The odds against the coincidence were astronomical, until I considered the facts.
He also compiled astronomical tables and a treatise on the quadrant.
Gregory was one of the founders of the Royal Astronomical Society.
He wrote An Astronomical Description of the late Comet (1619); Canicularia (1648); and translated Proclus' De Sphaera, and Ptolemy's De Planetarum Hypothesibus (1620).
Mr Charles Green was commissioned to conduct the astronomical observations, and Sir Joseph Banks and Dr Solander were appointed botanists to the expedition.
11 Astronomical inquiries in connexion with optics, meteorological phenomena, and, in a word, the whole field of natural laws, excited his desire to explain them.
He contributed extensively to the periodical literature of astronomy, and was twice, in 1823 and 1830, the recipient of the Royal Astronomical Society's gold medal.
The results were published in 1885 in his Uranometria Nova Oxoniensis, and their importance was recognized by the bestowal in 1886 upon him, conjointly with Professor Pickering, of the Royal Astronomical Society's gold medal.
In 1878 he was elected a Foreign Associate of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Little is known of him except that he belonged to a family of Yemen, was hold in repute as a grammarian in his own country, wrote much poetry, compiled astronomical tables, devoted most of his life to the study of the ancient history and geography of Arabia, and died in prison at San'a in 945.
The number of places whose position had been determined by astronomical observation was as yet very small, and the map had thus to be compiled mainly from itineraries furnished by travellers or the dead reckoning of seamen.
The astronomical observatory at Tashkent is adopted for the initial starting-point of the trans-Caspian triangulation of Russia; the triangulation ranks as second-class only, and now extends to the Pamir frontier beyond Osh.
In its simplest form, consisting of a ring fixed in the plane of the equator, the armilla is one of the most ancient of astronomical instruments.
In 1828 the Astronomical Society, to mark their sense of the benefits conferred on science by such a series of laborious exertions, unanimously resolved to present her with their gold medal, and in 1835 elected her an honorary member of the society.
See Transactions of the Royal Astronomical Society (1852).
If we obtained this ten-thousand-fold increase simply by allowing specialization and dividing work up among people, then what astronomical gains will we achieve by outsourcing that work to robots capable of working with unimaginable precision at unimaginable speed?
The final result of this latest determination is to place the Madras observatory 2' 27" to the west of the position adopted for it on the strength of absolute astronomical determinations.
It figured in astronomical tables until the time of Copernicus, but is now known to have no foundation in fact, being based on an error in Ptolemy's determination of precession.
Before astronomical telescopes were mounted parallactically, the measurement of position angles was seldom attempted.
He was a fellow of the Royal, Royal Astronomical, Geological and other scientific societies.
The doctrine described by them that from the supreme God (the innatus pater) had emanated 365 heavens with their spirits, answers originally to the astronomical conception of the heavens with their 365 daily aspects (Irenaeus i.
Of his astronomical writings during this period the most important are his investigation of the mass of Jupiter, his report to the British Association on the progress of astronomy during the 19th century, and his memoir On an Inequality of Long Period in the Motions of the Earth and Venus.
No purely astronomical enterprise was ever carried out on so Transits of P large a scale or at so great an expenditure of money and labour as was devoted to the observations of these transits, and for several years before their occurrence the astronomers of every leading nation were busy in discussing methods of observation and working out the multifarious details necessary to their successful application.
The fables of the phoenix and of the conduct of the wild ass and the ape at the time of the equinox owe their origin to astronomical symbols belonging to the.
1074) to institute astronomical observations on a larger scale, and to aid him in his great enterprise of a thorough reform of the calendar.
In recognition of this work the medal of the Royal Astronomical Society was awarded him in 1833.
See Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1899).
He was five times president of the Royal Astronomical Society, was correspondent of the French Academy and belonged to many other foreign and American societies.
distributed large sums in charity, and at his own charges placed costly astronomical instruments in the Vatican observatory, providing also accommodation and endowment for a staff of officials.
Even in the Leiden papyrus the astronomical symbols for the sun and moon are used to denote gold and silver, and in the Meteorologica of Olympiodorus lead is attributed to Saturn, iron to Mars, copper to Venus, tin to Hermes (Mercury) and electrum to Jupiter.
It contains a valuable library with many incunabula and old manuscripts, amongst which is one of the Nibelungenlied, an astronomical observatory, a collection of antiquities, and a mineral collection.
The correct date of the Easter festival was to be calculated at Alexandria, the home of astronomical science, and the bishop of that see was to announce it yearly to the churches under his jurisdiction, and also to the occupant of the Roman see, by whom it was to be communicated to the Western churches.
Morgan Library; Williston Hall, containing the Mather Art Museum, the rooms of the Young Men's Christian Association, and several lecture-rooms; Walker Hall, with college offices and lecture-rooms; Hitchcock Hall; Barrett Hall (1859), the first college gymnasium built in the United States, now used as a lecture hall; the Pratt Gymnasium and Natatorium and the Pratt Health Cottage, whose donors also gave to the college the Pratt Field; an astronomical observatory; and the two dormitories, North College and South College, supplemented by several fraternity houses.
815), the son and successor ci Harun al-Rashid, caused an Arabic version of Ptolemy's great astronomical work (rat, meyio-Tf) to be made, which is known as the Almagest, the word being nothing more than the Gr.
5 represents the instrument with which a half of the astronomical measurements of the 19th century were made.
He was also a prime mover in the establishment of the Cambridge Astronomical Observatory, and in the founding of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
In the Drum Tower incense-sticks, specially prepared by the astronomical board, are kept burning to mark the passage of time, in which important duty their accuracy is checked by a clepsydra.
The ocean separating Europe from he was dependent upon dead reckoning, for although various methods for determining a longitude were known, the available astronomical ephemerides were not trustworthy, and errors of 30 in longitude were by no means rare.
In 1526 he was sent out in command of an expedition fitted out for the purpose of determining by astronomical observations the exact line of demarcation, under the treaty of Tordesillas, between the colonizing spheres of Spain and Portugal, and of conveying settlers to the Moluccas.
Besides numerous contributions to the Proceedings of the Royal and the Royal Astronomical Societies, he published several books, both explanatory and speculative.
Having been educated by Richard Weston, a Leicester botanist, he published in 1793 a treatise, Lessons Astronomical and Philosophical.
At once she became a valuable co-operator with him both in his professional duties and in the astronomical researches to which he had already begun to devote all his spare time.
Though she returned to Hanover in 1822 she did not abandon her astronomical studies, and in 1828 she completed the reduction, to January 1800, of 2500 nebulae discovered by her brother.
The results of Omars research werea revised edition of the Zif or astronomical tables, and the introduction of the Tarikh-i-Malikshahi or JalalI, that is, the so-called Jalalian or SeljUk era, which commences in A.H.
The improvement of the telescope was justly regarded as a sine qua non for the advancement of astronomical knowledge.
Instead of the period it is common in astronomical practice to use the mean angular speed, called the mean motion of the body.
The compiler, in combining these materials, is called upon to examine the various sources of information, and to form an estimate of their value, which he can only do if he have himself some knowledge of surveying and of the methods of determining positions by astronomical observation.
In astronomical practice the masses of the planets are commonly expressed as fractions of the mass of the sun, the latter being taken as unity.
420) of a change of form in the Greenwich mural quadrant led to the introduction of astronomical circles at the Royal Observatory, and to his own appointment as its head.
The archiepiscopal palace; the lyceum, with a good library and an astronomical observatory; the seminary for Roman priests; and the town-hall are all noteworthy.
For this work Airy received in 1848 a testimonial from the Royal Astronomical Society, and it at once led to the discovery by P. A.
In a letter, Del movimento della cometa apparsa it mese di decembre 1664, published in 1665 under the pseudonym Pier Maria Mutoli, he was the first to suggest the idea of a parabolic path; and another of his astronomical works was Theorica mediceorum planetarum ex causis physicis deducta (Florence, 1666), in which he considered the influence of attraction on the satellites of Jupiter.
These materials generally include reconnaissance survey of small districts, route surveys and astronomical observations supplied by travellers, and information obtained from native sources.
He moreover accuses Eratosthenes, (whose determination of a degree he accepts without hesitation) with trusting too much to hypothesis in compiling his map instead of having recourse to latitudes and longitudes deduced by astronomical observations.
Sci., 1901.) the only two invertebrates which had impressed the minds of early men sufficiently to be raised to the dignity of astronomical representation.
About the same time Isaac Israeli wrote his Yesodh `Olam and other astronomical works which were much studied.
At the age of twenty-three he repaired to Bologna, and there varied his studies of canon law by attending the astronomical lectures of Domenico Maria Novara (1454-1504).
