How to use Astronomy in a sentence

astronomy
  • C. Watson's Theoretical Astronomy is the most complete in the English language.

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  • My neighbor is interested in astronomy and bought a small telescope.

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  • In 1844 he was elected ordinary professor of higher mechanics and astronomy, a position which he held till his death on the 26th of September 1868.

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  • Ball, Spherical Astronomy, p. 303.

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  • In 1851 he visited the Bonn Observatory, and studied astronomy under Argelander.

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  • His leisure was devoted to the study of astronomy, and he was appointed in 1870 secretary to the duke of Devonshire's royal commission on science.

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  • Yet he found time, amid these multifarious occupations, to elaborate an entirely new system of astronomy, by the adoption of which man's outlook on the universe was fundamentally changed.

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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about astronomy.

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  • During an administration of nearly twenty-five years Pond effected a reform of practical astronomy in England comparable to that effected by Bessel in Germany.

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  • Yet he contrived to write his great commentary on the Pentateuch and other books of the Bible, treatises on philosophy (as the Yesodh mora), astronomy, mathematics, grammar (translation of Ilayyu j), besides a Diwan.

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  • There is now no doubt that William Gascoigne, a young gentleman of Yorkshire, was the first 1 Gran, History of Physical Astronomy, p. 449.

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  • At Leipzig, Göttingen and Halle he studied for four years, ultimately devoting himself to mathematics and astronomy.

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  • In it is situated the Royal Observatory, built in 1675 for the advancement of navigation and nautical astronomy.

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  • But the pupil soon found his teacher to be a charlatan, and taught himself, aided by commentaries, to master logic, geometry and astronomy.

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  • In 1815 he settled at Leipzig as privatdocent, and the next year became extraordinary professor of astronomy in connexion with the university.

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  • Finally, at Jorjan, near the Caspian, he met with a friend, who bought near his own house a dwelling in which Avicenna lectured on logic and astronomy.

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  • In 1837 he was appointed Lowndean professor of astronomy.

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  • The admission is now general that the Bible cannot be expected to use the language of scientific astronomy.

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  • His observations of the great comet of January 1672 supplied the basis of modern cometary astronomy.

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  • The discordance of their results incited Laplace to a searching examination of the whole subject of planetary perturbations, and his maiden effort was rewarded with a discovery which constituted, when developed and completely demonstrated by his own further labours and those of his illustrious rival Lagrange, the most important advance made in physical astronomy since the time of Newton.

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  • It thus came about that while some progress was made in algebra, the talents of the race were bestowed on astronomy and trigonometry.

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  • Arago was elected a member of the Board of Longitude immediately afterwards, and contributed to each of its Annuals, for about twenty-two years, important scientific notices on astronomy and meteorology and occasionally on civil engineering, as well as interesting memoirs of members of the Academy.

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  • His commentary on Manilius is really a treatise on the astronomy of the ancients, and it forms an introduction to the De emendatione temporum, in which he examines by the light of modern and Copernican science the ancient system as applied to epochs, calendars and computations of time, showing upon what principles they were based.

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  • His taste for mathematics led him to the study of astronomy.

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  • He thinks of Windex as a miracle cure-all and that kimonos were invented by the Greeks, along with philosophy and astronomy.

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  • After World War II Hubble became very much an elder statesman of US astronomy.

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  • Gamma Ray Astronomy Primary cosmic gamma ray Astronomy Primary cosmic gamma rays (300 GeV) are studied using the atmospheric Cerenkov radiation technique.

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  • And what do glowing gherkins have to do with astronomy?

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  • Women constitute 19% of the 1999/2000 first-year physics grad students and 29% in astronomy.

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  • It cheapens astronomy, like using Beethoven for commercial jingles.

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  • He started as a physician and practised for some years, kept a school and studied astronomy.

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  • The Astronomer-Royal for Scotland also holds the chair of practical astronomy.

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  • Even in 1847 astronomy, physics, logic and other subjects of the kind had to be taught in several of the lyceums through the medium of Latin.

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  • Delambre from the data there supplied marked the profit derived from the investigation by practical astronomy.

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  • In every branch of physical astronomy, accordingly, deep traces of his work are visible.

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  • The theory of probabilities, which Laplace described as common sense expressed in mathematical language, engaged his attention from its importance in physics and astronomy; and he applied his theory, not only to the ordinary problems of chances, but also to the inquiry into the causes of phenomena, vital statistics and future events.

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  • We find that geometry was neglected except in so far as it was of service to astronomy; trigonometry was advanced, and algebra improved far beyond the attainments of Diophantus.

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  • The Arabians more closely resembled the Hindus than the Greeks in the choice of studies; their philosophers blended speculative dissertations with the more progressive study of medicine; their mathematicians neglected the subtleties of the conic sections and Diophantine analysis, and applied themselves more particularly to perfect the system of numerals, arithmetic and astronomy.

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  • When, in the third quarter of the igth century, spectrum analysis was applied to the light coming to us from the heavenly bodies, a new era in astronomical science was opened up of such importance that the body of knowledge revealed by this method has sometimes been termed the "new astronomy."

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  • When the spectroscope was first applied in astronomy, it was hoped that the light reflected from living matter might be found to possess some property different from that found in light reflected from non-living matter, and that we might thus detect the presence of life on the surface of a planet by a study of its spectrum; but no hope of this kind has so far been realized.

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  • He occupied the chair of astronomy in the university of his native town from 1730 to 1744, but travelled during 1732 and some subsequent years in Germany, Italy and France.

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  • This still barely civilized German literally went to school to the English Alcuin and to Peter of Pisa, who, between two campaigns, taught him history, writing, grammar and astronomy, satisfying also his interest in sacred music, literature (religious literature especially),and the traditions of Rome and Constantinople.

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  • The usurping successor of Hakam found it a politic step to request the most notable doctors of the sacred law to examine the royal library; and every book treating of philosophy, astronomy and other forbidden topics was condemned to the flames.

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  • Galileo's direction of his new instrument to the heavens formed an era in the history of astronomy.

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  • In 1655 the word telescope was inserted and explained in Bagwell's Mysteries of Astronomy, trunk or cylinder being the terms until then ordinarily employed.

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  • The direct services which Galileo rendered to astronomy are virtually summed up in his telescopic discoveries.

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  • His name is nevertheless justly associated with that vast extension of the bounds of the visible universe which has rendered modern astronomy the most sublime of sciences, and his telescopic observations are a standing monument to his sagacity and acumen.

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  • For long ages astronomy and astrology (which might be called astromancy, on the same principle as "chiromancy") were identified; and a distinction is made between "natural astrology," which predicts the motions of the heavenly bodies, eclipses, &c., and "judicial astrology," which studies the influence of the stars on human destiny.

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  • The study of astromancy and the belief in it, as part of astronomy, is found in a developed form among the ancient Babylonians, and directly or indirectly through the Babylonians spread to other nations.

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  • While in a general way the reign of law and order in the movements of the heavenly bodies was recognized, and indeed must have exercised an influence at an early period in leading to the rise of a methodical divination that was certainly of a much higher order than the examination of an animal's liver, yet the importance that was laid upon the endless variations in the form of the phenomena and the equally numerous apparent deviations from what were regarded as normal conditions, prevented for a long time the rise of any serious study of astronomy beyond what was needed for the purely practical purposes that the priests as "inspectors" of the heavens (as they were also the "inspectors" of the sacrificial livers) had in mind.

