Kossuth continued the agitation by reporting in letter form the debates of the county assemblies, to which he thereby gave a political importance which they had not had when each was ignorant of the proceedings of the others.
In Mary's reign (1555) the licences were withdrawn, the queen or her advisers deeming the game an excuse for "unlawful assemblies, conventicles, seditions and conspiracies."
krene-te) who form a council and, like the baryaktar, hold their office by hereditary right; they preside over the assemblies of the tribesmen, which exercise the supreme legislative power.
LAMBETH CONFERENCES, the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury.
The general assembly is representative of the whole Church, either, as in the Irish General Assembly, by a minister and elder sent direct to it from every congregation, or, as in the Scottish General Assemblies, by a proportion of dele- Assembly.
But it shall not be so among you."From the foregoing outline it will be seen that Presbyterianism may be said to consist in the government of the Church by representative assemblies composed of the two classe s of presbyters, ministers and elders, and so p ?'
Protestants were granted full civil rights and protection, and were permitted to hold their ecclesiastical assemblies - consistories, colloquies and synods, 1 Lindsay, Hist.
Thus two General Assemblies were organized, the Old and the New School.
In many cases it arranged the assemblies and ceremonial of the tribe; it regulated marriage, descent and relationship; it ordered blood feuds, it prescribed the rites of hospitality and so on.
It still needed nearly a century of struggle to render the burghers independent of lordship, with a fully organized commune, self-governed in its several assemblies.
During the earlier days of the republic the doge had been a prince elected by the people, and answerable only to the popular assemblies.
Constituent assemblies met and voted for unity under Victor Emmanuel, but the king could not openly accept the proposal owing to the emperors opposition, backed by the presence of French armies in Lombardy; at a word from Napoleon there might have been an Austrian, and perhaps a Franco-Austrian, invasion of central Italy.
The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.
In these assemblies the large proprietors sit in person, being thus electors in the second degree; the lesser proprietors are represented by delegates, and therefore elect in the third degree.
- Alongside the local organs of the central government in Russia there are three classes of local elected bodies charged with administrative functions: (I) the peasant assemblies in the mir and the volost, ' From Catherine II.'s time to that of Alexander II.
The system of local self-government is continued, so far as the 34 governments of old Russia are concerned, 6 in the elective district and provincial assemblies (zemstvos).
8 In spite of these restrictions and of an electoral system which tended to make these assemblies as strait-laced and reactionary as any government bureau, the zemstvos did good work, notably educational, in those provinces where the proprietors were inspired with a more liberal spirit.
carried the scheme a step further by the creation of elected provincial assemblies (zemstvos), to which in 1870 elected municipal councils (dumas) were added.
The Jews were thrust into a position of isolation, and the Code of Theodosius and other authorities characterize the Jews as a lower order of depraved beings (inferiores and perversi), their community as a godless, dangerous sect (secta nefaria, feralis), their religion a superstition, their assemblies for religious worship a blasphemy (sacrilegi coetus) and a contagion (Scherer, op. cit.
These were the hereditary counsellors and companions of the chiefs, and conveyed to the people the decisions formed at their assemblies.
Acting on the constitutional principle that the king's right to convene did not interfere with the church's independent right to hold assemblies, they sat till the 10th of December, deposed all the Scottish bishops, excommunicated a number of them, repealed all acts favouring episcopacy, and reconstituted the Scottish Kirk on thorough Presbyterian principles.
Henceforward he was under suspicion at the university, and was excluded from the assemblies where the union was discussed.
von Gneist (History of the English Constitution) agrees that the two assemblies were identical, and a somewhat similar view is put forward by J.
The contrary opinion, that the two assemblies were distinct, is held, although with characteristic caution, by Stubbs (Const.
Being presented to the seven poets who were then engaged on the projected epic, Abu 'I Kasim was admitted to their meetings, and on one occasion improvised a verse, at Mahmud's request, in praise of his favourite Ayaz, with such success that the sultan bestowed upon him the name of Firdousi, saying that he had converted his assemblies into paradise (Firdous).
Theatral structures found at Cnossus and Phaestus, within the precincts of the palaces, were perhaps used for shows or for sittings of a royal assize, rather than for popular assemblies.
After a short interval Cambaceres was, by the constitution of December 1799, appointed second consul of France - a position which he owed largely to his vast legal knowledge and to the conviction which Sieyes entertained of his value as a manipulator of public assemblies.
The Frankish assemblies, previously held in the month of March (champs de mars), but under Pippin deferred to May (champs de mai), came to be more numerous, and served the king of the Franks as a means of receiving the gifts of his subjects and of promulgating his capitularies.
by 212), the upper portion of which is cut out of the rock, while the lower is enclosed by a semicircular wall of massive masonry; the theory of these scholars, however, that the whole precinct was a sanctuary of the Pelasgian Zeus cannot be regarded as proved, nor is it easy to abandon the generally received view that this was the scene of the popular assemblies of later times, notwithstanding the apparent unsuitability of the ground and the insufficiency of room for a large multitude.
In the struggle against the Jansenists he used all the influence he had with the clergy to secure the passage of the apostolic constitution of the 31st of March 16 J3 (Relation de ce qui s'est fait depuis 1653 Bans les assemblies des iveques au sujet des cinq propositions, 1657); but in the rebellion raised by Retz, archbishop of Paris, against the king, he took the part of the king against the pope.
