C. Watson's Theoretical Astronomy is the most complete in the English language.
In 1844 he was elected ordinary professor of higher mechanics and astronomy, a position which he held till his death on the 26th of September 1868.
Ball, Spherical Astronomy, p. 303.
Berry, A Short History of Astronomy, p. 200; R.
irapaXX6, alternately), in astronomy, the apparent change in the direction of a heavenly body when viewed from two different points.
Yet he found time, amid these multifarious occupations, to elaborate an entirely new system of astronomy, by the adoption of which man's outlook on the universe was fundamentally changed.
In 1851 he visited the Bonn Observatory, and studied astronomy under Argelander.
In 1657 he became professor of astronomy at Gresham College, and in 1660 was elected Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford.
During an administration of nearly twenty-five years Pond effected a reform of practical astronomy in England comparable to that effected by Bessel in Germany.
'' One of the sections of his able and instructive report was devoted to "A Comparison of the Progress of Astronomy in England with that in other Countries," very much to the disadvantage of England.
Newcomb, Popular Astronomy; Lick Observatory publications.
As in the question of astronomy then, so in the question of history now, the whole difference of opinion is based on the recognition or nonrecognition of something absolute, serving as the measure of visible phenomena.
And as the undefinable essence of the force moving the heavenly bodies, the undefinable essence of the forces of heat and electricity, or of chemical affinity, or of the vital force, forms the content of astronomy, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and so on, just in the same way does the force of free will form the content of history.
There is now no doubt that William Gascoigne, a young gentleman of Yorkshire, was the first 1 Gran, History of Physical Astronomy, p. 449.
Castor and Pollux), in astronomy, the third sign in the zodiac, denoted by the symbol II.
Mechanics (including dynamical astronomy) is that subject among those traditionally classed as "applied" which has been most completely transfused by mathematics - that is to say, which is studied with the deductive spirit of the pure mathematician, and not with the covert inductive intention overlaid with the superficial forms of deduction, characteristic of the applied mathematician.
His leisure was devoted to the study of astronomy, and he was appointed in 1870 secretary to the duke of Devonshire's royal commission on science.
Yet he contrived to write his great commentary on the Pentateuch and other books of the Bible, treatises on philosophy (as the Yesodh mora), astronomy, mathematics, grammar (translation of Ilayyu j), besides a Diwan.
The application of photography to exact astronomy has created the necessity for new forms of apparatus to measure the relative positions of stellar and planetary images on photographic plates, and the relative positions of lines in photographic spectra.
His career as a professional astronomer began in 1870, when he was elected Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford.
Matriculating at the university of Gottingen in 1811, he began by devoting himself to astronomy under Carl Friedrich Gauss; but he enlisted in the Hanseatic Legion for the campaign of 1813 - 14, and became lieutenant of artillery in the Prussian service in 1815.
He had a distinguished career at the gymnasium of his native town, and on leaving desired to devote himself to astronomy, but abandoned the idea in deference to his father's wishes.
In June 1835 Airy was appointed Astronomer Royal in succession to John Pond, and thus commenced that long career of wisely directed and vigorously sustained industry at the national observatory which, even more perhaps than his investigations in abstract science or theoretical astronomy, constitutes his chief title to fame.
In Germany David Gans wrote on astronomy, and also the historical work Zemah David (Prag, 1592).
Sir Henry Savile (1549-1622) thereupon appointed him in 1619 to the Savilian chair of astronomy just founded by him at Oxford; Bainbridge was incorporated of Merton College and became, in 1631 and 1635 respectively, junior and senior reader of Linacre's lectures.
orbita, a track, orbis, a wheel), in astronomy, the path of any body, and especially of a heavenly body, revolving round an attracting centre.
ELONGATION, strictly "lengthening"; in astronomy, the apparent angular distance of a heavenly body from its centre of motion, as seen from the earth; designating especially the angular distance of the planet Mercury or Venus from the sun, or the apparent angle between a satellite and its primary.
29, p. 806) tells us how he saw at Heliopolis large buildings belonging to the priests, which had once been tenanted by men skilled in philosophy and astronomy, who had been consulted by Plato and Eudoxus, but that the o-uanjµa and iaicgats (the very words used by Philo in speaking of the Therapeutae) had then fallen into decay.
In 1849 we find him studying chemistry under Bunsen at Marburg, where his love for astronomy was revived by Gerling's lectures.
At Vienna, from 1452, he was the pupil and associate of George Purbach (1423-1461), and they jointly undertook a reform of astronomy rendered necessary by the errors they detected in the Alphonsine Tables.
Among Lockyer's other works are - The Dawn of Astronomy (1894), to which Stonehenge and other British Stone Monuments astronomically considered (1906) may be considered a sequel; Recent and coming Eclipses (1897); and Inorganic Evolution (1900).
Besides the ordinary studies of the monastic scholar, he devoted himself to mathematics, astronomy and music, and constructed watches and instruments of various kinds.
My neighbor is interested in astronomy and bought a small telescope.
This chair he held for little more than a year, being elected in February 1828 Plumian professor of astronomy and director of the new Cambridge observatory.
With this was included mathematics, astronomy and astrology, and even the magic arts.
In astronomy the word denotes the angular distance of a body from the pericentre of the orbit in which it is moving.
But he seems to have been well cared for, and he was at the age of fourteen sufficiently advanced "in algebra, geometry, astronomy, and even the higher mathematics," to calculate a solar eclipse within four seconds of accuracy.
In all the cases which have yet arisen in astronomy the extraneous forces are so small compared with the gravitation of the central body that the orbit is approximately an ellipse, and the preliminary computations, as well as all determinations in which a high degree of precision is not necessary, are made on the hypothesis of elliptic orbits.
A portion of it, containing an elaborate survey of astronomy as known to the Arabs, was translated into Latin in 1342 at the request of Clement VI.
As for science, astronomy was cultivated by the Babylonians at an early period, and it is probably from them that a knowledge of the heavenly bodies and their movements spread over Asia.
For eight years subsequently he held the chair of Physics and Astronomy in King's College, London, but resigned in 1868 and retired to his estate of Glenlair in Kirkcudbrightshire.
Of his astronomical writings during this period the most important are his investigation of the mass of Jupiter, his report to the British Association on the progress of astronomy during the 19th century, and his memoir On an Inequality of Long Period in the Motions of the Earth and Venus.
Attracted to astronomy by the solar eclipse of the 12th of May 1706, he obtained permission in 1710 to lodge in the dome of the Luxembourg, procured some instruments, and there observed the total eclipse of the 22nd of May 1724.
trepidare, to tremble), a term meaning, in general, fear or trembling, but used technically in astronomy for an imagined slow oscillation of the ecliptic, having a period of 7000 years, introduced by the Arabian astronomers to explain a supposed variation in the precession of the equinoxes.
In 1888 the Smith Observatory was built at Geneva, being maintained by William Smith, and placed in charge of Dr William Robert Brooks, professor of astronomy in Hobart College.
Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent.
He contributed extensively to the periodical literature of astronomy, and was twice, in 1823 and 1830, the recipient of the Royal Astronomical Society's gold medal.
CAPRICORNUS (" THE Goat"), in astronomy, the tenth sign of the zodiac, represented by the symbol T-2° intended to denote the crooked horns of this animal.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about astronomy.
The action of the society in supplying practical instruction to intending travellers, in astronomy, surveying and the various branches of science useful to collectors, has had much to do with advancement of discovery.
At Leipzig, GÃ¶ttingen and Halle he studied for four years, ultimately devoting himself to mathematics and astronomy.
In 1815 he settled at Leipzig as privatdocent, and the next year became extraordinary professor of astronomy in connexion with the university.
In it is situated the Royal Observatory, built in 1675 for the advancement of navigation and nautical astronomy.
But the pupil soon found his teacher to be a charlatan, and taught himself, aided by commentaries, to master logic, geometry and astronomy.
Finally, at Jorjan, near the Caspian, he met with a friend, who bought near his own house a dwelling in which Avicenna lectured on logic and astronomy.
