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assyrians

assyrians Sentence Examples

  • In the reign of Hezekiah, the kingdom of Judah became tributary to the Assyrians, who attempted the capture of Jerusalem.

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  • The siege failed and the Assyrians retired.

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  • Moreover, it is doubtful from extant remains of Assyrian calendars whether the astrological week prevailed in civil life even among the Babylonians and Assyrians.

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  • Divination through the liver remained in force among the Assyrians and Babylonians down to the end of the Babylonian Empire.

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  • These people themselves seem to have joined a revolt against the Assyrians, which was soon quelled.

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  • The Persians are not mentioned in history before the time of Cyrus; the attempt to identify them with the Parsua, a district in the Zagros chains south of Lake Urmia, often mentioned by the Assyrians, is not tenable.

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  • In 750 B.C. Umbadara was king of Elam; Khumbanigas was his successor in 742 B.C. In 720 B.C. the latter prince met the Assyrians under Sargon at Dur-ili in Yamutbal, and though Sargon claims a victory the result was that Babylonia recovered its independence under Merodach-baladan and the Assyrian forces were driven north.

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  • He failed to make head against the Assyrians; the frontier cities were taken by Sargon and Merodach-baladan was left to his fate.

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  • Khallusu was murdered in 694 B.C., after seeing the maritime part of his dominions invaded by the Assyrians.

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  • His brother Ummanmenan at once collected allies and prepared for resistance to the Assyrians.

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  • The Assyrians pursued the Elamite army to Susa, where a battle was fought on the banks of the Eulaeus, in which the Elamites were defeated, Teumman captured and slain, and Umman-igas, the son of Urtaki, made king, his younger brother Tammaritu being given the district of Khidalu.

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  • Although little is preserved of Omri's history, the fact that the northern kingdom long continued to be called by the Assyrians after his name is a significant indication of his great reputation.

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  • The prophets who had marked in the past the advent of Assyrians and Chaldeans now fixed their eyes upon the advance of Cyrus, confident that the fall of Babylon would bring the restoration of their fortunes.

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  • While using the same language as the Babylonians, the Assyrians had an individuality which showed itself in art and religion.

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  • (1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.

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  • Homer knows only "Apt ot, but Herodotus speaks of " Syrians " as identical with Assyrians, the latter being, he thinks, a " barbarian " form, and he applies the name very widely to include, e.g.

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  • At the time of the great dynasty of Ur (c. 2400 B.C.) in Babylonia, the whole Argaeus region was occupied by these Semites, who seem to have been most kin to the Assyrians.

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  • coast of the Persian Gulf, but as the early navigators pushed their voyages further, the ships rounded the coast of Arabia, and came into the Red Sea, and the names of Magan and the neighbouring Melukhkha gradually extended westward, with the result that in late times to the Assyrians Melukhkha meant Ethiopia.

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  • Magan, however, probably never meant Egypt proper, the Nile land itself, or Egypt, would have been called Magan by the Assyrians in later times; it was called Musri then and probably in early times also.

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  • Papyrus was also known to the Assyrians, who called it " the reed of Egypt."

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  • One of these was in Greece, the Ionian, the other was in Magna Graecia; the one of them was from Coele Syria, the other from Egypt; but there were others in the East, one of whom belonged to the Assyrians, but the other was in Palestine, originally a Jew.

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  • Its cultivation and use are described on the mural tablets of the ancient Assyrians.

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  • On this view, the Chaldaeans are the divine instrument for punishing the tyranny of the Assyrians, to whom the following woes will therefore refer.

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  • The Scyths having fallen upon them from the north-east, the Cimmerians appear to have given way in two directions, towards the southwest, where the tombs of their kings were shown on the Tyras (Dniester) and one body joined with the Treres of Thrace in invading Asia Minor by the Hellespont; and towards the south-east where another body threatened the Assyrians, who called them Gimirrai (Hebrew Gomer; Gen.

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  • Ashkenaz) whom the Assyrians welcomed as allies and used against the Cimmerians, against the Medes and even against Egypt.

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  • Veritable helmets of metal, such as Herodotus ascribes to Assyrians and Chalybians (vii.

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  • It remained the capital long after the Assyrians had become the dominant power in western Asia, but was finally supplanted by Calah (Nimrud), Nineveh (Nebi Yunus and Kuyunjik), and Dur-Sargina (Khorsabad), some 60 m.

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  • Excavations in the mounds of Balawat, called Imgur-Bel by the Assyrians, 15 m.

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  • After his death, the Assyrians, who were still nominally the vassals of Babylonia, threw off neser L - g n a ll disguise, and Shalmaneser I.

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  • For twelve years he successfully resisted the Assyrians; but the failure of his allies in the west to act in concert with him, and the overthrow of the Elamites, eventually compelled him to fly to his ancestral domains in the marshes of southern Babylonia.

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  • - In the early days of the decipherment of the cuneiform inscriptions, the reading of the proper names borne by Babylonians and Assyrians occasioned great difficulties; and though most of these difficulties have been overcome and there is general agreement among scholars as to the principles underlying both the formation and the pronunciation of the thousands of names that we encounter in historical records, business documents, votive inscriptions and literary productions, differences, though mostly of a minor character, still remain.

