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assam

assam

assam Sentence Examples

  • by the British province of Assam, and the district of Jalpaiguri; and on the W.

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  • Gayal are kept by the natives of the hill-districts of Assam and parts of Tenasserim and Upper Burma.

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  • It is peculiar to this tract, not being found in any of the neighbouring countries of Assam, Nepal, Tibet or Bengal, and unites in an eminent degree the two qualities of strength and beauty.

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  • The Patkoi border the plains of Upper Assam to the south-east, and across these hills lies the most reasonable probability of railway extension to Burma.

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  • The following are the " lowest level " discharges of the principal affluents of the Brahmaputra in Upper Assam, estimated in cubic feet per second: Lohit river, 9 m.

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  • The Patkoi border the plains of Upper Assam to the south-east, and across these hills lies the most reasonable probability of railway extension to Burma.

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  • Gait, A History of Assam (Calcutta, 1906).

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  • Failing to reach India through Upper Assam he returned to the neighbourhood of Lhasa, and crossed the Himalayas by a more westerly route.

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  • There are a military cantonment, the headquarters of the volunteer corps known as the Assam Valley Light Horse; a government high school, a training school for masters; and an aided school for girls.

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  • Gangaw (Messua ferrea) the Assam iron-wood, is suitable for sleepers; and didu (Bombax insigne) is used for tea-boxes and packing-cases.

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  • AHOM, or Aham, a tribe of Shan descent inhabiting the Assam valley, and, prior to the invasion of the Burmese at the commencement of the 19th century, the dominant race in that country.

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  • In the census of 1901 the total Ahom population in Assam was returned at 178,049.

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  • The Ahoms retained the form of government in Assam peculiar to the Shan tribes, which may be briefly described as an organized system of personal service in lieu of taxation.

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  • The sal, Shorea robusta, a very durable wood, is most abundant along the skirts of the Himalaya from Assam to the Punjab, and is found in central India, to which the teak also extends.

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  • The range of the genus extends from the southern bank of the Bramaputra in Assam to southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.

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  • France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.

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  • KACHIN HILLS, a mountainous tract in Upper Burma, inhabited by the Kachin or Chingpaw, who are known on the Assam frontier as Singphos.

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  • From the north-eastern extremity of Assam where, near Sadya, the Lohit, the Dibong and the Dihong unite to form the wide placid Brahmaputra of the plains - one of the grandest rivers of the world - its south-westerly course to the Bay of Bengal is sufficiently well known.

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  • " Rambong " or Assam rubber is the produce of Ficus elastica, commonly known as the indiarubber tree and cultivated in Europe as an ornamental plant.

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  • Ficus elastica is the tree which produces Rambong or Assam rubber.

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  • AHOM, or Aham, a tribe of Shan descent inhabiting the Assam valley, and, prior to the invasion of the Burmese at the commencement of the 19th century, the dominant race in that country.

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  • The sal, Shorea robusta, a very durable wood, is most abundant along the skirts of the Himalaya from Assam to the Punjab, and is found in central India, to which the teak also extends.

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  • The range of the genus extends from the southern bank of the Bramaputra in Assam to southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.

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  • Under their king Su-ka-pha they invaded Assam from the East in the year A.D.

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  • In Assam and in upper Burma there are extensive forests of Ficus elastica, but to a large extent the trees have been damaged by careless tapping.

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  • Assam Indigenous.

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  • Assam Indigenous.

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  • DACCA, a city of British India, giving its name to a district and division of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • before finally shaping itself southwards towards the plains of Assam.

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  • Then it is lost amidst the jungle-covered hills of the wild Mishmi and Abor tribes to the east of Bhutan for another ioo m., until it is again found as the Dihong emerging into the plains of Assam.

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  • Large plantations have been formed by the Government of India both in Assam and Bengal, but most FIG.

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  • It has been found that although the tree grows well in many different countries and different localities, it only furnishes a satisfactory yield of rubber in mountainous districts, such as those of Assam and certain parts of Ceylon and Java.

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  • DIBRUGARH, a town of British India, in the Lakhimpur district of eastern Bengal and Assam, of which it is the headquarters, situated on the Dibru river about 4 m.

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  • It lies north of the Darrang district of Eastern Bengal and Assam, and is bounded on the east by the Daphla Hills and on the west by independent Bhutia tribes.

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  • The variety chiefly grown is the Assam indigenous.

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  • The Kumon range running down from the Hkamti country east of Assam to near Mogaung ends in a peak known as Shwedaunggyi, which reaches some 5750 ft.

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  • The Burmese are supposed by modern philologists to have come, as joint members of a vast Indo-Chinese immigration swarm, from western China to the head waters of the Irrawaddy and then separated, some to people Tibet and Assam, the others to press southwards into the 1 See also, for geology, W.

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  • Compared with the congested districts in the other provinces of India, with the exception of Assam, the lot of the Burman is decidedly enviable.

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  • It happened, accordingly, that the Burmese, carrying their arms into Assam and Manipur, penetrated to the British border near Sylhet, odthe north-east frontier of Bengal, beyond which were the possessions of the chiefs of Cachar, under the protection of the British government.

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  • This species is now only met with in a wild state in the Assam plain, though, it formerly had a wider range.

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  • It is the smallest of all the species, and its geographical range is nearly the same as that of the Javan species, though not extending into Java; it has been found in Assam, Chittagong, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.

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  • From this period little intercourse took place with Bhutan, until the occupation of Assam by the British in 1826.

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  • But his negotiations yielded no definite result; and every other means of obtaining redress and security proving unsuccessful, the Assam Dwars were wrested from the Bhutias, and the British government consented to pay to Bhutan a sum of £l000 per annum as compensation for the resumption of their tenure, during the good behaviour of the Bhutias.

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  • Eden's return the viceroy at once disavowed his treaty, sternly stopped the former allowance for the Assam Dwars, and demanded the immediate restoration of all British subjects kidnapped during the last five years.

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  • The Bhutan government formally ceded all the eighteen Dwars of Bengal and Assam, with the rest of the territory taken from them, and agreed to liberate all kidnapped British subjects.

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  • Their language, the most distinctively Lao-Tai attribute which they have, plainly shows their very close relationship with the latter race and its present branches, the Shans (Tai Long) and the Ahom of Assam, while their appearance, customs, written character and religion bear strong evidence of their affinity with the Khmers.

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  • torquatus) is found in the forest regions ranging from the Persian frontier eastward to Assam.

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  • In Assam there is a small spiny hare (Caprolagus hispidus), with the habits of a rabbit; and an allied species (Nesolagus nitscheri) inhabits Sumatra, and a third (Pentalagus furnessi) the Liu-kiu Islands.

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  • The spiny rabbit, separated from Lepus by Blyth in 1845 under the name of Caprolagus hispidus, is an inhabitant of Assam and the adjacent districts, and distinguished by its harsh, bristly fur and short ears and tail.

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  • Next in promising qualities is the muga or moonga worm of Assam, Antheraea assaina, a species to some extent domesticated in its native country.

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  • Moonga silk from Antheraea assama has generally a rather darkbrown colour, but that appears to be much influenced by the leaves on which the worm feeds, the cocoons obtained on the champaca tree (Michelia champaca) giving a fine white fibre much valued in Assam.

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  • Farther east the Takpa of Tawang in the eastern Assam Himalayas appears to form a transition between the central and the Sifan group of dialects on the Chinese frontier, which includes the Minyak, Sungpan, Lifan and Tochu dialects.

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  • Patna in Bengal is the chief market for the Nepal trade; Diwangiri and Udalguri for Assam, and Darjeeling and Kalimpong for Sikkim and Chumbi.

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  • The Baptists have also stations in Arakan and Assam where they link up with the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists (1845).

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  • taxoides is found in Assam, Arakan and perhaps in China; and there is probably another in Tibet.

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  • About the year 1820 Mr David Scott, the first commissioner of Assam, sent to Calcutta from Kuch Behar and Rangpur - the very districts indicated by Sir Joseph Banks as favourable for tea-growing - certain leaves, with a statement that they were said to belong to the wild tea-plant.

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  • These very leaves ultimately came into the herbarium of the Linnean Society of London, and have authoritatively been pronounced to belong to the indigenous Assam tea-plant.

