REGIOMONTANUS (1436-1476), German astronomer, was born at Konigsberg in Franconia on the 6th of June 1436.
Sir William Herschel was the first astronomer who measured position angles; the instrument he employed is described in Phil.
EDUARD SCHONFELD (1828-1891), German astronomer, was born at Hildburghausen, in the duchy of Meiningen, on the 22nd of December 1828.
By the end of 1771 his scientific reputation was such that he was suggested for the post of "astronomer" to Captain Cook's second expedition to the South Seas, but his unorthodox opinions were objectionable to certain members of the board of longitude and the appointment was not ratified.
Astronomer comes from the Latin word astra, which means stars; and astronomers are men who study the stars, and tell us about them.
He became Astronomer Royal in Cape Colony in 1879 and retained that post till 1902.
He was the son of Pheidias, an astronomer, and was on intimate terms with, if not related to, Hiero, king of Syracuse, and Gelo his son.
Leonardo certainly was in relation with some persons belonging to that circle when he published in 1220 another more extensive work, De practica geometriae, which he dedicated to the imperial astronomer Dominicus Hispanus.
SAMUEL PIERPONT LANGLEY (1834-1906), American physicist and astronomer, was born at Roxbury, Boston, Massachusetts, on the 22nd of August 1834.
JOHANN HEINRICH LAMBERT (1728-1777), German physicist, mathematician and astronomer, was born at Mulhausen, Alsace, on the 26th of August 1728.
See David Gill, Man and Astronomer, by George Forbes (1916).
Gabir ben Aflah of Sevilla, commonly called Geber, was a celebrated astronomer and apparently skilled in algebra, for it has been supposed that the word " algebra " is compounded from his name.
The first volume (in two parts) is a detailed biography of the great astronomer; the second includes some of his minor writings and correspondence, family records, and historical documents of local interest.
CHRISTIAAN HUYGENS (1629-1695), Dutch mathematician, mechanician, astronomer and physicist, was born at the Hague on the 14th of April 1629.
When her brother accepted the office of astronomer to George III., she became his constant assistant in his observations, and also executed the laborious calculations which were connected with them.
CAROLINE LUCRETIA HERSCHEL (1750-1848), English astronomer, sister of Sir William Herschel, the eighth child and fourth daughter of her parents, was born at Hanover on the 16th of March 1750.
JOHN BAINBRIDGE (1582-1643), English astronomer, was born at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, in Leicestershire.
Ganessa, an eminent astronomer, mathematician and scholiast of Bhaskara, quotes this work and makes separate mention of the cuttaca (" pulveriser "), a device for effecting the solution of indeterminate equations.
His career as a professional astronomer began in 1870, when he was elected Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford.
JOHANN FRANZ ENCKE (1791-1865), German astronomer, was born at Hamburg on the 23rd of September 1791.
Elliptic orbits, and a parabolic orbit considered as the special case when the eccentricity of the ellipse is 1, are almost the only ones the astronomer has to consider, and our attention will therefore be confined to them in the present article.
after 1510), astronomer, wrote the Sephei Yuhasin, an historical work of importance.
"SIR DAVID GILL (1843-1914), British astronomer, was born in Aberdeenshire June 12 18 4 3 and educated at the university of Aberdeen.
PAOLO FRISI (1728-1784), Italian mathematician and astronomer, was born at Milan on the 13th of April 1728.
SIR JOSEPH NORMAN LOCKYER (1836-), English astronomer, was born at Rugby on the 17th of May 1836.
about 1136), was a mathematician, astronomer and philosopher much studied in the middle ages.
Having founded an observatory there, he returned to Paris in 1747, was appointed geographical astronomer to the naval department with a salary of 3000 livres, and installed an observatory in the Hotel Cluny.
JOSEPH NICOLAS DELISLE (1688-1768), French astronomer, was born at Paris on the 4th of April 1688.
Meanwhile, on the 31st of May 1792 he married Mademoiselle Lemonnier, daughter of the astronomer of that name, a young and beautiful girl, whose devotion ignored disparity of years, and formed the one tie with life which Lagrange found it hard to break.
de Lacerda, an accomplished astronomer, was appointed to command a scientific expedition of discovery to the north of the Zambesi.
Hipparchus, the famous astronomer, on the other hand, (c. 150 B.C.) proved a somewhat captious critic. He justly objected to the arbitrary network of the map of Eratosthenes.
As the powers of the telescope were gradually developed, it was found that the finest hairs or filaments of silk, or the thinnest silver wires that could be drawn, were much too thick for the refined purposes of the astronomer, as p p they entirely obliterated the image of a star in the more powerful telescopes.
Edmund Halley, the astronomer, compiled the first variation chart of scientific value (1683), as also a chart of the winds (1686).
JOHN THOMAS ROMNEY ROBINSON (1792-1882), Irish astronomer and physicist, was born in Dublin on the 23rd of April 1792.
In 1881 Sir George Airy resigned the office of Astronomer Royal and resided at the White House, Greenwich, not far from the Royal Observatory, until his death, which took place on the 2nd of January 1892.
CHARLES PRITCHARD (1808-1893), British astronomer, was born at Alberbury, Shropshire, on the 29th of February 1808.
In June 1835 Airy was appointed Astronomer Royal in succession to John Pond, and thus commenced that long career of wisely directed and vigorously sustained industry at the national observatory which, even more perhaps than his investigations in abstract science or theoretical astronomy, constitutes his chief title to fame.