In 1837 he was appointed Lowndean professor of astronomy.
1344), called Ralbag, the great commentator on the Bible and Talmud, in philosophy a follower of Aristotle and Averroes, known to Christians as Leo Hebraeus, wrote also many works on halakhah, mathematics and astronomy.
The admission is now general that the Bible cannot be expected to use the language of scientific astronomy.
His observations of the great comet of January 1672 supplied the basis of modern cometary astronomy.
3 Grant, History of Physical Astronomy, p. 117.
Grant, History of Physical Astronomy, &c.; Pietro Cossali, Eloge (Padua, 1813); L.
rEpi, near, ijXcos, sun), in astronomy, the point of nearest approach of a body to the sun.
The discordance of their results incited Laplace to a searching examination of the whole subject of planetary perturbations, and his maiden effort was rewarded with a discovery which constituted, when developed and completely demonstrated by his own further labours and those of his illustrious rival Lagrange, the most important advance made in physical astronomy since the time of Newton.
It thus came about that while some progress was made in algebra, the talents of the race were bestowed on astronomy and trigonometry.
Astronomy and astrology, moreover, occupy a conspicuous place.
having paid special attention to mathematics and astronomy.
Arago was elected a member of the Board of Longitude immediately afterwards, and contributed to each of its Annuals, for about twenty-two years, important scientific notices on astronomy and meteorology and occasionally on civil engineering, as well as interesting memoirs of members of the Academy.
*loge of James Watt, by James Muirhead (London, 1839); also translated, with notes, by Lord Brougham; Popular Lectures on Astronomy, by Walter Kelly and Rev. L.
His commentary on Manilius is really a treatise on the astronomy of the ancients, and it forms an introduction to the De emendatione temporum, in which he examines by the light of modern and Copernican science the ancient system as applied to epochs, calendars and computations of time, showing upon what principles they were based.
neutrino astronomy; supernova 1987a, solar neutrino problem, neutrino detectors.
He thinks of Windex as a miracle cure-all and that kimonos were invented by the Greeks, along with philosophy and astronomy.
After World War II Hubble became very much an elder statesman of US astronomy.
extragalactic astronomy are given in the next two sections.
forefront of astronomy.
fortifybly fortified against the elements, another night of astronomy ensued.
Gamma Ray Astronomy Primary cosmic gamma ray Astronomy Primary cosmic gamma rays (300 GeV) are studied using the atmospheric Cerenkov radiation technique.
gamma ray astronomy dates to its inception.
And what do glowing gherkins have to do with astronomy?
Women constitute 19% of the 1999/2000 first-year physics grad students and 29% in astronomy.
It cheapens astronomy, like using Beethoven for commercial jingles.
lunar libration from the Astronomy Picture of the Day.
Grant, History of Physical Astronomy.
Uranus (Astronomy) >>
armilla, a bracelet), an instrument used in astronomy.
Lunar Theory (Cambridge 1896), or the work of Watson or of Bauschinger on Theoretical Astronomy.
The appeal to authority cannot be permitted in economics any more than in chemistry, physics or astronomy.
'AQUILA, in astronomy, the " Eagle," sometimes named the " Vulture," a constellation of the northern hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th cent.
Its discussion may be found in any work on theoretical astronomy.
His scientific fame is based mainly on his encouragement of astronomy.
For the subjects of this general heading see the articles Mechanics; Dynamics, Analytical; Gyroscope; Harmonic Analysis; Wave; HYDROMechanics; Elasticity; Motion, Laws Of; Energy; Energetics; Astronomy (Celestial Mechanics); Tide.
But the latter contented hilnself with an annual stipend which would enable him to devote all his time to his favorite studies of mathematics and astronomy.
He started as a physician and practised for some years, kept a school and studied astronomy.
The Astronomer-Royal for Scotland also holds the chair of practical astronomy.
Most of Wollaston's original work' deals more or less directly with chemical subjects, but diverges on all sides into optics, acoustics, mineralogy, astronomy, physiology, botany and even art.
Even in 1847 astronomy, physics, logic and other subjects of the kind had to be taught in several of the lyceums through the medium of Latin.
Delambre from the data there supplied marked the profit derived from the investigation by practical astronomy.
In every branch of physical astronomy, accordingly, deep traces of his work are visible.
The theory of probabilities, which Laplace described as common sense expressed in mathematical language, engaged his attention from its importance in physics and astronomy; and he applied his theory, not only to the ordinary problems of chances, but also to the inquiry into the causes of phenomena, vital statistics and future events.
We find that geometry was neglected except in so far as it was of service to astronomy; trigonometry was advanced, and algebra improved far beyond the attainments of Diophantus.
The Arabians more closely resembled the Hindus than the Greeks in the choice of studies; their philosophers blended speculative dissertations with the more progressive study of medicine; their mathematicians neglected the subtleties of the conic sections and Diophantine analysis, and applied themselves more particularly to perfect the system of numerals, arithmetic and astronomy.
When, in the third quarter of the igth century, spectrum analysis was applied to the light coming to us from the heavenly bodies, a new era in astronomical science was opened up of such importance that the body of knowledge revealed by this method has sometimes been termed the "new astronomy."
When the spectroscope was first applied in astronomy, it was hoped that the light reflected from living matter might be found to possess some property different from that found in light reflected from non-living matter, and that we might thus detect the presence of life on the surface of a planet by a study of its spectrum; but no hope of this kind has so far been realized.
He occupied the chair of astronomy in the university of his native town from 1730 to 1744, but travelled during 1732 and some subsequent years in Germany, Italy and France.
of Physical Astronomy, pp. 486, &c.; R.
This still barely civilized German literally went to school to the English Alcuin and to Peter of Pisa, who, between two campaigns, taught him history, writing, grammar and astronomy, satisfying also his interest in sacred music, literature (religious literature especially),and the traditions of Rome and Constantinople.
His taste for mathematics led him to the study of astronomy.
The usurping successor of Hakam found it a politic step to request the most notable doctors of the sacred law to examine the royal library; and every book treating of philosophy, astronomy and other forbidden topics was condemned to the flames.
Galileo's direction of his new instrument to the heavens formed an era in the history of astronomy.
In 1655 the word telescope was inserted and explained in Bagwell's Mysteries of Astronomy, trunk or cylinder being the terms until then ordinarily employed.
The direct services which Galileo rendered to astronomy are virtually summed up in his telescopic discoveries.
His name is nevertheless justly associated with that vast extension of the bounds of the visible universe which has rendered modern astronomy the most sublime of sciences, and his telescopic observations are a standing monument to his sagacity and acumen.
regem, a treatise on astronomy and meteorology, which contained the sum of physical philosophy during the early middle ages.
More particularly, "minute" is used of the sixtieth part of any unit); in time, of an hour; and in astronomy, geometry, geography, &c., of a degree in the measurement of a circle.
For long ages astronomy and astrology (which might be called astromancy, on the same principle as "chiromancy") were identified; and a distinction is made between "natural astrology," which predicts the motions of the heavenly bodies, eclipses, &c., and "judicial astrology," which studies the influence of the stars on human destiny.
636) is one of the first to distinguish between astronomy and astrology; nor did astronomy begin to rid itself of astrology till the 16th century, when, with the system of Copernicus, the conviction that the earth itself is one of the heavenly bodies was finally established.
The study of astromancy and the belief in it, as part of astronomy, is found in a developed form among the ancient Babylonians, and directly or indirectly through the Babylonians spread to other nations.
In India and China astronomy and astrology are largely reflections of Greek theories and speculations; and similarly with From Exercises, by T.
marvel of convenience and the introduction of Greek culture into Egypt, both astronomy and astrology were actively cultivated in the region of the Nile during the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
While in a general way the reign of law and order in the movements of the heavenly bodies was recognized, and indeed must have exercised an influence at an early period in leading to the rise of a methodical divination that was certainly of a much higher order than the examination of an animal's liver, yet the importance that was laid upon the endless variations in the form of the phenomena and the equally numerous apparent deviations from what were regarded as normal conditions, prevented for a long time the rise of any serious study of astronomy beyond what was needed for the purely practical purposes that the priests as "inspectors" of the heavens (as they were also the "inspectors" of the sacrificial livers) had in mind.
c. 2000 B.C., the combinations of prominent groups of stars with outlines of pictures fantastically put together, but there is no evidence that prior to 700 B.C. more than a number of the constellations of our zodiac had become part of the current astronomy.
