Noteworthy among the buildings within the ancient citadel is a small tetrastyle temple, variously ascribed to Jupiter and Minerva, the portico supported by six monolithic columns of cippolino, four being in front.
The oldest form of his story is found in the Passio ascribed to Eucherius, bishop of Lyons, c. 450, who relates how the "Theban" legion commanded by Mauritius was sent to north Italy to reinforce the army of Maximinian.
The foundation of the abbey of St Maurice (Agaunum) in the Valais is usually ascribed to Sigismund of Burgundy (515).
His deposition has been ascribed to a formal act of the Witan, but this seems an antedating of constitutional methods and the circumstances point to a palace revolution.
The fineness of the hair may perhaps be ascribed to some peculiarity in the atmosphere, for it is remarkable that the cats, dogs and other animals of the country are to 'a certain extent affected in the same way, and that they all lose much of their distinctive beauty when taken from their native districts.
From certain indications in the latter and the evidence of some odd leaves discovered by David Laing, it has been concluded that there was an earlier Edinburgh edition, which has been ascribed to Thomas Davidson, printer, and dated c. 1540.
high, large remains of a circular cyclopean tower, called Dun-Aengus, ascribed to the Fir-bolg or Belgae; or, individually, to the first of three brothers, Aengus, Conchobar and Nil, who reached Aran Islands from Scotland in the 1st century A.D.
His support to the Lord Roos Act, ascribed generally to his desire to ingratiate himself with Charles, was no doubt due in part to the fact that his son had married Lord Roos's sister.
It will be seen from this statement that Peiper bases his conclusions on grounds far too narrow; and on the whole it is perhaps more probable that Boetius wrote none of the four Christian treatises, particularly as they are not ascribed to him by any of his contemporaries.
His first work was an inquiry into the authorship of the Commentary on St Paul's Epistles and the Treatise on Biblical Questions, ascribed to Ambrose and Augustine respectively.
To a Rechabite (the clan is allied to the Kenites) is definitely ascribed a hand in Jehu's sanguinary measures, and, though little is told of the obviously momentous events, one writer clearly alludes to a bloody period when reforms were to be effected by the sword (1 Kings xix.
The small cathedral of St Aurea, also an early Renaissance structure, with Gothic windows, is by some ascribed to Meo del Caprina (1430-1501).
Norman Lockyer, and ascribed by him to a hypothetical element helium.
About loo treatises are ascribed to Avicenna.
In 1678 the murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey was ascribed to her servants, and Titus Oates accused her of a design to poison the king.
27 seq.).5 Some tradition of a widespread movement appears to be ascribed to the age of Jehu, whose accession, promoted by the prophet Elisha, marks the end of the conflict between Yahweh and Baal.
13), and the character of a sign between Yahweh and Israel ascribed to it in the post-exilic law.
In the Phaedo a confident expectation is ascribed to him.
His proposed tax of a 1 This phrase is always ascribed to Lowe, and has become history in association with him.
During the succeeding ten years he wrote the six works which are ascribed to him and were published under his name by P. Mandonnet in 1899.
Among the men of business it was undoubtedly Sir John Pender (1815-1896) who contributed most to the development of this colossal industry, and to his unfailing faith in their ultimate realization must be ascribed the completion of the first successful Atlantic cables.
Leo; on the other hand, Thomas of Celano's two Lives are free from the "tendencies" ascribed to them by Sabatier, and that of 1248 was written with the collaboration of Leo and the other companions; thus the best sources of information are those portions of the Speculum that can with certainty be carried back to Br.
But a sacred character was ascribed to the emperors.
8-10) ascribed the victory to the magic arts of an Egyptian named Arnuphis who prevailed on Mercury and other gods to 2 Aurelius has been severely criticized for sending Verus.
A large number of writings in the tone of the Orphic religion were ascribed to Orpheus.
The word geography did not appear before Aristotle, Aristotle's the first use of it being in the llepi Kovp.wv, which is one of the writings doubtfully ascribed to him, and H.
153) is ascribed to him.
Of families we find twenty-three, or maybe more, absolutely restricted thereto, besides at least eight which, being peculiar to the New World, extend their range into the Nearctic region, but are there so feebly developed that their origin may be safely ascribed to the southern portion of America.
II), much of the legal procedure ascribed to him must belong on internal grounds (religious, ethical and sociological evidence) to a postMosaic age.
25, with that ascribed to Moses in Num.
For the other books, the recognized Targum on the Prophets is that ascribed to Jonathan ben Uzziel (4th century ?), which originated in Palestine, but was edited in Babylonia, so that it has the same history and linguistic character as Onkelos.
Some system of the kind was necessary to guard against corruptions of copyists, while the care bestowed upon it no doubt reacted so as to enhance the sanctity ascribed to the text.
Though his teaching was largely directed against superstition, he seems to have been inclined to mysticism, and perhaps for this reason various kabbalistic works were ascribed to him in later times.
This gigantic work, the line of which may still be traced throughout its course, was formerly called the Khandak Sabur or " Sapor's trench," being ascribed to the Sassanian king, Shapur I.
To Offa is ascribed by Asser, in his life of Alfred, the great fortifications against the Welsh which is still known as "Offa's dike."
Several theological works have been ascribed to Boetius, as has been already mentioned.
The latter position, ascribed by the schoolmen to the Averroists, becomes dominant among the later Nominalists, William of Occam and his disciples, who withdraw all doctrines of faith from the sphere of reason.
Mysterious doctrines are ascribed by Protestants to scripture; so half of revelation is regarded as matter for blind assent, if another half is luminous in experience.
To him are ascribed also the original Parthenon on the Acropolis, afterwards burned by the Persians, and replaced by the Parthenon of Pericles.
Many miracles have been ascribed to him; an official list of these, said to have been attested by eyewitnesses, was drawn up by the auditors of the Rota when the processes for his canonization were formed, and is preserved in manuscript in the Vatican library.
Neither of these nor a third ascribed to him by Calderwood, the historian, are extant.
Through the influence of Mosaic teaching and law a definitely ethical character was ascribed to Yahweh.
- These may be briefly referred to under the following aspects: (a) Codified law and the written record of the patriarchal history, as well as the life and work of the lawgiver Moses (to whom the entire body of law came to be ascribed), assumed an ever greater importance.
of England, daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, afterwards earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, and of Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey, afterwards duke of Norfolk, was born, according to Camden, in 1507, but her birth has been ascribed, though not conclusively, to an earlier date (to 1502 or 1501) by some later writers.'
428-429) distinguishes the Leleges (q.v.) from the Carians, to whom is ascribed the invention of helmet-crests, coats of arms, and shield handles.
the Earl of Anglesey (1682); A Letter of Remarks upon Jovian (1683); other works ascribed to him being The King's Right of Indulgence in Matters Spiritual.
The first introduction of coined money is ascribed to Servius Tullius.
He may have compiled the preface, but the main portion of this volume is probably the work of his grandson, the historian Khwandamir (1475-1534), to whom also a part of the appendix must be ascribed.
intermediate types are ascribed to mixed and multiple infections.
In fact a medley from both Basil and the Physiologus exists under the title of the Hexaeineron of Eustathius; some copies of the first bear as a title IIepi diuvnoXoyc'as, and in a Milan MS. the "morals" of the Physiologus are ascribed to Basil.