Tobit ben Korra (836-901), born at Harran in Mesopotamia, an accomplished linguist, mathematician and astronomer, rendered conspicuous service by his translations of various Greek authors.
PIERRE SIMON LAPLACE, MARQUIS DE (1749-1827), French mathematician and astronomer, was born at Beaumont-en-Auge in Normandy, on the 28th of March 1749.
The fame of this astronomer and mathematician rests on his work, the Aryabhattiyam, the third chapter of which is devoted to mathematics.
His travels had begotten in him a love of geography, and he published in 1633 a "Kosmografi," previously revised by the astronomer Longomontanus.
AIRY, SIR GEORGE BIDDELL (1801-1892), British Astronomer Royal, was born at Alnwick on the 27th of July 1801.
RHETICUS, or RHAETICUS (1514-1576), a surname given to GEORGE JOACHIM, German astronomer and mathematician, from his birth at Feldkirch in that part of Tirol which was anciently the territory of the Rhaeti.
As an astronomer, Rittenhouse's principal merit is that he introduced in 1786 the use of spider lines in the focus of a transit instrument.
COPERNICUS (or [[Koppernigk), Nicolaus]] (1473-1543), Polish astronomer, was born on the 19th of February 1473, at Thorn in Prussian Poland, where his father, a native of Cracow, had settled as a wholesale trader.
Airy, the astronomer, corrected his own astigmatism by means of a cylindrical lens.
The astronomer specialized in studying themagnitudeof stars are classifying their brightness.
DAVID RITTENHOUSE (1732-1796), American astronomer, was born at Germantown, Pennsylvania, on the 8th of April.
PIERRE JULES CESAR JANSSEN (1824-1907), French astronomer, was born in Paris on the 22nd of February 1824, and studied mathematics and physics at the faculty of sciences.
Even before this, however, he had shown a strong inclination for natural science, and this had been fostered by his intimacy with a "self-taught philosopher, astronomer and mathematician," as Sir Walter Scott called him, of great local fame - James Veitch of Inchbonny, who was particularly skilful in making telescopes.
Further state aid enabled him to visit Germany and France in 1825, and having visited the astronomer Heinrich Schumacher (1780-1850) at Hamburg, he spent six months in Berlin, where he became intimate with August Leopold Crelle, who was then about to publish his mathematical journal.
SAMUEL HEINRICH SCHWABE (1789-1875), German astronomer, was born on the 25th of October 1789 at Dessau, where he died on the 11th of April 1875.
King, chief astronomer of the Dominion, was established in 1909.
For the budding astronomer, bedding with stars and planets is a natural choice.
At nineteen he was appointed astronomer royal of Berlin.
Meton was an Athenian astronomer (fl.
humanists, such as Damiao de Goes, and scientists, such as the astronomer Pedro Nunes (Nonius), played conspicuous parts in the great intellectual movements of the time; a distinctive school of painters arose, chief among them being the so-called " Grao Vasco " (Vasco Fernandes of Vizeu); in architecture the name of King Emanuel was given to a new and composite style (the Manoeline or Manoellian), in which decorative forms from India and Africa were harmonized with Gothic and Renaissance designs; palaces, fortresses, cathedrals, monasteries, were built on a scale never before attempted in Portugal; and even in the minor arts and handicrafts - in goldsmith's work, for example, or in pottery - the influence of the East made itself felt.
The constellation is made of faint stars and has very little to offer the amateur astronomer.
The theory of the system is that the metre is a 1000-1000Y Part of a quandrant of the earth through Paris; the litre or unit of volume is a cube ofmetre side; the gramme or unit of weight is (nominally) 10 water at 4Ã‚° C. The idea of adopting scientific measurements had been suggested as early as the 17th century, particularly by the astronomer Jean Picard (1620-1682), who proposed to take as a unit the length of a pendulum beating one second at sealevel, at a latitude of 45Ã‚°.
The astronomer specialized in studying the magnitude of stars and classifying their brightness.
Several previous attempts had been made to discover the law of force, with various results, some of which correctly indicated the inverse square; in particular the German astronomer, J.
Thus a comet may be encountered in the morning dawn or evening twilight, and without such an adjunct the astronomer may lose the whole available opportunity for observation in the vain endeavour to find a suitable comparison-star.
JEAN BAPTISTE JOSEPH DELAMBRE (1749-1822), French astronomer, was born at Amiens on the 19th of September 1 749.
SNELLIUS, Dutch astronomer and mathematician, was born at Leiden in 1580.
WARREN DE LA RUE (1815-1889), British astronomer and chemist, son of Thomas De la Rue, the founder of the large firm of stationers of that name in London, was born in Guernsey on the 18th of January 1815.
JEAN SYLVAIN BAILLY (1736-1793), French astronomer and orator, was born at Paris on the 15th of September 1736.
RICHARD ANTHONY PROCTOR (1837-1888), British astronomer, was born at Chelsea on the 23rd of March 1837.
HEINRICH WILHELM MATTHIAS OLBERS (1758-1840), German astronomer, was born on the 11th of October 1758 at Arbergen, a village near Bremen, where his father was minister.
What is thus shown to be possible would, of course, be necessary if we went on, with the astronomer Kepler, to identify the star of the Magi with the conjunction of the planets Jupiter and Saturn which occurred, in the constellation Pisces, in May, October and December of 7 B.C.'