During the whole time between their rise and the passing of the Toleration Act 1689, the Quakers were the object of almost continuous persecution which they endured with extraordinary constancy and patience; they insisted on the duty of meeting openly in time of persecution, declining to hold secret assemblies for worship as other Nonconformists were doing.
These officers hold, from time to time, meetings separate from the general assemblies of the members, but the special organization for many years known as the Meeting of Ministers and Elders, reconstituted in 1876 as the Meeting on Ministry and Oversight, came to an end in 1906-1907.
When the news of this reached Paris, it created a strong feeling against the planters; and on the motion of the Abbe Gregoire it was resolved by the assembly on the 15th of May 1791 " that the people of colour resident in the French colonies, born of free parents, were entitled to, as of right, and should be allowed, the enjoyment of all the privileges of French citizens, and among others those of being eligible to seats both in the parochial and colonial assemblies."
Municipalities are administered by mayors (alcaldes) and assemblies elected by the people, and control strictly municipal affairs.
The six provinces were created, and had governors and assemblies (" diputaciones "); and a municipal law was provided that in many ways was a sound basis for local government.
all questions were deliberated and settled in four distinct assemblies - the Italian, the French, the German and the English,' - the decisions of the nations being merely ratified afterwards pro forma by the council in general congregation, and also, if occasion arose, in public session.
In the Yahwist and Deuteronomist a solemn assembly is to be held on the seventh day, but in the Holiness Code and in the secondary sources of the Priestly Code both the first and the seventh day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread are to be solemn assemblies.
The Convention published a Prods-verbal of its sessions, which, although lacking the value of those published by assemblies to-day, is an official document of capital importance.
The word still appears in the names of the legislative assemblies of Norway, the Storthing and of Iceland, the Althing.
The Attic bouleutae took the oath by Athena Boulaia; at Sparta she was ayopaia, presiding over the popular assemblies in the market-place; in Arcadia µnXavZTts, the discoverer of devices.
Ulm is mentioned as early as 854, and under the Carolingian sovereigns it was the scene of several assemblies.
When Gaston-Phoebus wished to establish a regular annual hearth-tax (fouage) in the viscounty, he convoked the deputies of the three estates in assemblies called accts.
In 1834 a reform which was well received consisted in the alteration of the regency, from that of three members elected by the legislative chambers, to one regent chosen by the whole of the electors in the same manner as the deputies; and the councils of the provinces were replaced by legislative provincial assemblies.
Parliament House, begun in 1632 and completed in 1640, in which the later assemblies of the Scottish estates took place until the dissolution of the parliament by the Act of Union of 1707, has since been set apart as the meeting-place of the supreme courts of law.
In the narrow " wynds " the nobility and gentry paid their visits in sedan chairs, and proceeded in full dress to the assemblies and balls, which were conducted with aristocratic exclusiveness in an alley on the south side of High Street, called the Assembly Close, and in the assembly rooms in the West Bow.
The determination of Edinburgh as the national capital, and as the most frequent scene of parliamentary assemblies, dates from the death of James I.
In pursuance of the same object, he identified himself with a series of remarkable peace congresses - international assemblies designed to unite the intelligence and philanthropy of the nations of Christendom in a league against war - which from 1848 to 1851 were held successively in Brussels, Paris, Frankfort, London, Manchester and Edinburgh.
The county assemblies instantly protested against this illegal act, and Francis I.
This law was the last serious act of the provisional Parliament, which had shown itself singularly barren in legislation, and contrasts most unfavourably with the first assemblies of all the other " Succession States."
The state governments are autonomous and consist of legislative assemblies composed of deputies elected by ballot for a period of three years (Const.
They are liberally supported by alms, direct all .popular assemblies, and have a decisive voice in intertribal quarrels and all matters of consequence.
The history of the assemblies summoned by Charles IV.
These general Common assemblies of the citizens are described in the old city Hall.
It was the hand of the author of that offensive Missive to Frederick William III., on the liberty of the press, that drafted the Carlsbad decrees; it was he who inspired the policy of repressing the freedom of the universities; and he noted in his diary as "a day more important than that of Leipzig" the session of the Vienna conference of 1819, in which it was decided to make the convocation of representative assemblies in the German states impossible, by enforcing the letter of Article XIII.
The term is not in use in self-governing churches like the Congregationalists and Baptists, though these from time to time hold councils or assemblies (national and international), for conference and fellowship without any legislative power.
Each of the seven arti maggiori or greater gilds was organized like a small state with its councils, statutes, assemblies, magistrates, &c., and in times of trouble constituted a citizen militia.
On one of the islands in the lake is the great Wen-lan-ko or pavilion of literary assemblies, and it is said that at the examinations for the second degree, twice every three years, from 10,000 to 15,000 candidates come together.
In the Magamas of Hamadhani a narrator describes how in various places he met a wandering scholar who in these assemblies puts all his rivals to shame by his eloquence.
It became, indeed, increasingly difficult to obtain the support of the inland towns for a policy of seapower in the Baltic. Cologne sent no representatives to the regular Hanseatic assemblies until 1383, and during the 15th century its independence was frequently manifested.