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  • In many cases they will probably turn out to be descriptive epithets of gods 3 The Assyrian language is practically identical with the Babylonian, just as the Assyrians are the same people as the Babylonians with some foreign admixtures.

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  • It is not the purpose of this note to set forth the principles underlying the formation of proper names among the Babylonians and Assyrians, but it may not be out of place to indicate that by the side of such full names, containing three elements (or even more), we have already at an early period the reduction of these elements to two through the combination of the name of a deity with a verbal form merely, or through the omission of the name of the deity.

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  • Layard remained in the neighbourhood of Mosul, carrying on excavations at Kuyunjik and Nimrud, and investigating the condition of various tribes, until 1847; and, returning to England in 1848, published Nineveh and its Remains: with an Account of a Visit to the Chaldaean Christians of Kurdistan, and the Yezidis, or Devil-worshippers; and an Inquiry into the Manners and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians (2 vols.,1848-1849).

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  • At the time when invasions by the Assyrians drove out the Ethiopian Taracus again and again, the chief of the twenty princes to whom Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal successively entrusted the government was Niku, king of Sais and Memphis.

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  • The internal disorders of the realm depicted by Micah are also prominent in Isaiah's prophecies; they were closely connected, not only with the foreign complications due to the approach of the Assyrians, but with the break-up of the old agrarian system within Israel, and with the rapid and uncompensated aggrandisement of the nobles during those prosperous years when the conquest of Edom by Amaziah and the occupation of the port of Elath by his son (2 Kings xiv.

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  • Micah unquestionably looked for the destruction of Jerusalem as well as of Samaria in the near future and by the Assyrians (i.

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  • The Assyrians with all their culture, never attained the stage of analysis which demonstrates that only a few fundamental sounds are involved in human speech, and hence that it is possible to express all the niceties of utterance with an alphabet of little more than a score of letters.

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  • Fortunately it chanced that another people, the Persians, had adopted the Assyrian wedge-shaped stroke as the foundation of a written character, but making that analysis of which the Assyrians had fallen short, had borrowed only so many characters as were necessary to represent the alphabetical sounds.

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  • The sceptics had declared that the new science of Assyriology was itself a myth: that the investigators, self-deceived, had in reality only invented a language and read into the Assyrian inscriptions something utterly alien to the minds of the Assyrians themselves.

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  • The story of the books now spoken of as the "Creation" and "Deluge" tablets of the Assyrians, in the British Museum, which were discovered in the ruins of Nineveh by Layard and by George Smith, has been familiar to every one for a good many years.

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  • In 711 B.C. it was captured by the Assyrians (Is.

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  • Rezon, defeated in battle, fled to his capital which was at once invested by the Assyrians, while with another portion of his army Tiglath-Pileser ravaged Syria and overran the kingdom of Samaria.

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  • AmOng the Babylonians and Assyrians the baru (from bars to see, inspect) was a soothsaying priest who was consulted whenever any important undertaking was proposed, and addressed his inquiries to Samas the sun god (or Adad) as bet biri or lord of the oracle (accompanied by the sacrifice of lambs).

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  • So fundamental a change as lies between Hosea and the Priestly Code was only possible in the general dissolution of the old life of Israel produced by the Assyrians and by the prophets; and indeed the new order did not take shape as a system till the exile had made a great change in old institutions.

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  • He is said to have flourished "even before the Trojan times," "when Semiramis was queen of the Assyrians."

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  • vi.) having reference to the condition of Judah and Israel, and the movements of the Assyrians during the reigns of Ahaz and Hezekiah.

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  • The two earliest of the Minor Prophets, Amos and Hosea, prophesied in the northern kingdom, at about 760 and 740 B.C. respectively; both foresaw the approaching ruin of northern Israel at the hands of the Assyrians, which took place in fact when Sargon took Samaria in 722 B.C.; and both did their best to stir their people to better things.

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  • the Assyrian inscriptions have furnished independent evidence of the relations of certain Hebrew kings (Ahab, Jehu, Ahaz) with the Assyrians, and thus supported more or less completely the evidence of the Old Testament on these points: they have also served to clear up in part the confused chronology of the Hebrews as given in the books of Kings.

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  • The Babylonians and Assyrians were probably the first to construct and employ a fixed chronological standard; and the numerous contract-tablets, and list of kings and yearly officials, discovered within recent years, afford striking evidence of the precision with which they noted chronological details.

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  • (2) As we now know, the methods of chronological computation adopted by the Assyrians were particularly exact.

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  • He first subjugated the Persians, and then a great many other peoples of Asia, till at last he attacked the Assyrians, but was defeated and killed in a battle, after a reign of twenty-two years (about 646-625 B.C.; but perhaps, as G.

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  • A collection of casts, likewise in the museum, is designed to display the progress of plastic art from the time of the Egyptians and Assyrians to modern ages.

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  • Knowing what we know of the colonizing power of the Assyrians, we may assume that among the "Mitanni" and other elements in the Mesopotamian population there would now be an increase of people of "Assyrian" origin.

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  • (860-825) settled Assyrians in their midst.

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  • Xenophon says it was subdued by the Assyrians; Curtius that 6000 Hyrcanians were in the army of Darius III.

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  • Nevertheless Baal submitted in the end, along with the princes of Gebal and Arvad, Manasseh of Judah, and the other Canaanite chiefs; in the island of Cyprus the Assyrians carried all before them ii.