EDWARD CHARLES PICKERING (1846-), American physicist and astronomer, was born in Boston on the 1 9 th of July 1846.
It was endowed by Dr Francis Andrews, provost of Trinity College, was erected in 1785, and in 1791 was placed by statute under the management of the royal astronomer of Ireland, whose official residence is here.
PEIRCE, BENJAMIN (1809-1880), American mathematician and astronomer, was born at Salem, Massachusetts, on the 4th of April 1809.
Acad., 1848) gave him a wider fame; he became in 1849 consulting astronomer to the American Nautical Almanac, and for this work prepared new tables of the moon (1852).
FRIEDRICH GEORG WILHELM STRUVE (1793-1864), German astronomer, the son of Jacob Struve (1755-1841), was born at Altona on the 15th of April 1793.
From 1847 to 1862 he was advising astronomer to the headquarters of the army and navy; chairman of the International Astronomical Congress from 1867-1878; acting president of the International Metric Commission in 1872; and president of the International Congress for a Photographic Survey of the Stars in 1887, in which year he was also made a privy councillor.
1854) studied mathematics at Dorpat, and became in 1883 assistant, and in 1890, on his father's retirement, astronomer at the observatory at Pulkowa.
JOHANN KEPLER (1571-1630), German astronomer, was born on the 27th of December 1571, at Weil, in the duchy of Wurttemberg, of which town his grandfather was burgomaster.
Payments of arrears, now amounting to upwards of 4000 florins, was not, however, in the desperate condition of the imperial finances, to be hoped for; and he was glad, while retaining his position as court astronomer, to accept (in 1612) the office of mathematician to the states of Upper Austria.
JOHANN KARL FRIEDRICH ZOLLNER (1834-1882), German astronomer and physicist, was born at Berlin on the 8th of November 1834.
Encke, the astronomer who first investigated its orbit and showed its periodicity.
JEREMIAH HORROCKS (1619-1641), English astronomer, was born in 1619 at Toxteth Park, near Liverpool.
FRANCESCO BIANCHINI (1662-1729), Italian astronomer and antiquary, was born of a noble family at Verona on the 13th of December 1662.
An inquirer who examines the stars with a shilling telescope is not likely to make observations of value, and even a trained astronomer has to allow for his "personal equation" - a point to which even a finished critic rarely attends.
Invited Regiomontanus, The Most Celebrated Astronomer Of The Age, To Rome, To Superintend The Reconstruction Of The Calendar.
the German astronomer, appears to have made astronomical.
In the beginning of May 1852, when the government of Louis Napoleon required an oath of allegiance from all its functionaries, Arago peremptorily refused, and sent in his resignation of his post as astronomer at the Bureau des Longitudes.
astronomer royal, became curate of Barnet in 1755.
Lenses that could correct astigmatism were developed by a British astronomer, George Airy.
The Author Of The System Adopted By Gregory Was Aloysius Lilius, Or Luigi Lilioghiraldi, A Learned Astronomer And Physician Of Naples, Who Died, However, Before Its Introduction; But The Individual Who Most Contributed To Give The Ecclesiastical Calendar Its Present Form, And Who Was Charged With All The Calculations Necessary For Its Verification, Was Clavius, By Whom It Was Completely Developed And Explained In A Great Folio Treatise Of 800 Pages, Published In 1603, The Title Of Which Is Given At The End Of This Article.
JOHANN TOBIAS MAYER (1723-1762), German astronomer, was born at Marbach, in Wiirtemberg, on the 17th of February 1723, and brought up at Esslingen in poor circumstances.
GIOVANNI BATTISTA AMICI (1786-1863), Italian astronomer and microscopist, was born on the 25th of March 1786 at Modena.
A variant of the same story was known to Guido Bonati, an astronomer quoted by Dante, who calls his hero or villain Butta Deus because he struck Jesus.
BENJAMIN APTHORP GOULD (1824-1896), American astronomer, a son of Benjamin Apthorp Gould (1787-1859), principal of the Boston Latin school, was born at Boston, Massachusetts, on the 27th of September 1824.
Finally, Atlas was explained as the name of a primitive astronomer, who was said to have made the first celestial globe (Diodorus iii.
JEAN CHARLES BORDA (1733-1799), French mathematician and nautical astronomer, was born at Dax on the 4th of May 1733 He studied at La Fleche, and at an early age obtained a commission in the cavalry.
URBAIN JEAN JOSEPH LEVERRIER (1811-1877), French astronomer, was born at St Lb in Normandy on the II th of March 1811.
Academies vied with each other in enrolling Leverrier among their members; the Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal; the king of Denmark sent him the order of the Dannebrog; he was named officer in the Legion of Honour, and preceptor to the comte de Paris; a chair of astronomy was created for his benefit at the Faculty of Sciences; he was appointed adjunct astronomer to the Bureau of Longitudes.
Several works have been attributed to him, but they are all lost; some fragments are preserved in the extant TWV 'Apa-rov Kai EiMEov cbacvo thvwv E07ryilvEwv (30Xia Tpia of the astronomer Hipparchus (ed.
astronomer, being possibly a native Babylonian; Berossus, who wrote a Babylonian history in Greek (before 261 B.C.) was a Hellenized native.
He acknowledged the genius of the astronomer, and had not approved of the action of the Inquisition in 1616; but subsequently, believing himself to have been caricatured in the Dialogo, he permitted the Inquisition to have its way and to compel an abjuration (1633).