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  • It is rather significant that this spread of astrology should have been concomitant with the intellectual impulse that led to the rise of a genuine scientific phase of astronomy in Babylonia itself, which must have weakened to some extent the hold that astrology had on the priests and the people.

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  • The spread of astrology beyond Babylonia is thus concomitant with the rise of a truly scientific astronomy in Babylonia itself, which in turn is due to the intellectual impulse afforded by the contact with new forms of culture from both the East and the West.

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  • In the hands of the Greeks and of the later Egyptians both astrology and astronomy were carried far beyond the limits attained by the Babylonians, and it is indeed a matter of surprise to observe the harmonious combination of the two fields - a harmony that seems to grow more complete with each age, and that is not broken until we reach the threshold of modern science in the 16th century.

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  • Kepler was more cautious in his opinion; he spoke of astronomy as the wise mother, and astrology as the foolish daughter, but he added that the existence of the daughter was necessary to the life of the mother.

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  • Tycho Brahe and Gassendi both began with astrology, and it was only after pursuing the false science, and finding it wanting, that Gassendi devoted himself to astronomy.

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  • He was led to his three great laws by musical analogies, just as William Herschel afterwards passed from music to astronomy.

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  • The problems of gravitational astronomy engaged the chief part of Hansen's attention.

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  • This is identical with the angle between the horizontal planes at the place and at the equator, and also with the elevation of the celestial pole above the horizon (see Astronomy).

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  • When the fluctuation in the position of the pole was fully confirmed, its importance in astronomy and geodesy led the International Geodetic Association to establish a series of stations round the globe, as nearly as possible on the same parallel of latitude, for the purpose of observing the fluctuation with a greater degree of precision than could be attained by the miscellaneous observations before available.

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  • His studies included Roman law, astronomy, astrology, the art of reckoning and the difficulties of the calendar.

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  • In 1963 Sagan was hired by Harvard to teach astronomy.

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  • Matriculating at the university of Gottingen in 1811, he began by devoting himself to astronomy under Carl Friedrich Gauss; but he enlisted in the Hanseatic Legion for the campaign of 1813 - 14, and became lieutenant of artillery in the Prussian service in 1815.

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  • Mechanics (including dynamical astronomy) is that subject among those traditionally classed as "applied" which has been most completely transfused by mathematics - that is to say, which is studied with the deductive spirit of the pure mathematician, and not with the covert inductive intention overlaid with the superficial forms of deduction, characteristic of the applied mathematician.

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  • They were transmitted from India by Buddhist missionaries to China, but remained in abeyance until the Jesuit reform of Chinese astronomy in the 17th century.

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  • Hindu astronomy received its first definite organization in the 6th century, with results embodied in the Siorya-Siddhanta.

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  • Their number, as a multiple of four, was prescribed by the quaternary partition of the heavens, fundamental in Chinese astronomy.

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  • They served, in fact, and still serve (though with astrological ends in view), the precise purpose of " fundamental stars " in European astronomy.

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  • They were first enumerated by Alfarghani early in the 9th century, when the Arabs were in astronomy the avowed disciples of the Hindus.

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  • In 1861 she removed from Nantucket to Lynn, where she used a large equatorial telescope presented to her by the women of America; and there she lived until 1865, when she became professor of astronomy and director of the observatory at Vassar College; in 1888 she became professor emeritus.

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  • Attracted to astronomy by the influence of James Nasmyth, he constructed in 1850 a is-in.

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  • In 1873 De la Rue gave up active work in astronomy, and presented most of his astronomical instruments to the university observatory, Oxford.

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  • Rudolph was a clever and cultured man, greatly interested in chemistry, alchemy, astronomy and astrology; he was a patron of Tycho Brahe and Kepler, and was himself something of a scholar and an artist.

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  • The solar eclipse of 1748 made a deep impression upon him; and having graduated as seventh wrangler from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1754, he determined to devote himself wholly to astronomy.

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  • He then read for the bar, but turned to astronomy and authorship instead, and in 1865 published an article on the "Colours of Double Stars" in the Cornhill Magazine.

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  • He was also the author of the articles on astronomy in the American Cyclopaedia and the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and was well known as a popular lecturer on astronomy in England, America and Australia.

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  • The greater part of each night (he never slept more than four hours) was meantime devoted to astronomy, the upper portion of his house being fitted up as an observatory.

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  • They discovered astronomy, and inscribed their discoveries on two pillars, one of which, says Josephus, survived in his time.

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  • Subsequently he became professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and in 1876 he was appointed professor of astronomy and director of the Harvard College observatory.

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  • Of the pieces preserved by his desire the most valuable is his tract on the history of astronomy, which he himself described as a "fragment of a great work"; it was doubtless a portion of the "connected history of the liberal sciences and elegant arts" which, we are told, he had projected in early life.

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  • A series of sermons on the relation between the discoveries of astronomy and the Christian revelation was published in January 1817, and within a year nine editions and 20,000 copies were in circulation.

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  • This erroneous estimate was formed when he had seen the Descriptio but had not read it; and his opinion was very different when he became acquainted with the nature of logarithms. The dedication of his Ephemeris for 1620 consists of a letter to Napier dated the 28th of July 1619, and he there congratulates him warmly on his invention and on the benefit he has conferred upon astronomy generally and upon Kepler's own Rudolphine tables.

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  • Both are abundantly illustrated in most popular works on astronomy, and it seems sufficient to refer the reader to the original descriptions.2 We pass, therefore, directly to the equatorial telescope, the instrument par excellence of the modern extra-meridian astronomer.

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  • It left its trace in incantations, omens and hymns, and it gave birth to astronomy, which was assiduously cultivated because a knowledge of the heavens was the very foundation of the system of belief unfolded by the priests of Babylonia and Assyria.

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  • With the development of observational astronomy the sidereal universe was arbitrarily divided into areas characterized by special assemblages of stars; these assemblages were named asterisms by Ptolemy, who termed the brightest stars "of the fi rst magnitude," and the progressively fainter Stars.

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  • We now arrive at the greatest of all the problems of sidereal astronomy, the structure and nature of the universe as a whole.

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  • Two years later he went to Berlin to study astronomy under Encke, and in 1859 was appointed assistant observer at Pulkova, a post which he resigned in 1860 for a similar one at Brera, Milan.

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  • His great contribution to astronomy dates from 1866, when he showed that meteors or shooting stars traverse space in cometary orbits, and, in particular, that the orbits of the Perseids and Comet III., 1862, and of the Leonids and Comet I., 1866, were practically the same.

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  • On his retirement he turned to the astronomy of the Hebrews and Babylonians; his earlier results are given in his L' Astronomia nell' antico Testamento (1903), a work which has been translated into English and German, whilst later ones are to be found in various journals, the last being in Scientia (1908).

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  • Such a process in Christianity is everywhere in evidence, for even the Roman Church admits the modern astronomy.