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  • Then at the beginning of the 8th century B.C. the colonial power of Tyre began to decline; on the mainland and in Cyprus the Assyrians gained the Upper hand; in the Greek islands the Phoenicians had already been displaced to a great extent by the advancing tide of Dorian colonization.

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  • The wider extension of the use of Amurru by the Babylonians and Assyrians is complicated by the fact that it was even applied to a district in the neighbourhood of Babylonia.

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  • Because iron would be so easily made by prehistoric and even by primeval man, and would be so useful to him, we are hardly surprised to read in Genesis that Tubal Cain, the sixth in descent from Adam, discovered it; that the Assyrians had knives and saws which, to be effective, must have been of hardened steel, i.e.

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  • Probably every king that included Thebes in his realm, except the Assyrians and the Persians, left his memorial there in chapels erected or sculptures added.

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  • Of this extensive work there are still extant only the first five books, treating of the mythic history of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Ethiopians and Greeks; and also the i i th to the 20th books inclusive, beginning with the second Persian War, and ending with the history of the successors of Alexander, previous to the partition of the Macedonian empire (302).

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  • At length they elected a king named Salatis, who, residing at Memphis, made all Egypt tributary, and established garrisons in different parts, especially eastwards, fearing the Assyrians.

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  • The drill brace appears to have been used by Assyrians in the 7th century B.C. Piercers of bronze tapering (58), to enlarge holes in leather, &c., were common in all ages.

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  • The Egyptian resistance to the Assyrians was probably only half-hearted; in the north especially there must have been a strong party against the Ethiopian rule.

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  • The Assyrians did not move against him, but a great Scythian horde, destroying all before it in its southward advance, is said by Herodotus to have been turned back by presents and entreaties.

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  • Psammetichus died in the fifty-fourth year of his reign and was succeeded by his son Necho, 610594 B.C. Taking advantage of the helpless state of the Assyrians, whose capital was assailed by the Medes and the Babylonians, the new Pharaoh prepared an expedition to recover the ancient possessions of the Empire in Syria.

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  • The fall of Nineveh and the division of the spoil gave to Nabopolasser, king of Babylon, the inheritance of the Assyrians in the west, and he at once despatched his son Nebuchadrezzar to fight Necho.

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  • 22, 3) - Sennacherib conquered a fortress of "Aribi" named Adumu, - and Jetur is obviously the Ituraea of classical geographers.4 "Ishmael," therefore, is used in a wide sense of the wilder, roving peoples encircling Canaan from the north-east to the south, related to but on a lower rank than the "sons" of Isaac. It is practically identical with the term "Arabia" as used by the Assyrians.

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  • The chariots of the Egyptians and Assyrians, with whom the bow was the principal arm of attack, were richly mounted with quivers full of arrows, while those of the Greeks, whose characteristic weapon was the spear, were plain except as regards mere decoration.

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  • But the whole Assyrian history of Ctesias is nothing but a fantastic fiction; from the Assyrian inscriptions we know that the Assyrians never entered the eastern parts of Iran.

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  • The partiality for the chase which the ancient Egyptians manifested was shared by the Assyrians and Babylonians, as is shown by the frequency with which hunting scenes are depicted on the walls of their temples and palaces; it is even said that their 1 See on this whole subject ch.

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  • 103 ff.) that he renewed the war against the Assyrians, in which his father Phraortes had perished, but was, while he besieged Nineveh, attacked by a great Scythian army under Madyas, son of Protothyes, which had come from the northern shores of the Black Sea in pursuit of the Cimmerians.

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  • concession on the part of the Assyrians to the traditions of the south, for which they always manifested a profound respect.

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  • The most interesting of all the non-Arab communities in the country, however, is without doubt the Samaritan sect in Nablus (Shechem); a gradually disappearing body, which has maintained an independent existence from the time when they were first settled by the Assyrians to occupy the land left waste by the captivity of the kingdom of Israel.

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  • Too little is known of the north as a factor in Palestinian development to allow hasty inferences, but it is certainly noteworthy, at all events, that the names Amor and Hatti appear to move downwards, and that " Hittite " is applied to Palestine and Philistia by the Assyrians, and to Hebron in the Old Testament, and that Ezekiel (xvi.

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  • The sharp contrasts between its compulsory religious observances and those of the rest of the world prevented such an absorption of the Jewish people into the Roman Empire as had caused the disappearance of the ten tribes of Israel by their merging with the Assyrians.

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  • Among the Assyrians, Egyptians and Greeks the use of iron, either cast or wrought, was very limited, bronze being the favourite metal almost for all purposes.

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  • This process was chiefly applied by medieval artists to the precious metals, but by the Assyrians, Greeks and other early nations it was largely used for bronze.

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  • The Assyrians were perhaps the most remarkable of all ancient nations for the colossal size and splendour of their works in metal; whole circuit walls of great cities, such as Ecbatana, are said to have been covered with metal plates, gilt or silvered.

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  • gave the Assyrians trouble; and when in 689 B.C. Sennacherib, whose patience had been exhausted by the difficulties encountered in maintaining peace in the south, actually besieged and destroyed the city of Babylon, he removed the statue of Marduk to Nineveh as a symbol that the god's rule had come to an end.