The town occupies the site of the ancient Atria, which gave its name to the Adriatic. Its origin is variously ascribed by ancient writers, but it was probably a Venetian, i.e.
The four wall-surfaces that flank the three western doorways are decorated with very beautiful sculpture in relief, once ornamented with colour, the designs for which, according to Burckhardt, must be ascribed to the architect of the whole, though executed by other (but still Sienese, not Pisan) hands.
To deny their historical character is to reject them as trustworthy accounts of the age to which they are ascribed, and even those scholars who claim that they are essentially historical already go so far as to concede idealization and the possibility or probability of later revision.
Israelite tradition had ascribed the conquest of Jerusalem, Hebron and other cities of Judah to the Ephraimite Joshua; Judaean tradition, on the other hand, relates the capture of the sacred city from a strange and hostile people (2 Sam.
The Edomites, who had been almost extirpated by David in the valley of Salt, south of the Dead Sea, were now strong enough to seek revenge; and the powerful kingdom of Damascus, whose foundation is ascribed to this period, began to threaten Israel on the north and north-east.
Asa, it is evident, was too weak to achieve the remarkable victory ascribed to him in 2 Chron.
Several of the situations can be more vividly realized from the narratives of Syrian wars ascribed to the time of Omri's dynasty, even if these did not originally refer to the later period.
Moab was probably tributary; the position of Judah and Edom is involved with the chronological problems. According to the Judaean annals, the " people of Judah " set Azariah (Uzziah) upon his father's throne; and to his long reign of fifty-two years are ascribed conquests over Philistia and Edom, the fortification of Jerusalem and the reorganization of the army.
Here it is enough to observe that the highly advanced doctrines of the distinctive character of Yahweh, as ascribed to the 8th century B.C., presuppose a foundation and development.
If the impression left upon current thought can be estimated from certain of the utterances of the court-prophet Isaiah and the Judaean countryman Micah, the light which these throw upon internal conditions must also be used to gauge the real extent of the religious changes ascribed to Hezekiah.
But if Josiah carried out the reforms ascribed to him they were of no lasting effect.
The period under review, with its relations between Judah and Egypt, can be illustrated by prophecies ascribed to a similar situation in the time of Hezekiah.
2 Sargon had removed Babylonians into the land of Hatti (Syria and Palestine), and in 715 B.C. among the colonists were tribes apparently of desert origin (Tamud, Hayapa, &c.); other settlements are ascribed to Esar-haddon and perhaps Assur-bani-pal (Ezra iv.
On the other hand, from the independent writings ascribed to these prophets, it appears that no considerable body of exiles could have returned - it is still an event of the future (Zech.
That attempts have been made to adjust contradictory representations is suggested by the prophecy ascribed to Jeremiah (xxvii.
the account ascribed to the time of Darius, Ezra v.
(§ 19) have been ascribed such passages as Isa.
What book Ezra really brought from Babylon is uncertain; the writer, it seems, is merely narrating the introduction of the Law ascribed to Moses, even as a predecessor has recounted the discovery of the Book of the Law, the Deuteronomic code subsequently included in the Pentateuch.
Crete, like several other large islands, enjoys immunity from dangerous serpents - a privilege ascribed by popular belief to the intercession of Titus, the companion of St Paul, who according to tradition was the first bishop of the island, and became in consequence its patron saint.
How far Crete itself continued to preserve the hegemony which may reasonably be ascribed to it at an earlier age must remain doubtful.
The "hundred cities" ascribed to Crete by Homer are in a fair way Y period.
iii.) in the British Museum, often ascribed to the 10th or early 11th century, he judges from the form of the pallium and dalmatic to have been produced at the end of the 11th century " at earliest."
This was partly because some of his work was wrongly ascribed to C. F.
invasions and more or less complete conquests can be ascribed to these tribes without counting minor movements.
It is possible that some of the incidents ascribed to this period properly belong to an earlier part of his life, and that tradition has idealized the life of David the king even as it has not failed to colour the history of David the outlaw and king of Hebron.
vi.) represents the act as that of a loyal and God-fearing heart which knew that the true principle of Israel's unity and strength lay in national adherence to Yahweh; but the event was far from having the significance which later times ascribed to it (1 Chron.
Nor can it be maintained that the elaborate ritual ascribed to David by the chronicler has any historical value.
And although the Levitical organization, as ascribed to David, is manifestly post-exilic, it is at least certain that many of the Levitical families were of southern origin.
Maurepas, generally ascribed to the comte de Provence (Louis XVIII.), containing a bitter caricature of Turgot.
Hence the nations of antiquity ascribed to it a divine origin; Brahma in Hindustan, Isis in Egypt, Demeter in Greece, and Ceres in Italy, were its founders.
1523), commonly ascribed to Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, a judge of the Common Pleas in the reign of Henry VIII., but more probably written by his elder brother John.
When trouble arose between Conrad and Henry, duke of Saxony, afterwards King Henry the Fowler, the attitude of Conrad was ascribed by the Saxons to the influence of Hatto, who wished to prevent Henry from securing authority in Thuringia, where the see of Mainz had extensive possessions.
There are also ruins of an old church, the dedication of which, like the island chapel, is ascribed to one St Begnet, perhaps a diminutive form of Bega, but the identity is not clear.
Many pieces still in existence are wrongly ascribed to him.; yet it is doubtful whether a single one of them was composed on purpose to deceive.
The success of Bonaparte in reorganizing France may be ascribed to his determined practicality and to his perception of the needs of the average man.
But that struggle may more reasonably be ascribed to the rigidity with which he carried out his commercial decrees and his diplomacy.
His actions at this time have been ascribed to righteous indignation against Metternich's double-dealing.
His best known work was Die Betooverde Wereld (1691), or The World Bewitched (1695; one volume of an English translation from a French copy), in which he examined critically the phenomena generally ascribed to spiritual agency, and attacked the belief in sorcery and "possession" by the devil, whose very existence he questioned.
Most, if not all, of his wonderful attributes may be ascribed to the Irish predilection for the grotesque.
of Philobiblon it is ascribed to Holkot in an introductory note, in these or slightly varying terms: Incipit prologus in Philobiblon ricardi dunelmensis episcopi que libru composuit 1 Script.
His protest, it is needless to say, was unavailing, and all who respect his memory must regret that the sunset of life failed to give him that insight into the future which is poetically ascribed to it.
None of these writings, not even the Cohortatio, which former critics ascribed to Justin, can be attributed to him.
Thus the Mintra of the Malay Peninsula have a demon corresponding to every kind of disease known to them; the Tasmanian ascribed a gnawing pain to the presence within him of the soul of a dead man, whom he had unwittingly summoned by mentioning his name and who was `devouring his liver; the Samoan held that the violation of a food tabu would result in the animal being formed within the body of the offender and cause his death.
Careful research has shown that very little can with accuracy be ascribed to him.
Assuming that the Expositio canonis missae ascribed to St Pietro Damiani (d.
The chief honour being ascribed to Marius, Catulus became his bitter opponent.
The government of the Jurisdiction was of the strictest Puritan type, and although the forty-five "blue laws" which the Rev. Samuel Peters, in his General History of Connecticut, ascribed to New Haven were much confused with the laws of the other New England colonies and some were mere inventions, yet many of them, and others equally "blue," were actually in operation as enactments or as court decisions in New Haven.