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  • Christianity is dependent upon the understanding of the universe; hence it is the duty of believers to put it into the new setting, so that it adopts and adapts astronomy, geology, biology and psychology.

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  • While it is true that the one is concerned altogether with general theories, it is also true that these theories require developments and modifications to apply them to the numberless problems of astronomy, which we may place in either class.

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  • Among the problems of theoretical astronomy we may assign the first place to the determination of orbits, which is auxiliary to the prediction of the apparent motions of a planet, satellite or star.

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  • The principal modification is that,up to the present time, stellar astronomy has not advanced so far that a computation of the perturbations in each case of a system of stars is either necessary or possible, except in exceptional cases.

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  • Practical Astronomy, taken in its widest sense, treats of the instruments by which our knowledge of the heavenly bodies is acquired, the principles underlying their use, and the methods by which these principles are practically applied.

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  • The fundamental problem of practical astronomy is that of determining by measurement the co-ordinates of the heavenly bodies as already defined.

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  • This is one of the most troublesome problems in astronomy because, owing to the ever varying density of the atmosphere, arising from differences of temperature, and owing to the impossibility of determining the temperature with entire precision at any other point than that occupied by the observer, the amount of refraction must always be more or less uncertain.

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  • Since the middle of the 19th century the system of photographing the heavenly bodies has been introduced, step by step, so that it bids fair to supersede eye observations in many of the determinations of astronomy.

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  • The earth on which we live is, to all intents and purposes, one of these bodies, and, so far as its relations to the heavens are concerned, must be included in astronomy.

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  • The processes of measuring great portions of the earth, and of determining geographical positions, require both astronomical observations proper, and determinations made with instruments similar to those of astronomy.

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  • Hence geodesy may be regarded as a branch of practical astronomy.

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  • A practical acquaintance with the elements of astronomy is indispensable to the conduct of human life.

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  • But no genuine science of astronomy was founded until the Greeks sublimed experience into theory.

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  • Astrolatry was, in Egypt, the prelude to astronomy.

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  • The importance of their heliacal risings, or first visible appearances at dawn, for the purposes both of practical life and of ritual observance, caused them to be systematically noted; the length of the year was accurately fixed in connexion with the annually recurring Nile-flood; while the curiously precise orientation of the Pyramids affords a lasting demonstration of the high degree of technical skill in watching the heavens attained in the third millennium B.C. The constellational system in vogue among the Egyptians appears to have been essentially of native origin; but they contributed little or nothing to the genuine progress of astronomy.

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  • From them the Greeks derived their first notions of astronomy.

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  • There is no getting back to the beginning of astronomy by the shores of the Euphrates.

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  • In the course of ages, Babylonian astronomy, purified from the astrological taint, adapted itself to meet the most refined needs of civil life.

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  • Greek astronomy culminated in the school of Alexandria.

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  • His supreme merit, however, consisted in the establishment of astronomy on a sound geometrical basis.

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  • The choice made by Hipparchus of the geocentric theory of the universe decided the future of Greek astronomy.

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  • He attempted no detailed discussion of planetary theory; but his catalogue of 1 080 stars, divided into six classes of brightness, or " magnitudes," is one of the finest monuments of antique astronomy.

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  • Arab astronomy, transported by the Moors to Spain, flourished temporarily at Cordova and Toledo.

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  • Bernhard Walther of Nuremberg (1430-1504), who fitted up an observatory with clocks driven by weights, and developed many improvements in practical astronomy.

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  • The outcome of his discoveries was, not only to perfect the geometrical plan of the solar system, but to enhance very materially the predicting power of astronomy.

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  • The formal astronomy of the ancients left Kepler unsatisfied.

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  • Galileo's contributions to astronomy were of a different quality from Kepler's.

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  • Yet he unquestionably ranks as the true founder of descriptive astronomy; while his splendid presentment of the laws of projectiles in his dialogue of the " New Sciences " (Leiden, 1638) lent potent aid to the solid establishment of celestial mechanics.

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  • Francis Bacon's prescient dream, however, of a living astronomy by which the physical laws governing terrestrial relations should be extended to the highest heavens, had long to wait for realization.

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  • Cavalieri's " indivisibles " into the infinitesimal calculus, all accomplished during the 17th century, immeasurably widened the scope of exact astronomy.

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  • The crowning trophies of gravitational astronomy in the r8th century were Laplace's explanations of the " great inequality ".

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  • Observational astronomy, meanwhile, was advancing to some extent independently.

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  • The descriptive branch found its principle of development in the growing powers of the telescope, and had little to do with mathematical theory; which, on the contrary, was closely allied, by relations of mutual helpfulness, with practical astronomy, or " astrometry."

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  • Auwers in 1882, form the true basis of exact astronomy, and of our knowledge of proper motions.

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  • Practical astronomy was only secondarily concerned with the addition of Neptune, on the 23rd of September 1846, to the company of known planets; but William Lassell's Lassa.

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  • The most remarkable event, however, in the recent history of cometary astronomy was its assimilation to that of meteors,which took unquestion able cosmical rank as a consequence of the Leonid tempest of November 1833.

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  • Y positions of the heavenly bodies in space, and the changes of those positions with time, constitute the primary subject of investigation by the elder school; while the new astronomy concerns itself chiefly with the individual peculiarities of suns and planets, with their chemistry, physical habitudes and modes of luminosity.

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  • We hear also of one Master Peter, who inscribed and illuminated maps for the infante; the mathematician Pedro Nunes declares that the prince's mariners were well taught and provided with instruments and rules of astronomy and geometry "which all map-makers should know"; Cadamosto tells us that the Portuguese caravels in his day were the best sailing ships afloat; while, from several matters recorded by Henry's biographers, it is clear that he devoted great attention to the study of earlier charts and of any available information he could gain upon the trade-routes of north-west Africa.

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  • It is in the investigation of the moon's motion that the, merits of the ancient astronomy are seen to the best advantage.

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  • It was the most perplexing enigma in astronomy.

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  • This chair he exchanged for that of mathematics and physics at Yale in 1825; in 1836, when this professorship was divided, he retained that of astronomy and natural philosophy.

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  • But his writings are lost, as is also the case with those of Phocus the Samian, and the history of astronomy by Eudemus, the pupil of Aristotle; hence the paucity of our knowledge of Thales's astronomical learning.

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  • He was director of the Mannheim observatory from 1813 to 1815, and then became professor of astronomy in Copenhagen.

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  • The delicate bas-reliefs of botany and medicine, history and astronomy, have been judged by some writers to be Grecian, on account of the ancient appearance of their marble, their inscriptions in Greek and Latin, and others that have never been deciphered.

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  • Astronomy Picture of the Day (apod) Library - Selected APOD links (300+) related to the Certificate course syllabus.

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  • The emergent technology of e-VLBI is set to revolutionize radio astronomy.

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  • Research I am currently working on a number of projects concerning extragalactic astronomy, in particular the Fornax Cluster Spectroscopic Survey.

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  • This technique is commonly used today in ground-based radio astronomy.

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  • Significantly, the same objections underlie Nicolaus Copernicus ' reformation of Ptolemaic astronomy.

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  • Within a few years of Tycho's death, the telescope had revolutionized observational astronomy.