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  • The warlike nature of the Assyrians was reflected in their conceptions of the gods, who thus became little Assurs by the side of the great protector of arms, the big Assur.

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  • His inscriptions are written in cuneiform, in Assyrian, whilst those of his successors are in cuneiform, in their own language, which is neither Aryan nor Semitic. The kings of Biainas extended their kingdom eastward and westward, and defeated the Assyrians and Hittites.

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  • When we recollect that the Ethiopian Tearchus (Tirhaka) of the 7th century B.C., who was hopelessly worsted by the Assyrians and scarcely ventured outside the Nile valley, was credited by Megasthenes (4th century) and Strabo with having extended his conquests as far as India and the pillars of Hercules, it is not surprising if the dim figures of antiquity were magnified to a less degree.

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  • The inscription of Mesha throws welcome light upon his conquest of Moab; the position of Israel during the reign of Omri's son Ahab bears testimony to the success of the father; and the fact that the land continued to be known to the Assyrians down to the time of Sargon as "house of Omri" indicates the reputation which this little-known king enjoyed.

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  • Not only was Babylonia the mother country, as the tenth chapter of Genesis explicitly states, but the religion and culture, the literature and the characters in which it was contained, the arts and the sciences of the Assyrians were derived from their southern neighbours.

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  • The early Christian Fathers recorded many a valuable observation of the Gentile faiths around them from varying points of view, sympathetic or hostile; and Eusebius and Epiphanius, in the 4th century A.D., attributed to the librarian of Ptolemy Philad.elphus the design of collecting the sacred books of the Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Romans, Phoenicians, Syrians and Greeks.

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  • Anthropomorphic polytheism (religions of the Vedic Indians,the ancient Persians, the later Babylonians and Assyrians,the advanced Semites, the Kelts, Germans, Hellenes, Greeks and Romans).

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  • With other Iranian tribes the Assyrians never came in contact: for the oft-repeated assertion, that the Parsua, so prominent in their annals, were the Persians or the Parthians, is quite untenable.

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  • The Parsua of the Assyrians are located south of Lake Urmia, and can hardly have been Iranians.

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  • We cannot deduce from them a conquest of Iran from Babylon: for the Babylonians never set foot in Iran and even the Assyrians merely conquered the western portior of Media.

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  • Beginnings of History.A connected chain of historical ev~idence begins with the time when under Shalmaneser (SalAssyrian manassar II.), the Assyrians in 836 B.C. began for Conquest the first time to penetrate farther into the mounof Media.

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  • In the latter Nineveh is destroyed by the Mede Arbaces and the Babylonian Belesys about 880 B.C., a period when thi Assyrians were just beginning to lay the foundations of their power.

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  • In contrast with the Assyrians and the Romans the Persians invariably conducted their wars with great ~ bJ~ humanity.

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  • The land of the Manna (Minni), south-east of Ararat, had been wasted, its capital captured by the Assyrians, and its king reduced to vassalage.

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  • A war with Teumman of Elam had resulted in the overthrow of the Elamite army; the head of Teumman was sent to Nineveh, and another king, Umman-igas, appointed by the Assyrians.

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  • The Lydian king, finding that Nineveh was helpless to assist him, turned instead to Egypt and furnished the mercenaries with whose help Psammetichus drove the Assyrians out of the country and suppressed his brother satraps.

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  • It was worked by the Assyrians for their engraved cylinder-seals, and was used by the gnostics for amulets.

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  • The Assyrians and Egyptians made considerable use of the metal; and in Genesis iv.

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  • Once more Babylon was besieged by the Assyrians and starved into surrender.

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  • After the Jewish return from exile the population confined itself to Judaea, and Galilee was left in the possession of the mixed multitude of successors established there by the Assyrians.

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  • The Assyrian inscriptions have shown that the Assyrians had never crossed the Halys, much less known the name of Lydia, before the age of Assur-bani-pal, and consequently the theory which brought the Heraclids from Nineveh must be given up. But the Hittites, another Oriental people, deeply imbued with the elements of Babylonian culture, had overrun Asia Minor and established themselves on the shores of the Aegean before the reign of the Egyptian king Rameses II.

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  • The standard was the silver mina of Carchemish (as the Assyrians called it) which contained 8656 grains.

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  • Schrader pointed out in 1874 that the Assyrians knew of some Musri (i.e.

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  • Three years later a great battle was fought at Khalule on the Tigris between the Assyrians on the one side and the Elamites and Babylonians on the other.

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  • One of the earliest uses of biological weapons occurred in the 6th century BC when the Assyrians poisoned enemy wells with rye ergot.

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  • It seems Hezekiah was at first a faithful vassal of the Assyrians whom he assisted.

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  • In the reign of Hezekiah, the kingdom of Judah became tributary to the Assyrians, who attempted the capture of Jerusalem.

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  • The siege failed and the Assyrians retired.

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  • Moreover, it is doubtful from extant remains of Assyrian calendars whether the astrological week prevailed in civil life even among the Babylonians and Assyrians.

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  • Divination through the liver remained in force among the Assyrians and Babylonians down to the end of the Babylonian Empire.

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  • These people themselves seem to have joined a revolt against the Assyrians, which was soon quelled.

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  • The Persians are not mentioned in history before the time of Cyrus; the attempt to identify them with the Parsua, a district in the Zagros chains south of Lake Urmia, often mentioned by the Assyrians, is not tenable.