It is rather significant that this spread of astrology should have been concomitant with the intellectual impulse that led to the rise of a genuine scientific phase of astronomy in Babylonia itself, which must have weakened to some extent the hold that astrology had on the priests and the people.
The spread of astrology beyond Babylonia is thus concomitant with the rise of a truly scientific astronomy in Babylonia itself, which in turn is due to the intellectual impulse afforded by the contact with new forms of culture from both the East and the West.
In the hands of the Greeks and of the later Egyptians both astrology and astronomy were carried far beyond the limits attained by the Babylonians, and it is indeed a matter of surprise to observe the harmonious combination of the two fields - a harmony that seems to grow more complete with each age, and that is not broken until we reach the threshold of modern science in the 16th century.
Kepler was more cautious in his opinion; he spoke of astronomy as the wise mother, and astrology as the foolish daughter, but he added that the existence of the daughter was necessary to the life of the mother.
Tycho Brahe and Gassendi both began with astrology, and it was only after pursuing the false science, and finding it wanting, that Gassendi devoted himself to astronomy.
He was led to his three great laws by musical analogies, just as William Herschel afterwards passed from music to astronomy.
For the history of astrology with its affinities to astronomy on the one hand, and to other forms of popular belief on the other, the following works out of a large number that might be mentioned are specially recommended: - A.
INVARIABLE PLANE, in celestial mechanics (see Astronomy), that plane on which the sum of the moments of momentum of all the bodies which make up a system is a maximum.
The problems of gravitational astronomy engaged the chief part of Hansen's attention.
p. 183 (1877); Barnard, Popular Astronomy, vii.
This is identical with the angle between the horizontal planes at the place and at the equator, and also with the elevation of the celestial pole above the horizon (see Astronomy).
When the fluctuation in the position of the pole was fully confirmed, its importance in astronomy and geodesy led the International Geodetic Association to establish a series of stations round the globe, as nearly as possible on the same parallel of latitude, for the purpose of observing the fluctuation with a greater degree of precision than could be attained by the miscellaneous observations before available.
His studies included Roman law, astronomy, astrology, the art of reckoning and the difficulties of the calendar.
This chair he exchanged for that of mathematics and physics at Yale in 1825; in 1836, when this professorship was divided, he retained that of astronomy and natural philosophy.
Under the name of Hyginus two school treatises on mythology are extant: (I) Fabularum Liber, some 300 mythological legends and celestial genealogies, valuable for the use made by the author of the works of Greek tragedians now lost; (2) De Astronomia, usually called Poetica Astronomica, containing an elementary treatise on astronomy and the myths connected with the stars, chiefly based on the Ka-raa-repu s of of Eratosthenes.
constellatus, studded with stars; con, with, and stella, a star), in astronomy, the name given to certain groupings of stars.
But his writings are lost, as is also the case with those of Phocus the Samian, and the history of astronomy by Eudemus, the pupil of Aristotle; hence the paucity of our knowledge of Thales's astronomical learning.
(See Terrestrial magnetism.) In astronomy the declination is the angular distance, as seen from the earth, of a heavenly body from the celestial equator, thus corresponding with terrestrial latitude.
He was director of the Mannheim observatory from 1813 to 1815, and then became professor of astronomy in Copenhagen.
The delicate bas-reliefs of botany and medicine, history and astronomy, have been judged by some writers to be Grecian, on account of the ancient appearance of their marble, their inscriptions in Greek and Latin, and others that have never been deciphered.
Astronomy Picture of the Day (apod) Library - Selected APOD links (300+) related to the Certificate course syllabus.
The emergent technology of e-VLBI is set to revolutionize radio astronomy.
In 1963 Sagan was hired by Harvard to teach astronomy.
Research I am currently working on a number of projects concerning extragalactic astronomy, in particular the Fornax Cluster Spectroscopic Survey.
This technique is commonly used today in ground-based radio astronomy.
Significantly, the same objections underlie Nicolaus Copernicus ' reformation of Ptolemaic astronomy.
Within a few years of Tycho's death, the telescope had revolutionized observational astronomy.
The mechanics of the Copernican astronomy of Galileo attracted him and he also studied Kepler ' s Optics.
Objects in our own solar system - including planets and comets - are also revealed in much greater detail by infrared astronomy.
astronomy cosmology particle physics WATER ON THE SUN.
astronomy laboratory was built.
astronomy Now is the only UK based astronomy magazine.
In gamma-ray astronomy, exposure is even more crucial than usual.
Track Record As a significant partner in the project, the UK has wide expertise in millimeter and sub-millimetre wave astronomy.
The site provides full coverage of progress in X-ray astronomy.
There are several main active areas of research in the general area of pulsar astronomy which would support projects.
Track Record UK involvement in VHE gamma ray astronomy dates to its inception.
The thoughts mostly stem from his life experiences which mostly include astrophysics, astronomy, beer, football, music and computers.
Survey Astronomy Surveys for astronomical objects over large areas of the sky are the foundation on which much research in observational astrophysics is based.
The two men also shared a keen common interest in natural history, astronomy, and the history of religion -- particularly biblical chronology.
cheapens astronomy, like using Beethoven for commercial jingles.
On astronomy and in portillo chile we must correct about the millions.
Rev. Lett.) astronomy cosmology particle physics WATER ON THE SUN.
diptych dial provided here was designed by Dr. Allan Mills, Astronomy Group, Leicester University, UK.
Secondly, we have a very broad department, encompassing pure, applied and discrete maths, stats, computing and even astronomy.
draft memorandum by the sub-committee of the National Committee for Astronomy on the project for an international observatory in the Southern Hemisphere, 1956.
neutrino astronomy could be said to have been born.
Astronomy was also enriched by his investigations, and he was led to several remarkable theorems on conics which bear his name.
The development of astronomy implies considerable progress in mathematics; it is not surprising, therefore, that the Babylonians should have invented an extremely simple method of ciphering or have discovered the convenience of the duodecimal system.
The first forty-two years of his life are obscure; we learn from incidental remarks of his that he was a Sunnite, probably according to the IIanifite rite, well versed in all the branches of natural science, in medicine, mathematics, astronomy and astrology, in.
In natural science, geography, natural history, mathematics and astronomy he took a genuine interest.
Astronomy seems in this way to have come chiefly from India.
Damiri) is not zoological but legendary, and the works on minerals are practical and not scientific. See ARABIAN PHIaOSOPHY and historical sections of such scientific articles as ASTRONOMY, &c. (G.
Carleton College has the Goodsell Observatory, which gives the time to the railways of the North-west, and publishes a magazine, Popular Astronomy.
Though these objects only become visible in the atmosphere they are extra-terrestrial planetary bodies, and properly belong to the domain of astronomy.
It was this which made him add to his labours the burden of delivering every year from 1831 to 1848 a course of gratuitous lectures on astronomy for a popular audience.
Comte's series or hierarchy is arranged as follows: (i) Mathematics (that is, number, geometry, and mechanics), (2) Astronomy, (3) Physics, (4) Chemistry, (5) Biology, (6) Sociology.
At first an apothecary, he turned his attention to astronomy, and in 1826 commenced his observations on sun-spots.
amplus, large), in astronomy, the angular distance of the rising or setting sun, or other heavenly body, from the east or west point of the horizon; used mostly by navigators in finding the variation of the compass by the setting sun.
ELLIPTICITY, in astronomy, deviation from a circular or spherical form; applied to the elliptic orbits of heavenly bodies, or the spheroidal form of such bodies.
In 1643 he was appointed to the Savilian professorship of astronomy at Oxford, but he was deprived of his Gresham professorship for having neglected its duties.