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  • The mechanics of the Copernican astronomy of Galileo attracted him and he also studied Kepler ' s Optics.

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  • Objects in our own solar system - including planets and comets - are also revealed in much greater detail by infrared astronomy.

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  • In gamma-ray astronomy, exposure is even more crucial than usual.

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  • Track Record As a significant partner in the project, the UK has wide expertise in millimeter and sub-millimetre wave astronomy.

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  • The site provides full coverage of progress in X-ray astronomy.

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  • There are several main active areas of research in the general area of pulsar astronomy which would support projects.

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  • Track Record UK involvement in VHE gamma ray astronomy dates to its inception.

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  • The thoughts mostly stem from his life experiences which mostly include astrophysics, astronomy, beer, football, music and computers.

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  • Survey Astronomy Surveys for astronomical objects over large areas of the sky are the foundation on which much research in observational astrophysics is based.

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  • The two men also shared a keen common interest in natural history, astronomy, and the history of religion -- particularly biblical chronology.

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  • On astronomy and in portillo chile we must correct about the millions.

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  • Secondly, we have a very broad department, encompassing pure, applied and discrete maths, stats, computing and even astronomy.

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  • In our solar system, the astronomy of the inner planets (Venus and Mercury) suggests that Einsteinian space-time is influencing them.

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  • Abu'l-Wafa and Abu Nasr Mansur both applied spherical geometry to astronomy and also used formulas involving sin and tan.

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  • These texts were the precursors of spherical trigonometry, which became vital to astronomy.

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  • Projected images of planets from the Institute of Astronomy will create a truly unearthly experience.

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  • The appearance of the Hale Bopp and Halley's comets, followed by solar and lunar eclipses, caused an upsurge in popular astronomy.

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  • The astrological zodiac has its roots in the science of astronomy - a legacy from the twelve divisions of the precessional cycle.

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  • At Leipzig, Göttingen and Halle he studied for four years, ultimately devoting himself to mathematics and astronomy.

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  • Although some lurking errors impaired the authority of the concluded parallaxes this work ranks as a valuable contribution to astronomy, since it showed the possibility of employing photography in such delicate investigations.

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  • In particular his knowledge of astronomy was profound, and he was one of the first to compile a Calendar of the Jewish year, thus preparing the way for the fixation of the festivals by means of scientific calculations.

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  • There is no anticipation or hint to be found in previous writers, 3 and it is very remarkable that a discovery or invention which was to exert so important and far-reaching an influence on astronomy and every science involving calculation was the work of a single mind.

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  • In 1823 he was appointed astronomer of the Armagh observatory, with which he (from 1824) combined the living of Carrickmacross, but he always resided at the observatory, engaged in researches connected with astronomy and physics, until his death on the 28th of February 1882.

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  • Geography is a synthetic science, dependent for the data with which it deals on the results of specialized sciences such as astronomy, geology, oceanography, meteorology, biology and anthropology, as well as on topographical description.

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  • We see from a statement of Cassiodorus that he furnished manuals for the quadrivium of the schools of the middle ages (the " quattuor matheseos disciplinae," as Boetius calls them) on arithmetic, music, geometry and astronomy.

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  • These two sections are connected by a "Monologue Recreatif," in which the author displays his general knowledge of popular songs, dances and tales, of astronomy, natural history and naval matters.

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  • In the ancient astronomy the anomaly was taken as the angular distance of the planet from the point of the farthest recession from the earth.

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  • He then proceeds to adduce elaborate and sometimes slightly grotesque reasons tending to prove that mathematical knowledge is essential in theology, and closes this section of his work with two comprehensive sketches of geography and astronomy.

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  • If the law of attraction is that of gravitation, the orbit is a conic section - ellipse, parabola or hyperbola - having the centre of attraction in one of its foci; and the motion takes place in accordance with Kepler's laws (see Astronomy).

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  • It is shown in the article Astronomy (Celestial Mechanics) that the mean distance and mean motion or time of revolution of a planet are so related by Kepler's third law that, when one of these elements is given, the other can be found.

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  • As compilers and authors of works in various scientific branches allied to history, may be particularly mentioned-in statistics and geography, Alexius Fenyes, Emeric Palugyay, Alexander Konek, John Hunfalvy, Charles Galgoczy, Charles Keleti, Leo Beothy, Joseph Korosi, Charles Ballagi and Paul Kiraly, and, as regards Transylvania, Ladislaus Kovary; in travel, Arminius Vambery, Ignatius Goldziher, Ladislaus Magyar, John Xantus, John Jerney, Count Andrassy, Ladislaus Podmaniczky, Paul Hunfalvy; in astronomy, Nicholas Konkoly; in archaeology, Bishop Arnold Ipolyi, Florian Romer, Emeric Henszlmann, John Erdy, Baron Albert Nyary, Francis Pulszky and Francis Kiss; in Hungarian mythology, Bishop Ipolyi, Anthony Csengery,' and Arpad Kerekgyarto; in numismatics, John Erdy and Jacob Rupp; and in jurisprudence, Augustus Karvassy, Theodore Pauler, Gustavus Wenczel, Emeric Csacsk6, John Fogarasi and Ignatius Frank.

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  • The Arabians more closely resembled the Hindus than the Greeks in the choice of studies; their philosophers blended speculative dissertations with the more progressive study of medicine; their mathematicians neglected the subtleties of the conic sections and Diophantine analysis, and applied themselves more particularly to perfect the system of numerals (see Numeral), arithmetic and astronomy.

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  • To assist his lectures on astronomy he constructed elaborate globes of the terrestrial and celestial spheres, on which the course of the planets was marked; for facilitating arithmetical and perhaps geometrical processes he constructed an abacus with twenty-seven divisions and a thousand counters of horn.

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  • The inventor claimed that it would supersede the heliometer, but it has never done anything for astronomy.

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  • It was especially used to represent geometrically the periodic apparent retrograde motion of the outer planets, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, which we now know to be due to the annual revolution of the earth around the sun, but which in the Ptolemaic astronomy were taken to be real.

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  • In the duel between the hunter and the beast-mind the intellectual powers of perception, memory, reason and will were developed; experience and knowledge by experience were enlarged, language and the graphic arts were fostered, the inventive faculty was evoked and developed, and primitive science was fostered in the unfolding of numbers, metrics, clocks, astronomy, history and the philosophy of causation.

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  • But the wet collodion process was then the only one available, and its inconveniences were such as to preclude its extensive employment; the real triumphs of photographic astronomy began in 1875 with Huggins's adoption and adaptation of the gelatine dry plate.

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  • In astronomy, we are principally concerned with the orientation of points on a sphere - the so-called celestial sphere - with regard to certain planes and points within the sphere; this subject is treated in the article Astronomy (Spherical).

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  • Amort, who had the reputation of being the most learned man of his age, was a voluminous writer on every conceivable subject, from poetry to astronomy, from dogmatic theology to mysticism.

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  • It is very evident that no mere hint with regard to the use of proportional numbers could have been of any service to him, but it is possible that the news brought by Craig of the difficulties placed in the progress of astronomy by the labour of the calculations may have stimulated him to persevere in his efforts.