It is true that in Roman Catholicism, in medieval as in modern times, the working of miracles has been ascribed to its saints; but the character of most of these miracles is such as to lack the a priori probability which has been claimed for the Scripture miracles.
2 Later legend ascribed the origin of the First Crusade to the preaching of Peter the Hermit.
The dissolution of feudalism, the development of towns, the growth of scholasticism, all these and much more have been ascribed to the Crusades, when in truth they were concomitants rather than results, or at any rate, if in part the results of the Crusades, were in far larger part the results of other things.
A similar change between the earlier odes of Horace, in which he declares his epicurean indifference to affairs of state, and the great national odes of the third book is to be ascribed to the same guidance.
Thus, in the treatise known as Physica et Mystica and falsely ascribed to Democritus (such false attributions are a constant feature of the literature of alchemy), various receipts are given for colouring and gilding metals, but the conception of transmutation does not occur.
Subsequently electrum (an alloy of gold and silver) disappeared as a specific metal, and tin was ascribed to Jupiter instead, the sign of mercury becoming common to the metal and the planet.
Each community could speak of its own baal, although a collection of allied communities might share the same cult, and naturally, since the attributes ascribed to the individual baals were very similar, subsequent syncretism was facilitated.
The earliest certain reaction against Baalism is ascribed to the reign of Ahab, whose marriage with Jezebel gave the impulse to the introduction of a particular form of the cult.
These early fortifications of the Acropolis, ascribed to the primitive non-hellenic Pelasgi, must be distinguished from the Pelasgicum or Pelargicum, which was in all prob ab i l i ty an encircling wall, built round the base of the g citadel and furnished with nine gates from which it derived the name of Enneapylon.
The design of connecting Athens with the Peiraeus by long parallel walls is ascribed by Plutarch to Themistocles.
(2) The fifth and fourth centuries: the "Constitution of Athens," ascribed to Xenophon; W.
Two short treatises exist, purporting to be lives of Gildas, and ascribed respectively to the 11th and 12th centuries; but the writers of both are believed to have confounded two, if not more, persons that had borne the name.
A similar spirit appears among the prophecies ascribed to Balaam: "Amalek, first (or chief) of nations, his latter end [will be] destruction" (Num.
The Kubbet-esSakhra, or Dome of the Rock, at Jerusalem, is only a shrine erected over the sacred rock, so that the title often ascribed to it as "the mosque of Omar" is misleading.
The stability of benzene is ascribed to this conjugation.'
Elliot Smith has shown 7 the existence of the two racial stocks in Egypt, the predynastic Nilotic and the invading "Armenoid " from Asia, the man of higher cranial capacity to whom the blossoming of the Egyptian civilization and art out of primitive African barbarism is to be ascribed.
It may be that these belong in reality to the old Nilotic inhabitants, who were probably related to the true Semites of Arabia; but the hieroglyphic system seems to have developed in the Delta, and is very probably to be ascribed to the " Armenoids.
Megalithic town walls were naturally common in that stony land, Palestine, and very typical specimens of them were found in the Palestine Exploration Fund's excavations at Bethshemesh (`Ain Shems) directed by Dr. Duncan Mackenzie, 29 whose work also threw new light on the phenomenon of the appearance in Palestine between the 12th and 10th centuries B.C. of subMycenaean (Greek) pottery, which can only be ascribed to the Philistines, whose historical position as a foreign invading force from the Aegean area (Lycia and Crete-Kaphtor) is now entirely vindicated.
The Egyptians had, of course, ascribed deity by old custom to their kings, and were ready enough to add Alexander to the list.
Their origin is ascribed to Hammath (conceivably the Naphtalite city, Josh.
The words ascribed to Christ in Luke x.
Many of these ruins are attributable to the Arabs, but older remains are traditionally ascribed to a people who were " before the Galla."
Now, in all Jewish history the triple offices were ascribed to only one individual, John Hyrcanus.
The authorship of the writings ascribed to him in several biographical notices rests on no better authority than the apocryphal statements of Thomas Dempster.
On the chronology and genuineness of the works commonly ascribed to Bede, see Plummer's ed., i., cxlv-clix.
One mile W.N.W., on the hill above Le Ferriere, remains of an archaic temple, ascribed to Mater Matuta, were discovered by excavation in 1896.
Otherwise, it is not clear why we find him opposing himself to the Egyptian king Necho, since the assumption that he fought as an Assyrian vassal scarcely agrees with the profound reforming policy ascribed to him.
The picture of the Blessed Virgin and Child, which De Rossi ascribed to the 2nd, if not to the 1st century, has received an unexpected proof of its antiquity.
21), though ascribed to Nehunyah b.
The book is absolutely monotheistic, and the character ascribed to the deity is ethically pure with the exception mentioned above.
Then came forced loans and debased currency (1788), producing still more acute distress until, in 1791, at the close of the two years' war with Russia, in which the disaster which attended Ottoman arms may be largely ascribed to the penury of the Ottoman treasury, Selim III., the first of the " reforming sultans, " attempted, with but little practical success, to introduce radical reforms into the administrative organization of his empire.
The custom of fixing the boundaries of property and the institution of the yearly festival were both ascribed to Numa.
The argument is supported by an analysis of the phenomena of dreams, which are ascribed to direct spiritual influences.
Its origin was ascribed to a Carian colony, whose memory was possibly preserved in Epicarus, the earlier name of the city; it was afterwards occupied by Ionians, and appears to have incorporated a body of Phlegyans from Thessaly.
The traditional history of Ammon as related in the Old Testament is not free from obscurity, due to the uncertain date of the various references and to the doubt whether the individual details belong to the particular period to which each is ascribed.
This has been ascribed by some to the presence in " wild " rubber of certain impurities derived either from the latex or introduced during the preparation of the rubber which are thought to enhance the physical properties of the caoutchouc. It is more probable, however,.
This change of policy on his part, frequently ascribed to the fascination of the king's conversation, arose in reality from the nature of his own convictions.
and Henry III., often ascribed to Hermann, appear to have perished.
The epistle may be safely ascribed to the years 95-96.
Its healthy situation was famous in antiquity, and to this was ascribed its superiority in athletics; it was the seat also of a medical school which in the days of Herodotus was considered the first in Greece.
The quadrangular edifice in Lauriston, sometimes ascribed to Inigo Jones, is one of the noblest buildings in the city.
In 1771 he published his Zend-Avesta (3 vols.), containing collections from the sacred writings of the fire-worshippers, a life of Zoroaster, and fragments of works ascribed to him.
There are two mosques of special interest - the Umawi (or Zakaria) on the site of a church ascribed to the empress Helena and containing a tomb reputed to be that of the Baptist's father, and the Kakun.
It has been ascribed to a fly, to the water and to other causes; but it is not peculiar to Aleppo, being rife also at Aintab, Bagdad, &c.
In this minute the farmers ascribed all their troubles to one cause, namely, the absence of a representative government, which had been repeatedly asked for by them while still living in Cape Colony and as often denied or delayed, and concluded by a protest against the occupation of any part of their territory by British troops.
With approximate certainty may be ascribed also to Tamas and Balint the original of the still extant transcript, by George Nemeti, of the Four Gospels, the Jciszay or Munich Codex (finished at Tatros in Moldavia in 1466).