This era is famous in astronomy, having been generally followed by Hipparchus and Ptolemy.
SOLAR SYSTEM, in astronomy, the group of heavenly bodies, comprising the sun and the bodies which move around the sun as a centre of attraction, of which the Earth is one.
Bessel, having been consulted by the celebrated statesman, Sir Robert Peel, on behalf of the Radcliffe trustees, as to what instrument, added to the Radcliffe Observatory, would probably most promote the advancement of astronomy, strongly advised the selection of a heliometer.
aperture have subsequently been constructed by Repsolds on these plans for GÃ¶ttingen, Bamberg, Leipzig and the Kuffner Observatory (near Vienna), and all of them have made important contributions to astronomy of precision.
Dollond claims the independent invention and first construction of a similar instrument (Pearson's Practical Astronomy, ii.
deferens, bearing down), in ancient astronomy, the mean orbit of a planet, which carried the epicycle in which the planet revolved.
Michaelis Villanovani in quendam medicum apologetics disceptatio pro astrologia (Paris, 1538; reprinted, Berlin, 1880); the medicus is Jean Tagault, who interrupted Servetus's lectures on astronomy, including meteorology.
Bruno had been well received at Toulouse, where he had lectured on astronomy; even better fortune awaited him at Paris, especially at the hands of Henry III.
Esri, upon, and icbsXos, circle), in ancient astronomy, a small circle the centre of which describes a larger one.
The contents are of a varied character: the natural history of man, the influence of the stars and genii, music, religious rites, astronomy, the doctrines of the Greek philosophers.
The fragments of a work De Natali Institutione, dealing with astronomy, geometry, music and versification, and usually printed with the De Die Natali of Censorinus, are not by him.
of astronomy, ix.
contains a very clear statement of the heliocentric system of astronomy.
The sciences of mathematics, astronomy and medicine were also cultivated with assiduity and success at Alexandria, but they can scarcely be said to have their origin there, or in any strict sense to form a part of the peculiarly Alexandrian literature.
Hartley, contains a library, museum, art gallery, lecture hall, laboratories, and school of science and art associated with that of South Kensington, London; the foundation was created for the advancement of natural history, astronomy, antiquities, and classical and Oriental literature.
In early life he devoted himself to astronomy and physical geography, and in consequence he was appointed astronomer to various expeditions, among others that of Sir J.
See Bergk-Hinrichs, Aristarchus von Samos (1883); Tannery, Aristarque de Samos; also Astronomy.
Nearly every one of the modern instruments used for the observations of physical astronomy is a part of the perfected astrolabe.
BLACK DROP, in astronomy, an apparent distortion of the planet Mercury or Venus at the time of internal contact with the limb of the sun at the beginning or end of a transit.
Having determined to apply himself to the study of astronomy, he built in 1856 a private observatory at Tulse Hill, in the south of London.
In the last quarter of the 19th century spectroscopy and photography together worked a revolution in observational astronomy, and in both branches Huggins acted as pioneer.
Hercules (Astronomy) >>
The investigation of triangles and other figures drawn upon the surface of a sphere is all-important in the sciences of astronomy, geodesy and geography.
ZODIAC (o ituKAos, from 'Cv&cov, " a little animal "), in astronomy and astrology, an imaginary zone of the heavens within which lie the paths of the sun, moon and principal planets.
They were transmitted from India by Buddhist missionaries to China, but remained in abeyance until the Jesuit reform of Chinese astronomy in the 17th century.
Hindu astronomy received its first definite organization in the 6th century, with results embodied in the Siorya-Siddhanta.
Their number, as a multiple of four, was prescribed by the quaternary partition of the heavens, fundamental in Chinese astronomy.
They served, in fact, and still serve (though with astrological ends in view), the precise purpose of " fundamental stars " in European astronomy.
They were first enumerated by Alfarghani early in the 9th century, when the Arabs were in astronomy the avowed disciples of the Hindus.
In 1861 she removed from Nantucket to Lynn, where she used a large equatorial telescope presented to her by the women of America; and there she lived until 1865, when she became professor of astronomy and director of the observatory at Vassar College; in 1888 she became professor emeritus.
Despite extreme penury, he then continued to study indefatigably ancient and modern languages, history and literature, finally turning his attention to mathematics and astronomy.
The first consul nominated him inspector-general of studies; he succeeded Lalande in 1807 as professor of astronomy at the College de France, and filled the office of treasurer to the imperial university from 1808 until its suppression in 1815.
Attracted to astronomy by the influence of James Nasmyth, he constructed in 1850 a is-in.
In 1873 De la Rue gave up active work in astronomy, and presented most of his astronomical instruments to the university observatory, Oxford.
Rudolph was a clever and cultured man, greatly interested in chemistry, alchemy, astronomy and astrology; he was a patron of Tycho Brahe and Kepler, and was himself something of a scholar and an artist.
The solar eclipse of 1748 made a deep impression upon him; and having graduated as seventh wrangler from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1754, he determined to devote himself wholly to astronomy.
Vince's Astronomy (vol.
He then read for the bar, but turned to astronomy and authorship instead, and in 1865 published an article on the "Colours of Double Stars" in the Cornhill Magazine.
This was followed by a long series of popular treatises in rapid succession, amongst the more important of which are Light Science for Leisure Hours and The Sun (1871); The Orbs around Us and Essays on Astronomy (1872); The Expanse of Heaven, The Moon and The Borderland of Science (1873); The Universe and the Coming Transits and Transits of Venus (1874);(1874); Our Place among Infinities (1875); Myths and Marvels of Astronomy (1877); The Universe of Stars (1878); Flowers of the Sky (1879); The Peotry of Astronomy (1880); Easy Star Lessons and Familiar Science Studies (1882); Mysteries of Time and Space and The Great Pyramid (1883); The Universe of Suns (1884); The Seasons (1885); Other Suns than Ours and Half-Hours with the Stars (1887).
He was also the author of the articles on astronomy in the American Cyclopaedia and the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and was well known as a popular lecturer on astronomy in England, America and Australia.
His largest and most ambitious work, Old and New Astronomy, unfortunately left unfinished at his death, was completed by A.
The greater part of each night (he never slept more than four hours) was meantime devoted to astronomy, the upper portion of his house being fitted up as an observatory.
URSA MAJOR (" THE GREAT BEAR "), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere, supposed to be referred to in the Old Testament (Job ix.
Schiaparelli, Astronomy in the Old Testament, 1905).
They discovered astronomy, and inscribed their discoveries on two pillars, one of which, says Josephus, survived in his time.
His mathematical capacity was early noticed; he pursued his studies at Gottingen under Abraham Gotthelf Kastner (1719-1800), and in 1787 he went to Berlin and studied practical astronomy under E.
Subsequently he became professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and in 1876 he was appointed professor of astronomy and director of the Harvard College observatory.
Of the pieces preserved by his desire the most valuable is his tract on the history of astronomy, which he himself described as a "fragment of a great work"; it was doubtless a portion of the "connected history of the liberal sciences and elegant arts" which, we are told, he had projected in early life.
A series of sermons on the relation between the discoveries of astronomy and the Christian revelation was published in January 1817, and within a year nine editions and 20,000 copies were in circulation.
astronomy in Gresham College.
This erroneous estimate was formed when he had seen the Descriptio but had not read it; and his opinion was very different when he became acquainted with the nature of logarithms. The dedication of his Ephemeris for 1620 consists of a letter to Napier dated the 28th of July 1619, and he there congratulates him warmly on his invention and on the benefit he has conferred upon astronomy generally and upon Kepler's own Rudolphine tables.
See, Popular Astronomy, iii.
Astronomy, pp. 205, 292; J.
In 1808 he entered the university of Dorpat (Yuriev), where he first studied philology, but soon turned his attention to astronomy.
From 1813 to 1820 he was extraordinary professor of astronomy and mathematics at the new university and observer at the observatory, becoming in 1820 ordinary professor and director.