EDWARD JAMES STONE (1831-1897), British astronomer,.
These services were recognized by the award of the Royal Astronomical Society's gold medal in 1869, and on the resignation of Sir Thomas Maclear in 1870 he was appointed Her Majesty's astronomer at the Cape.
Of course this would be true had Thule been situated under the Arctic Circle, which Pytheas evidently considered it to be, and his skill as an astronomer would lead him to accept as a fact what he knew must be true at some point as a voyager proceeded onwards.
Pytheas certainly had one merit which distinguished him from almost all his contemporaries - he was a good astronomer, and was one of the first who made observations for the determination of latitudes, among others that of his native place Massilia, which he fixed with remarkable accuracy; his result, which was within a few miles of the truth, was adopted by Ptolemy, and became the basis of the Ptolemaic map of the western Mediterranean.
PIERRE LOUIS MOREAU DE MAUPERTUIS (1698-1759), French mathematician and astronomer, was born at St Malo on the 17th of July 1698.
In 1808 he became astronomer to the Bureau des Longitudes; and when the Faculte des Sciences was instituted in 1809 he was appointed professeur de la mecanique rationelle.
EDMUND HALLEY (1656-1742), English astronomer, was born at Haggerston, London, on the 29th of October 1656.
Six months later, the indefatigable astronomer started for Danzig to set at rest a dispute of long standing between Hooke and Hevelius as to the respective merits of plain or telescopic sights; and towards the end of 1680 he proceeded on a continental tour.
4 Dollond did not reply to this memoir, but soon afterwards he received an abstract of a memoir by Samuel Klingenstierna, the Swedish mathematician and astronomer, which led him to doubt the accuracy of the results deduced by Newton on the dispersion of refracted light.
The reflecting telescope became the only available tool of the astronomer when great light grasp was requisite, as the difficulty of procuring disks of glass (especially of flint glass) of suitable purity and homogeneity limited the dimensions of the achromatic telescope.
Partly for these reasons the reflecting telescope with metallic mirror has never been a favourite with the professional astronomer, and has found little employment out of England.'
splendid service, but in all these cases the astronomer and the instrument-maker were one.
Both are abundantly illustrated in most popular works on astronomy, and it seems sufficient to refer the reader to the original descriptions.2 We pass, therefore, directly to the equatorial telescope, the instrument par excellence of the modern extra-meridian astronomer.
These platforms are capable of easy motion so that the astronomer may be conveniently situated for observing an object at any azimuth or altitude to which the telescope may be directed.
96, pp. 735-74 1, Loewy gives an account of an instrument which he calls an "equatorial coude," designed (I) to attain greater stability and so to measure larger angles than is generally possible with the ordinary equatorial; (2) to enable a single astronomer to point the telescope and make observations in any part of the sky without changing his position; (3) to abolish the usual expensive dome, and to substitute a covered shed on wheels (which can be run back at pleasure), leaving the telescope in the open air, the observer alone being sheltered.
The large differences between these results, derived from the same material, depend mainly on the different systematic corrections applied by each astronomer to the declinations of Bradley.
- His son Wathiq, who succeeded, though not in the least to be compared with Mamun, had yet in common with him a thirst for knowledge - perhaps curiosity would be a more appropriate term - which prompted him, as soon as he became caliph, to send the famous astronomer Mahommed b.
JOHANN ELERT BODE (1747-1826), German astronomer, was born at Hamburg on the 19th of January 1747.
GIOVANNI VIRGINIO SCHIAPARELLI (1835-1910), Italian astronomer and senator of the kingdom of Italy, was born on the 14th of March 1835 at Savigliano in Piedmont.
RICHARD CHRISTOPHER CARRINGTON (1826-1875), English astronomer, son of a brewer at Brentford, was born in London on the 26th of May 1826.
SEARS COOK WALKER (1805-1853), American astronomer, was born at Wilmington, Massachusetts, on the 28th of March 1805.
SIMON NEWCOMB (1835-1909), American astronomer, was born in Wallace, Nova Scotia, on the 12th of March 1835.
In the intervals of these immense labours, on which his reputation as an astronomer rests, he found leisure for works of a lighter character, e.g.
An autobiography, Reminiscences of an Astronomer, appeared in 2903; and a bibliography of his writings is given by Mr Archibald in the Trans.
Rab and Shemuel (Samuel) " the astronomer " (died 254 A.D.) were pupils of " Rabbi " (i.e.
AMEDEE ERNEST BARTHELEMY MOUCHEZ (1821-1892), French astronomer, was born at Madrid of French parents on the 24th of August 1821.
CHRISTIAN LUDWIG IDELER (1766-1846), German chronologist and astronomer, was born near Perleberg on the 21st of September 1766.
His graceful and captivating style was imitated by IIakIm Khabbaz of Nishkptfr, a great baker, poet and quack; Aba Shuaib ~klili of HerSt, who left a spirited little song in honor of a young Christian maiden; Raunaqi of Bokhgra; Abtil-Fat,l7 of Bust, who was also a good Arabic poet; the amIr Aba l-Ilasan All AlagatchI, who handled the pen as skilfully as the sword; Umara of Merv, a famous astronomer; and Kisf, a native of the sametown, a man of stern and ascetic manners, who sang in melodious rhythm the praise of Al!
FRANCIS BAILY (1774-1844), English astronomer, was born at Newbury in Berkshire, on the 28th of April 1774.