Separate assemblies were held in the groups for the discussion both of local and Hanseatic affairs, and gradually, but not fully until the 16th century, thegroups became recognized as the lowest stage of Hanse organization.
Wise also organized various general assemblies of rabbis, and in 1889 established the Central Conference of American Rabbis.
In faith healing proper not only are powerful direct suggestions used, but the religious atmosphere and the autosuggestions of the patient co-operate, especially where the cures take place during a period of religious revival or at other times when large assemblies and strong emotions are found.
While Chrysostom disapproved of the execution of heretics, he approved "the prohibition of their assemblies and the confiscation of their churches."
Their creed became the passport by which Christians in strange cities could obtain admission to assemblies for worship and to common meals.
The assemblies of the people gradually changed their character under his rule.
He arrived in London on the 27th of July 1757, and shortly afterwards, when, at a conference with Earl Granville, president of the council, the latter declared that " the King is the legislator of the colonies," Franklin in reply declared that the laws of the colonies were to be made by their assemblies, to be passed upon by the king, and when once approved were no longer subject to repeal or amendment by the crown.
As the assemblies, said he, could not make permanent laws without the king's consent, " neither could he make a law for them without theirs."
A synod was held in 1532 at Chanforans in the valley of the Angrogne, where a new confession of faith was adopted, which recognized the doctrine of election, assimilated the practices of the Vaudois to those of the Swiss congregations, renounced for the future all recognition of the Roman communion, and established their own worship no longer as secret meetings of a faithful few but as public assemblies for the glory of God.
But these " private assemblies of the professors in these hard times," as Strype calls them, were congregational simply by accident.
But his claim for " independent " churches no longer denies that true Christianity exists within parish assemblies.
A compromise was arrived at by two assemblies, the first a convention of ministers held at Boston in 1657, the second a general synod of the churches of Massachusetts in 1662.
As a result of these assemblies it was decided that those who had become members in childhood simply by virtue of their parents' status could not subsequently join in the celebration of the Lord's Supper nor record votes on ecclesiastical issues, unless they should approve themselves fit; they might, however, in their turn bring their children to baptism and hand on to them the degree of membership which they themselves had received from their own parents.
Its castle, erected by Birger Jarl in the 13th century, played an important part in the early annals of Sweden; and no fewer than twenty diets or important assemblies were held either in the castle or in the town.
At all these assemblies the same ideal was formulated: "the establishing for the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine."
Towns were walled, where it was decreed markets and assemblies should be held, churches and monasteries were founded, civilization was extended and learning encouraged.
The worst enemy of the P Y Greeks was their own incurable spirit of faction; in the very crisis of their fate, during the siege of Missolonghi, rival presidents and rival assemblies struggled for supremacy, and a third civil war had only been prevented by the arrival of Cochrane and Church.
In the spirit of this utterance, steps were taken within a few days by the new prelate to suppress the assemblies of the Arians; these, by a bold stroke of policy, anticipated his action by themselves setting fire to their meetinghouse, Nestorius being forthwith nicknamed "the incendiary."
From 1123 onward there had again been talk of general councils; but, unlike those of earlier times, these were assemblies summoned by the pope, who confirmed their resolutions.
Under him began the great assemblies of nobles known as the champs de Mars.
At his instance synods and assemblies were held where laws were decreed for the better government of church and state.
Thus, at the election diet of 1669, one of the deputies, Pieniaszek, moved that a new and hitherto unheard-of clause should be inserted in the agenda of the general confederation, to the effect that every senator .and deputy should solemnly swear not to take bribes, while another szlacic proposed that the ambassadors of foreign Powers should be excluded permanently from the Polish elective assemblies.
Two assemblies of barons and prelates were held at Bourges in November 1283 and February 1284 to deliberate on the question.
It provided for a president-general appointed by the crown, who should have supreme executive authority over all the colonies, and for a grand council, elected triennially by the several provincial assemblies, and to have such "rights, liberties and privileges as are held and exercised by and in the House of Commons of Great Britain"; the president-general and grand council were to be "an inferior distinct branch of the British legislature, united and incorporated with it."
From the first the way in which the Epistles of Paul were brought to the knowledge of the churches to which they were addressed was by reading in the public assemblies for worship. This was done by the direction of the apostle himself (t Thess.
The prophets not only consoled and exhorted by the recital of what God had done and by predictions of the future, but they uttered extempore thanksgivings in the congregational assemblies, and delivered special directions, which might extend to the most minute details, as, for example, the disposal of the church funds.
He was never loved by the political managers; he was always enthusiastically received by assemblies of the people.
It could be applied to any kind of meeting and is often used to describe assemblies in foreign states.
Thus the Roman draughtsman who wishes to express the idea "magistrates of any kind as president of assemblies" writes "Magistratus queiquomque comitia conciliumve habebit" (Lex Latina tabulae Bantinae, 1.5), and formalism required that a magistrate who summoned only a portion of the people to meet him should, in his summons, use the word concilium.
In addition to what has already been said formal assemblies convened by a magistrate; but while, in the of several comets in this list the following remarks may be made.
The curia voted as a single unit and thus furnished the type for that system of group-voting which runs through all the later organization of the popular assemblies.