The most careful determinations are affected by systematic errors arising from those diurnal and annual changes of temperature, the effect of which cannot be wholly eliminated in astronomical observation; and the recently discovered variation of latitude has introduced a new element of uncertainty into the determination.
The U.S. Naval Observatory's Astronomical Applications Department: The USNO government site has an article with current DST information and the history of daylight time.
Gaining mutual respect and trust can take time, but the dividends that it pays in the long range can be astronomical.
It's free: Let's be honest, learning a language through a language institution or at a university can cost a pretty penny, and when you add in the additional cost of books and listening aids, the costs can be downright astronomical!
Not every state has specific legislation to protect insured people from astronomical health insurance rate premiums, and in some cases people simply decide to become uninsured because they can't afford the monthly payments.
For example, damages following flood and earthquakes can be astronomical but the homeowner has to purchase two separate policies for flood and earthquake coverage.
High risk individuals who can afford the astronomical costs, can not be refused insurance coverage.
Instead, since the volume of web traffic is astronomical, it's not a question of how relevant your web page is to the needs of your customers but instead, when was the last time anyone cared about it?
The odds must be astronomical.
In 1875 he was transferred to the Science and Art Department at South Kensington, and on the foundation of the Royal College of Science he became director of the solar physics observatory and professor of astronomical physics.
The second article says that the Tribonian to whom it refers was of Side (in Pamphylia), was also Core) Suo ybpwv Twv uirap X wv, was a man of learning and wrote various books, among which are mentioned certain astronomical treatises, a dialogue On Happiness, and two addresses to Justinian.
Sydney has a great number of learned, educational and charitable institutions; it possesses a Royal Society, a Linnean Society and a Geographical Society, a women's college affiliated to the university, an astronomical observatory, a technical college, a school of art with library attached, a bacteriological institute at Rose Bay, a museum and a free public library.
The declared aim of the author 1 was to offer a complete solution of the great mechanical problem presented by the solar system, and to bring theory to coincide so closely with observation that empirical equations should no longer find a place in astronomical tables.
The style is lucid and masterly, and the summary of astronomical history with which it terminates has been reckoned one of the masterpieces of the language.
It may be added that he first examined the conditions of stability of the system formed by Saturn's rings, pointed out the necessity for their rotation, and fixed for it a period (Io h 33 m) virtually identical with that established by the observations of Herschel; that he detected the existence in the solar system of an invariable plane such that the sum of the products of the planetary masses by the projections upon it of the areas described by their radii vectores in a given time is a maximum; and made notable advances in the theory of astronomical refraction (Mec. cel.
An astronomical work, called the Surya-siddhanta (" knowledge of the Sun "), of uncertain authorship and probably belonging to the 4th or 5th century, was considered of great merit by the Hindus, who ranked it only second to the work of Brahmagupta, who flourished about a century later.
We refer to Bhaskara Acarya, whose work the Siddhanta-ciromani (" Diadem of an Astronomical System "), written in 1150, contains two important chapters, the Lilavati (" the beautiful [science or art] ") and Viga-ganita (" root-extraction "), which are given up to arithmetic and algebra.
Meanwhile the astronomical theories of development of the solar system from a gaseous condition to its present form, put forward by Kant and by Laplace, had impressed men's minds with the conception of a general movement of spontaneous progress or development in all nature.
The position of the middle of the bright band representative of a mathematical line can be fixed with a spider-line micrometer within a small fraction of the width of the band, just as the accuracy of astronomical observations far transcends the separating power of the instrument.
His object was to popularize among his countrymen the astronomical theories of Descartes; and it may well be doubted if that philosopher ever ranked a more ingenious or successful expositor among his disciples.
Of his astronomical studies he left a proof in the "heliotropion," a cave at Syros which served to determine the annual turning-point of the sun, like the grotto of Posillipo (Posilipo, Posilippo) at Naples, and was one of the sights of the island.
Further educational facilities are provided by a national library with about 50,000 volumes, a national museum, with a valuable historical collection, the Cajigal Observatory, devoted to astronomical and meteorological work, and the Venezuelan Academy and National Academy of History - the first devoted to the national language and literature, and the second to its history.
The medicine of the i 8th century is notable, like that of the latter part of the 17th, for the striving after complete theoretical systems. The influence of the iatro-physical school was by no means exhausted; and in England, especially through the indirect influence of Sir Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) great astronomical generalizations, it took on a mathematical aspect, and is sometimes known as iatro-mathematical.
Burlington House, in Piccadilly, built in 1872 on the site of a mansion of the earls of Burlington, houses the Royal Society, the Chemical, Geological, Linnaean and Royal Astronomical Societies, the Society of Antiquaries and the British Association for the Advancement of Science, of which the annual meetings take place at different British or colonial towns in succession.
In 1824 the Royal Astronomical Society of London appointed a committee on the subject, the experimental' work being carried out by Faraday.
It is probable that the first collection of astronomical observations and terrestrial omens was made for a library established by Sargon.
One of the most famous of these was the Epic of Gilgamesh, in twelve books, composed by a certain Sin-liqi-unninni, and arranged upon an astronomical principle.
In Seleucid and Parthian times the astronomical reports were of a thoroughly scientific character; how far the advanced knowledge and method they display may reach back we do not yet know.
Schefer's objections, is warranted both by the astronomical details and by the metrical requirements of the respective verses.
The substance of that knight's alleged travels in India and Cathay is stolen from Odoric, though amplified with fables from other sources and from his own invention, and garnished with his own unusually clear astronomical notions.
Besides giving to the world the first accurate description of the holy city and the Haj ceremonies, he was the first to fix the position of Mecca by astronomical observations, and to describe the physical character of its surroundings.
Astronomical observations extend over too brief a period of time to show any attraction between different stars except those in each other's neighbourhood.
It is interesting to note this early employment of the camera obscura in the field of astronomical research, in which its latest achievements have been of such pre-eminent value.
Most of the earlier astronomical work was done in a darkened room, but here we first find the dark chamber constructed of wooden rods covered with cloth or paper, and used separately to screen the observing-tablet.
Munich has long been celebrated for its artistic handicrafts, such as bronze-founding, glass-staining, silversmith's work, and wood-carving, while the astronomical instruments of Fraunhofer and the mathematical instruments of Traugott Lieberecht von Ertel (1778-1858) are also widely known.
Taylor gave (Methodus Incrementorum, p. 108) the first satisfactory investigation of astronomical refraction.
Adjoining the Maria Mitchell homestead is a memorial astronomical observatory and library, containing the collections of Miss Mitchell and of her brother, Professor Henry Mitchell (1830-1902), a distinguished hydrographer.
Turner, Astronomical Discovery (1904).
high, adorned with an astronomical clock, an artistic and famous work, executed by Anton Pohl in 1422.
In addition, taking advantage of the accuracy with which the bolometer can determine the position of a source of heat by which it is affected, he mapped out in this infra-red spectrum over 700 dark lines or bands resembling the Fraunhofer lines of the visible spectrum, with a probable accuracy equal to that of refined astronomical observations.
Troughton, who brought spider lines into universal use in astronomical instruments (see von Zach's Monatliche Correspondenz, vol.
A little better is his contemporary, Rufius Festus Avienus, who made some free translations of astronomical and geographical poems in Greek.
An instance is given, in L' Art de verifier les dates, of a date in which the year is reckoned from the 18th of March; but it is probable that this refers to the astronomical year, and that the 18th of March was taken for the day of the vernal equinox.
After their dispersion the Jews were constrained to have recourse to the astronomical rules and cycles of the more enlightened heathen, in order that their religious festivals might be observed on the same days in all the countries through which they were scattered.
From the time of the emperor Yao, upwards of 2000 years B.C., the Chinese had two different years, - a civil year, which was regulated by the moon, and an astronomical year, which was solar.
Even at that early period the solar or astronomical year consisted of 3654 days, like our Julian year; and it was arranged in the same manner, a day being intercalated every fourth year.
His writings consist of travels and astronomical, geographical and mathematical works.
It may be fixed at the end of a tube, of a suitable length to its focal distance, as an object-glass, - the other end of the tube having an eye-glass fitted as usual in astronomical telescopes.
Considering the accuracy of these measures (an accuracy far surpassing that of any other contemporary observations), it is somewhat surprising that this form of micrometer was never systematically used in any sustained or important astronomical researches, although a number of instruments of the kind were made by Dollond.
The first application of the divided object-glass and the employment of double images in astronomical measures is due to Savary in 1743.
3 Manuel Johnson, M.A., Radcliffe observer, Astronomical Observations made at the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford, in the Year 1850, Introduction, p. iii.
4 The illumination of these scales is interesting as being the first application of electricity to the illumination of astronomical instruments.