Although the foundations of the geometrical resolution of cubic equations are to be ascribed to the Greeks (for Eutocius assigns to Menaechmus two methods of solving the equation x 3 = a and x 3 = 2a 3), yet the subsequent development by the Arabs must be regarded as one of their most important achievements.
His solution, which is sometimes erroneously ascribed to Rafael Bombelli, was published in the Ars Magna.
This decision is so patently unjust that it has been very widely ascribed to a deliberate design to keep the two countries apart.
13 Ta Tou Aavtt means the Psalter, and the title of the apocryphal " Psalter of Solomon " implies that the previously existing Psalter was ascribed to David.
9b.), and appear to have been ascribed to David.
The truth that underlies the tradition is that the collection is essentially the hymn-book of the second Temple,' and it was therefore ascribed to David, because it was assumed, as we see clearly from Chronicles, that the order of worship in the second temple was the same as in the first, and had David as its father: as Moses completed the law of Israel for all time before the people entered Canaan, so David completed the theory and contents of the Temple psalmody before the Temple itself was built.
- xli.; all these are ascribed to David excepti., ii., x.
(ascribed to David in LXX.); doxology, xli.
are ascribed to the Korahites (xliii.
are ascribed to David and cxxvii.
varies considerably from the Hebrew as to the psalms to be ascribed to David; the book closes with a group of doxological psalms.
But when we look at the Elohim psalms more nearly, we see that they contain two distinct elements, Davidic psalms and psalms ascribed to the Levitical choirs (sons of Korah, Asaph).
But if we remove them we get a continuous body of Levitical Elohim psalms, or rather two collections, the first Korahitic and the second Asaphic, to which there have been added by way of appendix by a non-Elohistic editor a supplementary group of Korahite psalms and one psalm (certainly late) ascribed to David.
1, but it certainly has a much wider meaning; and indeed in some cases the idea of authorship is out of the question, for the psalms ascribed to the Korahites can scarcely have been supposed to be the joint composition of that body.
It begins with a psalm (xc.) ascribed in the title to Moses, and seemingly designed to express feelings appropriate to a situation analogous to that of the Israelites when, after the weary march through the wilderness, they stood on the borders of the promised land.
The only possible question for the critic is whether the ascription of these psalms to David was due to the idea that he was the psalmist par excellence, to whom any poem of unknown origin was naturally ascribed, or whether we have in some at least of these titles an example of the habit so common in later Jewish literature of writing in the name of ancient worthies.
We have still to consider the two great groups of psalms ascribed to David in books I.
- (A) The oldest version, the LXX., follows a text generally closely corresponding to the Massoretic Hebrew, the main variations being in the titles and in the addition (lacking in some MSS.) of an apocryphal psalm ascribed to David when he fought with Goliath.
Apart from the collection of literature ascribed to him and Merswin there is no historical evidence of his existence.
The dictionary of mythology entitled 'Iwvca ("Collection of Violets"), which formerly used to be ascribed to her, was not composed till 1543 (Constantine Palaeokappa).
The demonstrations of the unity and the attributes of God, with which the treatise De Melisso, Xenophane et Gorgia (now no longer ascribed to Aristotle or Theophrastus) accredits Xenophanes, are plainly framed on the model of Eleatic proofs of the unity and the attributes of the Ent, and must therefore be set aside.
Till 1815 the only extant works ascribed (erroneously) to Fronto were two grammatical treatises, De nominum verborumque diferentiis and Exempla elocutionum (the last being really by Arusianus Messius).
One hundred and one poems have been ascribed to Dunbar.
It is more interesting as evidence of his turn for whimsicality, already referred to, and may for that reason be safely ascribed to his pen.
Of these certainly many are falsely ascribed to the historical Hippocrates of Cos; others are almost as certainly rightly so ascribed; others again are clearly works of his school, whether from his hand or not.
The medical writings of Arnald de Villanova (c. 1235-1313) (if the Breviarium practicae be rightly ascribed to him) rise above the rank of compilations.
On this principle Hahnemann ordered his original tinctures to be reduced in strength to onefiftieth; these first dilutions again to one-fiftieth; and so on, even till the thirtieth dilution, which he himself used by preference, and to which he ascribed the highest "potentiality."
The original story was probably contained in an old epic poem called Mcvuas 7roeiats, the authorship of which was ascribed to Prodicus of Phocaea.
Metternich especially ascribed this mainly to the "weakness" of the ministry, and when in 1819 the political elections still further illustrated this trend, notably by the election of the celebrated Abbe Gregoire, it began to be debated whether the time had not come to put in force the terms of the secret treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
These towns are not known to have been Greek colonies; but the foundation of Aspendus was traditionally ascribed to the Argives, and Side was said to be a colony from Cyme in Aeolis.
The legend related by Herodotus and Strabo, which ascribed the origin of the Pamphylians to a colony led into their country by Amphilochus and Calchas after the Trojan War, is merely a characteristic myth.
Ram Das is amongst the most revered of gurus, but no particular innovation is ascribed to him.
His contemporary Domenico Guglielmini (1655-1710), who was inspector of the rivers and canals at Bologna, had ascribed this diminution of velocity in rivers to transverse motions arising from inequalities in their bottom.
The foundation of the monarchy was ascribed to Zulilu, who is described as living after Bel-kapkapi or Belkabi (1900 B.C.), the ancestor of Shalmaneser I.
The date of the book is also quite uncertain, though several scholars have ascribed it to the 3rd century.
A similar disease which of late has frequently been found in England, and which is ascribed to the fungus Gloeosporium ampelophagum, is very similar to it.
So the Armenian Geography ascribed to Moses of Chorene (q.v.
It is probable that Chennus was also the author of a lost treatise on the life and works of Aristotle, ascribed to "Ptolemaeus" in an Arabic list of his works, taken from a Syriac version of the Greek original (A.
The fine picture of "Christ bearing the Cross" (wrongly ascribed to Giorgione), according to Burckhardt once in the Palazzo Loschi, is now in the Gardner collection at Boston, U.S.A. The most important manufacture is that of silk, which employs a large proportion of the inhabitants.
Much influence is ascribed to this heathen element by Lujo Brentano, Karl Hegel, W.
Dr Max Pappenheim has ascribed the origin of Germanic gilds to the northern "fosterbrotherhood" or "sworn-brotherhood," which was an artificial bond of union between two or more persons.
Some continental writers, in dealing with the origin of municipal government throughout western Europe, have, however, ascribed too much importance to the Anglo-Saxon gilds, exaggerating their prevalence and contending that they form the germ of medieval municipal government.
In the oldest forms of the legend Hera is not mentioned; but afterwards the wanderings of Leto are ascribed to the jealousy of that goddess, enraged at her amour with Zeus.
In France not even the saintly King Louis IX., who made several vain attempts to mediate, approved the pope's attitude; and the failure of the crusade which, in 1248, he led against the Mussulmans in Egypt, was, with reason, ascribed to the deflection of money and arms from this purpose to the war against the emperor.
Castro's Fuerza de la costumbre is the source of Love's Care, a play ascribed to Fletcher.
were ascribed to a contemporary of Amos and Hosea, about the middle of the 8th century B.C., because Ephraim is mentioned as well as Judah, and Assyria along with Egypt (x.
Russian: The Chronicle ascribed to Nestor.