In spite of the formal differences of these four assemblies and the real distinction springing from the fact that patricians were not members of the plebeian bodies, the view which is appropriate to the developed Roman constitution is that the people expressed its will equally through all, although the mode of expression varied with the channel.
This power of judging exercised by the assemblies had in the main developed from the use of the right of appeal (provocatio) against the judgments of the magistrates.
It was not frequently employed as a legislative body after the two assemblies of the tribes, which were easier to summon and organize, had been recognized as possessing sovereign rights.
The comitia curiata and the two assemblies of the tribes met within the walls, the former usually in the Comitium, the latter in the Forum or on the Area Capitolii; but the elections at these assemblies were in the later Republic held in the Campus Martius outside the walls.
In the assemblies of the curiae and the tribes the voting of the groups took place simultaneously, in that of the centuries in a fixed order.
14, the formal announcement of the successful candidates (renuntiatio) still continued to be made to the popular assemblies.
Botsford, Roman Assemblies (1909).
The organization of the house is entirely different from that of the British House of Commons or of most assemblies on the European continent.
This is the rule, but in some parts of the South and West nominations for members of the state legislature and county officials, and even for members of Congress, are made by primary assemblies meeting over the entire area, which all the party voters are entitled to attend.
Within these limitations the provincial assemblies have a wide range of legislative power.
Other reforms. followed in quick succession during the next five or six years: army and navy organization, a new judicial administration on the French model, a new penal code and a greatly simplified system of civil and criminal procedure, an elaborate scheme of local self-government for the rural districts and the large towns, with elective assemblies possessing a restricted right of taxation, and a new rural and municipal police under the direction of the minister of the interior.
The town is of great antiquity, and was a residence of the kings of Leinster, the place of whose assemblies is marked by a neighbouring rath or mound.
After his time tribal assemblies are seldom mentioned, and though we hear occasionally, both in England and elsewhere, of a concourse of people being present when a king holds court on high days or religious festivals, there is no evidence that such concourses took part in the discussion of state affairs.
From Caesar we learn that it was customary at tribal assemblies for one or other of the chiefs to propose an expedition.
In his capacity as head of the church, " and president of the Christian agape," as St Ignatius of Antioch would have said, the pope was considered to be the supreme president and moderator of the oecumenical assemblies.
By the act of 1188, the fundamental charter of the Roman commune, the people recognized the supremacy of the pope over the senate and the town, while the pope on his part sanctioned the legal existence of the commune and of its government and assemblies.
in 1908 entrusted to this Congregation the supervision of the general discipline of the secular clergy and the faithful laity, empowering it to deal with matters concerning the precepts of the Church, festivals, foundations, church property, benefices, provincial councils and episcopal assemblies.
This is the system of the Presbyterian Churches, the missions of which are entirely controlled by the General Assemblies in Edinburgh, Belfast and London respectively.
Along with Halicarnassus and Cos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindus, Camirus and Ialysus it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.
BrethrenPedia.com is a new website attempting to document the history of all brethren assemblies
Moreover, during the early years of the reign of Charlemagne, Tassilo gave decisions in ecclesiastical and civil causes in his own name, refused to appear in the assemblies of the Franks, and in general acted as an independent ruler.
The cities of the Latin league continued to hold general meetings or assemblies from time to time at the grove of the Aqua Ferentina, a sanctuary at the foot of the Alban Hills, perhaps in a valley below Marino, while they had also a common place of worship on the summit of the Alban Mount (Monte Cavo), where stood the celebrated temple of Jupiter Latiaris.
All the German states have separate representative assemblies, except Alsace-Lorraine and the two grand-duchies of Mecklenburg.
The free towns have legislative assemblies, numbering from 120 to 200 members.
Whereas in Prussia, however, the Regierung is purely official, with no representative element, the Regierungsbezirk in Bavaria has a representative body, the Landrat, consisting of delegates of the district assemblies, the towns, large landowners, clergy andin certain casesthe universities; the president is assisted by a committee (Landratsausschuss) of six members elected by the Landrat.
The tendencies of the tribe to independence wen crushed as their ancient popular assemblies were discouraged and the liberty of the freemen was curtailed owing to the exigencies of military service, while the power of the church was rarely directed to the highest ends.
Moreover, by the famous Article 13, which enacted that there were to be assemblies of estates in all the countries of the Bund, the constitutional liberties of the German people seemed to be placed under its aegis.
A number of deputies, belonging to different legislative assemblies, taking it upon themselves to give voice to the national demands, had met at Heidelberg,.
The annual meetings call for little notice; they have generally been the occasion on which the foreign minister has explained and justified his policy; according to the English custom, red books, sometimes containing important despatches, have been laid before them; but the debates have caused less embarrassment to the government than is generally the case in parliamentary assemblies, and the army budget has generally been passed with few and unimportant alterations.
Under the supreme dominion of Rome even the unprivileged cities kept their own laws, magistrates and assemblies, provision being made for suits between Romans and Sicilians and between Sicilians of different cities (Verr.
But they were assemblies of barons, or at most of barons and citizens; they could only have represented the Latin elements, Norman and Lombard, in the island.