Royal Astronomical Society, xlvi.
Should Clausen's micrometer be employed as an astronomical instrument, it would be well to adopt the improvement of Helmholtz.
The astronomical department is famous, owing partly to the labours of F.
His chief works are: Astronomical History of Observations of Heavenly Motions and Appearances (1634); Ecliptica prognostica (1634); Controversy with Longomontanus concerning the Quadrature of the Circle (1646?); An Idea of the Mathematics, 12m0 (1650); A Table of Ten Thousand Square Numbers (fol.; 1672).
Gradually, from Eratosthenes to Tycho, Hipparchus playing the most important part among ancient astronomers, the complex astrolabe was evolved, large specimens being among the chief observa tory instruments of the 15th, 16th and even 17th centuries; while small ones were in use among travellers and learned men, not only for astronomical, but for astrological and topographical purposes.
He established an astronomical observatory at Paramatta in 1822, and the Brisbane Catalogue, which was printed in 1835 and contained 7385 stars, was the result of observations made there in 1822-1826.
Quetelet's astronomical papers refer chiefly to shooting stars and similar phenomena.
From one point of view they shadow out the great epic of the destinies of the human race; again, the universal solar myth claims a share in them; hoary traditions were brought into ex post facto connexion with them; or they served to commemorate simple meteorological and astronomical facts.
It appears never to have been designed for astronomical employment.
It was adopted by Turks, Tatars and Persians, and forms part of the astronomical paraphernalia of the Bundahish.
A perfect set of signs was copied in 1764 from a pagoda at Verdapettah near Cape Comorin, and one equally complete existed at the same period on the ceiling of a temple near Mindurah 9 The hieroglyphs representing the signs of the zodiac in astronomical works are found in manuscripts of about the 10th century, but in carvings not until the 15th or 16th.
A shock was thus given to the credit of the clergy in the province of literature, equal to that which was given in the province of science by the astronomical discoveries of the 17th century.
If the surrounding aether is thereby disturbed, the waves of light arriving from the stars will partake of its movement; the ascertained phenomena of the astronomical aberration of light show that the rays travel to the observer, across this disturbed aether near the earth, in straight lines.
He also edited Coeli et siderum in eo errantium observationes Hassiacae (1618), containing the astronomical observations of Landgrave William IV.
His chief title to fame, however, is his pioneering work in the application of the art of photography to astronomical research.
In 1873 De la Rue gave up active work in astronomy, and presented most of his astronomical instruments to the university observatory, Oxford.
He was twice president of the Chemical Society, and also of the Royal Astronomical Society (1864-1866).
In 1862 he received the gold medal of the latter society, and in 1864 a Royal medal from the Royal Society, for his observations on the total eclipse of the sun in 1860, and for his improvements in astronomical photography.
Maskelyne's first contribution to astronomical literature was "A Proposal for Discovering the Annual Parallax of Sirius," published in 1760 (Phil.
Subsequent volumes of the same series contained his observations of the transits of Venus (1761 and 1769), on the tides at St Helena (1762), and on various astronomical phenomena at St Helena (1764) and at Barbados (1764).
Elected a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1866, he became honorary secretary in 1872, and contributed eighty-three separate papers to its Monthly Notices.
1858) and opened in 1873, occupies a number of handsome buildings erected since 1895 on a campus of 43 acres in Burnet Woods Park, has an astronomical observatory on the highest point of Mt.
and 57,562 pamphlets; the University library (including medical, law and astronomical branches), 80,000 vols.
Apart from his special interest in the history of the Old Attic comedy, he was a man of vast and varied learning; the founder of astronomical geography and of scientific chronology; and the first to assume the name of 4aX6Xo a yos.
(ii.) The difficulty with regard to the day is, quite similarly, to know what precise relation the first day of the Jewish month bore to the astronomical new moon.
In later Christian times the Paschal month was calculated from the astronomical new moon; in earlier Jewish times all months were reckoned to begin at the first sunset when the new moon was visible, which in the most favourable circumstances would be some hours, and in the most unfavourable three days, later than the astronomical new moon.
Direct material for answering the question when and how far astronomical calculations replaced simple observations as the basis of the Jewish calendar is not forthcoming.
But as it is quite inconceivable that the Jews of the Dispersion should not have known beforehand at what full moon they were to present themselves at Jerusalem for the Passover, it must be assumed as true in fact, whether or no it was true in theory, that the old empirical methods must have been qualified, at least partially, by permanent, that is in effect by astronomical rules.
Exactly what modifications were first made in the system under which each month began by simple observation of the new moon we do not know, and opinions are not agreed as to the historical value of the rabbinical traditions; but probably the first step in the direction of astronomical precision would be the rule that no month could consist of less than twenty-nine or more than thirty days - to which appears to have been added, but at what date is uncertain, the further rule that Adar, the month preceding Nisan, was always to be limited to twentynine.
In the following table the first column gives the terminus paschalis, or 14th of the Paschal moon, according to the Christian calendar; the second gives the 14th, reckoned from the time of the astronomical new moon of Nisan; the third the 14th, reckoned from the probable first appearance of the new moon at sunset.
Mention should also be made of an article, containing much useful astronomical and Talmudical information, by Mr J.
In 1842 he went to Stockholm Observatory in order to gain experience in practical astronomical work, and in the following year he became observer at Upsala Observatory.
for the 1753 edition published at Bologna); a defence of Catholic doctrine, entitled Demonstratio critica religionis Catholicae (Augsburg, 1751); a work on indulgences, which has often been criticized by Protestant writers, De Origine, Progressu, V alore, et Fructu Indulgentiorum (Augsburg, 1 73 5) a treatise on mysticism, De Revelationibus et Visionibus, &c. (2 vols., 1744); and the astronomical work Nova philosophiae planetarum et artis criticae systemata (Nuremberg, 1723).
Neper, Baron of Mercheston, near Edinburgh, and told him, among other discourses, of a new invention in Denmark (by Longomontanus, as 'tis said), to save the tedious multiplication and division in astronomical calculations.
Amongst its buildings are a fine cathedral, the archiepiscopal palace, an astronomical observatory, a seminary for priests, and colleges for training of male and female teachers.
north-west of Dublin; it is amply furnished with astronomical instruments.
From 1847 to 1862 he was advising astronomer to the headquarters of the army and navy; chairman of the International Astronomical Congress from 1867-1878; acting president of the International Metric Commission in 1872; and president of the International Congress for a Photographic Survey of the Stars in 1887, in which year he was also made a privy councillor.
His investigation of the Saturnian system was crowned by the Royal Astronomical Society of London in 1903.
Backlund who, in 1909, was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society for his researches in this field.
His university career lasted three years, and on its termination he became a tutor at Toxteth, devoting to astronomical observations his brief intervals of leisure.
Brickel, Transits of Venus, 1639-1874 (Preston, 1874); Astronomical Register, xii.
Certain astronomical conjunctions determined the selection of the fast-days, which in their total number amounted to nearly a quarter of the year.
All that seems certain is that Berossus arranged his history so that it should fill the astronomical period of 36,000 years, beginning with the first man and ending with the conquest of Babylon by Alexander the Great.
He accepted also the division into five zones; he quotes approvingly the assertion of Hipparchus that it was impossible to make real advances in geography without astronomical observations for determining latitudes and longitudes.
The Year Is Either Astronomical Or Civil.
The Solar Astronomical Year Is The Period Of Time In Which The Earth Performs A Revolution In Its Orbit About The Sun, Or Passes From Any Point Of The Ecliptic To The Same Point Again; And Consists Of 365 Days 5 Hours 48 Min.
By Giving A Greater Or Less Number Of Days To The Intercalary Month, The Pontiffs Were Enabled To Prolong The Term Of A Magistracy Or Hasten The Annual Elections; And So Little Care Had Been Taken To Regulate The Year, That, At The Time Of Julius Caesar, The Civil Equinox Differed From The Astronomical By Three Months, So That The Winter Months Were Carried Back Into Autumn And The Autumnal Into Summer.
The Real Error Is Indeed More Than Double Of This, And Amounts To A Day In 128 Years; But In The Time Of Caesar The Length Of The Year Was An Astronomical Element Not Very Well Determined.
If The Commencement Of The Year, Instead Of Being Retained At The Same Place In The Seasons By A Uniform Method Of Intercalation, Were Made To Depend On Astronomical Phenomena, The Intercalations Would Succeed Each Other In An Irregular Manner, Sometimes After Four Years And Sometimes After Five; And It Would Occasionally, Though Rarely Indeed, Happen, That It Would Be Impossible To Determine The Day On Which The Year Ought To Begin.
It ought to be remarked that the new moons, determined in this manner, may differ from the astronomical new moons sometimes as much as two days.