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  • It was not till 1834 that, overcome by the insistence of Captain Francis Jenkins, who maintained and proved that, called by the name Camellia or not, the leaves belonged to a tea-plant, Dr Wallich admitted "the fact of the genuine tea-plant being a native of our territories in Upper Assam as incontrovertibly proved."

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  • The discovery and reports of Captain Jenkins led to the investigation of the capacities of Assam as a tea-growing country by Lord William Bentinck's committee.

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  • resolved to institute an experimental establishment in Assam for cultivating and manufacturing tea, leaving the industry to be developed by private enterprise should its practicability be demonstrated.

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  • In 1836 there was sent to London i lb of tea made from indigenous leaves; in 1837 5 lb of Assam tea were sent; in 1838 the quantity sent was 12 small boxes, and 95 boxes reached London in 1839.

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  • In the same auction catalogue were included 95 packages, "the produce of the Government Tea Plantation in Assam," many of which bore the Chubwa mark, one well known to this day.

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  • In January 1840 the Assam Company was formed to take over the early tea garden of the East India Company, and this, the premier company, is still in existence, having produced up to 1907 no less than 117,000,000 lb of tea and paid in dividends X1,360,000 or 730 per cent.

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  • From its point of origin in Assam, it has gradually spread to other districts with varying commercial success.

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  • Of late years, however, by the introduction of fine Assam seed and the adoption of methods similar to those in use in India, a marked improvement has taken place, and there seems little reason to doubt that, with the very rich soil and abundant cheap labour that the island of Java possesses, the relative progress there may be greater in future than in any other producing land.

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  • The Assam Indigenous, in its two sub-races of Singlo and Bazalona, and the Manipur, originally found wild in the jungles of the native state of that name, have, with various intermixtures and crossings, been used to cover the greatest areas of all the more modern planting in India, Ceylon and Java.

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  • leaves of this variety are generally, roughly speaking, about half the size of those of the Assam Indigenous and Manipur sorts.

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  • The bush is in every way smaller than the Assam types.

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  • He holds the opinion that the tea-plant is indigenous, not to Assam only, but to the whole monsoon region of eastern Asia, where he found it growing wild as far north as the islands of southern Japan.

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  • He considers that the tea-plant had, from the remotest times, two distinct varieties, the Assam and Chinese, as he thinks that the period of known cultivation has been too short to produce the differences that exist between them.

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  • The finest teas are produced at high elevations in Darjeeling and Ceylon and in the plains of Assam, but the quality from individual estates varies much from season to season, and even from week to week.

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  • Eastern Bengal and Assam >>

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  • BARISAL, a town of British India, headquarters of Backergunje district in Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated on a river of the same name.

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  • DINAJPUR, a town (with a population in 1901 of 13,430) and district of Britsh India, in the Rajshahi division of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • The Himalayan ranges at the north-eastern angle (in about 28° N., 97° E.) throw off spurs and chains to the south-east, which separate Eastern Bengal from Assam and Burma.

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  • At the northeastern angle of that frontier, the Dihang river, the connecting link between the Tsanpo of Tibet and the Brahmaputra of Assam, bursts through the main axis of the range.

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  • On the north-east, those offshoots, under the name of the Naga and Patkoi mountains, &c., form a barrier between the civilized districts of Assam and the wild tribes of Upper Burma.

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  • About 167 millions of people now live on and around these river plains, in the provinces known as the lieutenant-governorship of Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces, the Punjab, Sind, Rajputana and other native states.

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  • It turns, however, almost due east instead of west, enters India at the eastern extremity of the Himalayas, and becomes the Brahmaputra of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • The land probably extended as far as Assam, for the Cretaceous fossils of Assam are similar to those of the south.

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  • The first, or the valley of Assam and the Brahmaputra, is long and narrow, bordered on the north by the Himalayas, on the south by the lower plateau of the Garo, Khasi and Naga hills.

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  • Similarly the Bengal monsoon passes by the Coromandel coast and the Carnatic with an occasional shower, taking a larger volume to Masulipatam and Orissa, and abundant rain to Bengal, Assam and Cachar.

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  • Magnolia, Aucuba, Abelia and Skimmia may be mentioned as examples of Chinese genera found in the eastern Himalayas, and the tea-tree grows wild in Assam.

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  • For the Malayan area, which Sir Joseph Hooker describes as forming " the bulk of the flora of the perennially humid regions of India, as of the whole Malayan peninsula, Upper Assam valley, the Khasi mountains, the forests of the base of the Himalaya from the Brahmaputra to Nepal, of the Malabar coast, and of Ceylon," see AssAM, Ceylon and Malay Peninsula.

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  • In Assam they are sometimes speared from boats, and in the Himalayas they are said to be ensnared by bird-lime.

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  • The wild dog, or dhole (Cyon), is found in all the wilder jungles of India, including Assam and Lower Burma.

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  • The Himalayan or Tibetan sun bear (Ursus torquatus) is found along the north, from the Punjab to Assam.

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  • The main source of supply at the present time is the confused mass of hills which forms the north-east boundary of British India, from Assam to Burma.

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  • sal- vanius), exists in the tarsi of Nepal and Sikkim, and has been shot in Assam.

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  • The sarau (Nemorhaedus bubalinus), allied to the chamois, has a wide range in the mountains of the north, from the Himalayas to Assam and Burma.

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  • Next in size is the swamp deer or bara-singha, signifying " twelve points " (C. duvauceli), which is common in Lower Bengal and Assam.

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  • the hill jungles of the country, in the Western Ghats, in Central India, in Assam, and in Burma.

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  • The finest specimens come from Assam and Burma.

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  • From the angler's point of view, by far the finest fish is the mahseer (Barbustor), found in all hill streams, whether in Assam, the Punjab or the South.

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  • In proportion to the total population Islam is most strongly represented in the NorthWest Frontier Province, where it is the religion of 92% of the inhabitants; then follow Kashmir and Sind with about 75 each, Eastern Bengal and Assam with 58%, the Punjab with 49%, Bengal with 18%, and the United Provinces with 14%.

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  • The Mon-Khmer family, which is most numerous in Indo-China, is here represented by the Talaings of southern Burma and the Khasis of Assam.

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  • Next follow the five lieutenantgovernorships of Bengal, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the Punjab, Burma, and Eastern Bengal and Assam, for each of which a council may be appointed, beginning with Bengal.

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  • The chief nonregulation provinces are the Punjab, Central Provinces and Burma; but non-regulation districts are also to be found in Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces and Sind.

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  • Bengal (including Eastern Bengal and Assam), Madras, Bombay and the old North-Western Provinces each has a high court, established by charter under an act of parliament, with judges appointed by the crown.

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  • The germs of rival systems can be traced in the old military and other service tenures of Assam, and in the poll tax of Burma, &c. The exclusive development of the land system is due to two conditions, - a comparatively high state of agriculture and an organized plan of administration, - both of which are supplied by the primitive village community.

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  • The cultivation of tea in India began within the memory of men still living, and now has replaced indigo as the chief article for European capital, more particularly in Assam.

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  • The real tea (The y viridis), a plant akin to the camellia, grows wild in Assam, being commonly found throughout the hilly tract between the valleys of the Brahmaputra and the Barak.

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  • There it sometimes attains the dimensions of a large tree; and from that, as well as from other indications, it has been plausibly inferred that Assam is the original home of the plant,] which was thence introduced at a prehistoric date into China.

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  • The real progress of tea-planting in Assam dates from about 1851, and was greatly assisted by the promulgation of the Waste-land Rules of 1854.

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  • The area under tea, of which nine-tenths lies in the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam, expanded by 85% during the sixteen years from 1885 to 1901, while the production increased by 167%.

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  • Here it meets the sal, which however is more especially found in the sub-Himalayan tracts of the United Provinces and Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • In the Himalayas themselves the deodar and other conifers form the bulk of the timber, while in the lower ranges, such as the Khasi hills in Assam, and those of Burma, various pines are prominent.

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  • In the north-east of Assam and in the north of Upper Burma the Ficus elastica, a species of india-rubber tree, is found.