ANDRONICUS OF CYRRHUS, Greek astronomer, flourished about ioo B.C. He built a horologium at Athens, the so-called "tower of the winds," a considerable portion of which still exists.
JOHANN HIERONYMUS SCHROTER (1745-1816), German astronomer, was born at Erfurt on the 30th of August 1745.
FRANZ XAVER ZACH, BARON VON (1754-1832), German astronomer, was born at Pesth on the 4th of June 17 54.
JEAN LOUIS PONS (1761-1831), French astronomer, was born at Peyres (Hautes Alpes) on the 24th of December 1761..
Dr Munger's estimate may be accepted, with reservations, as the true one: "He was a theologian as Copernicus was an astronomer; he changed the point of view, and thus not only changed everything, but pointed the way toward unity in theological thought.
The hair having by some unknown means disappeared, Conon of Samos, the mathematician and astronomer, explained the phenomenon in courtly phrase, by saying that it had been carried to the heavens and placed among the stars.
FRIEDRICH WILHELM BESSEL (1784-1846), German astronomer, was born at Minden on the 22nd of July 1784.
ALBUMAZAR, more properly ABU-Maaschar (805-885), Arab astronomer, was born at Balkh, flourished at Bagdad, and died at Wasid in Central Asia.
AUTOLYCUS OF PITANE, Greek mathematician and astronomer, probably flourished in the second half of the 4th century B.C., since he is said to have instructed Arcesilaus.
"GEORGE ELLERY HALE (1868-), American astronomer, was born at Chicago, Ill., June 29 1868.
In the interior of the church the tomb of the astronomer Tycho Brahe is notable, as is thevery ancient pulpit from which the Hussite archbishop John of Rokycan preached.
GIOVANNI BATTISTA DONATI (1826-1873), Italian astronomer, was born at Pisa on the 16th of December 1826.
As early as 1839 a scheme of public schools, drawn up by Sir John Herschel, the astronomer, came into operation, and was continued until 1865, when a more comprehensive scheme was adopted.
It is under the control of a royal astronomer and its expenses are defrayed by the British admiralty.
The change from slave to free labour proved to be advantageous to the farmers in the western provinces; an efficient educational system, which owed its initiation to Sir John Herschel, the astronomer (who lived in Cape Colony from 1834 to 1838), was adopted; Road Boards were established and did much good work; to the staple industries - the growing of wheat, the rearing of cattle and the making of wine - was added sheepraising; and by 1846 wool became the most valuable export from the country.
Having detected an important defect in one of Laplace's demonstrations, he was induced by a friend to write out his remarks, that they might be shown to Dr John Brinkley (1763-1835), afterwards bishop of Cloyne, but who was then the first royal astronomer for Ireland, and an accomplished mathematician.
He was not specially fitted for the post, for although he had a profound acquaintance with theoretical astronomy, he had paid but little attention to the regular work of the practical astronomer.
JAMES BRADLEY (1693-1762), English astronomer, was born at Sherborne in Gloucestershire in March 1693.
His early observations were made at the rectory of Wanstead in Essex, under the tutelage of his uncle, the Rev. James Pound (1669-1724), himself a skilled astronomer, and he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society on the 6th of November 1718.
He had meantime (in 1742) been appointed to succeed Edmund Halley as astronomer royal; his enhanced reputation enabled him to apply successfully for an instrumental outfit at a cost of 1000; and with an 8-foot quadrant completed for him in 1750 by John Bird (1709-1776), he accumulated at Greenwich in ten years materials of inestimable value for the reform of astronomy.
"SIR ROBERT STAWELL BALL (1840-1913), Irish astronomer, was born in Dublin July 1 1840.
On the death of Lord Rosse two years later he became professor of mathematics in Dublin University and in 1874 Royal Astronomer of Ireland.
"SIR GEORGE HOWARD DARWIN (1845-1912), English astronomer, was born at Down, Kent, July 9 1845.
Eusebius accepted the small bishopric of Emesa (the modern Horns) in Phoenicia, but his powers as mathematician and astronomer led his flock to accuse him of practising sorcery, and he had to flee to Laodicea.
JOHN COUCH ADAMS (1819-1892), British astronomer, was born at Lidcot farmhouse, Laneast, Cornwall, on the 5th of June 1819.
At Paris he met men of science and letters - Peter Guenellon, the well-known Amsterdam physician; Ole Romer, the Danish astronomer; Thoynard, the critic; Melchisedech Thevenot, the traveller; Henri Justel, the jurist; and Francois Bernier, the expositor of Gassendi.
JOHN FLAMSTEED (1646-1719), English astronomer, was born at Denby, near Derby, on the 19th of August 1646.
Delambre as "uninstructive to an astronomer and unintelligible to any one else."
BERNHARD WALTHER (1430-1504), German astronomer, was born at Nuremberg in 1430.
The theory of the system is that the metre is a 1000-1000Y Part of a quandrant of the earth through Paris; the litre or unit of volume is a cube ofmetre side; the gramme or unit of weight is (nominally) 10 water at 4° C. The idea of adopting scientific measurements had been suggested as early as the 17th century, particularly by the astronomer Jean Picard (1620-1682), who proposed to take as a unit the length of a pendulum beating one second at sealevel, at a latitude of 45°.
In a certain sense we may say that the universe now presents itself to the thinking astronomer, not as a heterogeneous collection of bodies, but as a unified whole.