This period is not astronomical, like the two former, but has reference to certain judicial acts which took place at stated epochs under the Greek emperors.
The Astronomical New Moons Generally Take Place One Or Two Days, Sometimes Even Three Days, Earlier Than Those Of The Calendar.
Its principal, though perhaps least obvious advantage, consists in its being entirely independent of astronomical tables, or indeed of any celestial phenomena whatever; so that all chances of disagreement arising from the inevitable errors of tables, or the uncertainty of observation, are avoided, and Easter determined without the possibility of mistake.
The new moons indicated by the epacts also differ from the astronomical new moons, and even from the mean new moons, in general by one or two days.
Instead, However, Of Employing The Golden Numbers And Epacts For The Determination Of Easter And The Movable Feasts, It Was Resolved That The Equinox And The Paschal Moon Should Be Found By Astronomical Computation From The Rudolphine Tables.
395 sec. in excess of the true astronomical value, which will cause the dates of commencement of future Jewish years, so calculated, to advance forward from the equinox a day in error in 216 years.
The Mean Length Of The Year Is Therefore 3541) Days, Or 354 Days 8 Hours 48 Min., Which Divided By 12 Gives 293 G O Days, Or 29 Days 12 Hours 44 Min., As The Time Of A Mean Lunation, And This Differs From The Astronomical Mean Lunation By Only 2.8 Seconds.
His first important astronomical work was a careful investigation of the libration of the moon (Kosmographische Nachrichten, Nuremberg, 1750), and his chart of the full moon (published in 1775) was unsurpassed for half a century.
He was also a diligent and skilful observer, and busied himself not only with astronomical subjects, such as the double stars, the satellites of Jupiter and the measurement of the polar and equatorial diameters of the sun, but also with biological studies of the circulation of the sap in plants, the fructification of plants, infusoria, &c.
After five years spent in mathematical and astronomical studies, he went to Holland, in order to visit several eminent continental mathematicians.
Aberration Of Light This astronomical phenomenon may be defined as an apparent motion of the heavenly bodies; the stars describing annually orbits more or less elliptical, according to the latitude of the star; consequently at any moment the star appears to be displaced from its true position.
Hooke, in 1674, published his observations of y Draconis, a star of the second magnitude which passes practically overhead in the latitude of London, and whose observations are therefore singularly free from the complex corrections due to astronomical refraction, and concluded that this star was 23" more northerly in July than in October.
When James Bradley and Samuel Molyneux entered this sphere of astronomical research in 1725, there consequently prevailed much uncertainty as to whether stellar parallaxes had been observed or not; and it was with the intention of definitely answering this question that these astronomers erected a large telescope at the house of the latter at Kew.
The application of this observation to the phenomenon which had so long perplexed him was not difficult, and, in 1727, he published his theory of the aberration of light - a corner-stone of the edifice of astronomical science.
The subject receives treatment in all astronomical works.
In 1847 he began to devote his attention to astronomy; and from 1852 to 1861 he discovered fourteen asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, on which account he received the grand astronomical prize from the Academy of Sciences.
The work of translating the law of gravitation into the form of astronomical tables, and the comparison of these with observations, has been in progress ever since.
We have, however, good reasons for regarding it as not absolutely perfect, and there are some astronomical data the tendency of which is to confirm this view.
The second part of the statement of Herodotus - the reality of the prediction by Thales - has been frequently called in question, chiefly on the ground that, in order to predict a solar eclipse with any chance of success, one should have the command of certain astronomical facts which were not known until the 3rd century, B.C., and then merely approximately, and only employed with that object in the following century by Hipparchus.
As to the astronomical knowledge of Thales we have the following notices: - (1) besides the prediction of the solar eclipse, Eudemus attributes to him the discovery that the circuit of the sun between the solstices is not always uniform; 6 (2) he called the last day of the month the thirtieth (Diog.
- (a) Geometrical and Astronomical.
On the "Heights" are many fine residences with beautiful gardens; the Monastery and Academy (for girls) of Visitation, founded in 1799 by Leonard Neale, second archbishop of Baltimore; and the college and the astronomical observatory (1842) of Georgetown University.
The Astronomical Journal was founded by Gould in 1849; and its publication, suspended in 1861, was resumed by him in 1885.
He fitted up in 1864 a private observatory at Cambridge, Mass.; but undertook in 1868, on behalf of the Argentine republic, to organize a national observatory at Cordoba; began to observe there with four assistants in 1870, and completed in 1874 his Uranometria Argentina (published 1879) for which he received in 1883 the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society.
See Astronomical Journal, No.
The Philippine government also maintains here a bureau of science which publishes the monthly Philippine Journal of Science, and co-operates with the Jesuits in maintaining, in Ermita, the Manila observatory (meteorological, seismological and astronomical), which is one of the best equipped institutions of the kind in the East.
His astronomical vocation, like that of Kepler, came from without.
He was twice, in 1868 and 1876, the recipient of the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, London, and the university of Cambridge conferred upon him, in 1875, the honorary degree of LL.D.
The Phaenomena of Aratus is a poetical account of the astronomical observations of Eudoxus.
of the astronomical.
Tashkent has a public library containing a valuable collection of works on Central Asia, an astronomical observatory and a museum.
A khedivial astronomical observatory was built here in 1903-1904, to take the place of that at Abbasia, that site being no longer suitable in consequence of the northward extension of the city.
On the different days of the year each hour was determined by a fixed star culminating or nearly culminating in it, and the position of these stars at the time is given in the tables as in the centre, on the left eye, on the right shoulder, &c. According to the texts, in founding or rebuilding temples the north axis was determined by the same apparatus, and we may condude that it was the usual one for astronomical observations.
Besides the sun and moon, five planets, thirty-six dekans, and constellations to which animal and other forms are given, appear in the early astronomical texts and paintings.
(4) Astronomical data, especially the heliacal risings of Sothis recorded by dates of their celebration in the vague year.
There remain the astronomical data.
A few theological, archaeological and astronomical articles from his pen appeared in the Journal Helvetique and elsewhere, and he contributed several papers to Rousseau's Dictionnaire de musique (1767).
Farther out is Riverview Park (219 acres), in which is the Allegheny Astronomical Observatory, and elsewhere are a soldiers' monument and a monument (erected by Andrew Carnegie) in memory of Colonel Johnes Anderson.
William was a pioneer in astronomical research and perhaps owes his most lasting fame to his discoveries in this branch of study.
Main as chief assistant at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and at once undertook the fundamental task of improving astronomical constants.
In 1865 he contributed a memoir to the Royal Astronomical.
These services were recognized by the award of the Royal Astronomical Society's gold medal in 1869, and on the resignation of Sir Thomas Maclear in 1870 he was appointed Her Majesty's astronomer at the Cape.
He was elected president of the Royal Astronomical Society (1882-1884), and he was the first to recognize the importance of the old observations accumulated at the Radcliffe Observatory by Hornsby, Robertson and Rigaud (Mon.
The number of his astronomical publications exceeds 150, but his reputation depends mainly on¢ his earlier work at Greenwich and his two great star catalogues - the Cape Catalogue for 1880 and the Radclife r 'Catalogue for 1890.
Besides his innumerable contributions to journalism, he published an astronomical work entitled L'Eternite par les astres (1872), and after his death his writings on economic and social questions were collected under the title of Critique sociale (1885).
The most important statement made by Pytheas in regard to Thule was that connected with the astronomical phenomena affecting the duration of day and night therein.
The solar day is the fundamental unit of time, not only in daily life but in astronomical practice.
A vigorous effort was made during the last fifteen years of the 19th century to bring the two uses into harmony by beginning the astronomical day at midnight.
The present practice being the dominant one from the time of Ptolemy until the present, it was felt that the confusion in the combination of past and present astronomical observations, and the doubts and difficulties in using the astronomical ephemerides, formed a decisive argument against any change.
of Flamsteed's Historia coelestis (1725); Synopsis astronomiae cometicae (Oxford, 1705); Astronomical Tables (London, 1752); also eighty-one miscellaneous papers of considerable interest, scattered through the Philosophical Transactions.
European scholars have inferred from astronomical dates that its composition was going on about 1400 B.C. But these dates are themselves given in writings of later origin, and might have been calculated backwards.
the German astronomer, appears to have made astronomical.
of Harriot, the mathematician, that he had been making astronomical observations with a Dutch telescope as early as.
2 At a meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society held on 9th May 1886 a legal document, signed by Chester Moor Hall, was presented by R.
focal length with which his early brilliant astronomical discoveries were made.