His contributions to astronomy cover a wide field: a list of his publications is given in Poggendorff, BiographischLitterarische, vols.
This post he retained until 1894, when he migrated to the university of Cracow as extraordinary professor, becoming in 1897 ordinary professor of astronomy and geodesy.
As yet, however, he had little knowledge of, and less inclination for, astronomy; and it was with extreme reluctance that he turned aside from the more promising career of the ministry to accept, early in 1594, the vacant chair of that science at Gratz, placed at the disposal of the Tubingen professors by the Lutheran states of Styria.
"Nature," he wrote, "which has conferred upon every animal the means of subsistence, has given astrology as an adjunct and ally to astronomy."
This was nothing less than the foundation of a new astronomy, in which physical cause should replace arbitrary hypothesis.
Although by no means free from errors, their value appears from the fact that they ranked for a century as the best aid to astronomy.
His demonstration that the planes of all the planetary orbits pass through the centre of the sun, coupled with his clear recognition of the sun as the moving power of the system, entitles him to rank as the founder of physical astronomy.
of Physical Astronomy, pp. 420, 545; J.
In astronomy, the "celestial equator" is the name given to the great circle in which the plane of the terrestrial equator intersects the celestial sphere; it is consequently equidistant from the celestial poles.
the standard Babylonian work on astrology and astronomy, and compiled (in three books) the history of his country from native documents, which he published in Greek in the reign of Antiochus II.
He had seen Cyrene from the sea, probably on his voyage from Puteoli to Alexandria, where he remained a long time, probably amassing materials, and studying astronomy and mathematics.
2.7rEpi obpavoiu: De coelo: On astronomy, &c.
Similarly in astronomy, Aristotle used the assistance of Eudoxus and Callippus.
number in arithmetic, magnitude in geometry, stars in astronomy, a man's good in ethics; concentrates itself on the causes and appropriate principles of its subject, especially the definition of the subject and its species by their essences or formal causes; and after an inductive intelligence of those principles proceeds by a deductive demonstration from definitions to consequences: philosophy is simply a desire of this definite knowledge of causes and effects.
In the Egyptian astronomy, the order of the planets, beginning with the most remote, is Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, the Moon.
The Metonic Cycle, Which May Be Regarded As The Chef D'Oeuvre Of Ancient Astronomy, Is A Period Of Nineteen Solar Years, After Which The New Moons Again Happen On The Same Days Of The Year.
The Ecclesiastical Calendar Would In That Case Have Possessed All The Simplicity And Uniformity Of The Civil Calendar, Which Only Requires The Adjustment Of The Civil To The Solar Year; But They Were Probably Not Sufficiently Versed In Astronomy To Be Aware Of The Practical Difficulties Which Their Regulation Had To Encounter.
These Works Were Probably Little Regarded At The Time; But As The Errors Of The Calendar Went On Increasing, And The True Length Of The Year, In Consequence Of The Progress Of Astronomy, Became Better Known, The Project Of A Reformation Was Again Revived In The I 5Th Century; And In 1474 Pope Sixtus Iv.
KOXos, shortened, and ovpfi, tail), in astronomy, either of the two principal meridians of the celestial sphere, one of which passes through the poles and the two solstices, the other through the poles and the two equinoxes; hence designated as solstitial colure and equinoxial colure, respectively.
Canes Venatici ("The Hounds," or "the greyhounds"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere named by Hevelius in 1690, who compiled it from the stars between the older asterisms Ursa Major, Bodtes and Coma Berenices.
solstitium, from sol, sun, and sistere, to stand still), in astronomy either of the two points at which the sun reaches its greatest declination north or south.
In astronomy the horizon is that great circle of the sphere the plane of which is at right angles to the direction of the plumb line.
The discovery of the aberration of light in 1725, due to James Bradley, is one of the most important in the whole domain of astronomy.
Descriptions of spectroheliographs by Hale, Deslandres, Newall and others, may be found in various papers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Astrophysical Journal, Comptes rendus, Bulletin astronomique, and other periodicals.
EQUATION OF THE CENTRE, in astronomy, the angular distance, measured around the centre of motion, by which a planet moving in an ellipse deviates from the mean position which it would occupy if it moved uniformly.
Here he studied scholastic philosophy and theology under a pupil of Occam's, from whom he imbibed the nominalist conception of philosophy; in addition he studied canon law, medicine, astronomy and even magic, and apparently some Hebrew.
In astronomy the "mean sun" is a fictitious sun which moves uniformly in the celestial equator and has its right ascension always equal to the sun's mean longitude.
The king frequently sent for him into his closet, and discoursed with him on astronomy, geometry and points of divinity.
In 1847 he began to devote his attention to astronomy; and from 1852 to 1861 he discovered fourteen asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, on which account he received the grand astronomical prize from the Academy of Sciences.
the chemistry of Lavoisier, the zoology of Lamarck, the astronomy of Laplace and the geology of Lyell.
He founded the Sidereal Messenger in 1846, was one of the first to adopt (in 1848) the electrical method of recording observations, and published besides other works, The Orbs of Heaven (1848, &c.), and Popular Astronomy (1860), both reissued at London in 1892.
He was offered, but declined, the professorship of mathematics and astronomy at Harvard.
In 1852 he became professor of astronomy at the university of Munich, and held both these posts till his death, which took place on the 6th of August 1879.
Among his contributions to astronomy may be noted his eleven zonecatalogues of 34,674 stars, his measurements, in 1836-1837, of nebulae and clusters, and his determination of the mass of Uranus from observations of its satellites (Mena.
Besides investigating other phenomena connected with a vacuum, he constructed an electrical machine which depended on the excitation of a rotating ball of sulphur; and he made successful researches in astronomy, predicting the periodicity of the return of comets.
THALES OF MILETUS (6 40-546 B.C.), Greek physical philosopher, son of Examyus and Cleobuline, is universally recog nized as the founder of Greek geometry, astronomy and philosophy.
Various dates - ranging from 625 B.C. to 583 B.C. - have been assigned by different chronologists to this eclipse; but, since the investigations of Airy,2 Hind, 3 and Zech, 4 the date determined by them (May 28, 585 B.C.) has been generally accepted (for later authorities see Eclipse and Astronomy).
Other discoveries in astronomy are attributed to Thales, but on authorities which are not trustworthy.
See also under ECLIPSE and ASTRONOMY.
Stevinus wrote on other scientific subjects - optics, geography, astronomy, &c. - and a number of his writings were translated into, Latin by W.
He at first intended to adopt the medical profession, and made some progress in anatomy, botany and chemistry, after which he studied chronology, geometry and astronomy.
Having graduated at Harvard College in 1844, he studied mathematics and astronomy under C. F.
His researches in hydrodynamics were highly useful for marine engineering, while the reflecting and repeating circles, as improved by him, were of great service in nautical astronomy.
Academies vied with each other in enrolling Leverrier among their members; the Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal; the king of Denmark sent him the order of the Dannebrog; he was named officer in the Legion of Honour, and preceptor to the comte de Paris; a chair of astronomy was created for his benefit at the Faculty of Sciences; he was appointed adjunct astronomer to the Bureau of Longitudes.
In the course of the next seven years in Derbyshire and abroad, Hobbes took his pupil over rhetoric, 2 logic, astronomy, and the principles of law, with other subjects.
In 1654 Seth Ward (1617-1689), the Savilian professor of astronomy, replying in his Vindiciae academiarum to some other assaults (especially against John Webster's Examen of Academies) on the academic system, retorted upon Hobbes that, so far from the universities being now what he had known them in his youth, he would find his geometrical pieces, when they appeared, better understood there than he should like.
With the translation,' in the spring of 1656, he had ready Six Lessons to the Professors of Mathematics, one of Geometry, the other of Astronomy, in the University of Oxford (E.W.
He imagines all possible plans or hypotheses, not actually contradicted by our experience of familiar events, which will represent in an intelligible way the processes of astronomy and meteorology.