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  • The cultivation of jute is confined to a comparatively restricted area, more than three-fourths of the total acreage being in eastern Bengal and Assam, while nearly the whole of the remaining fourth is in Bengal.

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  • In Behar it has begun to replace indigo, and some success was achieved in Orissa, Assam and Madras; but jute is a very exhausting crop, and requires to be planted in lands fertilized with silt or else with manure.

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  • Other kinds of silk are native to certain parts of India, such as those produced by the " castor oil " and the muga silkworms of Assam; but the chief of the wild silks is the tussore silk, which is found in the jungles nearly throughout India.

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  • In Assam silk is still the national dress, and forms the common costume of the women, but the men are relinquishing it as an article of daily wear in favour of cotton.

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  • There are some important mines in Assam and the Central Provinces.

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  • They are to be found in every part of the country, from the northern mountains of Assam and Kumaun to the extreme south of the Madras Presidency.

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  • Of the remainder nearly all comes from Assam.

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  • Towards the end of his reign Harsha's empire embraced the whole basin of the Ganges from the Himalayas to the Nerbudda, including Nepa1, 2 besides Malwa, Gujarat and Surashtra (Kathiawar); while even Assam (Kamarupa) was tributary to him.

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  • The successors of Alompra, after having subjugated all Burma, and overrun Assam, which was then an independent kingdom, began a series of encroachments upon British territory in Bengal.

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  • One expedition with gunboats proceeded up the Brahmaputra into Assam; another marched by land through Chittagong into Arakan, for the Bengal sepoys refused to go by sea; a third, and the strongest, sailed from Madras direct to the mouth of the Irrawaddy.

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  • At last, after the loss of about 20,000 lives and an expenditure of £14,000,000, the king of Ava consented to sign the treaty of Yandabu, by which he abandoned all claim to Assam, and ceded the provinces of Arakan and Tenasserim, which were already in the military occupation of the British.

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  • It lies north of Lakhimpur district, in the province of eastern Bengal and Assam, and is bounded on the east by the Mishmi Hills and on the west by the Miri Hills, the villages of the tribe extending to the Dibong river.

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  • In former times they committed frequent raids upon the plains of Assam, and have been the object of more than one retaliatory expedition by the British government.

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  • CHERRAPUNJI, a village in the Khasi hills district of Assam.

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  • COMILLA, or Kumilla, a town of British India, headquarters of Tippera district in Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated on the river Gumti, with a station on the Assam-Bengal railway, 96 m.

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  • The principal seat of Sakta worship is the north-eastern part of India - Bengal, Assam and Behar.

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  • ASSAM, a former province of British India, which was amalgamated in 1905 with "Eastern Bengal and Assam".

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  • The province of Assam lies on the N.E.

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  • Assam is naturally divided into three distinct tracts, the Brahmaputra valley, the Surma valley and the hill ranges between the two.

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  • To the north is the main chain of the Himalayas, the lower ranges of which rise abruptly from the plain; to the south is the great elevated plateau or succession of plateaus known as the Assam range.

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  • Assam is a fertile series of valleys, with the great channel of the Brahmaputra (literally, the Son of Brahma) flowing down its middle, and an infinite number of tributaries and watercourses pouring into it from the mountains on either side.

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  • The Brahmaputra spreads out in a sheet of water several miles broad during the rainy season, and in its course through Assam forms a number of islands in its bed.

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  • Rising in the Tibetan plateau, far to the north of the Himalayas, and skirting round their eastern passes not far from the Yang-tsze-kiang and the great river of Cambodia, it enters Assam by a series of waterfalls and rapids, amid vast boulders and accumulations of rocks.

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  • After a rapid course westwards down the whole length of the Assam valley, the Brahmaputra turns sharply to the south, spreading itself over the alluvial districts of the Bengal delta, and, after several changes of name, ends its course of 1800 m.

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  • Its first tributaries in Assam, after crossing the frontier, are the Kundil and the Digaru, flowing from the Mishmi hills on the north, and the Tengapani and Dihing, which take their rise on the Singpho hills to the south-east.

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  • The alluvial deposits of the Brahmaputra and of its tributary streams may be considered as the third general division of lands in Assam.

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  • ==Geology== Geographically the Assam hills lie in the angle between the Himalayas and the Burmese ranges, but geologically they belong to neither.

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  • The border ranges of the east and south of Assam belong to the Burmese system of mountain chains (see Burma), and consist largely of Tertiary beds, including the great coal seams of Upper Assam.

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  • The Assam valley is covered by the alluvial deposits of the Brahmaputra.

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  • Compared with the Gondwana coal of the peninsula of India the Tertiary coal seams of Assam are remarkable for their purity and their extraordinary thickness.

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  • The "Thick Seam" of Margherita, in Upper Assam, averages 50 ft., and in some places reaches as much as 80 ft.

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  • The average percentage of ash in 27 assays of Assam coal was 3.8 as against 16.3 in 17 assays of Raniganj coal.

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  • Assam is liable to earthquakes.

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  • ==Fauna== The zoology of Assam presents some interesting features.

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  • A considerable number are tamed and exported from Assam every year.

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  • In addition jute is grown to a considerable extent in Goalpara and Sylhet; cotton is grown in large quantities along the slopes of the Assam range.

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  • ==Tea Plantations== The most important article of commerce produced in Assam is tea.

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  • The tea plantations are the one great source of wealth to the province, and the necessities of tea cultivation are the chief stimulants to the development of Assam.

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  • Communications were opened with China with a view to obtain fresh plants and seeds, and a deputation, composed of gentlemen versed in botanical studies, was despatched to Assam.

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  • Some seeds were obtained from China; but they proved to be of small importance, as it was clearly ascertained by the members of the Assam deputation that both the black and the green tea plants were indigenous here, and might be multiplied to any extent; another result of the Chinese mission, that of procuring persons skilled in the cultivation and manufacture of black tea, was of more material benefit.

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  • In 1838 the first twelve chests of tea from Assam were received in England.

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  • Mercantile associations for the culture and manufacture of tea in Assam began to be formed as early as 1839; and in 1849 the government disposed of their establishment, and relinquished the manufacture to the ordinary operation of commercial enterprise.

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  • For these reasons there was a crisis in the tea industry of Assam, which was relieved to some extent by the reduction of the English duty on tea in 1906.

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  • The external trade of Assam is conducted partly by steamer, partly by native boat, and to a small extent by rail.

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  • The trade through Chittagong is increasing owing to the opening of the hill-section of the Assam-Bengal railway, which gives direct communication between the districts of Upper Assam and the port of Chittagong, and the incorporation of that port in the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • The total population of Assam, according to the census of 1901, was 6,126,343, of whom 3,4 2 9, 0 99 were Hindus, 1,581,317 Mahommedans and 1, 06 8,334 Animists.

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  • They were the last conquerors of Assam before the Burmese, and they long preserved their ancient traditions, habits and institutions.

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  • Several generations ago they gave up eating beef, and they are now completely Hinduized, except in a few remote recesses of Assam.

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  • The Assam peasant, living in a half-populated province, and surrounded by surplus land, is indolent, good-natured and, on the whole, prosperous.

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  • The hill and frontier tribes of Assam include the Nagas, Singphos, Daphlas, Miris, Khamtis, Mishmis, Abors, &c., nearly all of whom, excepting the Nagas, are found near the frontiers of Lakhimpur district.

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  • The principal of these, in point of numbers, are the Nagas, who inhabit the hills and forests along the eastern and south-eastern frontier of Assam.

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  • Assam was the province of Bengal which remained most stubbornly outside the limits of the Mogul empire and of the Mahommedan polity in India.

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  • Subsequently we read of Pal rulers in Assam.

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  • Although the whole of Kamrup appears from time to time to have been united into one kingdom under some unusually powerful monarch, it was more often split up into numerous petty states; and for several centuries the Koch, the Ahom and the Chutia powers contested for the Assam valley.

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  • In the early part of the 113th century the Ahoms or Ahams, from northern Burma and the Chinese frontiers, poured into the eastern districts of Assam, founded a kingdom, and held it firmly for several centuries.

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  • 1655, and all the Ahoms of Assam gradually followed his example.