The peculiar form of the tube is eminently suited for rigid preservation of the relative parallelism of the axes of the two telescopes, so that,;i the image of a certain selected star is retained on the intersection of two wires of the micrometer, by means of the driving clock, aided by small corrections given by the observer in right ascension and declination (required on account of irregularity in the clock movement, error in astronomical adjustment of the polar axis, or changes in the star's apparent place produced by refraction), the image of a star will continue on the same spot of the photographic film during the whole time of exposure.
Besides these complications there is another drawback to the use of the coelostat for general astronomical work, viz., the obliquity of the angle of reflection, which can never be less than that of the declination of the star, and may be greater to any extent.
For these reasons the coelostat is never likely to be largely employed in general astronomical work, but it is admirably adapted for spectroscopic and bolometric observations of the sun, and for use in eclipse expeditions.
Its original use was the determination of geographical latitudes in the field work of geodetic operations; more recently it has been extensively employed for the determination S of variation of latitude, at fixed stations, under the auspices of the International Geodetic Bureau, and for the astronomical determination of the constant of aberration.
It has hot sulphur baths (932°-1182° Fahr.) and an astronomical observatory (4240 ft.).
C. Chandler's " Third Catalogue " (Astronomical Journal, vol.
In many cases, however, two or more stars are really connected, and their distance from one another is (from the astronomical standpoint) small.
Recently, however, the trend of astronomical opinion has been rather in favour of the belief that diffused matter may exist through space in sufficient quantity to cause appreciable absorption; so that the argument has no longer the weight formerly attached to it.
The following works of reference and catalogues deal with special branches of the subject; for variable stars, Chandler's ” Third Catalogue," Astronomical Journ.
For the spectrum analysis of stars, Schemer's Astronomical Spectroscopy (trans.
Newton did indeed first show synthetically what kind of motions by mechanical laws have their ground in a centripetal force varying inversely as the square of the distance (all P is M); but his next step was, not to deduce synthetically the planetary motions, but to make a new start from the planetary motions as facts established by Kepler's laws and as examples of the kind of motions in question (all S is P); and then, by combining these two premises, one mechanical and the other astronomical, he analytically deduced that these facts of planetary motion have their ground in a centripetal force varying inversely as the squares of the distances of the planets from the sun (all S is M).
Phaenomena, 4-5; prop. 2.) What Newton did, in short, was to prove by analysis that the planets, revolving by Kepler's astronomical laws round the sun, have motions such as by mechanical laws are consequences of a centripetal force to the sun.
The principal buildings of the university are Packer Hall (1869), largely taken up by the department of civil engineering, the chemical and metallurgical laboratory, the physical and electrical engineering laboratory, the steam engineering laboratory, Williams Hall for mechanical engineering, &c., Saucon Hall for the English department, Christmas Hall, with drawing-rooms and the offices of the Y.M.C.A., the Sayre astronomical observatory, the Packer Memorial Church, the university library (1897), dormitories (1907) given by Andrew Carnegie, Drown Memorial Hall, a students' club, the college commons, and a gymnasium.
Hypatia, according to Suidas, was the author of commentaries on the Arithmetica of Diophantus of Alexandria, on the Conics of Apollonius of Perga and on the astronomical canon (of Ptolemy).
These discoveries, subsequently amplified in his Le Stelle cadenti (1873) and in his Norme per le osservazioni dellestelle cadenti dei bolidi (1896) gained for him the Lalande prize of the Academy of Sciences, Paris, in 1868, and the gold medal and foreign associateship of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1872.
In astronomical and other investigations relating to central forces it is often convenient to use polar co-ordinates with the centre of force as pole.
This would cause a periodic variation in the latitude of any place on the earths surface, as determined by astronomical methods.
On assuming the directorship of the Nautical Almanac he became very strongly impressed with the diversity existing in the values of the elements and constants of astronomy adopted by different astronomers, and the injurious effect which it exercised on the precision and symmetry of much astronomical work.
The results, of these investigations have, for the most part, appeared in the Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris, and have been more or less completely adopted for use in the nautical almanacs.
In the Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris will be found a large number of contributions from Newcomb's pen on some fundamental and most important questions of astronomy.
In 1872 he was elected an associate of the Royal Astronomical Society, receiving its gold medal in 1874.
He also received the first Bruce medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, awarded by the directors of the Berlin, Greenwich, Harvard, Lick, Paris and Yerkes observatories.
An ambitious didactic composition in hexameters, entitled Urania, embodying the astronomical science of the age, and adorning this high theme with brilliant mythological episodes, won the admiration of Italy.
1792), and an improved method of graduating astronomical instruments (Id.
Other libraries in the city include the state law library (45,0eo volumes) in the capitol, the Madison public library (22,500 volumes), and the Woodman astronomical library (7500 volumes).
This artifice is specially adopted in objectives for astronomical photography ("pure actinic achromatism").
For ordinary photography, however, there is this disadvantage: the image on the focussing-screen and the correct adjustment of the photographic sensitive plate are not in register; in astronomical photography this difference is constant, but in other kinds it depends on the distance of the objects.
In these caverns there are numerous stalactite structures, which, from their curious and fantastic shapes, have received such names as the Image of the Virgin, the Mosaic Altar, &c. The principal parts are the Paradies with the finest stalactites, the Astronomical Tower and the Beinhaus.
Hulagu fixed his capital at Maragha (Meragha) in Azerbaijan,where he erected an observatory for Nasir ud-din Tusi, who at his request prepared the astronomical tables known as the Zidj-i-Ilkhani.
On the death of the Shah Rukh in 1446 he was succeeded by his son Ulugh Bey, whose scientific tastes are demonstrated in the astronomical tables bearing his name, quoted by European writers when determining the latitude of places in Persia.
He had already, in 1820, taken a leading part in the foundation of the Royal Astronomical Society; and its gold medal was awarded him, in 1827, for his preparation of the Astronomical Society's Catalogue of 2881 stars (Memoirs R.
We may also mention Cupido Cruciatus, Cupid on the cross; Technopaegion, a literary trifle consisting of a collection of verses ending in monosyllables; Eclogarum Liber, on astronomical and astrological subjects; Epistolae, including letters to Paulinus and Symmachus; lastly, Praefatiunculae, three poetical epistles, one to the emperor Theodosius.
Sometimes he misunderstood the astronomical science of the ancients, sometimes that of Copernicus and Tycho Brahe.
Amongst them may be mentioned a history of the dispute with Palamas; biographies of his uncle and early instructor John, metropolitan of Heraclea, and of the martyr Codratus of Antioch; funeral orations for Theodore Metochita, and the two emperors Andronicus; commentaries on the wanderings of Odysseus and on Synesius's treatise on dreams; tracts on orthography and on words of doubtful meaning; a philosophical dialogue called Florentius or Concerning Wisdom; astronomical treatises on the date of Easter and the preparation of the astrolabe; and an extensive correspondence.
That the sun on midsummer day rises nearly, but not quite, in line with the "avenue" and over the Friar's Heel, has long been advanced as the chief argument in support of the theory that Stonehenge was a temple for sun-worship. On the supposition that this stone was raised to mark exactly the line of sunrise on midsummer's day when the structure was erected, it would naturally follow, owing to well-known astronomical causes, that in the course of time the direction of this line would slowly undergo a change, and that, at any subsequent date since, the amount of deviation would be commensurate with the lapse of time, thus supplying chronological data to astronomers for determining the age of the building.
Important buildings include the university hall (1882), the academic union of the students (1850 containing an art museum; the astronomical observatory, built in 1866, though observations have been carried on since 1760; the botanical museum, and ethnographical and industrial art collections, illustrating life in southern Sweden from early times.
Babbage's attention seems to have been very early drawn to the number and importance of the errors introduced into astronomical and other calculations through inaccuracies in the computation of tables.
He contributed largely to several scientific periodicals, and was instrumental in founding the Astronomical (1820) and Statistical (1834) Societies.
At various times he was president of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, of the London Mathematical Society and of the Royal Astronomical Society.
In 1809 he published at Hamburg his Theoria motus corporum coelestium, a work which gave a powerful impulse to the true methods of astronomical observation; and his astronomical workings, observations, calculations of orbits of planets and comets, &c., are very numerous and valuable.
The Specola or astronomical observatory is also a government institution, and forms no official part of the university.
For his astronomical work see ASTRONOMY (Historical Section), and for the botanical works, see Dr J.
In addition to the government offices, its buildings include a handsome university, a wooden cathedral, a national theatre, an academy of science and literature, a chamber of commerce, and astronomical observatory and a number of hospitals and charitable institutions.
In 1882, before the Physical Society of London, he gave a description of the diffraction gratings with which his name is specially associated, and which have been of enormous advantage to astronomical spectroscopy.