Other newspapers were afterwards established upon the same principles; anti-slavery societies, founded upon the doctrine of immediate emancipation, sprang up on every hand; the agitation was carried into political parties, into the press, and into legislative and ecclesiastical assemblies; until in 1861 the Southern states, taking alarm from the election of a president known to be at heart opposed to slavery though pledged to enforce all the constitutional safeguards of the system, seceded from the Union and set up a separate government.
Nor did Valdemar hesitate to meet his people in public and periodically render an account of his stewardship. He voluntarily resorted to the old practice of summoning national assemblies, the so-called Danehof.
At the first of these assemblies held at Nyborg, Midsummer Day 1314, the bishops and councillors solemnly promised that the commonalty should enjoy all the ancient rights and privileges conceded to them by Valdemar II., and the wise provision that the Danehof should meet annually considerably strengthened its authority.
(1838-1839) were also remarkable for the revival of political life, provincial consultative assemblies being established for Jutland, the Islands, Schleswig and Holstein, by the ordinance of the 28th of May 1831.
But these consultative assemblies were regarded as insufficient by the Danish Liberals, and during the last years of Frederick VI.
ten assemblies of the church were held at Antioch and it became the residence of the patriarch of Asia.
Agitation at once broke out, and, when Edward went abroad in June 1297, he left orders for suppression of assemblies (conventiculae).
In a long series of crafty movements James managed to reintroduce episcopacy (1598-1600) by the aid of packed General Assemblies, later declared void by the Covenanters (1638).
His bishops were already becoming odious to his nobles; his prorogation of General Assemblies continued, and the brothers Melville, called to England, were treated with unconstitutional harshness.
Above all, and most legitimately, the revival of General Assemblies, now long discussed, was demanded vainly.
Suppose that the kirk was restored by Charles to her position in 1592, with General Assemblies.
HOUSES OF LAYMEN, deliberative assemblies of the laity of the Church of England, one for the province of Canterbury, and the other for the province of York.
On the 14th of August 1789 the Constituent Assembly made Camus its archivist, and in that capacity he organized the national archives, classified the papers of the different assemblies of the Revolution and drew up analytical tables of the procesverbaux.
To the outer world the canton of Appenzell is best known by its institution of Landsgemeinden, or primitive democratic assemblies held in the open air, in which every male citizen (not being disqualified) over twenty years of age must (under a money penalty) appear personally: each half-canton has such an assembly of its own, that of Inner Rhoden always meeting at Appenzell, and that of Ausser Rhoden in the odd years at Hundwil (near Herisau) and in the even years at Trogen.
These three classes of representatives are divided into two assemblies, the Durbar Shahi or royal assembly, and the Kharwanin Mulkhi or commons.
The constitution of the free state is republican, and, by the fundamental law of 1875, amended in 1905 and again in 1907, consists of two assemblies.
The word then came to be used for the place where assemblies were held, and thus from its convenience as a meeting-place the agora became in most of the cities of Greece the general resort for public and especially commercial intercourse, corresponding in general with the Roman forum.
At Athens, with the increase of commerce and political interest, it was found advisable to call public meetings at the Pnyx or the temple of Dionysus; but the important assemblies, such as meetings for ostracism, were held in the agora.
On her death at Franeker, Friesland, on the 30th of October 1680, she left a large number of followers, who, however, dwindled rapidly away; but in the early 18th century her influence revived in Scotland sufficiently' to call forth several denunciations of her doctrines in the various Presbyterian general assemblies of 1701, 1709 and 1710.
Delegates of the various federated governments form the Bundesrath; the Reichstag, or popular assembly, is directly chosen by the people by universal suffrage; and the two assemblies constitute the federal parliament.
The city praetor presided over popular assemblies for the election of certain inferior magistrates, but all the praetors officiating in Rome had the right to summon assemblies for the purpose of legislation.
From 1734 to 1804 Fulda was the seat of a university, and latterly many assemblies of German bishops have been held in the town.
The General Assemblies are biennial, sessions limited to 90 days (45 before 1884); state and county elections are held at the same time (since 1902).
The church was at the time very powerful, the people generally sympathizing with her system, and her assemblies being attended by many of the nobles and the foremost men.
With this end assemblies, from which Melville was excluded, and which were otherwise tampered with and terrorized, were got to agree that a number of ministers should sit in parliament, and to surrender the assembly's right of meeting.
The quarter-centenary of the birth of Calvin occurring at the time of the Church assemblies of 1909 brought the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church assembly together for a memorial service in St Giles's; and a committee on union, consisting of 105 representatives from each assembly, was appointed.
dha, as in dhaman) appears in Homer as the embodiment of what is fit or right;' she convenes or dismisses assemblies, she even keeps order at the banquet of the gods.
In the national assemblies, too, their voice had always been powerful, and not infrequently predominant.
The conflicting interests and mutual jealousies of these four independent assemblies made the work of legislation exceptionally difficult.
Roldan, Las Primeras Asambleas nacionales (Santiago, 1890), an account of the struggles in the first national assemblies; A.
The mullahs are referred to in questions concerning religious law, hold religious assemblies, preach in mosques, teach in colleges, and are appointed by the government as judges, head-preachers, &c. Thus the dignitaries, whose character seems to us specially a religious one, are in reality doctors, or expounders and interpreters of the law, and officiating ministers charged with the ordinary accomplishment of certain ceremonies, which every other Mussulman, true believer, has an equal right to fulfil.