When an astronomer has made an observation, it still has to be " reduced," and this commonly requires more labour than that involved in making it.
But even this labour may be small compared with that of the theoretical astronomer, who, in the future, is to use the result as the raw material of his work.
Theoretical Astronomy is that branch of the science which, making use of the results of astronomical observations as they are supplied by the practical astronomer, investigates the motions of the heavenly bodies.
The problem of determining the perturbations of the (2) Q heavenly bodies is perhaps the most complicated with which the mathematical astronomer has to grapple; and the forms under which it has to be studied are so numerous that they cannot be easily arranged under any one head.
Having effected this reduction, and computed the correction to be applied to the observation in order to eliminate all known errors to which the instrument is liable, the work of the practical astronomer is completed.
of practical amelioration was initiated by John Flamsteed Flamsteed, the first astronomer royal, and has never since been lost sight of.
Edmund Halley, the second astronomer royal, devoted most of his official attention to the moon.
The fourth astronomer royal, Nathaniel Bliss, provided in two years a sequel of Bliss.
More immediately efficacious was the innovation made by John Pond (astronomer royal, 1811-1836) of substituting entire circles for quadrants.
Although Tycho Brahe was an original discoverer of this inequality, through whom it became known, Joseph Bertrand of Paris claimed the discovery for Abu 'l-Wefa, an Arabian astronomer, and made it appear that the latter really detected inequalities in the moon's motion which we now know to have been the variation.
PIERRE CHARLES LEMONNIER 0[715-1799), French astronomer, was born on the 23rd of November 1715 in Paris, where his father was professor of philosophy at the college d'Harcourt.
ANDERS CELSIUS (1701-1744), Swedish astronomer, was born at Upsala on the 27th of November 1701.
NICOLAS LOUIS DE LACAILLE (1713-1762), French astronomer, was born at Rumigny, in the Ardennes, on the 15th of March 1713.
This latter problem received the attention of the Arabian astronomer Abul Wefa (loth century A.D.), who solved it with a single opening of the compasses.
GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642), Italian astronomer and experimental philosopher, was born at Pisa on the 15th of February 1564.
This task Castelli, who was a steady friend and disciple of the Tuscan astronomer, seems to have discharged with moderation and success.
At the end of that time he appeared in public with his Saggiatore, a polemical treatise written in reply to the Libra astronomica of Padre Grassi (under the pseudonym of Lotario Sarsi), the Jesuit astronomer of the Collegio Romano.
The pope admitted him to six long audiences in the course of two months, wrote an enthusiastic letter to the grand-duke praising the great astronomer, not only for his distinguished learning, but also for his exemplary piety, and granted a pension to his son Vincenzio, which was afterwards transferred to himself, and paid, with some irregularities, to the end of his life.
That he had carefully studied the comet of 1577 as an astronomer, we may gather from his adducing the very small parallax of this comet as disproving the assertion of the Aristotelians that a solid sphere enveloped the heavens.
PETER ANDREAS HANSEN (1795-1874), Danish astronomer, was born on the 8th of December 1795, at Tondern, in the duchy of Schleswig.
Aristarchus (Astronomer) >>
If an astronomer is confronted by some phenomenon which has no obvious explanation he may postulate some set of conditions which from his general knowledge of the subject would or might give rise to the phenomenon in question; he then tests his hypothesis until he discovers whether it does or does not conflict with the facts.
Further support is given to the view that, in the main, the constellations were transmitted to the Greeks by the Phoenicians from Euphratean sources in the fact that Thales, the earliest Greek astronomer of any note, was of Phoenician descent.
In the 5th century B.C. the Athenian astronomer Euctemon, according to Geminus of Rhodes, compiled a weather calendar in which Aquarius, Aquila, Canis major, Corona, Cygnus, Delphinus, Lyra, Orion, Pegasus, Sagitta and the asterisms Hyades and Pleiades are mentioned, always, however, in re Corvus.
Aratus was no astronomer, while Hipparchus was; and from the fact that the latter adopted, with but trifling exceptions, the constellation system portrayed by Aratus, it may be concluded that the system was already familiar in Greek thought.
And three hundred years after Hipparchus, the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy adopted a very similar scheme in his uranometria, which appears in the seventh and eighth books of his Almagest, the catalogue being styled the "EKOfois Kavovud7 or " accepted version."
The reverence and authority which was accorded the famous compilation of the Alexandrian astronomer is well evidenced by the catalogue of the Tatar Ulugh Beg, the Arabian names thane adopted being equivalent to the Ptolemaic names in nearly every case; this is also shown in the Latin translations given below.
In1835-1836he was actively engaged in producing for publication a treatise on navigation, a remarkable achievement at so early a stage in his career; he was at this time made lieutenant, and gazetted astronomer to a South Sea exploring expedition, but resigned this position and was appointed to the survey of southern harbours.
HEINRICH CHRISTIAN SCHUMACHER (1780-1850), German astronomer, was born at Bramstedt in Holstein on the 3rd of September 1780.
Returning in 1869, he was appointed assistant astronomer at Altona in 1873, and afterwards at Kiel.
ALBATEGNIUS (c. 850-929), an Arab prince and astronomer, correctly designated Mahommed ben Gebir al Batani, his surname being derived from his native town, Batan in Mesopotamia.
These web pages are one example; another is forthcoming The Astronomer's Diary, our first almanac on CD-ROM.
Astronomer's asteroid Dr. Ann Gower, former Fellow of New Hall, has been honored by having an asteroid named after her.