He was awarded the Janssen medal by the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1894, the Rumford medal by the American Academy in 1902, the Draper medal in 1903, a gold medal by the Royal Astronomical Society in 1904, the Bruce medal by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 1916, and the Janssen medal by the Astronomical Society of France in 1917.
It seems possible that n is not a large number, and if we take x equal, say, to 200, we come to the most recent estimate - the astronomical - of the date of the earth's glacial epoch, when the sun's radiation was certainly not much more than it is now, while this factor would differ materially from unity.
But there are also papers which cannot be disregarded in Monthly Notices and Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society, and in Astronomische Nachrichten.
Series), and an excellent summary of solar spectroscopy, as far as rapid progress permits, is in Frost's translation of Scheiner, Astronomical Spectroscopy (1894).
The carved wooden doors of both the north and the south portals are masterpieces respectively of Gothic and Renaissance workmanship. The church possesses an elaborate astronomical clock (1866) and tapestries of the 15th and 17th centuries; but its chief artistic treasures are stained glass windows of the 13th, 14th and 16th centuries, the most beautiful of them from the hand of the Renaissance artist, Engrand Le Prince, a native of Beauvais.
From Loanda Livingstone sent his astronomical observations to Sir Thomas Maclear at the Cape, and an account of his journey to the Royal Geographical Society, which in May 18J5 awarded him its patron's medal.
The treatise on "Mechanics" in Lardner's Cyclopaedia was partly written by him; and his interest in more purely astronomical questions was evidenced by two communications to the Astronomical Society's Memoirs for 1831-1833 - the one on an observation of Saturn's outer ring, the other on a method of determining longitude by means of lunar eclipses.
1866), and the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Feb.
From 1897-9 he was president of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701.
As an undergraduate he became deeply interested in astronomy; he observed the comet of 1759 and the transit of Venus of June 1769, and left a quarto volume of astronomical notes.
For thirty years he took an active part in the business of the Royal Astronomical Society, editing its publications, supplying obituary notices of members, and for eighteen years acting as one of the honorary secretaries.
In 1851 he became president of the Royal Astronomical Society.
For these researches the Royal Astronomical Society awarded him its gold medal in 1866.
In1874-1876he was president of the Royal Astronomical Society for the second time, when it fell to him to present the gold medal of the year to Leverrier.
Another bust, taken in his youth, belongs to the Royal Astronomical Society.
The nature of the dream, in which the elder Scipio appears to his (adopted) grandson, and describes the life of the good after death and the constitution of the universe from the Stoic point of view, gives occasion for Macrobius to discourse upon many points of physics in a series of essays interesting as showing the astronomical notions then current.
Meanwhile, he solaced his enforced leisure with astronomical studies.
to have the tables of the heavenly bodies corrected, and the places of the fixed stars rectified "for the use of his seamen," and Flamsteed was appointed "astronomical observator" by a royal warrant dated 4th of March 1675.
Among these subjects were the transit of Mercury, the Aurora Borealis, the figure of the earth, the observation of the fixed stars, the inequalities in terrestrial gravitation, the application of mathematics to the theory of the telescope, the limits of certainty in astronomical observations, the solid of greatest attraction, the cycloid, the logistic curve, the theory of comets, the tides, the law of continuity, the double refraction micrometer, various problems of spherical trigonometry, &c. In 1742 he was consulted, with other men of science, by the pope, Benedict XIV., as to the best means of securing the stability of the dome of St Peter's, Rome, in which a crack had been discovered.
When Regiomontanus settled at Nuremberg in 1471, Walther built for their common use an observatory at which in 1484 clocks driven by weights were first used in astronomical determinations.
Walther established a printing-press, from which some of the earliest editions of astronomical works were issued.
In the suburb of Bilk there are the Floragarten and Volksgarten, the astronomical observatory and the harbour.
The cathedral has some fine stained glass, a sculptured pulpit and the famous astronomical clock in the south transept; this contains some fragments of the clock built by the mathematician, Conrad Dasypodius, in 1574.
The subject matter of astronomical science, considered in its widest range, comprehends all the matter of the universe which lies outside the limit of the earth's atmosphere.
We may conclude this brief characterization of astronomy with a statement and classification of the principal lines on which astronomical researches are now pursued.
Thus has arisen in recent times what we may regard as a third branch of astronomical science, known as Stellar Statistics.
The development of this branch has infused life and interest into what might a few years ago have been regarded as the most lifeless mass of figures possible, expressing merely the positions and motions of innumerable individual stars, as determined by generations of astronomical observers.
The process of development is also made slow and difficult by the great amount of labour involved in deriving the results of astronomical observations.
We may, in fact, regard the fabric of astronomical science as a building in the construction of which no stone can be added without a readjustment of some of the stones on which it has to rest.
Thus it comes about that the observer, the computer, and the mathematician have in astronomical science a practically unlimited field for the exercise of their powers.
Practical Astronomy, which comprises a description of the instruments used in astronomical observation, and of the principles and methods underlying their application.
The points most generally taken for this purpose in astronomical practice are the following :- (I) The position of a point of observation on the earth's surface.
Either may be used for astronomical purposes.
In astronomical practice is introduced a day, termed " sidereal," determined, not by the diurnal revolution of the sun, but of the stars.
The latter motion leads to the use, in astronomical practice, of time instead of angle, as the unit in which the right ascensions are to be expressed.
Theoretical Astronomy is that branch of the science which, making use of the results of astronomical observations as they are supplied by the practical astronomer, investigates the motions of the heavenly bodies.
The precision with which the path of an eclipse is laid down years in advance cannot but imbue the minds of men with a high sense of the perfection reached by astronomical theories; and the discovery, by purely mathematical processes, of the changes which the orbits and motions of the planets are to undergo through future ages is more impressive the more fully one apprehends the nature of the problem.
At the base of every system of astronomical observation is the law that, in the voids of space, a ray of light moves in a right line.
The other two coordinates, which define the direction of a body, admit of direct measurement on principles applied in the construction and use of astronomical instruments.
We have already mentioned that in astronomical practice right ascensions are expressed in time, so that no multiplication by 15 is necessary.
The result of astronomical observations which is ordinarily wanted is not the direction of an object from the observer, but from the centre of the earth.
The instruments used in astronomical research are described under their several names.
The processes of measuring great portions of the earth, and of determining geographical positions, require both astronomical observations proper, and determinations made with instruments similar to those of astronomy.
1691), telescopic sights (so-called) by Jean Picard (1620-1682), who simultaneously introduced the astronomical use of pendulumclocks, constructed by Huygens eleven years previously.
This result, though widely inaccurate, came much nearer to the truth than any previously obtained; and it instructively illustrated the feasibility of concerted astronomical operations at distant parts of the earth.
Moreover, the imposing catalogue set on foot in 1865 at thirteen observatories by the German astronomical society has recently been completed; and adjuncts to it have, from time to time, been provided in the publications of the royal observatories at Greenwich and the Cape of Good Hope, and of national, imperial and private establishments in the United States and on the continent of Europe.
The taking of photographs of the moon then excited much interest among astronomical observers of various countries.
The subject was then taken up by Brown, who in a series of researches published in the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society and in the Transactions of the American Mathematical Society extended Hill's method so as to form a practically complete solution of the entire problem.
12.19 Hansen's revised, but still theoretically erroneous, result is 12.56 The value which best represents the supposed eclipses (1) of Thales, (2) at Larissa, (3) at Stikkelstad is about 111 The result from purely astronomical observation is 8.3 Inequalities of Long Period.
Brown, " Theory of the Motion of the Moon," Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society, various vols.; also Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, vols.
ALMACANTAR(from the Arabic for a sun-dial), an astronomical term for a small circle of the sphere parallel to the horizon; when two stars are in the same almacantar they have the same altitude.
ASTROPHYSICS, the branch of astronomical science which treats of the physical constitution of the heavenly bodies.
When, in the third quarter of the igth century, spectrum analysis was applied to the light coming to us from the heavenly bodies, a new era in astronomical science was opened up of such importance that the body of knowledge revealed by this method has sometimes been termed the "new astronomy."
It has thus come about that astrophysics owes its recent development, and its recognition as a distinct branch of astronomical science, to the combination of the processes involved in the three arts of spectroscopy, photography and photometry.
His desire to observe the southern heavens led him to propose, in 1750, an astronomical expedition to the Cape of Good Hope, which was officially sanctioned, and fortunately executed.
South-west of these buildings, on the other side of the Johannisthal Park, are clustered the medical institutes and hospitals of the university - the infirmary, clinical and other hospitals, the physico-chemical institute, pathological institute, physiological institute, ophthalmic hospital, pharmacological institute, the schools of anatomy, the chemical laboratory, the zoological institute, the physicomineralogical institute, the botanical garden and also the veterinary schools, deaf and dumb asylum, agricultural college and astronomical observatory.