Most of these new cities were based on older settlements; but the essential point is, that they were peopled by Greek and Macedonian colonists, and enjoyed civic independence with laws, officials, councils and assemblies of their own, in other words, an autonomous communal constitution, under the suzerainty of the empire.
His profound knowledge of popular assemblies enabled him, alone among contemporary sovereigns, accurately to gauge from the first the scope and bearing of the French Revolution.
The league embraced an indefinite number of city-states which maintained their internal independence practically undiminished, and through their several magistrates, assemblies and law-courts exercised all traditional powers of self-government.
Extraordinary assemblies could be convoked at any time or place on special emergencies.
As the prefect has the appointment of subordinate department officials, including the alcaldes, the authority of the national executive reaches every hamlet in the republic, and may easily become autocratic. There are no legislative assemblies in the departments, and their government rests with the national executive and congress.
The Repeal Act, indeed, was only passed pari passe with another censuring the American assemblies, and declaring the authority of the British parliament over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"; so that the House of Commons repudiated in the most formal manner the principle Pitt laid down.
This last institution indeed is not found in the ancient Vinaya, but was almost certainly modelled on the traditional account of the similar assemblies convoked by Asoka and other Buddhist sovereigns in India every fifth year.
Between 1606 and 1618 various attempts were made under English and Episcopal influence, by assemblies afterwards declared unlawful, to set aside the "Book of Common Order."
But General Assemblies have frequently recommended its use, and worship in Presbyterian churches is largely conducted on the lines of the Westminster Assembly's Directory.
The composition of these parliamentary assemblies was to a certain extent modelled on that of the ancient diets of Bohemia and other parts of the empire.
In 1872 a government with a pronounced German tendency took office in Vienna, and the Bohemians for a time again refused to attend the parliamentary assemblies of Vienna and Prague.
35) not only substitutes Thermopylae but gratuitously informs his readers that here the Pylaean assemblies were held.
Other edicts of an earlier or later date forbade the unorthodox to hold assemblies in the towns, enjoined the surrender of all churches to the catholic bishops, and overthrew the heathen temples "throughout the whole world."
He seems to have suffered the Novatians to hold assemblies in the city.
Duren derives its name, not, as was at one time believed, from the Marcodurum of the Ubii, mentioned in Tacitus, but from the Dura or Duria, assemblies held by the Carolingians in the 8th century.
The insecurity of his position made him seek the support of national assemblies and of provincial estates.
The internal constitution of the countries was to be regulated by an " Organic Law," which was drawn up b y assemblies of bishops and boiars at Jassy and Bucharest, acting, however, under Russian control.
Walachia and Moldavia were to have separate assemblies, but a central commission was to be established at Fokshani for the preparation of laws of common interest, which were afterwards to be submitted to the respective assemblies.
In accordance with this convention the deputies of Moldavia and Walachia met in separate assemblies at Bucharest and Jassy, but the choice of both fell unanimously on Prince Alexander John Cuza (January 1859).
The two assemblies and the central commission were preserved till 1862, when a single assembly met at Bucharest and a single ministry was formed for the two countries.
The departments are provided with biennial departmental assemblies, but their governors are appointees of the national executive.
If I might put it to you, I would say the principles of tariffs, the principle of railway connexion, the principle of appeal in law, the principle of coinage, and in fact all those principles which exist at the present moment in the United States, irrespective of the local assemblies which exist in each separate state in that country."
It appears that in several different districts canons made by the local assemblies' were added to those of the council of Nicaea which were everywhere accepted and observed.
automatically, owing to the plenary assemblies of the African episcopate held practically every year, at which it was customary first of all to read out the canons of the previous councils.
It would be impossible to enumerate here all the Gallic councils which contributed towards the canon law of that country; we will mention only the following: - Arles (314), of great importance; a number of councils in the district of Arles, completed by the Statuta Ecclesiae antiqua of St Caesarius; 2 the councils of the province of Tours; the assemblies of the episcopate of the three kingdoms of the Visigoths at Agde (506), of the Franks at Orleans (511), and of the Burgundians at Epaone (517); several councils of the kingdoms of the Franks, chiefly at Orleans; and finally, the synods of the middle of the 8th century, under the influence of St Boniface.
In other countries the episcopal assemblies lay down the local law.
On the 8th of March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg, the secretary of the Royal Society: " Sir, I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body, yet since I see I shall neither profit them, nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies, I desire to withdraw."
Assemblies, national, provincial and local, were a marked characteristic of ancient Irish life.
Most of the assemblies were annual, some triennial, some lasted only a day or two, others a week and occasionally longer.
Each provincial kingdom and each tuath had assemblies of its own.
Very careful provision is made for the preparation of the sites of great assemblies, and the preservation of peace and order at them is sanctioned by the severest penalties of the law.
The operation of every legal process calculated to occasion friction, such as seizure of property, was suspended during the time the assemblies lasted.
Cowed by the show of armed force, and remembering the fate of Hastings, the two assemblies received the claim with silence which gave consent.
assemblies for worship outside the pale of the church, A~~ on though it embodied the principles of Cromwell and Milton, and not those of Chillingworth and Hales, was carried without difficulty, whilst the proposed scheme of comprehension never had a chance of success (1689).