He was also the author of rhetorical exercises on hackneyed sophistical themes; of a Quadrivium (Arithmetic, Music, Geometry, Astronomy), valuable for the history of music and astronomy in the middle ages; a general sketch of Aristotelian philosophy; a paraphrase of the speeches and letters of Dionysius Areopagita; poems, including an autobiography; and a description of the Augusteum, the column erected by Justinian in the church of St Sophia to commemorate his victories over the Persians.
There is no doubt that Indian astronomy shows marked Hellenic features, including actual Greek words borrowed.
Astronomy.The brilliant skies of day and night in Egypt favored the development of astronomy.
Astronomy played a considerable part in religious matters for fixing the dates of festivals and determining the hours of the night.
7repi, near, y the earth), in astronomy that point of the moon's orbit or of the sun's apparent orbit at which the moon or sun approach nearest to the earth.
EVECTION (Latin for "carrying away"), in astronomy, the largest inequality produced by the action of the sun in the monthly revolution of the moon around the earth.
In later life, he gave up speculative thought and turned to scientific research, especially in mathematics, physics and astronomy.
Works are extant in papyri and on temple walls, treating of geography, astronomy, ritual, myths, medicine, &c. It is probable that the native priests would have been ready to ascribe the authorship or inspiration, as well as the care and protection of all their books of sacred lore to Thoth, although there were a goddess of writing (Seshit), and the ancient deified scribes Imuthes and Amenophis, and later inspired doctors Petosiris, Nechepso, &c., to be reckoned with; there are indeed some definite traces of such an attribution extant in individual cases.
AZIMUTH (from the Arabic), in astronomy, the angular distance from the north or south point of the horizon to the foot of the vertical circle through a heavenly body.
PLEIADES, ATLANTIDES or Vergiliae, in astronomy, a group of stars situated in the constellation Taurus.
libra, a balance), a slow oscillation, as of a balance; in astronomy especially the seeming oscillation of the moon around her axis, by which portions of her surface near the edge of the disk are alternately brought into sight and swung out of sight.
Schiaparelli, Astronomy in the O.T., Eng.
His father, an avocat au parlement, gave him an excellent education at the college Mazarin, and encouraged his taste for natural science; and he studied mathematics and astronomy with N.
Romer, pp. 298-309, which contains an excellent summary of all that is known concerning Pytheas; Sir George C. Lewis, Historical Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients, pp. 466480 (London, 1862); Sir Edward H.
Those who supposed astronomy to inspire religious awe were horrified to hear the stars compared to eruptive spots on the face of the sky.
In astronomy he depreciates the merits of Newton and elevates Kepler, accusing Newton particularly, a propos of the distinction of centrifugal and centripetal forces, of leading to a confusion between what is mathematically to be distinguished and what is physically separate.
xpiepa, colour, and c4aipa, a sphere), in astronomy, the red-coloured envelope of the sun, outside of the photosphere.
At the same time efforts were made to stamp out all liberal culture in Andalusia, so far as it went beyond the little medicine, arithmetic and astronomy required for practical life.
The literary works of Averroes include treatises on jurisprudence, grammar, astronomy, medicine and philosophy.
A great part of his writings, particularly on jurisprudence and astronomy, as well as essays on special logical subjects, prolegomena to philosophy, criticisms on Avicenna and Alfarabius (Farabi),remain in manuscript in the Escorial and other libraries.
dies"), in astronomy, the interval of time in which a revolution of the earth on its axis is performed.
In some isolated cases this has been done; but the general consensus of astronomers has been against it, the day as used in astronomy being only a measure of time, and having no relation to the period of daily repose.
His detection of considerable errors in the tables then in use led him to the conclusion that a more accurate ascertainment of the places of the fixed stars was indispensable to the progress of astronomy; and, finding that Flamsteed and Hevelius had already undertaken to catalogue those visible in northern latitudes, he assumed to himself the task of making observations in the southern hemisphere.
Grant, History of Astronomy, p. 477 and passim; A.
3 18 E) makes Protagoras pointedly refer to sophists who, " when young men have made their escape from the arts, plunge them once more into technical study, and teach them such subjects as arithmetic, astronomy, geometry and music."
It may be imagined further that, when he established himself at the Academy, his first care was to draw up a scheme of education, including arithmetic, geometry (plane and solid), astronomy, harmonics and dialectic, and that it was not until he had arranged for the carrying out of this programme that he devoted himself to the special functions of professor of philosophy.
Brahman astronomy owed much to the Greeks, and what the Buddhists were to the architecture of northern India, that the Greeks were to its sculpture.
But, as has been remarked by Dr Robert Grant (History of Physical Astronomy, p. 515), we are no more warranted in drawing so important a conclusion from casual remarks, however sagacious, than we should be justified in stating that Seneca was in possession of the discoveries of Newton because he predicted that comets would one day be found to revolve in periodic orbits.
Both are abundantly illustrated in most popular works on astronomy, and it seems sufficient to refer the reader to the original descriptions.2 We pass, therefore, directly to the equatorial telescope, the instrument par excellence of the modern extra-meridian astronomer.
It left its trace in incantations, omens and hymns, and it gave birth to astronomy, which was assiduously cultivated because a knowledge of the heavens was the very foundation of the system of belief unfolded by the priests of Babylonia and Assyria.
With the development of observational astronomy the sidereal universe was arbitrarily divided into areas characterized by special assemblages of stars; these assemblages were named asterisms by Ptolemy, who termed the brightest stars "of the fi rst magnitude," and the progressively fainter Stars.
We now arrive at the greatest of all the problems of sidereal astronomy, the structure and nature of the universe as a whole.
Khalid contented himself with protesting; he was neither a politician nor a soldier, but a student of alchemy and astronomy; translations of Greek books have been ascribed to him (Jahiz, Bayan, i.
He caused works on mathematics, astronomy, medicine and philosophy to be translated from the Greek, and founded in Bagdad a kind of academy, called the "House of Science," with a library and an observatory.
arithmetic of number, geometry of magnitude, astronomy of stars, politics of government, ethics of goods.
The flight of Byzantine scholarship westward in the 15th century revealed, and finally, that the philosophic content of the Scholastic teaching was as alien from Aristotle as from the spirit of the contemporary revolt of science, with its cry for a new medicine, a new nautical astronomy and the like.
The tradition of the old world was too heavily weighted with the Ptolemaic astronomy and the like to be regarded as other than a bar to progress.
These works are lost; but their titles, combined with expressions in the letters of Synesius, who consulted her about the construction of an astrolabe and a hydroscope, indicate that she devoted herself specially to astronomy and mathematics.
Devoted to astronomy from his earliest years, he eagerly observed the heavens at a garret window with a telescope made by himself, and at nineteen began his career with the publication of a short work on the solar eclipse of the 5th of August 1766.
This was followed by an elementary treatise on astronomy entitled Anleitung zur Kenntniss des gestirnten Himmels (1768, l oth ed.
His works were highly effective in .diffusing throughout Germany a taste for astronomy.
Two years later he went to Berlin to study astronomy under Encke, and in 1859 was appointed assistant observer at Pulkova, a post which he resigned in 1860 for a similar one at Brera, Milan.
His great contribution to astronomy dates from 1866, when he showed that meteors or shooting stars traverse space in cometary orbits, and, in particular, that the orbits of the Perseids and Comet III., 1862, and of the Leonids and Comet I., 1866, were practically the same.
On his retirement he turned to the astronomy of the Hebrews and Babylonians; his earlier results are given in his L' Astronomia nell' antico Testamento (1903), a work which has been translated into English and German, whilst later ones are to be found in various journals, the last being in Scientia (1908).
Though intended for the Church, his studies and tastes inclined him to astronomy, and with a view to gaining experience in the routine of an observatory he accepted the post of observer in the university of Durham.
The Ophites actually identified the serpent with Sophia (" Wisdom "); the old sage Garga, one of the fathers of Indian astronomy, owed his learning to the serpent-god Sesha Naga; and the Phoenician 14pwv 'Ocbiwv wrote the seven tablets of fate which were guarded by Harmonia.