At first he devoted himself to mathematical and astronomical studies; his Cosmotheoria (1528) records a determination of a degree of the meridian, which he made by counting the revolutions of his carriage wheels on a journey between Paris and Amiens.
By the labours of Hunain and his family the great body of Greek science, medical, astronomical and mathematical, became accessible to the Arab-speaking races.
1187), to whom versions of other medical and astronomical works are due.
Scot had sojourned at Toledo about 1 21 7, and had accomplished the versions of several astronomical and physical treatises, mainly, if we believe Roger Bacon, by the labours of a Jew named Andrew.
Of polarimeters for the study of rotary polarization there are three principal forms. In Wild's polaristrobometer, light from a soda flame, rendered parallel by a lens, is polarized by a Nicol's prism, and after traversing the space into which the active substance is to be inserted, falls on a Savart's plate placed in front of an astronomical telescope of low power, that contains in its eyepiece a Nicol's prism, which with the plate forms a Savart's analyser.
He at first applied the new principle to pulsemeasurement, and more than fifty years later turned it to account in the construction of an astronomical clock.
This in many respects his most valuable work was printed by the Elzevirs at Leiden in 1638, and excited admiration equally universal and more lasting than that accorded to his astronomical treatises.
There are many American and European institutions in the city: the American Presbyterian mission, with a girls' school and a printing office, which published the Arabic translation of the Bible, and now issues a weekly paper and standard works in Arabic; the Syrian Protestant college with its theological seminary, medical faculty, training college and astronomical observatory; the Scottish mission, and St George's institute for Moslem and Druse girls; the British Syrian mission schools; the German hospital, orphanage and boarding school; the French hospital and schools, and the Jesuit "Universite de St Joseph" with a printing office.
of the meridian circle, which gives 23° 51' " for the obliquity of the ecliptic. His astronomical poem Hermes began apparently with the birth and exploits of Hermes, then passed to the legend of his having ordered the heavens, the zones and the stars, and gave a history of the latter.
His influence was due partly to his astronomical and mathematical eminence, but still more to the ascetic dignity of his nature and his superiority to ordinary weaknesses - traits which legend has embalmed.
In the second place, the astronomical knowledge presupposed and accompanying early Babylonian astrology is essentially of an empirical character.
Judicial astrology, as a form of divination, is a concomitant of natural astrology, in its purer astronomical aspect, but mingled with what is now considered an unscientific and superstitious view of world-forces.
Hansen twice visited England and was twice (in 1842 and 1860) the recipient of the Royal Astronomical Society's gold medal.
latitudo, latus, broad), a word meaning breadth or width, hence, figuratively, freedom from restriction, but more generally used in the geographical and astronomical sense here treated.
The direct measure of this distance being impracticable, it has to be determined by astronomical observations.
Latitude thus determined by the plumb-line is termed astronomical.
It differs from the astronomical latitude only in being corrected for local deviation of the plumb-line.
Chandler's investigations are found in a series of papers published in the Astronomical Journal, vols.
Newcomb's explanation of the lengthening of the Eulerian period is found in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society for March 1892.
Later volumes of the Astronomical Journal contain discussions of the causes which may produce the annual fluctuation.
Metochita was also the author of works on philosophical and astronomical subjects.
3, 166 in Didot edition.) His astronomical and mathematical writings include 'T7rOTU/rW vtS ao-rpovo a!
The origin and development of the grouping of the stars into constellations is more a matter of archaeological than of astronomical interest.
But all their truly astronomical writings are lost, and only by a somewhat speculative piecing together of scattered evidences can an estimate of their knowledge be formed.
Although not an astronomical work, several constellation subjects are introduced.
According to Callimachus he taught the Greeks to steer by Ursa minor instead of Ursa major; and other astronomical observations are assigned to him.
But his writings are lost, as is also the case with those of Phocus the Samian, and the history of astronomy by Eudemus, the pupil of Aristotle; hence the paucity of our knowledge of Thales's astronomical learning.
Aglaosthenes or Agaosthenes, an early writer, knew Ursa minor as Kvv600vpa, Cynosura, and recorded the translation of Aquila; Epimenides the Cretan (c. 600 B.C.) recorded the translation of Capricornus and the star Capella; Pherecydes of Athens (c. 500-450 B.C.) recorded the legend of Orion, and stated the astronomical fact that when Orion sets Scorpio rises; Aeschylus (525-456 B.C.) and Hellanicus of Mytilene (c. 496-411 B.C.) narrate the legend of the seven Pleiades - the daughters of Atlas; and the latter states that the Hyades are named either from their orientation, which resembles v (upsilon), " or because at their rising or setting Zeus rains "; and Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 470 B.C.) treated the legend of the Hydra.
Among public institutions are the university, which occupies part of the old Jesuit college, an astronomical observatory, and eleven large monastic institutions, six of which are for nuns.
Among works published by Maury, in addition to those mentioned, are the papers contributed by him to the Astronomical Observations of the United States Observatory, Letter concerning Lanes for Steamers crossing the Atlantic (1855); Physical Geography (1864) and Manual of Geography (1871).
The original MS. is preserved at the Vatican; and the Escorial library possesses in MS. a treatise of some value by him on astronomical chronology.
These astronomical alignments were an integral part of the design of many sites.
It has been speculated that they provided artificial horizons for the observation of the moon and other astronomical bodies.
artificial horizons for the observation of the moon and other astronomical bodies.
The Astronomical Almanac reports the precessed right ascension of the object in hours, minutes and seconds for the epoch of observation.
Beside their use for determining astronomical events astrolabes were used as teaching tools in the late Middle Ages.
astronomical telescope over the internet.
astronomical alignments were an integral part of the design of many sites.
astronomical clock, which took seven years to make.
However, the sums of money we were talking about were potentially astronomical.
Donaldson will not disclose his salary but says it is " not astronomical " .
You've probably thought of trying one out, just because the price difference between that and a rental machine was so astronomical.
This is a truly astronomical amount of money the taxpayer is being asked to stump up.
By 1920, Chaplin was earning $ 10,000 dollars per week, which in those days was an absolutely astronomical amount.
Anyway, only 57% of the applicants were successful, and we were the only astronomical society among them.
High Cost of Education The direct and indirect costs of education for the average family have become astronomical.
Survey Astronomy Surveys for astronomical objects over large areas of the sky are the foundation on which much research in observational astrophysics is based.
The map shows areas of sandy sediment in less than 20 m water depth using bathymetry calculated to the Lowest Astronomical Tide datum.
The Royal Astronomical Society has predicted that the moon is to turn blood-red during a lunar eclipse above British skies tonight.
We cannot undo the cosmic cataclysm of the Fall by making astronomical measurements or adjustments.
chime people gather to await the chiming of the famous astronomical clock.
The Maori also possess considerable astronomical knowledge, including that of a planet that wears a circlet or headband (46 ).
James Ferguson himself designed several astronomical clocks and orreries for use in his lectures.
Instead we have a clear-headed analysis informed by, and grounded in an intimate familiarity with, archeological realities and astronomical phenomena.
In 1987 an extraordinary astronomical event took place - the light from an exploded star in a nearby galaxy was seen from Earth.
The ATC is the UK's national center for the design and production of state-of-the-art astronomical instrumentation.
The Astronomical Almanac reports the galactic latitude of the object in decimal degrees.
letterpress printing with the astronomical costs of plates which took forever to produce?
The Astronomical Almanac reports the galactic longitude of the object in decimal degrees.
The Astronomical Almanac reports the ecliptic longitude of the object in decimal degrees.
low tideight to which lowest astronomical tides rarely fall below.
A publication containing astronomical and meteorological data for a given year and often including a miscellany of other information.
nautical twilight, astronomical twilight.
And so it proved: ' A Starlit Dome ' is an astronomical nocturne.
Up until then astronomers have been able only to observe and study astronomical objects from a distance without in any way disturbing them.
Current astronomical observations can't really tell us whether the world really did have an infinite past or just a finite one.
observatoryor jobs at liberal arts colleges Quantum gravity faces reality Build astronomical observatories on the Moon?
occult symbolism, designed to link Christ with Pagan astronomical symbols?
plummeted down down down into astronomical blackness.
It actually predates the pyramids of Egypt and the current consensus is that it was an astronomical observatory.
Further evidence comes from astronomical observation - astronomers look into the past when they look into space and have been measuring and observing quasars.
If the costs to MI5 of operating round-the-clock in the UK are high, their costs overseas must be astronomical.
To designate years, some regions use seasonal, astronomical, or historical criteria, instead of the Western Gregorian calendar system.
At what latitude is sunrise 12 hours away from astronomical solstice?