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  • The physical difficulties which an invading force had to contend with in Assam, however, prevented anything like a regular subjugation of the country; and after repeated efforts, the Mussulmans contented themselves with occupying the western districts at the mouth of the Assam valley.

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  • In 1638, during the reign of the emperor Shah Jahan, the Assamese descended the Brahmaputra, and pillaged the country round the city of Dacca; they were expelled by the governor of Bengal, who retaliated upon the plunderers by ravaging Assam.

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  • During the civil wars between the sons of Shah Jahan, the king of Assam renewed his predatory incursions into Bengal; upon the termination of the contest, Aurangzeb determined to avenge these repeated insults, and despatched a considerable force for the regular invasion of the Assamese territory (1660-1662).

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  • Thus terminated the last expedition against Assam by the Mahommedans, whose fortunes in this country were never prosperous.

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  • Its condition encouraged the Burmese to depose the rajah, and to make Assam a dependency of Ava.

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  • Hence arose the series of hostilities with Ava known in Indian history as the first Burmese War, on the termination of which by treaty in February 1826, Assam remained a British possession.

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  • In 1832 that portion of the province denominated Upper Assam was formed into an independent native state, and conferred upon Purandhar Singh, the ex-rajah of the country; but the administration of this chief proved unsatisfactory, and in 1838 his principality was reunited with the British dominions.

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  • In 1886 the eastern Dwars were annexed from Bhutan; and in 1874 the district of Goalpara, the eastern Dwars and the Garo hills were incorporated in Assam.

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  • In 1898 the southern Lushai hills were transferred from Bengal to Assam, and the north and south Lushai hills were amalgamated as a district of Assam, and placed under the superintendent of the Lushai hills.

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  • In October 1905 the whole province of Assam was incorporated in the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • Gait, The History of Assam (1906).

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  • CHITTAGONG, a seaport of British India, giving its name to a district and two divisions of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • Since October 1905 Chittagong has become the chief port of the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • Again, proceeding down the banks of the Ganges, he diverged eastward to Kamarupa (Assam), and then passed by the great ports of Tamralipti (Tamluk, the mis placed Tamalitis of Ptolemy), and through Or.issa to Kanchipara (Conjeeveram), about 640.

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  • From the bend of the Indus southwards towards the plains of the Punjab to the bend of the Brahmaputra southwards towards the plains of Assam, through a length of 1500 m., is Himachal or Himalaya.

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  • Throughout this vast space of elevated plateau and mountain face geologists now trace a system of main chains, or axes, extending from the Hindu Kush to Assam, arranged in approximately parallel lines, and traversed at intervals by main lines of drainage obliquely.

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  • Neither immediately beyond this great bend, nor within it in the Himalayan regions lying north of Assam and east of Bhutan, have scientific investigations yet been systematically carried out; but it is known that the largest of the Himalayan affluents of the Brahmaputra west of the bend derive their sources from the Tibetan plateau, and break down through the containing bands of hills, carrying deposits of gold from their sources to the plains, as do all the rivers of Tibet.

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  • In the western Himalaya the cultivated variety of the tea plant of China succeeds well; on the east the indigenous tea of Assam, which is not specifically different, and is perhaps the original parent of the Chinese variety, is now almost everywhere preferred.

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  • The produce of the Chinese variety in the hot and wet climate of the eastern Himalaya, Assam and eastern Bengal is neither so abundant nor so highly flavoured as that of the indigenous plant.

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  • No lemurs occur, although a species is found in Assam, and another in southern India.

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  • He entered the Bengal civil service in 1867 and had a distinguished career as an administrator, becoming secretary to the Home Department of the Government of India in 1889, chief commissioner of Assam in 1894 and of the Central Provinces from 1895 to 1898, whence he was transferred to the India Office at home as secretary to the Judicial and Public Department, a post which he held until his retirement in 1910.

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  • or BOGRA Bagura, a town and district of British India, in the Rajshahi division of eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • by the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam, the boundary line being the Madhumati river and the Ganges; on the S.

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  • The province was reconstituted in 1905, when the Chittagong, Dacca and Rajshahi divisions, the district of Malda and the state of Hill Tippera were transferred from Bengal to a new province, Eastern Bengal and Assam; the five Hindi-speaking states of Chota Nagpur, namely Chang Bhakar, Korea, Sirguja, Udaipur and Jashpur, were transferred from Bengal to the Central Provinces; and Sambalpur and the five Oriya states of Bamra, Rairakhol, Sonpur, Patna and Kalahandi were transferred from the Central Provinces to Bengal.

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  • In 1831 the North-Western Provinces were created, which are now included with Oudh in the United Provinces; and the whole of northern India is now divided into the four lieutenantgovernorships of the Punjab, the United Provinces, Bengal, and Eastern Bengal and Assam, and the North-West Frontier Province under a commissioner.

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  • The valley of the Ganges, which is now divided between Bengal and Eastern Bengal and Assam, is one of the most fertile and densely-populated tracts of country in the world.

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  • The Mahommedans number some 9, 000,000 in Bengal, but the great bulk of their numbers was transferred to Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • Tea cultivation is the other great industry carried on by European capital, but that is chiefly confined to Assam, the industry in Darjeeling and the Dwars being on a small scale.

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  • The sea-borne trade of Bengal is almost entirely concentrated at Calcutta, which also serves as the chief port for Eastern Bengal and Assam, and for the United Provinces.

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  • The principal imports are cotton piece goods, railway materials, metals and machinery, oils, sugar, cotton, twist and salt; and the principal exports are jute, tea, hides, opium, rice, oil-seeds, indigo and lac. The inter-provincial trade is mostly carried on with Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces and the Central Provinces.

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  • From the United Provinces come opium, hides, raw cotton, wheat, shellac and oil-seeds; and from Assam, tea, oil-seeds and jute.

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  • In Lord Kitchener's reconstitution of the Indian army in 1904 the old Bengal command was abolished and its place taken by the Eastern army corps, which includes all the troops from Meerut to Assam.

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  • The boundaries of the 8th division include those of the former Oudh, Allahabad, Assam and Presidency districts; and the troops now quartered in Bengal only consist of the Presidency brigade with its headquarters at Fort William.

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  • The earthquake of the 12th of June 1897, which had its centre of disturbance in Assam, was felt throughout eastern and northern Bengal.

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  • See Parliamentary Papers relating to the reconstitution of the provinces of Bengal and Assam (Cd.

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  • BACKERGUNJE, or Bakarganj, a district of British India in the Dacca division of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • TAKIN, the Mishmi name of a remarkable hollow-horned ruminant (Budorcas taxicolor), the typical representative of which inhabits the Mishmi Hills, in the south-east corner of Tibet, immediately north of the Assam Valley, while a second form is found further east, in the Moupin district.

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  • Assam >>

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  • HKAMTI LONG (called Kantigyi by the Burmese, and Bor Hkampti by the peoples on the Assam side), a collection of seven Shan states subordinate to Burma, but at present beyond the administrative border.

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  • at Cherrapunji, in Assam.

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  • Tea plantations, with seeds and plants from Assam, Ceylon and the Himalayas, were started in the early part of 1900 on the slopes of the hills south of Resht at an altitude of about 1000 ft.

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  • An extinct water-lily, Euryale limburgensis, belongs to a monotypic genus now confined to Assam and China; an extinct sedge, Dulichium vespiforme, belongs to a genus only living in America, though the only living species once flourished also in Denmark; an extinct species of water-aloe (Stratiotes elegans) makes a third genus, represented only by a single living species, which was evidently better represented in Pliocene times.

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  • In Assam a separatist insurgency killed hundreds; so have tribal clashes in other states.

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  • Gangaw (Messua ferrea) the Assam iron-wood, is suitable for sleepers; and didu (Bombax insigne) is used for tea-boxes and packing-cases.

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  • Under their king Su-ka-pha they invaded Assam from the East in the year A.D.

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  • In the census of 1901 the total Ahom population in Assam was returned at 178,049.

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  • The Ahoms retained the form of government in Assam peculiar to the Shan tribes, which may be briefly described as an organized system of personal service in lieu of taxation.

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  • Their religion was pagan, being quite distinct from Buddhism; but in Assam they gradually became Hinduized, and their kings finally adopted Hindu names and titles.