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  • He narrates that, when the Medes had rebelled against the Assyrians and gained their independence about 710 B.C., according to his chronology (cf.

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  • In 750 B.C. Umbadara was king of Elam; Khumbanigas was his successor in 742 B.C. In 720 B.C. the latter prince met the Assyrians under Sargon at Dur-ili in Yamutbal, and though Sargon claims a victory the result was that Babylonia recovered its independence under Merodach-baladan and the Assyrian forces were driven north.

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  • He failed to make head against the Assyrians; the frontier cities were taken by Sargon and Merodach-baladan was left to his fate.

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  • Khallusu was murdered in 694 B.C., after seeing the maritime part of his dominions invaded by the Assyrians.

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  • His brother Ummanmenan at once collected allies and prepared for resistance to the Assyrians.

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  • The Assyrians pursued the Elamite army to Susa, where a battle was fought on the banks of the Eulaeus, in which the Elamites were defeated, Teumman captured and slain, and Umman-igas, the son of Urtaki, made king, his younger brother Tammaritu being given the district of Khidalu.

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  • God's presence was to abide in Jerusalem, and, as the century drew near its close, " Immanuel " became the watchword and talisman of a strong faith that God would never permit Jerusalem to be captured by the Assyrians.

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  • Although little is preserved of Omri's history, the fact that the northern kingdom long continued to be called by the Assyrians after his name is a significant indication of his great reputation.

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  • The Israelites who had been carried off by the Assyrians were also removed from the cult of the land (cf.

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  • The prophets who had marked in the past the advent of Assyrians and Chaldeans now fixed their eyes upon the advance of Cyrus, confident that the fall of Babylon would bring the restoration of their fortunes.

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  • While using the same language as the Babylonians, the Assyrians had an individuality which showed itself in art and religion.

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  • (1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.

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  • Homer knows only "Apt ot, but Herodotus speaks of " Syrians " as identical with Assyrians, the latter being, he thinks, a " barbarian " form, and he applies the name very widely to include, e.g.

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  • At the time of the great dynasty of Ur (c. 2400 B.C.) in Babylonia, the whole Argaeus region was occupied by these Semites, who seem to have been most kin to the Assyrians.

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  • coast of the Persian Gulf, but as the early navigators pushed their voyages further, the ships rounded the coast of Arabia, and came into the Red Sea, and the names of Magan and the neighbouring Melukhkha gradually extended westward, with the result that in late times to the Assyrians Melukhkha meant Ethiopia.

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  • Magan, however, probably never meant Egypt proper, the Nile land itself, or Egypt, would have been called Magan by the Assyrians in later times; it was called Musri then and probably in early times also.

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  • Papyrus was also known to the Assyrians, who called it " the reed of Egypt."

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  • One of these was in Greece, the Ionian, the other was in Magna Graecia; the one of them was from Coele Syria, the other from Egypt; but there were others in the East, one of whom belonged to the Assyrians, but the other was in Palestine, originally a Jew.

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  • Its cultivation and use are described on the mural tablets of the ancient Assyrians.

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  • On this view, the Chaldaeans are the divine instrument for punishing the tyranny of the Assyrians, to whom the following woes will therefore refer.

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  • The Scyths having fallen upon them from the north-east, the Cimmerians appear to have given way in two directions, towards the southwest, where the tombs of their kings were shown on the Tyras (Dniester) and one body joined with the Treres of Thrace in invading Asia Minor by the Hellespont; and towards the south-east where another body threatened the Assyrians, who called them Gimirrai (Hebrew Gomer; Gen.

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  • Ashkenaz) whom the Assyrians welcomed as allies and used against the Cimmerians, against the Medes and even against Egypt.

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  • Veritable helmets of metal, such as Herodotus ascribes to Assyrians and Chalybians (vii.

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  • It remained the capital long after the Assyrians had become the dominant power in western Asia, but was finally supplanted by Calah (Nimrud), Nineveh (Nebi Yunus and Kuyunjik), and Dur-Sargina (Khorsabad), some 60 m.

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  • Excavations in the mounds of Balawat, called Imgur-Bel by the Assyrians, 15 m.

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  • After his death, the Assyrians, who were still nominally the vassals of Babylonia, threw off neser L - g n a ll disguise, and Shalmaneser I.

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  • For twelve years he successfully resisted the Assyrians; but the failure of his allies in the west to act in concert with him, and the overthrow of the Elamites, eventually compelled him to fly to his ancestral domains in the marshes of southern Babylonia.

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  • In February (674 B.C.) the Assyrians entered upon their invasion of Egypt (see also Egypt: History), and in Nisan (or March) 670 B.C. an expedition on an unusually large scale set out from Nineveh.

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  • - In the early days of the decipherment of the cuneiform inscriptions, the reading of the proper names borne by Babylonians and Assyrians occasioned great difficulties; and though most of these difficulties have been overcome and there is general agreement among scholars as to the principles underlying both the formation and the pronunciation of the thousands of names that we encounter in historical records, business documents, votive inscriptions and literary productions, differences, though mostly of a minor character, still remain.

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  • In many cases they will probably turn out to be descriptive epithets of gods 3 The Assyrian language is practically identical with the Babylonian, just as the Assyrians are the same people as the Babylonians with some foreign admixtures.