The foundation of Pisae is by tradition ascribed to a very remote period, and it was often (possibly only owing to the similarity of name) believed to have been founded from Pisae in Elis.
An Expositio quatuor Evangeliorum is also ascribed to Walafrid.
Later critics, judging from their own notions of the natural course of development in art, ascribed to Daedalus such improvements as separating the legs.
The absence of rain here is ascribed to the action of the lofty uplands of the Andes on the trade-wind, and to the influence of the cold Humboldt current sweeping northward along the west coast of the continent.
- The invention of this instrument has generally been ascribed, as in the ninth edition of this work, to the famous Neapolitan savant of the 16th century, Giovanni Battista della Porta, but as a matter of fact the principle of the simple camera obscura, or darkened chamber with a small aperture in a window or shutter, was well known and in practical use for observing eclipses long before his time.
This has been clearly shown to be the production of a later hand, and is ascribed by Echard to the period between 1310 and 1325.
The so-called first edition of the Speculum Majus, including the Speculum Morale, ascribed to Johann Mentelin and long celebrated as the earliest work printed at Strassburg, has lately been challenged as being only an earlier edition of Vincent's three genuine Specula (c. 1468-70), with which has been bound up the Speculum Morale first printed by Mentelin (c. 1 473-7 6).
This misfortune was also ascribed to the corn laws.
Extracts from a treatise on landsurveying ascribed to Frontinus are preserved in Lachmann's Gromatici veteres (1848) .
Superhuman qualities and powers, too, are commonly ascribed to both, an important difference, however, being that whatever worship may have been paid to the Teutonic heroes never crystallized into a cult.
It is improbable that much, if any, of these chapters can be ascribed to Micah himself, 4 not only because their contents are so different from his undoubted work (i.-iii.), for which he was subsequently remembered (Jer.
Ewald ascribed the whole of chs.
Fox made many mistakes, due in some cases to vehemence of temperament, and in others only to be ascribed to want of sagacity.
No rule of doctrine is to be ascribed to the church which is not distinctly and expressly stated or plainly involved in the written law of the Church, and where there is no rule, a clergyman may express his opinion without fear of penal consequences.
in the Merlin proper, Gawain is a dominant personality, his feats rivalling in importance those ascribed to Arthur, but in the later forms such as the Merlin continuations, the Tristan, and the final Lancelot compilation, his character and position have undergone a complete change, he is represented as cruel, cowardly and treacherous, and of indifferent moral character.
Renominated for governor in 1846, Wright was defeated, and the result was by many ascribed in part to the alleged hostility of the Polk administration.
By the Jews 2 the introduction of Targums is ascribed to Ezra; but this tradition, which probably owes its origin to the Talmudic explanation of Neh.
Instances of this endeavour to maintain, as it were, a respectful distance in speaking of God occur on every page of the Targums, but cases also occur, by no means infrequently, where human actions and passions are ascribed to God.
The facade has a Gothic portal, ascribed to Giorgio da Como (1228), which was intended to have a lateral arch on each side.
Tegea was one of the most ancient cities of Peloponnesus; tradition ascribed its concentration (synoecism) out of eight or nine primitive cantons to a mythical king Aleus.
Yet the transformation is unequivocal; and the revised conception no longer seems to connote the theological implications that were at first ascribed to it.
This changed point of view regarding the chronology of history may without hesitation be ascribed to the influence of evidence obtained in a single field of inquiry, the field, namely, of archaeology.
Halting just short of this analysis, the Assyrian ascribed syllabic values to the characters of his script, and hence, instead of finding twenty odd characters sufficient, he required about five hundred.
Nevertheless, the Assyriologist speaks with a good deal of confidence of dates as remote as 3800 B.C.,the time ascribed to King Sargon, who was once regarded as a mythical person, but is now known to have been an actual monarch.
We have seen that written documents have been preserved in Mesopotamia to which such a date as 4500 B.C. may be ascribed with a good deal of confidence; and that from the third millennium B.C. a flood of contemporary literary records comes to us both from Egypt and Mesopotamia.
He was now driven in upon his books for the employment of a restless temperament; and to this irksomeness of enforced leisure may be ascribed the production of the Principe, the Discorsi, the Arte della guerra, the comedies, and the Historie fiorentine.
This, we submit, was a deep-seated error in his theory of life, an error to which may be ascribed the numerous stumbling-blocks and rocks of offence in his more serious writings.
But this derivation is doubtful, the origin of the name being also ascribed to that of an English carriage-builder, Landow, who introduced this form of equipage.
is ascribed to the time of Darius.
The Latin chronicle, wrongly ascribed to Turpin (Tilpinus), bishop of Reims from 753 to Boo, was in reality later than the earlier poems of the French cycle, and the first properly authenticated mention of it is in 1165.
The often-cited description of the pulmonary circulation (which occurs in the 1546 draft) begins p. 169; it has escaped even Sigmond that Servetus had an idea of the composition of water and of air; the hint for his researches was the dual form of the Hebrew words for blood, water, &c. Two treatises, Desiderius (ante 1542) and De tribus impostoribus (1598) have been wrongly ascribed to Servetus.
The arguments of Dionysius were repeated by Eusebius, who ascribed the work to the presbyter John mentioned by Papias (Eus.
Jacobsen on some occasions found water in the surface layers of the Baltic supersaturated with oxygen, which he ascribed to the action of the chlorophyll in vegetable plankton; in other cases when examining the nearly stagnant water from deep basins he found a deficiency of oxygen due no doubt to the withdrawal of oxygen from solution, by the respiration of the animals and by the oxidation of the deposits on the bottom.
The name ascribed to the conqueror was David, and some called him the son or the grandson of Prester John of India.
Outsiders, not unnaturally, ascribed the work to Kant.
The foundation of Dorpat is ascribed to Yaroslav, prince of Kiev, and is dated 1030.
The Memoires de Fouche have also been ascribed to him, but it seems certain that he only revised and completed a work really composed by Fouche himself.
1457) showed the Donation of Constantine to be a forgery, denied that Dionysius the Areopagite wrote the works ascribed to him, and refuted the commonly accepted notion that each of the apostles had contributed a sentence to the Apostles' Creed.
An insurrection of the Yorkshire peasants, which is to be ascribed in part to the distress caused by the enclosure of the commons on which they had been wont to pasture their cattle, and in part to the destruction of popular shrines, may have caused the king to defend his orthodoxy by introducing into parliament in 1539 the six questions.
The subjugation of them is ascribed were called by the students Philister; they were " outsiders," the enemy of the chosen people.
the coast and, descending from Sidon, took Jaffa, Beth-dagon, Beneberak, Ekron and Timnah (all in the district ascribed to the southern Dan).
Chariots of iron are ascribed to the Ca naanites (Joshua xvii.
5 The introduction of iron has been ascribed to about moo B.C. (Macalister, Quart.
The culture appears to find Carian and Lydian parallels, and has been ascribed provisionally to the 13th - Ioth centuries.
(in which the order of the book has been much broken up, and a good deal has been omitted); (ii.) the Ecclesiastical Canons of the Holy Apostles, usually called the Apostolic Church Order, a book which presents a parallel to the Teaching, in so far as it consists first of a form of The Two Ways, and secondly of a number of church ordinances (here, however, as in the Syriac Didascalia, which gives about the same amount of The Two Ways, various sections are ascribed to individual apostles, e.g.