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  • The Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae (Linz and Frankfort, 1618-162r), a lucid and attractive textbook of Copernican science,was remarkable for the prominence given to "physical astronomy," as well as for the extension to the Jovian system of the laws recently discovered to regulate the motions of the planets.

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  • Lastly, in astronomy he is credited by Ptolemy with an explanation of the motion of the planets by a system of epicycles; he also made reseafches in the lunar theory, for which he is said to have been called Epsilon (e).

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  • According To The Best Determinations Of Modern Astronomy (Le Verrier'S Solar Tables, Paris, 1858, P. 102), The Mean Geocentric Motion Of The Sun In Longitude, From The Mean Equinox During A Julian Year Of 365.25 Days, The Same Being Brought Up To The Present Date, Is 360 0 27" 685.

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  • He reverted to his early idea of a nutation of the earth's axis, and was rewarded by the discovery that the earth did possess such an oscillation (see Astronomy).

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  • In 1849 he was appointed director of the observatory of the Collegio Romano, which was rebuilt in 1853; there he devoted himself with great perseverance to researches in physical astronomy and meteorology till his death at Rome on the 26th of February 1878.

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  • To assign only a single cause for these phenomena, when the facts familiar to us suggest several, is insane, and is just the absurd conduct to be expected from people who dabble in the vanities of astronomy."

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  • The development of astronomy implies considerable progress in mathematics; it is not surprising, therefore, that the Babylonians should have invented an extremely simple method of ciphering or have discovered the convenience of the duodecimal system.

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  • The first forty-two years of his life are obscure; we learn from incidental remarks of his that he was a Sunnite, probably according to the IIanifite rite, well versed in all the branches of natural science, in medicine, mathematics, astronomy and astrology, in.

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  • In natural science, geography, natural history, mathematics and astronomy he took a genuine interest.

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  • In 1643 he was appointed to the Savilian professorship of astronomy at Oxford, but he was deprived of his Gresham professorship for having neglected its duties.

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  • This era is famous in astronomy, having been generally followed by Hipparchus and Ptolemy.

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  • Bessel, having been consulted by the celebrated statesman, Sir Robert Peel, on behalf of the Radcliffe trustees, as to what instrument, added to the Radcliffe Observatory, would probably most promote the advancement of astronomy, strongly advised the selection of a heliometer.

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  • Michaelis Villanovani in quendam medicum apologetics disceptatio pro astrologia (Paris, 1538; reprinted, Berlin, 1880); the medicus is Jean Tagault, who interrupted Servetus's lectures on astronomy, including meteorology.

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  • Bruno had been well received at Toulouse, where he had lectured on astronomy; even better fortune awaited him at Paris, especially at the hands of Henry III.

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  • The fragments of a work De Natali Institutione, dealing with astronomy, geometry, music and versification, and usually printed with the De Die Natali of Censorinus, are not by him.

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  • The sciences of mathematics, astronomy and medicine were also cultivated with assiduity and success at Alexandria, but they can scarcely be said to have their origin there, or in any strict sense to form a part of the peculiarly Alexandrian literature.

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  • Hartley, contains a library, museum, art gallery, lecture hall, laboratories, and school of science and art associated with that of South Kensington, London; the foundation was created for the advancement of natural history, astronomy, antiquities, and classical and Oriental literature.

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  • See Bergk-Hinrichs, Aristarchus von Samos (1883); Tannery, Aristarque de Samos; also Astronomy.

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  • Nearly every one of the modern instruments used for the observations of physical astronomy is a part of the perfected astrolabe.

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  • Having determined to apply himself to the study of astronomy, he built in 1856 a private observatory at Tulse Hill, in the south of London.

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  • In the last quarter of the 19th century spectroscopy and photography together worked a revolution in observational astronomy, and in both branches Huggins acted as pioneer.

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  • The investigation of triangles and other figures drawn upon the surface of a sphere is all-important in the sciences of astronomy, geodesy and geography.

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  • Despite extreme penury, he then continued to study indefatigably ancient and modern languages, history and literature, finally turning his attention to mathematics and astronomy.

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  • The first consul nominated him inspector-general of studies; he succeeded Lalande in 1807 as professor of astronomy at the College de France, and filled the office of treasurer to the imperial university from 1808 until its suppression in 1815.

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  • This was followed by a long series of popular treatises in rapid succession, amongst the more important of which are Light Science for Leisure Hours and The Sun (1871); The Orbs around Us and Essays on Astronomy (1872); The Expanse of Heaven, The Moon and The Borderland of Science (1873); The Universe and the Coming Transits and Transits of Venus (1874);(1874); Our Place among Infinities (1875); Myths and Marvels of Astronomy (1877); The Universe of Stars (1878); Flowers of the Sky (1879); The Peotry of Astronomy (1880); Easy Star Lessons and Familiar Science Studies (1882); Mysteries of Time and Space and The Great Pyramid (1883); The Universe of Suns (1884); The Seasons (1885); Other Suns than Ours and Half-Hours with the Stars (1887).

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  • See, Popular Astronomy, iii.

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  • In 1808 he entered the university of Dorpat (Yuriev), where he first studied philology, but soon turned his attention to astronomy.

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  • From 1813 to 1820 he was extraordinary professor of astronomy and mathematics at the new university and observer at the observatory, becoming in 1820 ordinary professor and director.

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  • This post he retained until 1894, when he migrated to the university of Cracow as extraordinary professor, becoming in 1897 ordinary professor of astronomy and geodesy.

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  • As yet, however, he had little knowledge of, and less inclination for, astronomy; and it was with extreme reluctance that he turned aside from the more promising career of the ministry to accept, early in 1594, the vacant chair of that science at Gratz, placed at the disposal of the Tubingen professors by the Lutheran states of Styria.

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  • This was nothing less than the foundation of a new astronomy, in which physical cause should replace arbitrary hypothesis.

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  • Although by no means free from errors, their value appears from the fact that they ranked for a century as the best aid to astronomy.

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  • His demonstration that the planes of all the planetary orbits pass through the centre of the sun, coupled with his clear recognition of the sun as the moving power of the system, entitles him to rank as the founder of physical astronomy.

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  • In astronomy, the "celestial equator" is the name given to the great circle in which the plane of the terrestrial equator intersects the celestial sphere; it is consequently equidistant from the celestial poles.

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  • He had seen Cyrene from the sea, probably on his voyage from Puteoli to Alexandria, where he remained a long time, probably amassing materials, and studying astronomy and mathematics.

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  • Similarly in astronomy, Aristotle used the assistance of Eudoxus and Callippus.

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  • In the Egyptian astronomy, the order of the planets, beginning with the most remote, is Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, the Moon.

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  • The Metonic Cycle, Which May Be Regarded As The Chef D'Oeuvre Of Ancient Astronomy, Is A Period Of Nineteen Solar Years, After Which The New Moons Again Happen On The Same Days Of The Year.

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  • The Ecclesiastical Calendar Would In That Case Have Possessed All The Simplicity And Uniformity Of The Civil Calendar, Which Only Requires The Adjustment Of The Civil To The Solar Year; But They Were Probably Not Sufficiently Versed In Astronomy To Be Aware Of The Practical Difficulties Which Their Regulation Had To Encounter.