Both Houses of Parliament were in the main assemblies of aristocrats and landowners; but agriculture was ceasing to be the characteristic industry of the country and the Parliaold semi-feudal relations of life were in process of meat and rapid dissolution.
Lightning from left to right was favourable, from right to left unfavourable; but on its mere appearance, in either direction, all business in the public assemblies was suspended for the day.
The people, he contended, were no worse off under the old monarchy than they will be in the long run under assemblies that are bound by the necessity of feeding one part of the community at the grievous charge of other parts, as necessitous as those who are so fed; that are obliged to flatter those who have their lives at their disposal by tolerating acts of doubtful influence on commerce and agriculture, and for the sake of precarious relief to sow the seeds of lasting want; that will be driven to be the instruments of the violence of others from a sense of their own weakness, and, by want of authority to assess equal and proportioned charges upon all, will be compelled to lay a strong hand upon the possessions of a part.
The Convocation of York and the Convocation of Canterbury are provincial assemblies possessing no legislative or judicial authority; even such purely ecclesiastical questions as may be formally commended to their attention by "letters of business" from the crown can only be finally settled by act of parliament.
Royer-Collard himself, Laine, and Maine de Biran had sat in the revolutionary Assemblies.
Like the previous assemblies, it did not fall into well-defined parties.
But the Assemblies were suspicious of Safety.
Even when due allowance has been made for the financial disorder which the Convention inherited from previous assemblies, and for the war which it had to wage against a formidable alliance, it cannot be acquitted of reckless and wasteful maladministration.
Armed assemblies and even public meetings of political societies were forbidden.
When the constitution was submitted to the primary assemblies, most electors held aloof, 1,050,000 voting for and only 5,000 voting against it.
For the history of the Assemblies during the Revolution a main authority is their Proces verbaux or Journals; those of the Constituent Assembly in 75 vols., those of the Legislative Assembly in 16 vols.; those of the Convention in 74 vols., and those of the Councils under the Directory in 99 vols.
There were many kinds of popular assemblies in ancient Ireland.
But the most important of all such assemblies was the fair (oenach), which was summoned by a king, those summoned by the kings of provinces having the character of national assemblies.
At some of these assemblies match-making played a prominent part.
The aim which the emperor had in view was, by a concentration of power which should make him "the beneficent motive force of the whole social order" (constitution of the 14th of January 1852; administrative centralization; subordination of the elected assemblies; control of the machinery of universal suffrage) to unite all classes in "one great national party" attached to the dynasty.
New laws were announced at large assemblies of the people, whose consent was asked, and always given through the headmen of the different divisions of native society; this custom was no doubt a survival from a time when the popular assent was not a merely formal act.
The offices of high constable and earl marshal were left vacant; the Danehoffer or national assemblies fell into desuetude, and the great queen, an ideal despot, ruled through her court officials acting as superior clerks.
The Merovingian kings, mere war-chiefs before the advent of Clovis, had after the conquest of Gaul become absolute hereditary causes of nionarchs, thanks to the disappearance of the popular the failof assemblies and to the perpetual state of warfare.
The frequent convocations of military assemblies, far from testifying to political liberty, was simply a means of communicating the emperors commands to the various feudal groups.
If they acknowledged the kings authority feudalism, at the assemblies of Ytz (near Thionville) in 844,
There were no provincial assemblies, no municipal bodies, no merchant-gilds, no autonomous churches; the people had no means of making themselves heard; they had no place in an administration which was completely in the hands of a central hierarchy of officials of all ranks, from dukes to scabini, with counts, viscounts and centenarii in between.
The League, having now no reason for existence, was dissolved; but the Protestant party remained very strong, with its political organization and the fortified places which the assemblies of Millau, Nimes and La Rochelle ~ (1573-1574) had established in.thesouth and the west.
authorization to hold synods and political assemblies, to open schools, and to occupy a hundred strong places for eight years at the expense of the king, assured to the Protestants not only rights but privileges.
Between 1631 and the edict of February I641 Richelieu strove against the continually renewed opposition of the parlements to his system of special commissions and judgments; in 1641 he refused them any right of interference in state affairs; at most would he consent occasionally to take counsel with assemblies of notables.
In Burgundy, Dijon saw her municipal liberties restricted in 1631; the provincial assembly of Dauphin was suppressed from 1628 onward, and that of Languedoc in 1629; that of Provence was in 1639 replaced by communal assemblies, and that of Normandy was prorogued from 1639 to 1642.
Traditional rights, differences of language, provincial autonomy, ecclesiastical assemblies, parlements, governors, intendants-vestiges of the past, or promises for the futureall jostled against and thwarted each other.
The old courtier Maurepas, jealous of Turgot and desirous of remaining a minister himself, refrained from defending his colleague; and when Turgot, who never knew how to give in, spoke of establishing assemblies of freeholders in the communes and the provinces, in order to relax the tension of over-centralization, Louis XVI., who never dared to pass from sentiment to action, sacrificed his minister to the rancour of the queen, as he had already sacrificed Malesherbes (1776).
The American war had finally exhausted the exchequer, and, in order to replenish it, he would have needed to inspire confidence in the minds of capitalists; but the resumption in 2778 of the plan of provincial assemblies charged with remodelling the various imposts, and his corn pterendu in which he exhibited the monarchy paying its pensioners for their inactivity as it had never paid its agents for their zeal, aroused a fresh outburst of anger.