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  • Gait, A History of Assam (Calcutta, 1906).

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  • From the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra on the east to that of the Indus on the west, and intervening between the tableland of the peninsula and the foot of the Himalayan slope of the Tibetan plateau, lies the great plain of northern India, which rises at its highest point to about moo ft., and includes altogether, with its prolongation up the valley of Assam, an area of about 500,000 sq.

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  • Failing to reach India through Upper Assam he returned to the neighbourhood of Lhasa, and crossed the Himalayas by a more westerly route.

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  • hulock) of Assam, H.

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  • DACCA, a city of British India, giving its name to a district and division of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.

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  • Devonshire (retinasphalt), France, Spain, Italy, Asia Minor, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Rumania, Dalmatia, Istria, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Moravia, Bavaria, Elsass, Kutais, Armenia, Persia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, Punjab, Assam, Sumatra, Algeria, Egypt, Maryland, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, California, Louisiana, Texas, Cuba, Colombia, Brazil.

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  • KACHIN HILLS, a mountainous tract in Upper Burma, inhabited by the Kachin or Chingpaw, who are known on the Assam frontier as Singphos.

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  • of the Kachins or Chingpaw were the Indo-Chinese race who, before the beginnings of history, but after the Mon-Annam wave had covered Indo-China, forsook their home in western China to pour over the region where Tibet, Assam, Burma and China converge, and that the Chingpaw are the residue left round the headquarters of the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin after those branches, destined to become the Tibetans, the Nagas, the Burmans and the Kuki Chins, had gone westwards and southwards.

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  • Gayal are kept by the natives of the hill-districts of Assam and parts of Tenasserim and Upper Burma.

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  • before finally shaping itself southwards towards the plains of Assam.

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  • Then it is lost amidst the jungle-covered hills of the wild Mishmi and Abor tribes to the east of Bhutan for another ioo m., until it is again found as the Dihong emerging into the plains of Assam.

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  • From the north-eastern extremity of Assam where, near Sadya, the Lohit, the Dibong and the Dihong unite to form the wide placid Brahmaputra of the plains - one of the grandest rivers of the world - its south-westerly course to the Bay of Bengal is sufficiently well known.

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  • The following are the " lowest level " discharges of the principal affluents of the Brahmaputra in Upper Assam, estimated in cubic feet per second: Lohit river, 9 m.

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  • " Rambong " or Assam rubber is the produce of Ficus elastica, commonly known as the indiarubber tree and cultivated in Europe as an ornamental plant.

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  • Ficus elastica is the tree which produces Rambong or Assam rubber.

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  • In Assam and in upper Burma there are extensive forests of Ficus elastica, but to a large extent the trees have been damaged by careless tapping.

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  • Large plantations have been formed by the Government of India both in Assam and Bengal, but most FIG.

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  • It has been found that although the tree grows well in many different countries and different localities, it only furnishes a satisfactory yield of rubber in mountainous districts, such as those of Assam and certain parts of Ceylon and Java.

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  • DIBRUGARH, a town of British India, in the Lakhimpur district of eastern Bengal and Assam, of which it is the headquarters, situated on the Dibru river about 4 m.

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  • There are a military cantonment, the headquarters of the volunteer corps known as the Assam Valley Light Horse; a government high school, a training school for masters; and an aided school for girls.

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  • It lies north of the Darrang district of Eastern Bengal and Assam, and is bounded on the east by the Daphla Hills and on the west by independent Bhutia tribes.

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  • The variety chiefly grown is the Assam indigenous.

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  • It stretches from Cape Negrais on the south to the Naaf estuary, which divides it from the Chittagong division of Eastern Bengal and Assam on the north, and includes the districts of Sandoway, Kyaukpyu, Akyab and northern Arakan, an area of some 18,540 sq.

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  • The Kumon range running down from the Hkamti country east of Assam to near Mogaung ends in a peak known as Shwedaunggyi, which reaches some 5750 ft.

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  • The Burmese are supposed by modern philologists to have come, as joint members of a vast Indo-Chinese immigration swarm, from western China to the head waters of the Irrawaddy and then separated, some to people Tibet and Assam, the others to press southwards into the 1 See also, for geology, W.

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  • Compared with the congested districts in the other provinces of India, with the exception of Assam, the lot of the Burman is decidedly enviable.

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  • It happened, accordingly, that the Burmese, carrying their arms into Assam and Manipur, penetrated to the British border near Sylhet, odthe north-east frontier of Bengal, beyond which were the possessions of the chiefs of Cachar, under the protection of the British government.

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  • This species is now only met with in a wild state in the Assam plain, though, it formerly had a wider range.

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  • It is the smallest of all the species, and its geographical range is nearly the same as that of the Javan species, though not extending into Java; it has been found in Assam, Chittagong, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.

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  • by the British province of Assam, and the district of Jalpaiguri; and on the W.

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  • It is peculiar to this tract, not being found in any of the neighbouring countries of Assam, Nepal, Tibet or Bengal, and unites in an eminent degree the two qualities of strength and beauty.

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  • From this period little intercourse took place with Bhutan, until the occupation of Assam by the British in 1826.

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  • But his negotiations yielded no definite result; and every other means of obtaining redress and security proving unsuccessful, the Assam Dwars were wrested from the Bhutias, and the British government consented to pay to Bhutan a sum of £l000 per annum as compensation for the resumption of their tenure, during the good behaviour of the Bhutias.

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  • Eden's return the viceroy at once disavowed his treaty, sternly stopped the former allowance for the Assam Dwars, and demanded the immediate restoration of all British subjects kidnapped during the last five years.

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  • The Bhutan government formally ceded all the eighteen Dwars of Bengal and Assam, with the rest of the territory taken from them, and agreed to liberate all kidnapped British subjects.

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  • Their language, the most distinctively Lao-Tai attribute which they have, plainly shows their very close relationship with the latter race and its present branches, the Shans (Tai Long) and the Ahom of Assam, while their appearance, customs, written character and religion bear strong evidence of their affinity with the Khmers.

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  • torquatus) is found in the forest regions ranging from the Persian frontier eastward to Assam.

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  • In Assam there is a small spiny hare (Caprolagus hispidus), with the habits of a rabbit; and an allied species (Nesolagus nitscheri) inhabits Sumatra, and a third (Pentalagus furnessi) the Liu-kiu Islands.

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  • The spiny rabbit, separated from Lepus by Blyth in 1845 under the name of Caprolagus hispidus, is an inhabitant of Assam and the adjacent districts, and distinguished by its harsh, bristly fur and short ears and tail.

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  • Next in promising qualities is the muga or moonga worm of Assam, Antheraea assaina, a species to some extent domesticated in its native country.

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  • The eria or arrindi moth of Bengal and Assam, Attacus ricini, which feeds on the castor-oil plant, yields seven generations yearly, forming loose flossy orange-red and sometimes white cocoons.

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  • Moonga silk from Antheraea assama has generally a rather darkbrown colour, but that appears to be much influenced by the leaves on which the worm feeds, the cocoons obtained on the champaca tree (Michelia champaca) giving a fine white fibre much valued in Assam.

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  • Farther east the Takpa of Tawang in the eastern Assam Himalayas appears to form a transition between the central and the Sifan group of dialects on the Chinese frontier, which includes the Minyak, Sungpan, Lifan and Tochu dialects.

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  • Patna in Bengal is the chief market for the Nepal trade; Diwangiri and Udalguri for Assam, and Darjeeling and Kalimpong for Sikkim and Chumbi.

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  • The Baptists have also stations in Arakan and Assam where they link up with the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists (1845).

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  • taxoides is found in Assam, Arakan and perhaps in China; and there is probably another in Tibet.

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  • About the year 1820 Mr David Scott, the first commissioner of Assam, sent to Calcutta from Kuch Behar and Rangpur - the very districts indicated by Sir Joseph Banks as favourable for tea-growing - certain leaves, with a statement that they were said to belong to the wild tea-plant.

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  • These very leaves ultimately came into the herbarium of the Linnean Society of London, and have authoritatively been pronounced to belong to the indigenous Assam tea-plant.