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  • It is not the purpose of this note to set forth the principles underlying the formation of proper names among the Babylonians and Assyrians, but it may not be out of place to indicate that by the side of such full names, containing three elements (or even more), we have already at an early period the reduction of these elements to two through the combination of the name of a deity with a verbal form merely, or through the omission of the name of the deity.

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  • Layard remained in the neighbourhood of Mosul, carrying on excavations at Kuyunjik and Nimrud, and investigating the condition of various tribes, until 1847; and, returning to England in 1848, published Nineveh and its Remains: with an Account of a Visit to the Chaldaean Christians of Kurdistan, and the Yezidis, or Devil-worshippers; and an Inquiry into the Manners and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians (2 vols.,1848-1849).

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  • In the 19th century the discovery and decipherment of the Assyrian inscriptions gave a slight glance into the relations between Arabs and Assyrians from the 8th century B.C. But the great contribution of the century to the early history of Arabia was the collecting and translating of numerous early Arabian inscriptions (cf.

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  • At the time when invasions by the Assyrians drove out the Ethiopian Taracus again and again, the chief of the twenty princes to whom Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal successively entrusted the government was Niku, king of Sais and Memphis.

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  • The internal disorders of the realm depicted by Micah are also prominent in Isaiah's prophecies; they were closely connected, not only with the foreign complications due to the approach of the Assyrians, but with the break-up of the old agrarian system within Israel, and with the rapid and uncompensated aggrandisement of the nobles during those prosperous years when the conquest of Edom by Amaziah and the occupation of the port of Elath by his son (2 Kings xiv.

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  • Micah unquestionably looked for the destruction of Jerusalem as well as of Samaria in the near future and by the Assyrians (i.

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  • The Assyrians with all their culture, never attained the stage of analysis which demonstrates that only a few fundamental sounds are involved in human speech, and hence that it is possible to express all the niceties of utterance with an alphabet of little more than a score of letters.

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  • Fortunately it chanced that another people, the Persians, had adopted the Assyrian wedge-shaped stroke as the foundation of a written character, but making that analysis of which the Assyrians had fallen short, had borrowed only so many characters as were necessary to represent the alphabetical sounds.

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  • The sceptics had declared that the new science of Assyriology was itself a myth: that the investigators, self-deceived, had in reality only invented a language and read into the Assyrian inscriptions something utterly alien to the minds of the Assyrians themselves.

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  • The story of the books now spoken of as the "Creation" and "Deluge" tablets of the Assyrians, in the British Museum, which were discovered in the ruins of Nineveh by Layard and by George Smith, has been familiar to every one for a good many years.

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  • In 711 B.C. it was captured by the Assyrians (Is.

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  • Rezon, defeated in battle, fled to his capital which was at once invested by the Assyrians, while with another portion of his army Tiglath-Pileser ravaged Syria and overran the kingdom of Samaria.

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  • AmOng the Babylonians and Assyrians the baru (from bars to see, inspect) was a soothsaying priest who was consulted whenever any important undertaking was proposed, and addressed his inquiries to Samas the sun god (or Adad) as bet biri or lord of the oracle (accompanied by the sacrifice of lambs).

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  • The steps which prepared the way for the post-exile hierarchy, the destruction of the northern sanctuaries and priesthoods by the Assyrians, the polemic of the spiritual prophets against the corruptions of popular worship, which issued in the reformation of Josiah, the suppression of the provincial shrines of Judah and the transference of their ministers to Jerusalem, the successful resistance of the sons See I Sam.

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  • So fundamental a change as lies between Hosea and the Priestly Code was only possible in the general dissolution of the old life of Israel produced by the Assyrians and by the prophets; and indeed the new order did not take shape as a system till the exile had made a great change in old institutions.

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  • He is said to have flourished "even before the Trojan times," "when Semiramis was queen of the Assyrians."

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  • vi.) having reference to the condition of Judah and Israel, and the movements of the Assyrians during the reigns of Ahaz and Hezekiah.

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  • The two earliest of the Minor Prophets, Amos and Hosea, prophesied in the northern kingdom, at about 760 and 740 B.C. respectively; both foresaw the approaching ruin of northern Israel at the hands of the Assyrians, which took place in fact when Sargon took Samaria in 722 B.C.; and both did their best to stir their people to better things.

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  • the Assyrian inscriptions have furnished independent evidence of the relations of certain Hebrew kings (Ahab, Jehu, Ahaz) with the Assyrians, and thus supported more or less completely the evidence of the Old Testament on these points: they have also served to clear up in part the confused chronology of the Hebrews as given in the books of Kings.

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  • The Babylonians and Assyrians were probably the first to construct and employ a fixed chronological standard; and the numerous contract-tablets, and list of kings and yearly officials, discovered within recent years, afford striking evidence of the precision with which they noted chronological details.

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  • (2) As we now know, the methods of chronological computation adopted by the Assyrians were particularly exact.

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  • He first subjugated the Persians, and then a great many other peoples of Asia, till at last he attacked the Assyrians, but was defeated and killed in a battle, after a reign of twenty-two years (about 646-625 B.C.; but perhaps, as G.

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  • A collection of casts, likewise in the museum, is designed to display the progress of plastic art from the time of the Egyptians and Assyrians to modern ages.