Like Aristotle, he insists that virtue, being relative, cannot be ascribed to God.
The census unwillingly carried out by Joab at the behest of David related exclusively to the fighting men of the community, and the dire consequences ascribed to it were quoted in reprobation of such inquiries as late as the middle of the 18th century.
The original census was ascribed to Servius Tullius, and in the constitution which goes by his name it was decreed that every fifth year the population should be enumerated along with the property of each family - land, live-stock, slaves and freedmen.
The origin of the word " mint " is ascribed to the manufacture of silver coin at Rome in 269 B.C. at the temple of Juno Moneta.'
To each local Ecclesia St Paul has ascribed a corresponding unity of its own; each is a body of Christ and a sanctuary of God: but there is no grouping of them into partial wholes or into one great whole.
To this power the successful guidance of the Dominion through its critical formative period must be ascribed.
c. 330) declares: " this was admirable " amongst the Neo-Pythagoreans " that they ascribed everything to Pythagoras; but few of them acknowledge their own works as their own " (de Pythag.
Sun-worship seems to have been peculiar to the Sabaeans and Hamdanites; and, if the Sabis of Sabota (Pliny) was in fact the sun deity Shams, this must be ascribed to Sabaean influence.
The forms and the ornamentation of the implements and weapons of stone and bronze found in the lake dwellings are the same as those of the implements and weapons in these materials found in the soil of the adjacent regions, and both groups must therefore be ascribed to the industry of one and the same people.
In particular, Chronicles agrees with Kings in those short notes of the moral character of individual monarchs which can hardly be ascribed to an earlier hand than that of the redactor of the latter book.2 For the criticism of the book it is important to institute a careful comparison of Chronicles with the parallel narratives in Samuel-Kings.
That the compiler is always unwilling to speak of the misfortunes of good rulers is not necessarily to be ascribed to a deliberate suppression of truth, but shows that the book was throughout composed not in purely historical interests, but with a view to inculcating a single practical lesson.
Throughout it is assumed that the Levitical organization had been in existence from the days of David, to whom its foundation is ascribed.
Voices were not lacking which, in view of Austria's relatively small share in foreign investments, ascribed the deterioration of the trade balance to the fact that the public bodies were " living beyond their means."
7 seq.), and it cannot be said that the former had originally the prominence now ascribed to it.
2), subsequent history shows that the high-places, like the altars to heathen deities in Jerusalem itself, long remained undisturbed; it was the Deuteronomic reformation, ascribed to Josiah, which marked the great advance in the religion of Yahweh, and under its influence the history of the monarchy has been compiled.
Geiger (Urschrift and Uebersetzung, p. 305) very unnecessarily supposed that this was everywhere the original reading, and that it had been changed to soften the enormity ascribed to the ancient Hebrews.
Several Irish poems are ascribed to Columba, but they are manifestly compositions of a later age.
of sacrifice to ritual, venial and involuntary sins,' and requires that the sacrifices should be offered at Jerusalem by the Aaronic priests; but these limitations did not belong to the older religion; and even in later times popular faith ascribed a larger efficacy to sacrifice.
Though Spener has been justly called "the father of Pietism," hardly any of the errors and none of the extravagances of the movement can be ascribed to him personally.
A third work, usually ascribed to Mannyng, chiefly on the ground of its existing side by side with the Handlyng Synne in the Harleian and Bodleian MSS., is the Medytacyuns of the Soper of oure lorde Jhesu, And also of hys passyun And eke of the peynes of hys swete modyr, Hayden marye, a free translation of St Bonaventura's De coena et passione Domini....
Ravaisson-Mollien has discovered a number of fragments by him, among which the most important is the De Essentia Dei et de Substantia Dei; a Liber Sententiarum, consisting of discussions on ethics and Scriptural interpretation, is also ascribed to Champeaux.
The phenomena of movements of the organs of plants attracted the attention of John Ray (1693), who ascribed the movements of the leaf of Mimosa and others to alteration in temperature.
Medicinal uses were ascribed to the species, but none appear to have any marked properties in this respect.
Similarly the ancient dike in the river Tigris at this point is ascribed to Nimrod.
Five religious songs in Polish dating from the 15th century have been preserved; they are ascribed to Andrew Slopuchowski, prior of the monastery of the Holy Cross on Lysa G6ra.
The foundation of the monastery is ascribed to two saints of the 11th century - Anthony and Hilarion, the latter metropolitan of Kiev.
The interest here centres in the rivalry between Tristan and Lancelot, alike as knights and lovers, and in the later redaction, ascribed to Helie de Borron, the story is spun out to an interminable length.
A treatise on accents is ascribed to Priscian, but is rejected by modern writers on the ground of matter and language.
There is little noticeable in Hobbes' dating of the prophets, though he considers it " not apparent " whether Amos wrote, as well as composed, his prophecy, or whether Jeremiah and the other prophets of the time of Josiah and Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai and Zechariah, who lived in the captivity, edited the prophecies ascribed to them.
(iii.) An over-ruling and uniting influence is ascribed to the Holy Spirit.
When, therefore, the breach came, and the struggle between reformers and conservatives within the undivided Church was transformed into a struggle between Protestants and Romanists, it was inevitable that the authority which in the previous centuries had been ascribed to the Church 1 E.g.
29 is the year, the 18th of March is the day, to which Christian tradition (whatever value, whether much or little, be ascribed to it) appears to point.
Tanhuma, one of the oldest on the lessons of the Pentateuch, with many proems ascribed to R.
Traditionally ascribed to R.
According to a tradition falsely ascribed to Mahomet, there can be but one caliph at a time; should a second be set up, he must be killed, for he "is a rebel."
The foundation of the capital is ascribed to Efrasiab, the great Persian hero.
as liberator of Bologna is ascribed to his hand, but not with certainty.
When the founding of the Round Table is ascribed to Merlin it is generally in close connexion with the Grail legend, forming the last of a series of three, founded in honour of the Trinity - the first being the table of the Last Supper, the second that of the Grail, established by Joseph of Arimathea, The number of knights whom the table will seat varies; it might seat twelve or fifty or a hundred and fifty; nowhere, save in Layamon, do we find a practically unlimited power of accommodation.
His statue was set up beside those of the seven kings of Rome, and he adopted the throne of gold, the sceptre of ivory and the embroidered robe which tradition ascribed to them.
If the growing Christian Church, in quite a different fashion from Paul, laid stress on the literal authority of the Old Testament, interpreted, it is true, allegorically; if it took up a much more friendly and definite attitude towards the Old Testament, and gave wider scope to the legal conception of religion, this must be in part ascribed to the involuntary reaction upon it of Gnosticism.
It is, however, doubtful whether any of the poetry which has been ascribed to him can claim to be regarded as his genuine work.
Of these pre-Wycliffite versions possibly the earliest is the West Midland Psalter, once erroneously ascribed to William of Shoreham.
The second, or Later Version, being a thorough revision of the first, is ascribed to the year 1388 by Sir Frederic Madden and the Rev. Joshua Forshall in their edition of these two versions.'
As a poet, St Aldegonde is mainly known through his admirable metrical translation of the Psalms (1580), and the celebrated Wilhelmus van Nassauwe, one of the two officially recognized national anthems of Holland, is also ascribed to him.