Man's place is not even central, as he appears a temporary inhabitant of a minor planet in one of the lesser stellar systems. Every science is involved, and theology has come into conflict with metaphysics, logic, astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, zoology, biology, history and even economics and medicine.
Such a process in Christianity is everywhere in evidence, for even the Roman Church admits the modern astronomy.
Christianity is dependent upon the understanding of the universe; hence it is the duty of believers to put it into the new setting, so that it adopts and adapts astronomy, geology, biology and psychology.
NADIR (Arabic nadir, " opposite to," used elliptically for nadir-es-semt, " opposite to the zenith"), a term used in astronomy for the point in the heavens exactly opposite to the zenith, the zenith and nadir being the two poles of the horizon.
This is the usual meaning of the term in astronomy.
It need not be infinitely small, or even small compared with ordinary standards; thus in astronomy such vast bodies as the sun, the earth, and the other planets can for many purposes be treated merely as points endowed with mass.
The full working out is in general difficult, the comparatively simple problem of three bodies, for instance, in gravitational astronomy being still unsolved, but some general theorems can be formulated.
If q be any variable co-ordinate defining the position or (in the case of a system of bodies) the configuration, the velocity of each particle at any instant will be proportional to 4, and the total kinetic energy may be expressed in the form 1/8A42, where A is in general a function of q The special case where both cones are right circular and a is constant is important ~n astronomy and also in mechanism (theory of bevel wheels).
albus, white), "whiteness," a word used principally in astronomy for the degree of reflected light; the light of the sun which is reflected from the moon is called the .albedo of the moon.
The more important of them are: - (i) Kethabha dhe-Bhabhatha (Book of the Pupils of the Eyes), a treatise on logic or dialectics; (2) Hewath Hekhmetha (Butter of Wisdom), an exposition of the whole philosophy of Aristotle; (3) Sullaka Haunanaya (Ascent of the Mind), a treatise on astronomy and Imperfectly edited and translated by Bruns and Kirsch in 1789.
In 1884 he became professor of mathematics and astronomy at the Johns Hopkins University, continuing, however, to reside at Washingtion.
A study of his works reveals an unusual combination of skill and originality in the mathematical treatment of many of the most difficult problems of astronomy, an unfailing patience and sagacity in dealing with immense masses of numerical results, and a talent for observation of the highest order.
On assuming the directorship of the Nautical Almanac he became very strongly impressed with the diversity existing in the values of the elements and constants of astronomy adopted by different astronomers, and the injurious effect which it exercised on the precision and symmetry of much astronomical work.
The formation of the tables of a planet has been described by Cayley as " the culminating achievement of astronomy," but the gigantic task which Newcomb laid out for himself, and which he carried on for more than twenty years, was the building up, on an absolutely homogeneous basis, of the theory and tables of the whole planetary system.
A valuable summary of a considerable part of this work, containing an account of the methods adopted, the materials employed, and the resulting values of the various quantities involved, was published in 1895, as a supplement to the American Ephemeris for 1897, entitled The Elements of the Four Inner Planets and the Fundamental Constants of Astronomy.
In the Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris will be found a large number of contributions from Newcomb's pen on some fundamental and most important questions of astronomy.
his Popular Astronomy (1878) which has been translated into German, Russian, Norwegian, Czech, Dutch and Japanese, his Astronomy for Schools and Colleges (1880), written in conjunction with Professor E.
Holden, and Astronomy for Everybody (1903).
A more recondite work is his Compendium of Spherical Astronomy (1906).
These are, briefly speaking, the decay of those great fabrics, church and empire, which ruled the middle ages both as ideas and as realities; the development of nationalities and languages; the enfeeblement of the feudal system throughout Europe; the invention and application of paper, the mariner's compass, gunpowder, and printing; the exploration of continents beyond the ocean; and the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy.
One mass of Greek and Roman erudition, including history and metaphysics, law and science, civic institutions and the art of war, mythology and magistracies, metrical systems and oratory, agriculture and astronomy, domestic manners and religious rites, grammar and philology, biography and numismatics, formed the miscellaneous subject-matter of this so-styled rhetoric. Notes taken at these lectures supplied young scholars with hints for further exploration; and a certain tradition of treating antique authors for the display of general learning, as well as for the elucidation of their texts, came into vogue, which has determined the method of scholarship for the last three centuries in Europe.
Nothing is more remarkable in the history of discovery than the manner in which Ampere seized upon the right clue which enabled him to disentangle the complicated phenomena of electrodynamics and to deduce them all as a consequence of one simple fundamental law, which occupies in electrodynamics the position of the Newtonian law of gravitation in physical astronomy.
Thoth was a voluminous author, and the collection of forty-two books which bore his name was a kind of primitive cyclopaedia of theology, astronomy, geography and physiology.
He published twenty-one volumes of Annales, as well as the first two volumes of the great Catalogue de l'observatoire de Paris; founded the Bulletin astronomique, and set on foot two schools of practical astronomy, one at Paris, the other at Montsouris, for the special instruction of naval and military officers, explorers and surveyors.
The computations of Apollodorus have fixed his birth in 611, and his death shortly after 547 B.C. Tradition, probably correct in its general estimate, represents him as a successful student of astronomy and geography, and as one of the pioneers of exact science among the Greeks.
He wrote also treatises on the astrolabe (a copy of this is in the British Museum), on the abacus (three copies exist in the Vatican library, the library of Leiden University and the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris), translations of the Kharismian Tables and an Arabic Introduction to Astronomy.
1828), professor of practical astronomy at Edinburgh University, to characterize a superior achromatism, and, subsequently, by many writers to denote freedom from spherical aberration.
The successive publication of Tables for the Purchasing and Renewing of Leases (1802), of The Doctrine of Interest and Annuities (1808), and The Doctrine of Life-Annuities and Assurances (1810), earned him a high reputation as a writer on life-contingencies; he amassed a fortune through diligence and integrity and retired from business in 1825, to devote himself wholly to astronomy.
About the same time he was named by the emperor one of the astronomers of the Royal Observatory, which was accordingly his residence till his death, and it was in this capacity that he delivered his remarkably successful series of popular lectures on astronomy, which were continued from 1812 to 1845.
GERARD OF CREMONA (c. 1114-1187), the medieval translator of Ptolemy's Astronomy, was born at Cremona, Lombardy, in or?about 1114.
In addition to this, he translated various other treatises, to the number, it is said, of sixty-six; among these were the Tables of "Arzakhel," or Al Zarkala of Toledo, Al Farabi On the Sciences (De scientiis), Euclid's Geometry, Al Farghani's Elements of Astronomy, and treatises on algebra, arithmetic and astrology.
The former's most valuable work was in astronomy; the latter's in medicine.
But they rarely prosecuted researches in physics or astronomy, and the newly created sciences of biology and comparative anatomy received no adequate recognition from them.
Many of them were well versed in Aristotelian and Arabic philosophy, in astronomy, mathematics, and especially in medicine.
Philosophy, grammar, the history and theory of language, rhetoric, law, arithmetic, astronomy, geometry, mensuration, agriculture, naval tactics, were all represented.
a7rb, from, and i i iXtos, sun), in astronomy, that point of the orbit of a planet at which it is most distant from the sun.
He was educated at Midhurst grammar school and at the Royal College of Science, where he was trained in physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology and biology.
He studied mathematics, civil and military architecture, and astronomy, and became associate of the Academie des Sciences, professor of geometry, secretary to the Academy of Architecture and fellow of the Royal Society of London.
In Albertus Magnus the name Geber occurs only once and then with the epithet "of Seville"; doubtless the reference is to the Arabian Jabir ben Aflah, who lived in that city in the r r th century, and wrote an astronomy in 9 books which is of importance in the history of trigonometry.
SAGITTA ("the arrow" or "dart"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.), and catalogued by Ptolemy, Tycho Brahe and Hevelius, who each described 5 stars.
He wrote upon nearly every subject of pure mathematics, and also upon theoretical dynamics and spherical and physical astronomy.