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  • Knowing what we know of the colonizing power of the Assyrians, we may assume that among the "Mitanni" and other elements in the Mesopotamian population there would now be an increase of people of "Assyrian" origin.

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  • (860-825) settled Assyrians in their midst.

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  • Xenophon says it was subdued by the Assyrians; Curtius that 6000 Hyrcanians were in the army of Darius III.

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  • Nevertheless Baal submitted in the end, along with the princes of Gebal and Arvad, Manasseh of Judah, and the other Canaanite chiefs; in the island of Cyprus the Assyrians carried all before them ii.

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  • The reference to the Persians is obviously incorrect; the story, if it can be taken seriously at all, must refer to one of the sieges by the Assyrians or Chaldaeans, and, as Meyer suggests (Ency.

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  • Then at the beginning of the 8th century B.C. the colonial power of Tyre began to decline; on the mainland and in Cyprus the Assyrians gained the Upper hand; in the Greek islands the Phoenicians had already been displaced to a great extent by the advancing tide of Dorian colonization.

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  • The wider extension of the use of Amurru by the Babylonians and Assyrians is complicated by the fact that it was even applied to a district in the neighbourhood of Babylonia.

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  • Because iron would be so easily made by prehistoric and even by primeval man, and would be so useful to him, we are hardly surprised to read in Genesis that Tubal Cain, the sixth in descent from Adam, discovered it; that the Assyrians had knives and saws which, to be effective, must have been of hardened steel, i.e.

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  • Probably every king that included Thebes in his realm, except the Assyrians and the Persians, left his memorial there in chapels erected or sculptures added.

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  • Of this extensive work there are still extant only the first five books, treating of the mythic history of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Ethiopians and Greeks; and also the i i th to the 20th books inclusive, beginning with the second Persian War, and ending with the history of the successors of Alexander, previous to the partition of the Macedonian empire (302).

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  • At length they elected a king named Salatis, who, residing at Memphis, made all Egypt tributary, and established garrisons in different parts, especially eastwards, fearing the Assyrians.

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  • The drill brace appears to have been used by Assyrians in the 7th century B.C. Piercers of bronze tapering (58), to enlarge holes in leather, &c., were common in all ages.

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  • The Egyptian resistance to the Assyrians was probably only half-hearted; in the north especially there must have been a strong party against the Ethiopian rule.

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  • The Assyrians did not move against him, but a great Scythian horde, destroying all before it in its southward advance, is said by Herodotus to have been turned back by presents and entreaties.

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  • Psammetichus died in the fifty-fourth year of his reign and was succeeded by his son Necho, 610594 B.C. Taking advantage of the helpless state of the Assyrians, whose capital was assailed by the Medes and the Babylonians, the new Pharaoh prepared an expedition to recover the ancient possessions of the Empire in Syria.

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  • The fall of Nineveh and the division of the spoil gave to Nabopolasser, king of Babylon, the inheritance of the Assyrians in the west, and he at once despatched his son Nebuchadrezzar to fight Necho.

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  • 22, 3) - Sennacherib conquered a fortress of "Aribi" named Adumu, - and Jetur is obviously the Ituraea of classical geographers.4 "Ishmael," therefore, is used in a wide sense of the wilder, roving peoples encircling Canaan from the north-east to the south, related to but on a lower rank than the "sons" of Isaac. It is practically identical with the term "Arabia" as used by the Assyrians.

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  • The chariots of the Egyptians and Assyrians, with whom the bow was the principal arm of attack, were richly mounted with quivers full of arrows, while those of the Greeks, whose characteristic weapon was the spear, were plain except as regards mere decoration.

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  • But the whole Assyrian history of Ctesias is nothing but a fantastic fiction; from the Assyrian inscriptions we know that the Assyrians never entered the eastern parts of Iran.

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  • The partiality for the chase which the ancient Egyptians manifested was shared by the Assyrians and Babylonians, as is shown by the frequency with which hunting scenes are depicted on the walls of their temples and palaces; it is even said that their 1 See on this whole subject ch.

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  • 103 ff.) that he renewed the war against the Assyrians, in which his father Phraortes had perished, but was, while he besieged Nineveh, attacked by a great Scythian army under Madyas, son of Protothyes, which had come from the northern shores of the Black Sea in pursuit of the Cimmerians.

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  • concession on the part of the Assyrians to the traditions of the south, for which they always manifested a profound respect.

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  • The most interesting of all the non-Arab communities in the country, however, is without doubt the Samaritan sect in Nablus (Shechem); a gradually disappearing body, which has maintained an independent existence from the time when they were first settled by the Assyrians to occupy the land left waste by the captivity of the kingdom of Israel.

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  • Too little is known of the north as a factor in Palestinian development to allow hasty inferences, but it is certainly noteworthy, at all events, that the names Amor and Hatti appear to move downwards, and that " Hittite " is applied to Palestine and Philistia by the Assyrians, and to Hebron in the Old Testament, and that Ezekiel (xvi.

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  • The sharp contrasts between its compulsory religious observances and those of the rest of the world prevented such an absorption of the Jewish people into the Roman Empire as had caused the disappearance of the ten tribes of Israel by their merging with the Assyrians.

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  • Among the Assyrians, Egyptians and Greeks the use of iron, either cast or wrought, was very limited, bronze being the favourite metal almost for all purposes.