The spectrometer more commonly used for astronomical work is the grating spectrometer more commonly used for astronomical work is the grating spectrometer.
The earth's axis projected on to the celestial sphere defines astronomical north.
Students will be given a chance to use brand new astronomical telescope over the internet.
thousandth year of the age of Kali according to astronomical calculation and evidence in the revealed scriptures.
Three different kinds of twilight are defined: civil twilight, nautical twilight, astronomical twilight.
It is operated on behalf of PPARC by the University of Manchester and is the only world-class astronomical facility based entirely within the UK.
Die Hauptsatze der Astronomie (1836), Die Elemente der Mechanik des Himmels (1843), may be noted amongst his other purely astronomical publications.
Before the invention of the telescope the accuracy of astronomical observations was necessarily limited by the angle that could be distinguished by the naked eye.
146) that the probable error of these measures amounted to about 2'.2 The invention of the telescope at once extended the possibilities of accuracy in astronomical measurements.
Clark's micrometer was exhibited at the June meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1859 (Monthly Notices, R.A.S., vol.
He then retired to Freshwater, in the Isle of Wight, and took an active interest in the affairs of the Royal Astronomical Society, of which he became honorary secretary in 1862 and president in 1866.
Denver is the seat of the Jesuit college of the Sacred Heart (1888; in the suburbs); and the university of Denver (Methodist, 1889), a co-educational institution, succeeding the Colorado Seminary (founded in 1864 by John Evans), and consisting of a college of liberal arts, a graduate school, Chamberlin astronomical observatory and a preparatory school - these have buildings in University Park - and (near the centre of the city) the Denver and Gross College of Medicine, the Denver law school, a college of music in the building of the old Colorado Seminary, and a Saturday college (with classes specially for professional men).
A general description of his method will be found in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.
The six books pass in review (1) the doctrine of the soul, in which Gersonides defends the theory of impersonal reason as mediating between God and man, and explains the formation of the higher reason (or acquired intellect, as it was called) in humanity, - his view being thoroughly realist and resembling that of Avicebron; (2) prophecy; (3) and (4) God's knowledge of facts and providence, in which is advanced the curious theory that God does not know individual facts, and that, while there is general providence for all, special providence only extends to those whose reason has been enlightened; (5) celestial substances, treating of the strange spiritual hierarchy which the Jewish philosophers of the middle ages accepted from the Neoplatonists and the pseudo-Dionysius, and also giving, along with astronomical details, much of astrological theory; (6) creation and miracles, in respect to which Gerson deviates widely from the position of Maimonides.
The attempt sometimes made to attribute an astronomical origin to the myths connected with his name is unsuccessful, except in the case of Orion's pursuit of Pleione and her daughters (see Pleiades) and his death from the bite of the scorpion; see also C. O.
France, however, uses the meridian of the Paris observatory as its standard for all nautical and astronomical purposes (see Time).
If the path is to be unaltered by the motion of the aether, as the law of astronomical aberration suggests, this must differ from fds/V by terms not depending on the path - that is, by terms involving only the beginning and end of it.
But the aether at a great distance must in any case be at rest; while the facts of astronomical aberration require that the motion of that medium must be irrotational.
29, was one of the three alternative dates for the Crucifixion which on astronomical and calendar grounds were found (see above, 5d) to be possible.
Among Asiatic points of resemblance to which attention has since been called is the Mexican belief in the nine stages of heaven and hell, an idea which nothing in nature would suggest directly to a barbaric people, but which corresponds to the idea of successive heavens and hells among Brahmans and Buddhists, who apparently learnt it (in common with our own ancestors) from the Babylonian-Greek astronomical theory of successive stages or concentric planetary spheres belonging to the planets, &c. The Spanish chronicles also give accounts of a Mexican game called patolli, played at the time of the conquest with coloured stones moved on the squares of a cross-shaped figure, according to the throws of beans marked on one side; the descriptions of this rather complicated game correspond closely with the Hindu backgammon called pachisi (see Tylor in Jour.
The 24th of November falling on a Sunday, his clerical duties threatened fatally to clash with his astronomical observations; he was, however, released just in time to witness the punctual verification of his forecast, and carefully noted the progress of the phenomenon during half an hour before sunset (3.15 to 3.45).
Mansur built a castle at Rafiqa opposite Rakka to control the country round, and his son Harun al-Rashid actually resided during most of his reign, not at Bagdad but at Rakka, where two generations later al-Battani of Harran was making the astronomical observations on which his tables were based (see Albategnius) Abu Qurra, bishop of Harran, and acquaintance of the caliph Ma'mun, who was one of the earlier Aramaean Christians to use Arabic, has been thought to have contributed to the influences For this and following section see further Caliphate and Persia: History.
This led to his invention of the micrometer and his application of telescopic sights to astronomical instruments of precision (see Micrometer).
It has hot sulphur baths (932Ã‚°-1182Ã‚° Fahr.) and an astronomical observatory (4240 ft.).
The first variation must be taken into account in correcting geodetic observations of heights and astronomical observations of the heavenly bodies; it also has a considerable bearing on the phenomena of the twilight and the afterglow (see Refraction: § Astronomical; and Twilight).
In 1837 he married Sophia Elizabeth, daughter of William Frend, a Unitarian in faith, a mathematician and actuary in occupation, a notice of whose life, written by his son-in-law, will be found in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (vol.
For fifteen years he did all in his power to correct the mistake, and finally wrote to The Times to disclaim the authorship. (See Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.
An interesting and truthful sketch of his life will be found in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society for the 9th of February 1872, vol.
A description of them by Professor Sampson was inserted in the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society (vol.
(See Photography: Celestial.) The field of practical astronomy includes an extension which may be regarded as making astronomical science in a certain sense universal.
of the meridian circle, which gives 23Ã‚° 51' " for the obliquity of the ecliptic. His astronomical poem Hermes began apparently with the birth and exploits of Hermes, then passed to the legend of his having ordered the heavens, the zones and the stars, and gave a history of the latter.
The spectrometer more commonly used for astronomical work is the grating spectrometer.
The earth 's axis projected on to the celestial sphere defines astronomical north.
In none of these instances does a meteorological or astronomical explanation suffice to explain the sightings.
Science Drivers for ASMs Currently implemented astronomical AO systems operate like auxiliary instruments separate from the main telescope optics.
We are presently in the five thousandth year of the age of Kali according to astronomical calculation and evidence in the revealed scriptures.
The only legal issue is that it is against the law for anyone selling these name certificates to state that they are affiliated with, sanctioned by or do business with the IAU (International Astronomical Union).
With its astronomical alcohol content, the traditional Long Island iced tea has a killer calorie content.
That is an astronomical amount of waste that is being added to our landfills.
Mr. Lorillard sold the property to Vanderbilt, who, with the help of architect Richard Morris Hunt, built the current mansion for the astronomical sum of $7 million.
Occasionally, you'll come across a fragrance that is seemingly impossible to find at anything but astronomical retail prices.
The range of wedding tuxedos available for purchase or rental is astronomical.
Price: Wedding cake prices can be astronomical, and cupcakes are a generally less expensive option.
With airlines charging astronomical fees to check bags, it's just plain economical to pack light for a cruise.
Try them out: Purchasing replicas is also a great way to try out a new design or look before" you make the commitment of paying an astronomical price.
The mark-up on funeral essentials can be astronomical, so it is wise to compare between the various funeral homes.
This astronomical event recognized the shortest period of daylight on the year.
Given the astronomical prices of costume shop Hannah Montana outfits, it makes sense to create your own from items you may already have in your closet.
In this way, the signs themselves are correlated with astronomical bodies.
Lasting a significantly long time, the long count calendar ends on December 21, 2012 -the same day as numerous significant astronomical events.
In addition to being the speculated last day of the Mayan calendar (some scholars cite the last day is actually December 23rd, 2012), December 21, 2012 has numerous astronomical events occurring.
Nostradamus also predicted that a planet or other large astronomical collision would happen near the year 2000 (July 1999, to be exact).
Most astrologers have a keen knowledge of the astronomical bodies which are applied alongside a strong amount of science.
We must content ourselves by referring to the progress of physical (including chemical) theory, which has led to the great generalization of the conservation of energy; to the discovery of the fundamental chemical identity of the matter of our planet and of other celestial bodies, and of the chemical relations of organic and inorganic bodies; to the advance of astronomical speculation respecting the origin of the solar system, &c.; to the growth of the science of geology which has necessitated the conception of vast and unimaginable periods of time in the past history of our globe, and to the rapid march of the biological sciences which has made us familiar with the simplest types and elements of organism; finally, to the development of the science of anthropology (including comparative psychology, philology, &c.), and to the vast extension and improvement of all branches of historical study.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.