The provincial assemblies of Dauphin and elsewhere gave the signal; and numerous towns, following the example of Paris, instituted munioipalitieswhichsubstituted their authority for that of the intendants and their subordinates.
put the final touch to the revolution begun by the provincial assemblies, by liberating land and labor, and proclaiming equality among all Frenchmen..
The electoral assemblies, in very great majority, had desired this Republic to be democratic and equalizing in spirit, but on the face The Conof it, liberal, uniform and propagandist; in conse- vention, quence, the 782 deputies of the Convention were not Sept.21, divided on principles, but only by personal rivalries 1792
Assembly which voted them without discussing them; popttlar suffrage, mutilated by the lists of notables (on which-the mmbrs of the Assemblies were to be chosen by the cOnservative senate); and the triple executive authority of the consuls, elected for ten years: all these semblances of constitutional authority were adopted by Bonaparte.
But he abolished the post of Grand Elector, which Sieys had reserved for himself, in order to reinforce the real authority of the First Consul himselfby leaving the two other consuls, Cambacrs and Lebrun, as well as the Assemblies, equally weak.
The royalist plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise (December 24, 1800) allowed him to make a clean sweep of the democratic republicans, who despite their innocence were depsrted to Guiana, and to annul Assemblies that were a mere show by making the senate omnipotent in constitutional matters; but it was necessary for him to transform this deceptive truce into the general pacification so ardently desired for the last eight years.
The treaty of Lunvill~, signed in February 1801 with Austria who had been disarmed by Moreaus victory at Hohenlinden, restored peace to the continent, gave nearly the whole of Italy to France, and permitted Bonaparte to eliminate from the Assemblies all the leaders of the opposition in the discussion of the Civil Code.
police, the prostration before authority, the sympathy pabikan lavished on royalists, the recall of the migrs, the opposi~ contempt for the Assemblies, the purification of the lion.
Finally, amidst profound silence from the press and the Assemblies, a protest was raised against imperial despotism by the literary world, against the excommunicated sovereign by Catholicism, and against the author of the continental blockade by the discontented bourgeoisie, ruined by the crisis of 1811.
Victor Emmanuel was obliged to recall the royal commissioners, but together with Cavour he secretly encouraged the provisional governments to resist the return of the despots, and the constituent assemblies of Tuscany, Romagna and the duchies voted for annexation to Sardinia.
and Gratian, by whom the Donatist churches were again closed, and all their assemblies forbidden.
The severest penal measures were enforced against the schismatics; in 414 they were denied all civil rights, in 415 the holding of assemblies was forbidden on pain of death.
The civil constitution of the clergy gave the appointment of priests to the electoral assemblies, and since taking the oath Gobel had become so popular that he was elected bishop in several dioceses.
Charles was powerless openly to resent these outrages, but he obtained from the provincial assemblies the money refused him by the statesgeneral, and deferred his vengeance until the dissensions of his enemies should offer him an opportunity.
In defiance of a recent ordinance prohibiting provincial assemblies, he presided over the estates of Picardy and Artois, and then over those of Champagne.
He did not sit in any of the assemblies summoned during the revolutionary year, but took a very active part in the formation of a union of the Conservative party, and was one of the founders of the Kreuzzeitung, which has since then been the organ of the Monarchical party in Prussia.
Politically he did not do much to stave off the coming Revolution, and his establishment of provincial assemblies was only a timid application of Turgot's great scheme for the administrative reorganization of France.
They were divided into four cantons (pagi), common affairs being managed by the cantonal assemblies.
It is necessary, however, to bear in mind that two classes of charters are to be found in force among the early American colonies: (r) Those granted to trading associations, which were often useful when the colony was first founded, but which formed a serious obstacle to its progress when the country had become settled and was looking forward to commercial expansion; the existence of these charters then often led to serious conflicts between the grantees of the charter and the colonies; ultimately elective assemblies everywhere superseded control of trading companies.
Electrically conductive adhesives with low melting points could provide many users with an acceptable solder replacement for these assemblies.
aligns the contigs into larger assemblies.
assemblyetary laser cutting and welding techniques were used for cutting and welding the single assemblies of the M1 Cell.
assemblyting valves have solid stainless steel equal percentage or linear characteristic control plug and spindle assemblies with stainless steel screw in body seats.
assemblylete breakdown of the component is provided from sub assemblies through to the smallest individual part.
devolved assemblies, sustainability is a major issue.
These songs and hymns, which touch the core of catholic faith, provide a resource for assemblies, Mass and class work.
On the orders of London, all of the colonial governors dissolved the assemblies in order to prevent a response to the Massachusetts letter.
injection molded pickup assemblies.
small inner circles, convocations, committees, assemblies, meet and debate and pass resolutions of an ever narrower character.
Assemblies representing words of this category would be distributed over perisylvian and visual cortices in parietal, temporal and/or occipital lobes.
oracular utterance in assemblies.
Like more celebrated assemblies, it was chiefly remarkable for the noise which attended its deliberations.
Since the energy response and spectral resolution of the two grating assemblies differ, separation of the output may be important for some observers.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.