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  • These Works Were Probably Little Regarded At The Time; But As The Errors Of The Calendar Went On Increasing, And The True Length Of The Year, In Consequence Of The Progress Of Astronomy, Became Better Known, The Project Of A Reformation Was Again Revived In The I 5Th Century; And In 1474 Pope Sixtus Iv.

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  • Canes Venatici ("The Hounds," or "the greyhounds"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere named by Hevelius in 1690, who compiled it from the stars between the older asterisms Ursa Major, Bodtes and Coma Berenices.

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  • In astronomy the horizon is that great circle of the sphere the plane of which is at right angles to the direction of the plumb line.

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  • The discovery of the aberration of light in 1725, due to James Bradley, is one of the most important in the whole domain of astronomy.

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  • Descriptions of spectroheliographs by Hale, Deslandres, Newall and others, may be found in various papers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Astrophysical Journal, Comptes rendus, Bulletin astronomique, and other periodicals.

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  • Here he studied scholastic philosophy and theology under a pupil of Occam's, from whom he imbibed the nominalist conception of philosophy; in addition he studied canon law, medicine, astronomy and even magic, and apparently some Hebrew.

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  • In astronomy the "mean sun" is a fictitious sun which moves uniformly in the celestial equator and has its right ascension always equal to the sun's mean longitude.

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  • The king frequently sent for him into his closet, and discoursed with him on astronomy, geometry and points of divinity.

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  • In 1847 he began to devote his attention to astronomy; and from 1852 to 1861 he discovered fourteen asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, on which account he received the grand astronomical prize from the Academy of Sciences.

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  • He founded the Sidereal Messenger in 1846, was one of the first to adopt (in 1848) the electrical method of recording observations, and published besides other works, The Orbs of Heaven (1848, &c.), and Popular Astronomy (1860), both reissued at London in 1892.

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  • He was offered, but declined, the professorship of mathematics and astronomy at Harvard.

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  • In 1852 he became professor of astronomy at the university of Munich, and held both these posts till his death, which took place on the 6th of August 1879.

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  • Besides investigating other phenomena connected with a vacuum, he constructed an electrical machine which depended on the excitation of a rotating ball of sulphur; and he made successful researches in astronomy, predicting the periodicity of the return of comets.

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  • Various dates - ranging from 625 B.C. to 583 B.C. - have been assigned by different chronologists to this eclipse; but, since the investigations of Airy,2 Hind, 3 and Zech, 4 the date determined by them (May 28, 585 B.C.) has been generally accepted (for later authorities see Eclipse and Astronomy).

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  • Other discoveries in astronomy are attributed to Thales, but on authorities which are not trustworthy.

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  • He at first intended to adopt the medical profession, and made some progress in anatomy, botany and chemistry, after which he studied chronology, geometry and astronomy.

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  • His researches in hydrodynamics were highly useful for marine engineering, while the reflecting and repeating circles, as improved by him, were of great service in nautical astronomy.

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  • Academies vied with each other in enrolling Leverrier among their members; the Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal; the king of Denmark sent him the order of the Dannebrog; he was named officer in the Legion of Honour, and preceptor to the comte de Paris; a chair of astronomy was created for his benefit at the Faculty of Sciences; he was appointed adjunct astronomer to the Bureau of Longitudes.

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  • In the course of the next seven years in Derbyshire and abroad, Hobbes took his pupil over rhetoric, 2 logic, astronomy, and the principles of law, with other subjects.

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  • In 1654 Seth Ward (1617-1689), the Savilian professor of astronomy, replying in his Vindiciae academiarum to some other assaults (especially against John Webster's Examen of Academies) on the academic system, retorted upon Hobbes that, so far from the universities being now what he had known them in his youth, he would find his geometrical pieces, when they appeared, better understood there than he should like.

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  • He imagines all possible plans or hypotheses, not actually contradicted by our experience of familiar events, which will represent in an intelligible way the processes of astronomy and meteorology.

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  • He was also the author of rhetorical exercises on hackneyed sophistical themes; of a Quadrivium (Arithmetic, Music, Geometry, Astronomy), valuable for the history of music and astronomy in the middle ages; a general sketch of Aristotelian philosophy; a paraphrase of the speeches and letters of Dionysius Areopagita; poems, including an autobiography; and a description of the Augusteum, the column erected by Justinian in the church of St Sophia to commemorate his victories over the Persians.

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  • There is no doubt that Indian astronomy shows marked Hellenic features, including actual Greek words borrowed.

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  • Astronomy.The brilliant skies of day and night in Egypt favored the development of astronomy.

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  • Astronomy played a considerable part in religious matters for fixing the dates of festivals and determining the hours of the night.

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  • In later life, he gave up speculative thought and turned to scientific research, especially in mathematics, physics and astronomy.

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  • Works are extant in papyri and on temple walls, treating of geography, astronomy, ritual, myths, medicine, &c. It is probable that the native priests would have been ready to ascribe the authorship or inspiration, as well as the care and protection of all their books of sacred lore to Thoth, although there were a goddess of writing (Seshit), and the ancient deified scribes Imuthes and Amenophis, and later inspired doctors Petosiris, Nechepso, &c., to be reckoned with; there are indeed some definite traces of such an attribution extant in individual cases.

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  • Those who supposed astronomy to inspire religious awe were horrified to hear the stars compared to eruptive spots on the face of the sky.

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  • In astronomy he depreciates the merits of Newton and elevates Kepler, accusing Newton particularly, a propos of the distinction of centrifugal and centripetal forces, of leading to a confusion between what is mathematically to be distinguished and what is physically separate.

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  • At the same time efforts were made to stamp out all liberal culture in Andalusia, so far as it went beyond the little medicine, arithmetic and astronomy required for practical life.

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  • The literary works of Averroes include treatises on jurisprudence, grammar, astronomy, medicine and philosophy.

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  • A great part of his writings, particularly on jurisprudence and astronomy, as well as essays on special logical subjects, prolegomena to philosophy, criticisms on Avicenna and Alfarabius (Farabi),remain in manuscript in the Escorial and other libraries.

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  • In some isolated cases this has been done; but the general consensus of astronomers has been against it, the day as used in astronomy being only a measure of time, and having no relation to the period of daily repose.

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  • His detection of considerable errors in the tables then in use led him to the conclusion that a more accurate ascertainment of the places of the fixed stars was indispensable to the progress of astronomy; and, finding that Flamsteed and Hevelius had already undertaken to catalogue those visible in northern latitudes, he assumed to himself the task of making observations in the southern hemisphere.

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  • It may be imagined further that, when he established himself at the Academy, his first care was to draw up a scheme of education, including arithmetic, geometry (plane and solid), astronomy, harmonics and dialectic, and that it was not until he had arranged for the carrying out of this programme that he devoted himself to the special functions of professor of philosophy.

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  • Brahman astronomy owed much to the Greeks, and what the Buddhists were to the architecture of northern India, that the Greeks were to its sculpture.