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  • It was not till 1834 that, overcome by the insistence of Captain Francis Jenkins, who maintained and proved that, called by the name Camellia or not, the leaves belonged to a tea-plant, Dr Wallich admitted "the fact of the genuine tea-plant being a native of our territories in Upper Assam as incontrovertibly proved."

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  • The discovery and reports of Captain Jenkins led to the investigation of the capacities of Assam as a tea-growing country by Lord William Bentinck's committee.

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  • resolved to institute an experimental establishment in Assam for cultivating and manufacturing tea, leaving the industry to be developed by private enterprise should its practicability be demonstrated.

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  • In 1836 there was sent to London i lb of tea made from indigenous leaves; in 1837 5 lb of Assam tea were sent; in 1838 the quantity sent was 12 small boxes, and 95 boxes reached London in 1839.

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  • In the same auction catalogue were included 95 packages, "the produce of the Government Tea Plantation in Assam," many of which bore the Chubwa mark, one well known to this day.

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  • In January 1840 the Assam Company was formed to take over the early tea garden of the East India Company, and this, the premier company, is still in existence, having produced up to 1907 no less than 117,000,000 lb of tea and paid in dividends X1,360,000 or 730 per cent.

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  • From its point of origin in Assam, it has gradually spread to other districts with varying commercial success.

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  • Of late years, however, by the introduction of fine Assam seed and the adoption of methods similar to those in use in India, a marked improvement has taken place, and there seems little reason to doubt that, with the very rich soil and abundant cheap labour that the island of Java possesses, the relative progress there may be greater in future than in any other producing land.

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  • The Assam Indigenous, in its two sub-races of Singlo and Bazalona, and the Manipur, originally found wild in the jungles of the native state of that name, have, with various intermixtures and crossings, been used to cover the greatest areas of all the more modern planting in India, Ceylon and Java.

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  • leaves of this variety are generally, roughly speaking, about half the size of those of the Assam Indigenous and Manipur sorts.

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  • The bush is in every way smaller than the Assam types.

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  • He holds the opinion that the tea-plant is indigenous, not to Assam only, but to the whole monsoon region of eastern Asia, where he found it growing wild as far north as the islands of southern Japan.

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  • He considers that the tea-plant had, from the remotest times, two distinct varieties, the Assam and Chinese, as he thinks that the period of known cultivation has been too short to produce the differences that exist between them.

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  • The finest teas are produced at high elevations in Darjeeling and Ceylon and in the plains of Assam, but the quality from individual estates varies much from season to season, and even from week to week.

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  • Eastern Bengal and Assam >>

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  • BARISAL, a town of British India, headquarters of Backergunje district in Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated on a river of the same name.

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  • DINAJPUR, a town (with a population in 1901 of 13,430) and district of Britsh India, in the Rajshahi division of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • The Himalayan ranges at the north-eastern angle (in about 28° N., 97° E.) throw off spurs and chains to the south-east, which separate Eastern Bengal from Assam and Burma.

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  • At the northeastern angle of that frontier, the Dihang river, the connecting link between the Tsanpo of Tibet and the Brahmaputra of Assam, bursts through the main axis of the range.

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  • On the north-east, those offshoots, under the name of the Naga and Patkoi mountains, &c., form a barrier between the civilized districts of Assam and the wild tribes of Upper Burma.

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  • About 167 millions of people now live on and around these river plains, in the provinces known as the lieutenant-governorship of Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces, the Punjab, Sind, Rajputana and other native states.

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  • It turns, however, almost due east instead of west, enters India at the eastern extremity of the Himalayas, and becomes the Brahmaputra of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • The land probably extended as far as Assam, for the Cretaceous fossils of Assam are similar to those of the south.

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  • The first, or the valley of Assam and the Brahmaputra, is long and narrow, bordered on the north by the Himalayas, on the south by the lower plateau of the Garo, Khasi and Naga hills.

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  • Similarly the Bengal monsoon passes by the Coromandel coast and the Carnatic with an occasional shower, taking a larger volume to Masulipatam and Orissa, and abundant rain to Bengal, Assam and Cachar.

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  • Magnolia, Aucuba, Abelia and Skimmia may be mentioned as examples of Chinese genera found in the eastern Himalayas, and the tea-tree grows wild in Assam.

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  • For the Malayan area, which Sir Joseph Hooker describes as forming " the bulk of the flora of the perennially humid regions of India, as of the whole Malayan peninsula, Upper Assam valley, the Khasi mountains, the forests of the base of the Himalaya from the Brahmaputra to Nepal, of the Malabar coast, and of Ceylon," see AssAM, Ceylon and Malay Peninsula.

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  • In Assam they are sometimes speared from boats, and in the Himalayas they are said to be ensnared by bird-lime.

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  • The wild dog, or dhole (Cyon), is found in all the wilder jungles of India, including Assam and Lower Burma.

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  • The Himalayan or Tibetan sun bear (Ursus torquatus) is found along the north, from the Punjab to Assam.

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  • The main source of supply at the present time is the confused mass of hills which forms the north-east boundary of British India, from Assam to Burma.

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  • sal- vanius), exists in the tarsi of Nepal and Sikkim, and has been shot in Assam.

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  • The sarau (Nemorhaedus bubalinus), allied to the chamois, has a wide range in the mountains of the north, from the Himalayas to Assam and Burma.

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  • Next in size is the swamp deer or bara-singha, signifying " twelve points " (C. duvauceli), which is common in Lower Bengal and Assam.

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  • the hill jungles of the country, in the Western Ghats, in Central India, in Assam, and in Burma.

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  • The finest specimens come from Assam and Burma.

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  • From the angler's point of view, by far the finest fish is the mahseer (Barbustor), found in all hill streams, whether in Assam, the Punjab or the South.

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  • In proportion to the total population Islam is most strongly represented in the NorthWest Frontier Province, where it is the religion of 92% of the inhabitants; then follow Kashmir and Sind with about 75 each, Eastern Bengal and Assam with 58%, the Punjab with 49%, Bengal with 18%, and the United Provinces with 14%.

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  • The Mon-Khmer family, which is most numerous in Indo-China, is here represented by the Talaings of southern Burma and the Khasis of Assam.

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  • Next follow the five lieutenantgovernorships of Bengal, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the Punjab, Burma, and Eastern Bengal and Assam, for each of which a council may be appointed, beginning with Bengal.

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  • The chief nonregulation provinces are the Punjab, Central Provinces and Burma; but non-regulation districts are also to be found in Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces and Sind.

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  • Bengal (including Eastern Bengal and Assam), Madras, Bombay and the old North-Western Provinces each has a high court, established by charter under an act of parliament, with judges appointed by the crown.

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  • The germs of rival systems can be traced in the old military and other service tenures of Assam, and in the poll tax of Burma, &c. The exclusive development of the land system is due to two conditions, - a comparatively high state of agriculture and an organized plan of administration, - both of which are supplied by the primitive village community.

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  • The cultivation of tea in India began within the memory of men still living, and now has replaced indigo as the chief article for European capital, more particularly in Assam.

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  • The real tea (The y viridis), a plant akin to the camellia, grows wild in Assam, being commonly found throughout the hilly tract between the valleys of the Brahmaputra and the Barak.

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  • There it sometimes attains the dimensions of a large tree; and from that, as well as from other indications, it has been plausibly inferred that Assam is the original home of the plant,] which was thence introduced at a prehistoric date into China.

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  • The real progress of tea-planting in Assam dates from about 1851, and was greatly assisted by the promulgation of the Waste-land Rules of 1854.

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  • The area under tea, of which nine-tenths lies in the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam, expanded by 85% during the sixteen years from 1885 to 1901, while the production increased by 167%.

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  • Here it meets the sal, which however is more especially found in the sub-Himalayan tracts of the United Provinces and Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • In the Himalayas themselves the deodar and other conifers form the bulk of the timber, while in the lower ranges, such as the Khasi hills in Assam, and those of Burma, various pines are prominent.

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  • In the north-east of Assam and in the north of Upper Burma the Ficus elastica, a species of india-rubber tree, is found.

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  • The cultivation of jute is confined to a comparatively restricted area, more than three-fourths of the total acreage being in eastern Bengal and Assam, while nearly the whole of the remaining fourth is in Bengal.