In the garden of the château are two ancient towers, probably the remains of the Benedictine convent, but ascribed by local tradition to the knight Kolostuj, the legendary discoverer of the springs.
The first observation of a trypanosome is usually ascribed to Valentin (55), who in 1841 announced his discovery of certain amoeboid parasites in the blood of a trout.
By its side is a smaller tomb, ascribed to Strongbow's son, whom his father killed for showing cowardice in battle.
Paschasius shrank from the logical outcome of his view, namely, that Christ's body or part of it is turned into human excrement, but Ratramnus, another monk of Corbey, in a book afterwards ascribed to Duns Scotus, drew this inference in order to discredit his antagonists, and not because he believed it himself.
As an administrator also he showed ability, and the foundation of a Latin school and several churches in Batavia is to be ascribed to him.
The basins have been variously ascribed to glacial erosion, to obstruction of normal outlet valleys by barriers of glacial drift, and to crustal warping in connection with or independent of the presence of the glacial sheet.
Quite as much must be ascribed to the want of faith in the legislatures of states and cities, which are deemed tao liable to be influenced by selfish corporations.
But all attempts to harmonize the scheme of dynasties thus ascribed to Berossus with the list given us in the so-called dynastic Tablets discovered by Dr Pinches have been failures.
It is curious that this tradition is ascribed by al-Marzugi and his teacher Abu 'Ali al-Farisi to Abu `Ikrima of Dabba, who is represented by al-Anbari as the transmitter of the correct text from Ibn al-A`rabi.
The efforts of Roman Catholic scholars have been directed (since Baronius ascribed the forgery to the Greeks) to proving that the fraud was not committed at Rome.
It is doubtful whether it must be ascribed to the Celtic evangelists or to a much later period - not earlier than the 12th century.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 19.7rEpL 7ropetas: De animalium incessu: On the going of animals.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 22.1 7repi a.Kovarwv: De audibilibus.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 234 4,vacoyvw,uovtci: Physiognomonica: On physiognomy, and the sympathy of body and soul.
[Ascribed to Theophrastus, or his time, by Zeller.] 3.t avEpwv 9eaees Kai 7rpoa7 7 yoptaL: Ventorum situs et appellationes: A fragment on the winds.
[Ascribed to Anaximenes of Lampsacus (fl.
7) ascribed to Didymus (1st century A.D.), or to put the group H, 0, as more connected with A, B, P, before the group 0, Z, and this group before the book E.
The Discovery Of The Period Of Thirty Three Years Is Ascribed To Omar Khayyam, One Of The Eight Astronomers Appointed Byjelal Ud Din Malik Shah, Sultan Of Khorasan, To Reform Or Construct A Calendar, About The Year 1079 Of Our Era.
89, Citizen Eusebe Salverte calls attention to the poem "De Ponderibus et Mensuris" generally ascribed to Rhemnius Fannius Palaemon, and consequently 300 years older than Hypatia, in which the hydrometer is described and attributed to Archimedes.
The blowpipe has been in common use from the earliest times for soldering metals and working glass, but its introduction into systematic chemical analysis is to be ascribed to A.
In the story of the Exodus there have been incorporated codes of laws and institutions which were to be observed by the descendants of the Israelites in their future 2 To the same hand are to be ascribed also xxvii.
It was to the completeness of his practical knowledge that Wellington ascribed in great part his later success.
To her are ascribed the influences which led in 953 to the revolt of Ludolf, Otto's son by his first marriage, the crushing of which in the following year established Adelaide's power.
drias), which now grows freely in Cyrenaica, though it has medicinal properties, has not those ascribed to silphium.
Another much disputed spectrum is that giving the bands which appear in the electric arc; it is most frequently ascribed to cyanogen, but occasionally also to carbon vapour.
In 1822 there appeared in London an anonymous translation sometimes ascribed to Southey, but really the work of Sara Coleridge, who had undertaken the task to defray the college expenses of one of her brothers.
It was probably of Sicel origin, though its foundation was ascribed to some of the companions of Aeneas.
He was not the author of the Histoire ecclesiastique (1580), sometimes ascribed to him; nor, probably, of the vulgar skit published under the name of Benedict Panavantius (1551) .
Others have ascribed it to Agricola, or have thought it to be the wall of Hadrian, or even assigned it to pre-Roman natives.
The foundation of Alfreton is traditionally ascribed to King Alfred.
The earliest African tradition, on the other hand, preserved by Tertullian l (De pudicitia, c. 20), but certainly not invented by him, ascribed the epistle to Barnabas.
8, § 9); if the Pharisees washed, the Essenes bathed before dinner; if the Pharisees ascribed some things to Fate, the Essenes ascribed all (Jos.
The extant hexameter poem De viribus (or virtutibus) herbarum, ascribed to Macer, is a medieval production by Odo Magdunensis, a French physician.
But whether we are justified in speaking of a Teutonic race in the anthropological sense is at least doubtful, for the mcst striking characteristics of these peoples occur also to a considerable extent among their eastern and western neighbours, where they can hardly be ascribed altogether to Teutonic admixture.
Where the movement was really of a migratory character it may generally be ascribed to external pressure, in particular from the Huns and the Avars.
Such religious gatherings were no doubt common to all Teutonic peoples in early times, but it may be questioned whether among the eastern and northern tribes they were invested with all the powers ascribed to them by Tacitus.
A life of Aristotle, ascribed to Ammonius, but with more accuracy to John Philoponus, is often prefixed to editions of Aristotle.
In the Leiden MS. of this work, which for long was erroneously ascribed to one Peter Adsiger, is a spurious passage, long believed to mention the variation of the compass.
Nicholas received them with some reserve; he refrained from giving them his sanction, and only borrowed from them what they had already borrowed from authentic texts, but in general he took up the same attitude as the forger had ascribed to his remote predecessors.
The reputation of a greater Maecenas - ascribed to him by his eulogists - dwindles before a sober, critical contemplation, and his undeniable merits are by no means equal to those which fame has assigned to him.
What the "revolt of all lands" ascribed to the later part of Sargon's reign means is not yet clear; but he or his son quickly suppressed it.
If he be the author of the five or six long poems which have been ascribed to him by different writers, he adds to his importance as the father of Scots poetry the reputation of being one of the most voluminous writers in Middle English, certainly the most voluminous of all Scots poets.
The presence of carp in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago is probably also to be ascribed to human agency.
These ramparts are ascribed by architectural authorities to the Herodian period.
The invention of these various arts and industries was popularly ascribed to the Phoenicians, no doubt merely because Phoenician traders brought the products into the market.
It is mentioned in the De inventione veritatis ascribed to Geber, wherein it is obtained by calcining a mixture of nitre, alum and blue vitriol.
Luminous arcs (T), tangential to the upper and lower parts of each halo, also occur, and in the case of the inner halo, the arcs may be prolonged to form a quasi-elliptic halo.1 The physical explanation of halos originated with Rene Descartes, who ascribed their formation to the presence of icecrystals in the atmosphere.
Schuch, 1874), a collection of receipts, ascribed to one Caelius Apicius, is founded on Greek originals, and belongs to the 3rd century A.D.
But if it be discovered, as is possible, that the drone-fly is also inedible, the mimicry must be ascribed to the Mullerian category, and the reason for it becomes less evident.