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  • But, as has been remarked by Dr Robert Grant (History of Physical Astronomy, p. 515), we are no more warranted in drawing so important a conclusion from casual remarks, however sagacious, than we should be justified in stating that Seneca was in possession of the discoveries of Newton because he predicted that comets would one day be found to revolve in periodic orbits.

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  • He caused works on mathematics, astronomy, medicine and philosophy to be translated from the Greek, and founded in Bagdad a kind of academy, called the "House of Science," with a library and an observatory.

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  • The flight of Byzantine scholarship westward in the 15th century revealed, and finally, that the philosophic content of the Scholastic teaching was as alien from Aristotle as from the spirit of the contemporary revolt of science, with its cry for a new medicine, a new nautical astronomy and the like.

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  • The tradition of the old world was too heavily weighted with the Ptolemaic astronomy and the like to be regarded as other than a bar to progress.

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  • These works are lost; but their titles, combined with expressions in the letters of Synesius, who consulted her about the construction of an astrolabe and a hydroscope, indicate that she devoted herself specially to astronomy and mathematics.

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  • Devoted to astronomy from his earliest years, he eagerly observed the heavens at a garret window with a telescope made by himself, and at nineteen began his career with the publication of a short work on the solar eclipse of the 5th of August 1766.

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  • Though intended for the Church, his studies and tastes inclined him to astronomy, and with a view to gaining experience in the routine of an observatory he accepted the post of observer in the university of Durham.

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  • The Ophites actually identified the serpent with Sophia (" Wisdom "); the old sage Garga, one of the fathers of Indian astronomy, owed his learning to the serpent-god Sesha Naga; and the Phoenician 14pwv 'Ocbiwv wrote the seven tablets of fate which were guarded by Harmonia.

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  • Man's place is not even central, as he appears a temporary inhabitant of a minor planet in one of the lesser stellar systems. Every science is involved, and theology has come into conflict with metaphysics, logic, astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, zoology, biology, history and even economics and medicine.

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  • This is the usual meaning of the term in astronomy.

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  • It need not be infinitely small, or even small compared with ordinary standards; thus in astronomy such vast bodies as the sun, the earth, and the other planets can for many purposes be treated merely as points endowed with mass.

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  • The full working out is in general difficult, the comparatively simple problem of three bodies, for instance, in gravitational astronomy being still unsolved, but some general theorems can be formulated.

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  • In 1884 he became professor of mathematics and astronomy at the Johns Hopkins University, continuing, however, to reside at Washingtion.

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  • A study of his works reveals an unusual combination of skill and originality in the mathematical treatment of many of the most difficult problems of astronomy, an unfailing patience and sagacity in dealing with immense masses of numerical results, and a talent for observation of the highest order.

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  • On assuming the directorship of the Nautical Almanac he became very strongly impressed with the diversity existing in the values of the elements and constants of astronomy adopted by different astronomers, and the injurious effect which it exercised on the precision and symmetry of much astronomical work.

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  • The formation of the tables of a planet has been described by Cayley as " the culminating achievement of astronomy," but the gigantic task which Newcomb laid out for himself, and which he carried on for more than twenty years, was the building up, on an absolutely homogeneous basis, of the theory and tables of the whole planetary system.

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  • A valuable summary of a considerable part of this work, containing an account of the methods adopted, the materials employed, and the resulting values of the various quantities involved, was published in 1895, as a supplement to the American Ephemeris for 1897, entitled The Elements of the Four Inner Planets and the Fundamental Constants of Astronomy.

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  • In the Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris will be found a large number of contributions from Newcomb's pen on some fundamental and most important questions of astronomy.

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  • A more recondite work is his Compendium of Spherical Astronomy (1906).

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  • These are, briefly speaking, the decay of those great fabrics, church and empire, which ruled the middle ages both as ideas and as realities; the development of nationalities and languages; the enfeeblement of the feudal system throughout Europe; the invention and application of paper, the mariner's compass, gunpowder, and printing; the exploration of continents beyond the ocean; and the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy.

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  • One mass of Greek and Roman erudition, including history and metaphysics, law and science, civic institutions and the art of war, mythology and magistracies, metrical systems and oratory, agriculture and astronomy, domestic manners and religious rites, grammar and philology, biography and numismatics, formed the miscellaneous subject-matter of this so-styled rhetoric. Notes taken at these lectures supplied young scholars with hints for further exploration; and a certain tradition of treating antique authors for the display of general learning, as well as for the elucidation of their texts, came into vogue, which has determined the method of scholarship for the last three centuries in Europe.

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  • Nothing is more remarkable in the history of discovery than the manner in which Ampere seized upon the right clue which enabled him to disentangle the complicated phenomena of electrodynamics and to deduce them all as a consequence of one simple fundamental law, which occupies in electrodynamics the position of the Newtonian law of gravitation in physical astronomy.

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  • Thoth was a voluminous author, and the collection of forty-two books which bore his name was a kind of primitive cyclopaedia of theology, astronomy, geography and physiology.

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  • He published twenty-one volumes of Annales, as well as the first two volumes of the great Catalogue de l'observatoire de Paris; founded the Bulletin astronomique, and set on foot two schools of practical astronomy, one at Paris, the other at Montsouris, for the special instruction of naval and military officers, explorers and surveyors.

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  • The computations of Apollodorus have fixed his birth in 611, and his death shortly after 547 B.C. Tradition, probably correct in its general estimate, represents him as a successful student of astronomy and geography, and as one of the pioneers of exact science among the Greeks.

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  • He wrote also treatises on the astrolabe (a copy of this is in the British Museum), on the abacus (three copies exist in the Vatican library, the library of Leiden University and the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris), translations of the Kharismian Tables and an Arabic Introduction to Astronomy.

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  • The successive publication of Tables for the Purchasing and Renewing of Leases (1802), of The Doctrine of Interest and Annuities (1808), and The Doctrine of Life-Annuities and Assurances (1810), earned him a high reputation as a writer on life-contingencies; he amassed a fortune through diligence and integrity and retired from business in 1825, to devote himself wholly to astronomy.

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  • About the same time he was named by the emperor one of the astronomers of the Royal Observatory, which was accordingly his residence till his death, and it was in this capacity that he delivered his remarkably successful series of popular lectures on astronomy, which were continued from 1812 to 1845.

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  • He was educated at Midhurst grammar school and at the Royal College of Science, where he was trained in physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology and biology.

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  • He studied mathematics, civil and military architecture, and astronomy, and became associate of the Academie des Sciences, professor of geometry, secretary to the Academy of Architecture and fellow of the Royal Society of London.

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  • In Albertus Magnus the name Geber occurs only once and then with the epithet "of Seville"; doubtless the reference is to the Arabian Jabir ben Aflah, who lived in that city in the r r th century, and wrote an astronomy in 9 books which is of importance in the history of trigonometry.

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  • He wrote upon nearly every subject of pure mathematics, and also upon theoretical dynamics and spherical and physical astronomy.

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  • Schering the Disquisitiones arithmeticae, (2) Theory of Numbers, (3) Analysis, (4) Geometry and Method of Least Squares, (5) Mathematical Physics, (6) Astronomy, and (7) the Theoria motus corporum coelestium.

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  • The Alexandrian Eratosthenes placed chronology upon the scientific basis of astronomy, and Apollodorus drew up the most important chronica of antiquity.