Dee noticed it, as did the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, an admirer of Dee's.
Winning cat chosen by eminent astronomer, Sir Patrick Moore CBE FRS.
Myths: Leo was introduced by polish astronomer Johann Hevelius in the 17th century.
astronomer Ptolemy was the one burdened with the responsibility of taking a philosophical stance and offering a resolution.
Sir Martin Rees, Astronomer Royal People focus on small risks, like wearing goggles when playing conkers, but ignore the big ones.
The Astronomer Royal, Sir Frank Dyson, unveiled the memorial, slightly later than planned, in February 1927.
Nevil Maskelyne, afterward astronomer royal, became curate of Barnet in 1755.
AUGUST FERDINAND MOBIUS (1790-1868), German astronomer and mathematician, was born at Schulpforta on the 17th of November 1790.
In 1823 he was appointed astronomer of the Armagh observatory, with which he (from 1824) combined the living of Carrickmacross, but he always resided at the observatory, engaged in researches connected with astronomy and physics, until his death on the 28th of February 1882.
after 1480), was a mathematician and astronomer; Solomon ibn Verga, somewhat later, wrote Shebet Yehudah, of doubtful value historically; Abraham Zakkuth or Zakkuto, of Salamanca (d.
The formidable undertaking of reducing the accumulated planetary observations made at Greenwich from 1750 to 1830 was already in progress under Airy's supervision when he became Astronomer Royal.
When a new celestial body, say a planet or a comet is discovered, the astronomer meets with the problem of determining the orbit from several observed positions of the body.
OMAR BIN IBaAIrTIsr AL-KHAYYAM, the great Persian mathematician, astronomer, freethinker and epigrammatist, who derived the epithet Khayytm (the tentmaker) most likely from his fathers trade, was born in or near NIsh~pflr, where he is said to have died in A.H.
Airy, the astronomer, about 1827, corrected his own astigmatism by means of a cylindrical lens.
WILLIAM PARSONS ROSSE, 3RD Earl Of (1800-1867), Irish astronomer and telescope constructor, was born at York on the 17th of June 1800, a son of the 2nd earl (see above).
In 1636 he met with a congenial spirit in William Crabtree, a draper of Broughton, near Manchester; and encouraged by his advice he exchanged the guidance of Philipp von Lansberg, a pretentious but inaccurate Belgian astronomer, for that of Kepler.
There can be no question that she loved her adopted country sincerely, and had an affection for her people, and an opinion of their great qualities which she did not hesitate to express in hyperbolical terms. Her zeal for the reputation of the Russians was almost comically shown by the immense trouble she took to compile an answer to the Voyage en Siberie of the French astronomer Chappe d'Auteroche.
EUDOXUS, of Cnidus, Greek savant, flourished about the middle of the 4th century B.C. It is chiefly as an astronomer that his name has come down to us (see ASTRONOMY and ZODIAC).
But his chief pleasures were derived from what the astronomer of his Abyssinian tale called "the endearing elegance of female friendship."
A second mirror N, placed at 45Ã‚° to the optical axis of the object-glass, reflects rays from a star at the pole; but by rotating the box which contains this mirror on the axis of its supporting tube T a star of any declination can be observed, and by combining this motion with rotation of the polar axis the astronomer seated at E is able to view any object whatever in the visible heavens, except circumpolar stars near lower transit.
Across the river is the "mountain," or hill, whence a fine view is obtained of the town and surroundings, and hard by the FuchsTurm (Fox tower) celebrated for student orgies, while in the centre of the town is the house of an astronomer, Weigel, with a deep shaft through which the stars can be seen in the day time.
But we have to picture him as anon coming out and gathering about him a tatterdemalion company, and jesting with them until they were in fits of laughter, for the sake of observing their burlesque physiognomies; anon as eagerly frequenting the society of men of science and learning of an older generation like the mathematician Benedetto Aritmetico, the physician, geographer and astronomer Paolo Toscanelli, the famous Greek Aristotelian Giovanni Argiropoulo; or as out-rivalling all the youth of the city now by charm of recitation, now by skill in music and now by feats of strength and horsemanship; or as stopping to buy caged birds in the market that he might set them free and watch them rejoicing in their flight; or again as standing radiant in his rose-coloured cloak and his rich gold hair among the throng of young and old on the piazza, and holding them spellbound while he expatiated on the great projects in art and mechanics that were teeming in his mind.
The chief authority for the bishop's life is William de Chambre (printed in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 1691, and in Historiae Dunelmensis scriptores tres, Surtees Soc. 1839), who describes him as an amiable and excellent man, charitable in his diocese, and the liberal patron of many learned men, among these being Thomas Bradwardine, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Fitzralph, afterwards archbishop of Armagh, the enemy of the mendicant orders, Walter Burley, who translated Aristotle, John Mauduit the astronomer, Robert Holkot and Richard de Kilvington.
386 B.C.) the famous astronomer.
His father, the Rev. Francis Wollaston (1731-1815), rector of Chislehurst, grandson of the William Wollaston noticed above, was an enthusiastic astronomer.
high; Chalmers hospital (founded by Alexander Chalmers of Clunie, a merchant and shipowner of the town); a masonic hall of tasteful design; and the academy, a modern structure in the Grecian style, to which there is attached an extensive museum, containing examples of the early mechanical genius of James Ferguson, the astronomer.