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  • In Behar it has begun to replace indigo, and some success was achieved in Orissa, Assam and Madras; but jute is a very exhausting crop, and requires to be planted in lands fertilized with silt or else with manure.

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  • Other kinds of silk are native to certain parts of India, such as those produced by the " castor oil " and the muga silkworms of Assam; but the chief of the wild silks is the tussore silk, which is found in the jungles nearly throughout India.

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  • In Assam silk is still the national dress, and forms the common costume of the women, but the men are relinquishing it as an article of daily wear in favour of cotton.

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  • There are some important mines in Assam and the Central Provinces.

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  • They are to be found in every part of the country, from the northern mountains of Assam and Kumaun to the extreme south of the Madras Presidency.

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  • Of the remainder nearly all comes from Assam.

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  • Towards the end of his reign Harsha's empire embraced the whole basin of the Ganges from the Himalayas to the Nerbudda, including Nepa1, 2 besides Malwa, Gujarat and Surashtra (Kathiawar); while even Assam (Kamarupa) was tributary to him.

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  • The successors of Alompra, after having subjugated all Burma, and overrun Assam, which was then an independent kingdom, began a series of encroachments upon British territory in Bengal.

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  • One expedition with gunboats proceeded up the Brahmaputra into Assam; another marched by land through Chittagong into Arakan, for the Bengal sepoys refused to go by sea; a third, and the strongest, sailed from Madras direct to the mouth of the Irrawaddy.

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  • At last, after the loss of about 20,000 lives and an expenditure of £14,000,000, the king of Ava consented to sign the treaty of Yandabu, by which he abandoned all claim to Assam, and ceded the provinces of Arakan and Tenasserim, which were already in the military occupation of the British.

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  • It lies north of Lakhimpur district, in the province of eastern Bengal and Assam, and is bounded on the east by the Mishmi Hills and on the west by the Miri Hills, the villages of the tribe extending to the Dibong river.

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  • In former times they committed frequent raids upon the plains of Assam, and have been the object of more than one retaliatory expedition by the British government.

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  • CHERRAPUNJI, a village in the Khasi hills district of Assam.

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  • COMILLA, or Kumilla, a town of British India, headquarters of Tippera district in Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated on the river Gumti, with a station on the Assam-Bengal railway, 96 m.

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  • The principal seat of Sakta worship is the north-eastern part of India - Bengal, Assam and Behar.

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  • ASSAM, a former province of British India, which was amalgamated in 1905 with "Eastern Bengal and Assam".

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  • The province of Assam lies on the N.E.

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  • Assam is naturally divided into three distinct tracts, the Brahmaputra valley, the Surma valley and the hill ranges between the two.

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  • To the north is the main chain of the Himalayas, the lower ranges of which rise abruptly from the plain; to the south is the great elevated plateau or succession of plateaus known as the Assam range.

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  • Assam is a fertile series of valleys, with the great channel of the Brahmaputra (literally, the Son of Brahma) flowing down its middle, and an infinite number of tributaries and watercourses pouring into it from the mountains on either side.

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  • The Brahmaputra spreads out in a sheet of water several miles broad during the rainy season, and in its course through Assam forms a number of islands in its bed.

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  • Rising in the Tibetan plateau, far to the north of the Himalayas, and skirting round their eastern passes not far from the Yang-tsze-kiang and the great river of Cambodia, it enters Assam by a series of waterfalls and rapids, amid vast boulders and accumulations of rocks.

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  • After a rapid course westwards down the whole length of the Assam valley, the Brahmaputra turns sharply to the south, spreading itself over the alluvial districts of the Bengal delta, and, after several changes of name, ends its course of 1800 m.

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  • Its first tributaries in Assam, after crossing the frontier, are the Kundil and the Digaru, flowing from the Mishmi hills on the north, and the Tengapani and Dihing, which take their rise on the Singpho hills to the south-east.

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  • The alluvial deposits of the Brahmaputra and of its tributary streams may be considered as the third general division of lands in Assam.

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  • ==Geology== Geographically the Assam hills lie in the angle between the Himalayas and the Burmese ranges, but geologically they belong to neither.

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  • The border ranges of the east and south of Assam belong to the Burmese system of mountain chains (see Burma), and consist largely of Tertiary beds, including the great coal seams of Upper Assam.

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  • The Assam valley is covered by the alluvial deposits of the Brahmaputra.

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  • Compared with the Gondwana coal of the peninsula of India the Tertiary coal seams of Assam are remarkable for their purity and their extraordinary thickness.

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  • The "Thick Seam" of Margherita, in Upper Assam, averages 50 ft., and in some places reaches as much as 80 ft.

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  • The average percentage of ash in 27 assays of Assam coal was 3.8 as against 16.3 in 17 assays of Raniganj coal.

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  • Assam is liable to earthquakes.

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  • ==Fauna== The zoology of Assam presents some interesting features.

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  • A considerable number are tamed and exported from Assam every year.

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  • In addition jute is grown to a considerable extent in Goalpara and Sylhet; cotton is grown in large quantities along the slopes of the Assam range.

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  • ==Tea Plantations== The most important article of commerce produced in Assam is tea.

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  • The tea plantations are the one great source of wealth to the province, and the necessities of tea cultivation are the chief stimulants to the development of Assam.

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  • Communications were opened with China with a view to obtain fresh plants and seeds, and a deputation, composed of gentlemen versed in botanical studies, was despatched to Assam.

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  • Some seeds were obtained from China; but they proved to be of small importance, as it was clearly ascertained by the members of the Assam deputation that both the black and the green tea plants were indigenous here, and might be multiplied to any extent; another result of the Chinese mission, that of procuring persons skilled in the cultivation and manufacture of black tea, was of more material benefit.

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  • In 1838 the first twelve chests of tea from Assam were received in England.

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  • Mercantile associations for the culture and manufacture of tea in Assam began to be formed as early as 1839; and in 1849 the government disposed of their establishment, and relinquished the manufacture to the ordinary operation of commercial enterprise.

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  • For these reasons there was a crisis in the tea industry of Assam, which was relieved to some extent by the reduction of the English duty on tea in 1906.

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  • The external trade of Assam is conducted partly by steamer, partly by native boat, and to a small extent by rail.

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  • The trade through Chittagong is increasing owing to the opening of the hill-section of the Assam-Bengal railway, which gives direct communication between the districts of Upper Assam and the port of Chittagong, and the incorporation of that port in the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • The total population of Assam, according to the census of 1901, was 6,126,343, of whom 3,4 2 9, 0 99 were Hindus, 1,581,317 Mahommedans and 1, 06 8,334 Animists.

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  • They were the last conquerors of Assam before the Burmese, and they long preserved their ancient traditions, habits and institutions.

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  • Several generations ago they gave up eating beef, and they are now completely Hinduized, except in a few remote recesses of Assam.

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  • The Assam peasant, living in a half-populated province, and surrounded by surplus land, is indolent, good-natured and, on the whole, prosperous.

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  • The hill and frontier tribes of Assam include the Nagas, Singphos, Daphlas, Miris, Khamtis, Mishmis, Abors, &c., nearly all of whom, excepting the Nagas, are found near the frontiers of Lakhimpur district.

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  • The principal of these, in point of numbers, are the Nagas, who inhabit the hills and forests along the eastern and south-eastern frontier of Assam.

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  • Assam was the province of Bengal which remained most stubbornly outside the limits of the Mogul empire and of the Mahommedan polity in India.

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  • Subsequently we read of Pal rulers in Assam.

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  • Although the whole of Kamrup appears from time to time to have been united into one kingdom under some unusually powerful monarch, it was more often split up into numerous petty states; and for several centuries the Koch, the Ahom and the Chutia powers contested for the Assam valley.

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  • In the early part of the 113th century the Ahoms or Ahams, from northern Burma and the Chinese frontiers, poured into the eastern districts of Assam, founded a kingdom, and held it firmly for several centuries.

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  • 1655, and all the Ahoms of Assam gradually followed his example.

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  • The physical difficulties which an invading force had to contend with in Assam, however, prevented anything like a regular subjugation of the country; and after repeated efforts, the Mussulmans contented themselves with occupying the western districts at the mouth of the Assam valley.