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  • According to Hittorf he was the first who saw the three lines of the hydrogen spectrum, which a few months after his death were recognized in the spectrum of the solar protuberances, and thus solved one of the mysteries of modern astronomy.

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  • Placed at the age of fifteen in a counting-house at Bremen, he was impelled by his desire to obtain a situation as supercargo on a foreign voyage to study navigation, mathematics and finally astronomy.

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  • In this capacity he inaugurated the modern era of practical astronomy.

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  • Modern astronomy of precision is essentially Bessel's creation.

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  • His works embraced politics, astronomy, medicine, music, theology, jurisprudence, physics, grammar and history.

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  • From 1892 to 1895 he was an editor of Astronomy and Astrophysics and thereafter of The Astrophysical Journal.

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  • A Greek by birth, adopted son of Jacob Heraklides, despot of Paros, Samos and other Aegean islands, acquainted with Greek and Latin literature, and master of most European languages; appearing alternately as a student of astronomy at Wittenberg, whither he had been invited by Count Mansfeld, as a correspondent of Melanchthon, and as a writer of historical works which he dedicated to Philip II.

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  • They were written at the request of the princess of Anhalt-Dessau, and contain an admirably clear exposition of the principal facts of mechanics, optics, acoustics and physical astronomy.

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  • Euler's knowledge was more general than might have been expected in one who had pursued with such unremitting ardour mathematics and astronomy as his favourite studies.

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  • This was his appointment to the Andrews professorship of astronomy in the university of Dublin, vacated by Dr Brinkley in 1827.

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  • He was not specially fitted for the post, for although he had a profound acquaintance with theoretical astronomy, he had paid but little attention to the regular work of the practical astronomer.

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  • And it must be said that his time was better employed in original investigations than it would have been had he spent it in observations made even with the best of instruments, infinitely better than if he had spent it on those of the observatory, which, however good originally, were then totally unfit for the delicate requirements of modern astronomy.

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  • Indeed there can be little doubt that Hamilton was intended by the university authorities who elected him to the professorship of astronomy to spend his time as he best could for the advancement of science, without being tied down to any particular branch.

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  • Had he devoted himself to practical astronomy they would assuredly have furnished him with modern instruments and an adequate staff of assistants.

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  • He, however, resigned his ecclesiastical preferments in 1721, on his appointment to the Savilian professorship of astronomy at Oxford, while as reader on experimental philosophy (1729-1760) he delivered 79 courses of lectures in the Ashmolean museum.

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  • He had meantime (in 1742) been appointed to succeed Edmund Halley as astronomer royal; his enhanced reputation enabled him to apply successfully for an instrumental outfit at a cost of 1000; and with an 8-foot quadrant completed for him in 1750 by John Bird (1709-1776), he accumulated at Greenwich in ten years materials of inestimable value for the reform of astronomy.

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  • This post he held until 1898; but in 1892 he was also made professor of astronomy and geometry at Cambridge and director of the university observatory.

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  • He was an admirable lecturer and writer of popular books on his subject, as well as of more learned works such as his Treatise on Spherical Astronomy (1885) and Treatise on the Theory of Screws (1900); and he was a congenial figure in all circles.

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  • It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, geography, optics, statics, or some other mathematical subject, and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with.

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  • In the middle of 1708 Newton's consent was obtained, but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise, Roger Cotes, fellow of Trinity College, who had been recently appointed the first Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy.

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  • In 1778 he became president of Yale College and professor of ecclesiastical history there, having insisted that no theological statement be required of him except assent to the Saybrook platform of 1708; in 1780--1782 he was professor of divinity, and he lectured besides on astronomy and philosophy.

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  • As an undergraduate he became deeply interested in astronomy; he observed the comet of 1759 and the transit of Venus of June 1769, and left a quarto volume of astronomical notes.

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  • During the years 1833-1843 he contributed very largely to the first edition of the [[Penny]] Cyclopaedia, writing chiefly on mathematics, astronomy, physics and biography.

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  • In these carefully written papers he treats a great variety of topics relating to astronomy, chronology, decimal coinage, life assurance, bibliography and the history of science.

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  • In 1858 he became professor of mathematics at St Andrews, but lectured only for a session, when he vacated the chair for the Lowndean professorship of astronomy and geometry at Cambridge.

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  • Although Adams's researches on Neptune were those which attracted widest notice, the work he subsequently performed in relation to gravitational astronomy and terrestrial magnetism was not less remarkable.

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  • Several of his most striking contributions to knowledge originated in the discovery of errors or fallacies in the work of his great predecessors in astronomy.

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  • He also published a treatise, in 1761, De distributione caloris per tellurem, and he was the author of memoirs on different subjects in astronomy, mechanics, optics and pure mathematics, contained in the journals of the learned societies of St Petersburg and Berlin.

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  • Astronomy is of necessity a science of observation in the pursuit of which experiment can directly play no part.

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  • The field we have defined is divisible into at least two parts, that of Astronomy proper, or " Astrometry," which treats of the motions, mutual relations and dimensions of the heavenly bodies; and that of Astrophysics, which treats of their physical constitution.

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  • We may conclude this brief characterization of astronomy with a statement and classification of the principal lines on which astronomical researches are now pursued.

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  • One characteristic of astronomy which tends to make its progress slow and continuous arises out of the general fact that, except in the case of motions to or from us, which can be determined by a single observation with the spectroscope, the motion of a heavenly body can be determined only by comparing its position at two different epochs.

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  • The former may be termed general, and the latter practical, astronomy.

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  • Theoretical Astronomy,which may be considered as an extension of geometrical astronomy and includes the determination of the positions and motions of the heavenly bodies by combining mathematical theory with observation.

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  • Modern theoretical astronomy, taken in the most limited sense, is based upon Celestial Mechanics, the science by which, using purely deductive mechanical methods, the laws of motion of the heavenly bodies are derived by deductive methods from their mutual gravitation towards each other.

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  • Practical Astronomy, which comprises a description of the instruments used in astronomical observation, and of the principles and methods underlying their application.

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  • In astronomy, as in analytical geometry, the position of a point is defined by stating its distance and its direction from a point of reference taken as known.

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  • Theoretical Astronomy is that branch of the science which, making use of the results of astronomical observations as they are supplied by the practical astronomer, investigates the motions of the heavenly bodies.

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  • In its most important features it is an offshoot of celestial mechanics, between which and theoretical astronomy no sharp dividing line can be drawn.

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  • The Almagest was the consummation of Greek astronomy.

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  • C. Lewis in his History of Ancient Astronomy (pp. 466-481) revived the sceptical view, the tendency of modern critics has been rather to exaggerate than to depreciate the value of what was really added by Pytheas to knowledge.

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  • The second son of Charles Darwin (see 7.840), he was second wrangler and Smith's prizeman at Cambridge, and was elected to the professorship of astronomy and experimental philosophy at his university in 1883.

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  • Mathematics, however, which had been his favourite study in youth, continued to engross his attention, and on the 6th of March 1619 he was appointed professor of astronomy in Gresham College, London.

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  • This prolix composition, one of a class which at that time was much in vogue - metrical epitomes of