On a hill west of the town are the remains of a famous observatory (rasad) constructed under the direction of the great astronomer Nasr-uddin of Tus.
Albategni, a celebrated Arabian astronomer, dates from the 1st of October.
Little card-holders (81) (also illuminated) enable the astronomer to enter beforehand the R.A.
Louis Charles d'Albert (1620-1690), duke of Luynes, son of the constable, was an ascetic writer and friend of the Jansenists; Paul d'Albert de Luynes (1703-1788), cardinal and archbishop of Sens, an astronomer; Michel Ferdinand d'Albert d'Ailly (1714-1769), duke of Chaulnes, a writer on mathematical instruments, and his son Marie Joseph Louis (1741-1793), a chemist; and Honore Theodore Paul Joseph (1802-1867), duke of Luynes, a writer on archaeology.
It is the birthplace of Sir William Herschel, the astronomer, of the brothers Schlegel, of Ifliand and of the historian Pertz.
SABINE, SIR EDWARD (1788-1883), English astronomer and geodesist, was born in Dublin on the 14th of October 1788, a scion of a family said to be of Italian origin.
In early life he devoted himself to astronomy and physical geography, and in consequence he was appointed astronomer to various expeditions, among others that of Sir J.
ARISTARCHUS, of Samos, Greek astronomer, flourished about 250 B.C. He is famous as having been the first to maintain that the earth moves round the sun.
SIR WILLIAM HUGGINS (1824-1910), English astronomer, was born in London on the 7th of February 1824, and was educated first at the City of London School and then under various private teachers.
Data of this kind, which are by other means inaccessible to the astronomer, are obviously indispensable to any adequate conception of the stellar system as a whole or in its parts.
CARL LUDWIG CHRISTIAN RUMKER (1788-1862), German astronomer, was born in Mecklenburg on the 28th of May 1788.
In 1821 he went to New South Wales as astronomer at the observatory built at Parramatta by Sir Thomas Brisbane.
His SOH, George Friedrich Wilhelm (1832-1900), born on the 31st of December 1832, at Hamburg, was astronomer at the observatory at Durham, England, from 1853 to 1856.
MARIA CUNITZ (c. 1610-1664), Silesian astronomer, was the eldest daughter of Dr Heinrich Cunitz of Schweinitz, and the wife (1630) of Dr Elias von ',Oven, of Pitschen in Silesia - both of them men of learning and distinction.
A solution by means of the parabola and hyperbola was given by Dionysodorus of Amisus (c. 1st century B.c), and a similar problem - to construct a segment equal in volume to a given segment, and in surface to another segment - was solved by the Arabian mathematician and astronomer, Al Kuhi.
SIR THOMAS MAKDOUGALL BRISBANE (1773-1860), Scottish soldier and astronomer, was born on the 23rd of July 1 773 at Brisbane House, near Largs, in Ayrshire.
LAMBERT ADOLPHE JACQUES QUETELET (1796-1874), Belgian astronomer, meteorologist and statistician, was born at Ghent on the 22nd of February 1796, and educated at the lyceum of that town.
These, however, soon ceased to be observed, and already in the 1 ith century, alBiruni could meet with no Hindu astronomer capable of pointing out to him the complete series.
MARIA MITCHELL (1818-1889), American astronomer, was born of Quaker ancestry on the island of Nantucket on the 1st of August 1818.
Her father, William Mitchell (1791-1869), .was a school teacher and self-taught astronomer, who rated chronometers for Nantucket whalers, was an overseer of Harvard University (1857-1865), and for a time was employed by the United States Coast Survey.
Among the scientific celebrities were de Saussure, the most many-sided of all; de Candolle and Boissier, the botanists; Alphonse Favre and Necker, the geologists; Marignac, the chemist; Deluc, the physicist, and Plantamour, the astronomer.
HERMANN GOLDSCHMIDT (1802-1866), German painter and astronomer, was the son of a Jewish merchant, and was born at Frankfort on the 57th of June 1802.
ORMSBY MACKNIGHT MITCHEL (1809-1862), American astronomer, was born at Morganfield, Kentucky, on the 28th of July, 1809.
JOHANN VON LAMONT (1805-1879), Scottish-German astronomer and magnetician, was born at Braemar, Aberdeenshire, on the 13th of December 1805.
This procedure - which was first employed by the great Greek astronomer Hipparchus (2nd century B.C.), and developed by Ptolemy three centuries later - did not afford any law connecting the motions of different bodies.
ANGELO SECCHI (1818-1878), Italian astronomer, was born on the 29th of June 1818 at Reggio in Lombardy, and entered the Society of Jesus at an early age.
Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Cnidians mentioned in history.
His doctor's dissertation, De computandis occultationibus fixarum per planetas (Leipzig, 1815), established his reputation as a theoretical astronomer.
In the middle of this slide a stiffly fitting brass disk is inserted, to which a small turn-table motion may be communicated by an attached arm, acted on by two fine opposing screws accessible to the astronomer; and by their means the " fixed web " may be rendered strictly parallel with the movable one.
A general formula by which these numbers could be derived was invented by the Arabian astronomer Tobit ben Korra (836-901): if p = 3.2 m - I, q= 3.2 m - 1 - 1 and r = 9.2 2m - 1 - I, where m is an integer and p,q,r prime numbers, then 2 m pq and 2 m r are a pair of amicable numbers.
the noted American astronomer, Benjamin Apthorp Gould (1824-1896).
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