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  • In 1638, during the reign of the emperor Shah Jahan, the Assamese descended the Brahmaputra, and pillaged the country round the city of Dacca; they were expelled by the governor of Bengal, who retaliated upon the plunderers by ravaging Assam.

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  • During the civil wars between the sons of Shah Jahan, the king of Assam renewed his predatory incursions into Bengal; upon the termination of the contest, Aurangzeb determined to avenge these repeated insults, and despatched a considerable force for the regular invasion of the Assamese territory (1660-1662).

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  • Thus terminated the last expedition against Assam by the Mahommedans, whose fortunes in this country were never prosperous.

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  • Its condition encouraged the Burmese to depose the rajah, and to make Assam a dependency of Ava.

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  • Hence arose the series of hostilities with Ava known in Indian history as the first Burmese War, on the termination of which by treaty in February 1826, Assam remained a British possession.

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  • In 1832 that portion of the province denominated Upper Assam was formed into an independent native state, and conferred upon Purandhar Singh, the ex-rajah of the country; but the administration of this chief proved unsatisfactory, and in 1838 his principality was reunited with the British dominions.

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  • In 1886 the eastern Dwars were annexed from Bhutan; and in 1874 the district of Goalpara, the eastern Dwars and the Garo hills were incorporated in Assam.

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  • In 1898 the southern Lushai hills were transferred from Bengal to Assam, and the north and south Lushai hills were amalgamated as a district of Assam, and placed under the superintendent of the Lushai hills.

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  • In October 1905 the whole province of Assam was incorporated in the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • Gait, The History of Assam (1906).

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  • CHITTAGONG, a seaport of British India, giving its name to a district and two divisions of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • Since October 1905 Chittagong has become the chief port of the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • Again, proceeding down the banks of the Ganges, he diverged eastward to Kamarupa (Assam), and then passed by the great ports of Tamralipti (Tamluk, the mis placed Tamalitis of Ptolemy), and through Or.issa to Kanchipara (Conjeeveram), about 640.

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  • From the bend of the Indus southwards towards the plains of the Punjab to the bend of the Brahmaputra southwards towards the plains of Assam, through a length of 1500 m., is Himachal or Himalaya.

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  • Throughout this vast space of elevated plateau and mountain face geologists now trace a system of main chains, or axes, extending from the Hindu Kush to Assam, arranged in approximately parallel lines, and traversed at intervals by main lines of drainage obliquely.

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  • Neither immediately beyond this great bend, nor within it in the Himalayan regions lying north of Assam and east of Bhutan, have scientific investigations yet been systematically carried out; but it is known that the largest of the Himalayan affluents of the Brahmaputra west of the bend derive their sources from the Tibetan plateau, and break down through the containing bands of hills, carrying deposits of gold from their sources to the plains, as do all the rivers of Tibet.

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  • In the western Himalaya the cultivated variety of the tea plant of China succeeds well; on the east the indigenous tea of Assam, which is not specifically different, and is perhaps the original parent of the Chinese variety, is now almost everywhere preferred.

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  • The produce of the Chinese variety in the hot and wet climate of the eastern Himalaya, Assam and eastern Bengal is neither so abundant nor so highly flavoured as that of the indigenous plant.

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  • No lemurs occur, although a species is found in Assam, and another in southern India.

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  • He entered the Bengal civil service in 1867 and had a distinguished career as an administrator, becoming secretary to the Home Department of the Government of India in 1889, chief commissioner of Assam in 1894 and of the Central Provinces from 1895 to 1898, whence he was transferred to the India Office at home as secretary to the Judicial and Public Department, a post which he held until his retirement in 1910.

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  • or BOGRA Bagura, a town and district of British India, in the Rajshahi division of eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • by the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam, the boundary line being the Madhumati river and the Ganges; on the S.

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  • The province was reconstituted in 1905, when the Chittagong, Dacca and Rajshahi divisions, the district of Malda and the state of Hill Tippera were transferred from Bengal to a new province, Eastern Bengal and Assam; the five Hindi-speaking states of Chota Nagpur, namely Chang Bhakar, Korea, Sirguja, Udaipur and Jashpur, were transferred from Bengal to the Central Provinces; and Sambalpur and the five Oriya states of Bamra, Rairakhol, Sonpur, Patna and Kalahandi were transferred from the Central Provinces to Bengal.

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  • In 1831 the North-Western Provinces were created, which are now included with Oudh in the United Provinces; and the whole of northern India is now divided into the four lieutenantgovernorships of the Punjab, the United Provinces, Bengal, and Eastern Bengal and Assam, and the North-West Frontier Province under a commissioner.

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  • The valley of the Ganges, which is now divided between Bengal and Eastern Bengal and Assam, is one of the most fertile and densely-populated tracts of country in the world.

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  • The Mahommedans number some 9, 000,000 in Bengal, but the great bulk of their numbers was transferred to Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • Tea cultivation is the other great industry carried on by European capital, but that is chiefly confined to Assam, the industry in Darjeeling and the Dwars being on a small scale.

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  • The sea-borne trade of Bengal is almost entirely concentrated at Calcutta, which also serves as the chief port for Eastern Bengal and Assam, and for the United Provinces.

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  • The principal imports are cotton piece goods, railway materials, metals and machinery, oils, sugar, cotton, twist and salt; and the principal exports are jute, tea, hides, opium, rice, oil-seeds, indigo and lac. The inter-provincial trade is mostly carried on with Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces and the Central Provinces.

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  • From the United Provinces come opium, hides, raw cotton, wheat, shellac and oil-seeds; and from Assam, tea, oil-seeds and jute.

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  • In Lord Kitchener's reconstitution of the Indian army in 1904 the old Bengal command was abolished and its place taken by the Eastern army corps, which includes all the troops from Meerut to Assam.

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  • The boundaries of the 8th division include those of the former Oudh, Allahabad, Assam and Presidency districts; and the troops now quartered in Bengal only consist of the Presidency brigade with its headquarters at Fort William.

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  • The earthquake of the 12th of June 1897, which had its centre of disturbance in Assam, was felt throughout eastern and northern Bengal.

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  • See Parliamentary Papers relating to the reconstitution of the provinces of Bengal and Assam (Cd.

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  • BACKERGUNJE, or Bakarganj, a district of British India in the Dacca division of Eastern Bengal and Assam.

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  • TAKIN, the Mishmi name of a remarkable hollow-horned ruminant (Budorcas taxicolor), the typical representative of which inhabits the Mishmi Hills, in the south-east corner of Tibet, immediately north of the Assam Valley, while a second form is found further east, in the Moupin district.

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  • HKAMTI LONG (called Kantigyi by the Burmese, and Bor Hkampti by the peoples on the Assam side), a collection of seven Shan states subordinate to Burma, but at present beyond the administrative border.

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  • at Cherrapunji, in Assam.

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  • Tea plantations, with seeds and plants from Assam, Ceylon and the Himalayas, were started in the early part of 1900 on the slopes of the hills south of Resht at an altitude of about 1000 ft.

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  • An extinct water-lily, Euryale limburgensis, belongs to a monotypic genus now confined to Assam and China; an extinct sedge, Dulichium vespiforme, belongs to a genus only living in America, though the only living species once flourished also in Denmark; an extinct species of water-aloe (Stratiotes elegans) makes a third genus, represented only by a single living species, which was evidently better represented in Pliocene times.

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  • Indian teas include Chai, Darjeeling, and Assam.

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  • Their religion was pagan, being quite distinct from Buddhism; but in Assam they gradually became Hinduized, and their kings finally adopted Hindu names and titles.

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  • hulock) of Assam, H.

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  • of the Kachins or Chingpaw were the Indo-Chinese race who, before the beginnings of history, but after the Mon-Annam wave had covered Indo-China, forsook their home in western China to pour over the region where Tibet, Assam, Burma and China converge, and that the Chingpaw are the residue left round the headquarters of the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin after those branches, destined to become the Tibetans, the Nagas, the Burmans and the Kuki Chins, had gone westwards and southwards.

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  • The eria or arrindi moth of Bengal and Assam, Attacus ricini, which feeds on the castor-oil plant, yields seven generations yearly, forming loose flossy orange-red and sometimes white cocoons.

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