheidian original.

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  • A beautiful woman, it is said, by name Phya, was disguised as Athena and drove into the Agora with Peisistratus at her side, while proclamations were made that the goddess herself was restoring Peisistratus to Athens.

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  • Arrived there he slays the dragon and carries the apples to Argos; and finally, like Perseus, he gives them to Athena.

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  • The name of Demeter is also associated with the Scirophoria (see Athena).

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  • It is considered probable that the festival was originally held in honour of Athena, but that the growing importance of the Eleusinia caused it to be attached to Demeter and Kore.

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  • iraXXa&cov), an archaic wooden image (oavov) of Pallas Athena, preserved in the citadel of Troy as a pledge of the safety of the city.

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  • According to Apollodorus (iii, 12, 3) it was made by order of Athena, and was intended as an image of Pallas, the daughter of Triton, whom she had accidentally slain, Pallas and Athena being thus regarded as two distinct beings.

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  • It was said that Zeus threw it down from heaven when Ilus was founding the city of Ilium, Odysseus and Diomedes carried it off from the temple of Athena, and thus made the capture of Troy possible.

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  • Firenze, Florence); the patron goddess, Athena, was probably called after the place of her cult.

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  • Here were the altar of Athena Areia and two stones, the Mhos "Tf3pewws, on which the accuser, and the XLOo 'AvatSetas, on which the accused, took their stand.

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  • To its embellishment they probably contributed the older ornamental entrance, facing south-west, the precursor of the greater structure of Mnesicles (see Propylaea) and the colonnade of the " Hecatompedon," or earlier temple of Athena, at this time the only large sacred edifice on the citadel.

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  • On this spot was apparently the primitive sanctuary of Athena, the rich temple (nicov vn6s) of Homer (Il.

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  • According to DBrpfeld, this was the " old temple " of Athena Polias, frequently mentioned in literature and inscriptions, in which was housed the most holy image (oavov) of the goddess which fell from heaven; it was burnt, but not completely destroyed, during the Persian War, and some of its external decorations were afterwards built into the north wall of the Acropolis; it was subsequently restored, he thinks, with or without its colonnade - in the former case a portion of the peristyle must have been removed when the Erechtheum was built so as to make room for the porch of the maidens; the building was set on fire in 406 B.C. (Xen.

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  • Frazer maintains the hitherto current theory that the earlier temple of Athena and Erechtheus was on the site of the Erechtheum; that the Erechtheum inherited the name apXa ios veclis from its predecessor, and that the " opisthodomos " in which the treasures were kept was the west chamber of the Parthenon; Furtwangler and Milchh6fer hold the strange view that the " opisthodomos " was a separate building at the east end of the Acropolis, while Penrose thinks the building discovered by Dorpfeld was possibly the Cecropeum.

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  • Next in interest to these noble structures is the beautiful little temple of Athena Nike, wrongly designated Nike Apteros (Wingless Victory), standing on the bastion already mentioned; it was begun after 450 B.C. and was prob- The monu- ably finished after the outbreak of the Peloponnesian meats on War.

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  • Before the east front was the altar of Athena Nike.

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  • in height, decorated on the outside with beautiful reliefs representing a number of winged Victories engaged in the worship of Athena.

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  • From the inner exit of the Propylaea a passage led towards the east along the north side of the Parthenon; almost directly facing the entrance was the colossal bronze statue of Athena (afterwards called Athena Promachos) by Pheidias, probably set up by Cimon in commemoration of the Persian defeat.

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  • On both sides of the passage were numerous statues, among them that of Athena Hygeia, set up by Pericles to commemorate the recovery of a favourite slave who was injured during the building of the Parthenon, a colossal bronze image of the wooden horse of Troy, and Myron's group of Marsyas with Athena throwing away her flute.

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  • Beyond the Parthenon, a little to the north-east, was the great altar of Athena, and near it the statue and altar of Zeus Polieus.

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  • The site of this precinct, in which the sacred olive tree of Athena grew, has been almost certainly fixed by an inscription found in the bastion of Odysseus.

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  • Between this precinct and the Propylaea were a number of statues, among them the celebrated heifer of Myron, and perhaps his Erechtheus; the Lemnian Athena of Pheidias, and his effigy of his friend Pericles.

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  • The building has been supposed by Curtius, Wachsmuth and others to be the Heracleum in Melite, but its identification with the temple of Hephaestus and Athena seen in this neighbourhood by Pausanias (i.

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  • Among the first of these benefactions was the great gymnasium of Ptolemy, built in the neighbourhood of the Agora about 250 B.C. Successive princes of the dynasty of Pergamum interested themselves in the adorn western entrance being the well-known Doric portico of Athena Archegetis with an inscription recording its erection from donations of Julius Caesar and Augustus.

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  • Already it had been robbed of many of its works of art, among them the Athena Promachos and the Parthenos of Pheidias, for the adornment of Constantinople, and further spoliation took place when the church of St Sophia was built in A.D.

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  • Athena and Nike alone figured upon Alexander's gold; Heracles and Zeus upon his silver.

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  • Gregorovius, Athena's (Leipzig, 1892); C. Diehl, Figures byzantines (Paris, 1906), pp. 25-49; also Theodosius.

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  • The goddess Athena herself superintended its construction, and inserted in the prow a piece of oak from Dodona, which was endowed with the power of speaking and delivering oracles.

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  • Among the objects of interest described by Pausanias as extant in Epidaurus are the image of Athena Cissaea in the Acropolis, the temple of Dionysus and Artemis, a shrine of Aphrodite, statues of Asclepius and his wife Epione, and a temple of Hera.

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  • ATHENA (the Attic form of the Homeric Athene, also called Athenaia, Pallas Athene, Pallas), one of the most important goddesses in Greek mythology.

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  • Athena has been variously described as the pure aether, the storm-cloud, the dawn, the twilight; but there is little evidence that she was regarded as representing any of the physical powers of nature, and it is better to endeavour to form an idea of her character and attributes from a consideration of her cultepithets and ritual.

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  • According to the legend, her father Zeus swallowed his wife Metis ("counsel"), when pregnant with Athena, since he had been warned that his children by her might prove stronger than himself and dethrone him.

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  • Hephaestus (or Prometheus) subsequently split open his head with a hatchet, and Athena sprang forth fully armed, uttering a loud shout of victory (Hesiod, Theogony, 886; Pindar, Olympia, vii.

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  • p. 285) sees in it an indication that, as the daughter of Metis, Athena was already invested with a mental and moral character, and explains the swallowing of Metis (for which compare the story of Cronus and his children) by the desire to attribute an extraordinary birth to one in whom masculine traits predominated.

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  • Here some local divinity, a daughter of Poseidon, connected with the water and also of a warlike character, was identified by the colonists with their own Athena.

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  • In Homer Athena already appears as the goddess of counsel, of war, of female arts and industries, and the protectress of Greek cities, this last aspect of her character being the most important and pronounced.

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  • The cult of Athena Itonia, whose earliest seat appears to have been amongst the Thessalians, who used her name as a battle-cry, made its way to Coronea in Boeotia, where her sanctuary was the seat of the Pamboeotian confederacy.

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