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  • This process was chiefly applied by medieval artists to the precious metals, but by the Assyrians, Greeks and other early nations it was largely used for bronze.

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  • The Assyrians were perhaps the most remarkable of all ancient nations for the colossal size and splendour of their works in metal; whole circuit walls of great cities, such as Ecbatana, are said to have been covered with metal plates, gilt or silvered.

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  • gave the Assyrians trouble; and when in 689 B.C. Sennacherib, whose patience had been exhausted by the difficulties encountered in maintaining peace in the south, actually besieged and destroyed the city of Babylon, he removed the statue of Marduk to Nineveh as a symbol that the god's rule had come to an end.

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  • The warlike nature of the Assyrians was reflected in their conceptions of the gods, who thus became little Assurs by the side of the great protector of arms, the big Assur.

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  • His inscriptions are written in cuneiform, in Assyrian, whilst those of his successors are in cuneiform, in their own language, which is neither Aryan nor Semitic. The kings of Biainas extended their kingdom eastward and westward, and defeated the Assyrians and Hittites.

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  • When we recollect that the Ethiopian Tearchus (Tirhaka) of the 7th century B.C., who was hopelessly worsted by the Assyrians and scarcely ventured outside the Nile valley, was credited by Megasthenes (4th century) and Strabo with having extended his conquests as far as India and the pillars of Hercules, it is not surprising if the dim figures of antiquity were magnified to a less degree.

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  • The inscription of Mesha throws welcome light upon his conquest of Moab; the position of Israel during the reign of Omri's son Ahab bears testimony to the success of the father; and the fact that the land continued to be known to the Assyrians down to the time of Sargon as "house of Omri" indicates the reputation which this little-known king enjoyed.

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  • Not only was Babylonia the mother country, as the tenth chapter of Genesis explicitly states, but the religion and culture, the literature and the characters in which it was contained, the arts and the sciences of the Assyrians were derived from their southern neighbours.

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  • The early Christian Fathers recorded many a valuable observation of the Gentile faiths around them from varying points of view, sympathetic or hostile; and Eusebius and Epiphanius, in the 4th century A.D., attributed to the librarian of Ptolemy Philad.elphus the design of collecting the sacred books of the Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Romans, Phoenicians, Syrians and Greeks.

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  • Anthropomorphic polytheism (religions of the Vedic Indians,the ancient Persians, the later Babylonians and Assyrians,the advanced Semites, the Kelts, Germans, Hellenes, Greeks and Romans).

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  • With other Iranian tribes the Assyrians never came in contact: for the oft-repeated assertion, that the Parsua, so prominent in their annals, were the Persians or the Parthians, is quite untenable.

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  • The Parsua of the Assyrians are located south of Lake Urmia, and can hardly have been Iranians.

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  • We cannot deduce from them a conquest of Iran from Babylon: for the Babylonians never set foot in Iran and even the Assyrians merely conquered the western portior of Media.

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  • Beginnings of History.A connected chain of historical ev~idence begins with the time when under Shalmaneser (SalAssyrian manassar II.), the Assyrians in 836 B.C. began for Conquest the first time to penetrate farther into the mounof Media.

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  • In the latter Nineveh is destroyed by the Mede Arbaces and the Babylonian Belesys about 880 B.C., a period when thi Assyrians were just beginning to lay the foundations of their power.

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  • In contrast with the Assyrians and the Romans the Persians invariably conducted their wars with great ~ bJ~ humanity.

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  • The land of the Manna (Minni), south-east of Ararat, had been wasted, its capital captured by the Assyrians, and its king reduced to vassalage.

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  • A war with Teumman of Elam had resulted in the overthrow of the Elamite army; the head of Teumman was sent to Nineveh, and another king, Umman-igas, appointed by the Assyrians.

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  • The Lydian king, finding that Nineveh was helpless to assist him, turned instead to Egypt and furnished the mercenaries with whose help Psammetichus drove the Assyrians out of the country and suppressed his brother satraps.

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  • It was worked by the Assyrians for their engraved cylinder-seals, and was used by the gnostics for amulets.

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  • The Assyrians and Egyptians made considerable use of the metal; and in Genesis iv.

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  • Once more Babylon was besieged by the Assyrians and starved into surrender.

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  • After the Jewish return from exile the population confined itself to Judaea, and Galilee was left in the possession of the mixed multitude of successors established there by the Assyrians.

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  • The Assyrian inscriptions have shown that the Assyrians had never crossed the Halys, much less known the name of Lydia, before the age of Assur-bani-pal, and consequently the theory which brought the Heraclids from Nineveh must be given up. But the Hittites, another Oriental people, deeply imbued with the elements of Babylonian culture, had overrun Asia Minor and established themselves on the shores of the Aegean before the reign of the Egyptian king Rameses II.

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  • The standard was the silver mina of Carchemish (as the Assyrians called it) which contained 8656 grains.

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  • Schrader pointed out in 1874 that the Assyrians knew of some Musri (i.e.

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  • Three years later a great battle was fought at Khalule on the Tigris between the Assyrians on the one side and the Elamites and Babylonians on the other.

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  • It seems Hezekiah was at first a faithful vassal of the Assyrians whom he assisted.

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  • Choose the Persians, Assyrians, Yamatos and others.

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