Schering the Disquisitiones arithmeticae, (2) Theory of Numbers, (3) Analysis, (4) Geometry and Method of Least Squares, (5) Mathematical Physics, (6) Astronomy, and (7) the Theoria motus corporum coelestium.
SYNODIC PERIOD, in astronomy, the apparent period of a planet or satellite when its revolution is referred to the line passing through the earth or the sun.
The Alexandrian Eratosthenes placed chronology upon the scientific basis of astronomy, and Apollodorus drew up the most important chronica of antiquity.
(241-272) enlarged this re-edited Avesta by collecting and incorporating with it the non-religious tractates on medicine, astronomy, geography and philosophy.
ECLIPTIC, in astronomy.
According to Hittorf he was the first who saw the three lines of the hydrogen spectrum, which a few months after his death were recognized in the spectrum of the solar protuberances, and thus solved one of the mysteries of modern astronomy.
Placed at the age of fifteen in a counting-house at Bremen, he was impelled by his desire to obtain a situation as supercargo on a foreign voyage to study navigation, mathematics and finally astronomy.
In this capacity he inaugurated the modern era of practical astronomy.
Modern astronomy of precision is essentially Bessel's creation.
some portion of his labours in those sciences and give them to the world, an incalculable impulse would have been given to all those enquiries by which mankind has since been striving to understand the laws of its being and control the conditions of its environment, - to mathematics and astronomy, to mechanics, hydraulics, and physics generally, to geology, geography, and cosmology, to anatomy and the sciences of life.
For his astronomical work see ASTRONOMY (Historical Section), and for the botanical works, see Dr J.
Venus (Astronomy) >>
His works embraced politics, astronomy, medicine, music, theology, jurisprudence, physics, grammar and history.
From 1892 to 1895 he was an editor of Astronomy and Astrophysics and thereafter of The Astrophysical Journal.
A Greek by birth, adopted son of Jacob Heraklides, despot of Paros, Samos and other Aegean islands, acquainted with Greek and Latin literature, and master of most European languages; appearing alternately as a student of astronomy at Wittenberg, whither he had been invited by Count Mansfeld, as a correspondent of Melanchthon, and as a writer of historical works which he dedicated to Philip II.
They were written at the request of the princess of Anhalt-Dessau, and contain an admirably clear exposition of the principal facts of mechanics, optics, acoustics and physical astronomy.
Euler's knowledge was more general than might have been expected in one who had pursued with such unremitting ardour mathematics and astronomy as his favourite studies.
As the inventor of the floating collimator, Kater rendered a great service to practical astronomy (Phil.
This was his appointment to the Andrews professorship of astronomy in the university of Dublin, vacated by Dr Brinkley in 1827.
He was not specially fitted for the post, for although he had a profound acquaintance with theoretical astronomy, he had paid but little attention to the regular work of the practical astronomer.
And it must be said that his time was better employed in original investigations than it would have been had he spent it in observations made even with the best of instruments, infinitely better than if he had spent it on those of the observatory, which, however good originally, were then totally unfit for the delicate requirements of modern astronomy.
Indeed there can be little doubt that Hamilton was intended by the university authorities who elected him to the professorship of astronomy to spend his time as he best could for the advancement of science, without being tied down to any particular branch.
Had he devoted himself to practical astronomy they would assuredly have furnished him with modern instruments and an adequate staff of assistants.
He, however, resigned his ecclesiastical preferments in 1721, on his appointment to the Savilian professorship of astronomy at Oxford, while as reader on experimental philosophy (1729-1760) he delivered 79 courses of lectures in the Ashmolean museum.
He had meantime (in 1742) been appointed to succeed Edmund Halley as astronomer royal; his enhanced reputation enabled him to apply successfully for an instrumental outfit at a cost of 1000; and with an 8-foot quadrant completed for him in 1750 by John Bird (1709-1776), he accumulated at Greenwich in ten years materials of inestimable value for the reform of astronomy.
This post he held until 1898; but in 1892 he was also made professor of astronomy and geometry at Cambridge and director of the university observatory.
He was an admirable lecturer and writer of popular books on his subject, as well as of more learned works such as his Treatise on Spherical Astronomy (1885) and Treatise on the Theory of Screws (1900); and he was a congenial figure in all circles.
(including his earliest publication, "On the Arithmetic of Impossible Quantities," 1779, and an "Account of the Lithological Survey of Schehallion," 1811) and in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh ("On the Causes which affect the Accuracy of Barometrical Measurements," &c.), also the articles "Aepinus" and "Physical Astronomy," and a "Dissertation on the Progress of Mathematical and Physical Science since the Revival of Learning in Europe," in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Supplement to fourth, fifth and sixth editions).
It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, geography, optics, statics, or some other mathematical subject, and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with.
In the middle of 1708 Newton's consent was obtained, but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise, Roger Cotes, fellow of Trinity College, who had been recently appointed the first Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy.
In 1778 he became president of Yale College and professor of ecclesiastical history there, having insisted that no theological statement be required of him except assent to the Saybrook platform of 1708; in 1780--1782 he was professor of divinity, and he lectured besides on astronomy and philosophy.
As an undergraduate he became deeply interested in astronomy; he observed the comet of 1759 and the transit of Venus of June 1769, and left a quarto volume of astronomical notes.
During the years 1833-1843 he contributed very largely to the first edition of the [[Penny]] Cyclopaedia, writing chiefly on mathematics, astronomy, physics and biography.
In these carefully written papers he treats a great variety of topics relating to astronomy, chronology, decimal coinage, life assurance, bibliography and the history of science.
In 1858 he became professor of mathematics at St Andrews, but lectured only for a session, when he vacated the chair for the Lowndean professorship of astronomy and geometry at Cambridge.
Although Adams's researches on Neptune were those which attracted widest notice, the work he subsequently performed in relation to gravitational astronomy and terrestrial magnetism was not less remarkable.
Several of his most striking contributions to knowledge originated in the discovery of errors or fallacies in the work of his great predecessors in astronomy.
of Physical Astronomy, p. 168; Edinburgh Review, No.
In Chinese he published books on arithmetic, geometry, algebra (De Morgan's), mechanics, astronomy (Herschel's), and The Marine Steam Engine (T.
He also published a treatise, in 1761, De distributione caloris per tellurem, and he was the author of memoirs on different subjects in astronomy, mechanics, optics and pure mathematics, contained in the journals of the learned societies of St Petersburg and Berlin.
Astronomy, p. 467; W.
Mercury (Astronomy) >>
ASTRONOMY (from Gr.
Astronomy is of necessity a science of observation in the pursuit of which experiment can directly play no part.
The field we have defined is divisible into at least two parts, that of Astronomy proper, or " Astrometry," which treats of the motions, mutual relations and dimensions of the heavenly bodies; and that of Astrophysics, which treats of their physical constitution.
We may conclude this brief characterization of astronomy with a statement and classification of the principal lines on which astronomical researches are now pursued.
One characteristic of astronomy which tends to make its progress slow and continuous arises out of the general fact that, except in the case of motions to or from us, which can be determined by a single observation with the spectroscope, the motion of a heavenly body can be determined only by comparing its position at two different epochs.
The former may be termed general, and the latter practical, astronomy.
Considering as general or descriptive astronomy a description of the universe as we now understand it, the other branches of the subject generally recognized are as follows: Geometrical or Spherical Astronomy, by the principles of which the positions and the motions of the heavenly bodies are defined.
Theoretical Astronomy,which may be considered as an extension of geometrical astronomy and includes the determination of the positions and motions of the heavenly bodies by combining mathematical theory with observation.
Modern theoretical astronomy, taken in the most limited sense, is based upon Celestial Mechanics, the science by which, using purely deductive mechanical methods, the laws of motion of the heavenly bodies are derived by deductive methods from their mutual gravitation towards each other.
Practical Astronomy, which comprises a description of the instruments used in astronomical observation, and of the principles and methods underlying their application.
Spherical or Geometrical Astronomy.
In astronomy, as in analytical geometry, the position of a point is defined by stating its distance and its direction from a point of reference taken as known.