Before it was known that the chronicle ascribed to Ingulf of Croyland is really a fiction of the 13th or 14th century, the knighting of Heward or Hereward by Brand, abbot of Burgh 1 Comparative Politics, p. 74.
Samples dating from the old sodium days are still in existence, and when they exhibit unpleasant properties the defect is often ascribed to the metal instead of to the process by which it was won.
In the vicinity of the town are remnants of the monastery of Saul, a foundation ascribed to St Patrick, and of Inch Abbey (1180), founded by Sir John de Courcy.
ascribed to Jesus by Matthew (ch.
If, however, we are to take statistical returns for what they are worth, it is estimated that the Christians in heathen lands gathered by Protestant missions probably amount to five millions, and a similar total may be ascribed to Roman Catholic missions, making ten millions in all.
The octagonal sacristy (before 1488), with niches below and a gallery above, with stucco decorations by Bramante himself (the frieze with putti and medallions is ascribed to Caradosso), is a masterly work, and one of his best.
Several of the rooms occupied by the archaeological museum bear traces of the decorations executed under Galeazzo Maria and Lodovico it Moro, and one of them has a splendid ceiling with trees in full foliage, painted so as to cover the whole vaulting, ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci.
Other unpublished works, besides those mentioned above, have been ascribed to Dhammapala, but it is very doubtful whether they are really by him.
It may be ascribed partly to the wealth and influence acquired by Aetolian mercenaries in Hellenistic courts, but chiefly to the formation of a national Aetolian league, the first effective institution of this kind in Greece.
Other commentaries apparently by him have been ascribed to various writers, principally to the great Anselm.
Such were Antemnae and Caenina, both of them situated within a few miles of Rome to the N., the conquest of which was ascribed to Romulus; Fidenae, about 5 m.
Suessa Pometia also, on the borders of the Pontine Marshes, to which it was said to have given name, was a city of importance, the destruction of which was ascribed to Tarquinius Superbus.
The separation of Fanti and Ashanti has been ascribed to a famine which drove the former south, and led them to live on fan, or herbs, while the latter subsisted on san, or Indian corn, &c., whence the names Fanti and Santi.
It is significant that olive and willow should have been chosen for benediction together with, or as substitutes for palm, and that an exorcizing power should have been ascribed to the consecrated branches: they were to heal disease, ward off devils, protect the houses where they were set up against lightning and fire, and the fields where they were planted against hail and storms. But healing power had been ascribed to the olive in pagan antiquity, and in the same way the willow had from time immemorial been credited by the Teutonic peoples with the possession of protective qualities.
It was natural that olive and willow should have been chosen for the Palm Sunday ceremony, for they are the earliest trees to bud in the spring; their consecration, however, may be explained by the intention to Christianize a pagan belief, and it is easy to see how their mystic virtues came in this way to be ascribed to the palm also.
He definitely repudiates a view often ascribed to him, and certainly advanced by many later empiricists, that the data of geometry are hypothetical.
Such distinction is quite foreign to Hume, and can only be ascribed to him from an entire misconception of his view regarding the ideas of space and time.
But in both works these utterances are qualified in such a manner as to enable us to perceive the real bearings of his doctrine, and to pronounce at once that it differs widely from that commonly ascribed to him.
Moses Kimhi also composed commentaries to the biblical books; those on Proverbs, Ezra and Nehemiah are in the great rabbinical bibles falsely ascribed to Abraham ibn Ezra.
To the first great kings, Saul and David, are ascribed conquests over Moab, Ammon and Edom.
That he found out some new compounds is certain; but not one great and marked discovery can be ascribed to him.
Several poems of a didactic character are also ascribed to him.
Livingstone goes so far as to say, "nothing that I ever learned of the lion could lead me to attribute to it either the ferocious or noble character ascribed to it elsewhere," and he adds that its roar is not distinguishable from that of the ostrich.
Radioactive properties have also been ascribed to other elements, e.g.
Three fragments ascribed to her have been found on Egyptian papyri within recent years.
Fishing was a lucrative industry at an early date, and the Jews ascribed the laws regulating it to Joshua.
It probably received its charter from Alexander III., was created a royal burgh in 1367 and was the scene of the poem of Peblis to the Play, ascribed to James I.
"unwritten"), the name given to certain utterances ascribed, with some degree of certainty, to Jesus, which have been preserved in documents other than the Gospels, e.g.
An extant Ars grammatica (discovered by Jovianus Pontanus in the 15th century) and other unimportant treatises on similar subjects have been wrongly ascribed to him.
The collection of moral maxims, compiled in Arabic but best known (in the Hebrew translation of Judah ibn Tibbon) as Mibhar ha-peninim, is generally ascribed to Ibn Gabirol, though on less certain grounds.
See Skinner, Century Bible, " Kings," ad loc. 2 The geographical indications imply that in one account the journey to Damascus and the anointing of Hazael and Jehu must have intervened, and were omitted because another account ascribed these acts to Elisha (2 Kings viii.
The period of its destruction is unknown, for it appears certain that it cannot be ascribed wholly to the earthquake of 63.
All the temples above described, except that ascribed to Hercules, which was approached by steps on all four sides, agree in being raised on an elevated podium or basement - an arrangement usual with all similar buildings of Roman date.
It is best to give Paul's beliefs in his own words; and the following sentences are translated from Paul's Discourses to Sabinus, of which fragments are preserved in a work against heresies ascribed to Anastasius, and printed by Angelo Mai: I.
The city originally grew up round the great temple of the god Assur, the foundation of which was ascribed to the High-priest Uspia.
Happily, Johnson soon had an opportunity of proving most signally that his failure was not to be ascribed to intellectual decay.
Whilst by many the movements were ascribed to the agency of spirits, two investigators - count de Gasparin and Professor Thury of Geneva - conducted a careful series of experiments by which they claimed to have demonstrated that the movements of the table were due to a physical force emanating from the bodies of the sitters, for which they proposed the name "ectenic force."
It is to be regretted that the catalogue does not discriminate among the prohibited works according to the motive of their condemnation and the danger ascribed to reading them.
The well-known story of Tarquinius's repeated refusal and final consent to purchase the Sibylline books has its origin in the fact that the building of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, in which they were kept, was ascribed to him.
LYSIAS, Attic orator, was born, according to Dionysius of IIalicarnassus and the author of the life ascribed to Plutarch, in 459 B.C. This date was evidently obtained by reckoning back from the foundation of Thurii (444 B.C.), since there was a tradi tion that Lysias had gone thither at the age of fifteen.
All these are of course ascribed to the personal action of the monarch.
The Epistola ad omnes philosophos and the Homily on the Penitent Thief, ascribed by Armenian tradition to Aristides, are really of 5th-century origin.
For the story of Isis and Osiris we have indeed the late treatise ascribed to Plutarch, and a few fragments of other myths may be culled from earlier native sources.
But externally they were dis- the ~uishable by the various shapes that their worshippers ascribed tog hem; and there can be little doubt that even in the beginning still h had his own special attributes and particular mythical cry its.
The flex nitive animal gods are not to be confused with the animal not ns ascribed to many cosmic deities; thus when the sun-god Osii was pictured as a scarabaeus, or dung-beetle, rolling its ball Isis lung behind it, this was certainly mere poetical imagery.
It is observable that some of those with which ~nkim is credited are also ascribed to Ibn Talfln and the IkshId (Mahommed b.
Of seventy-five hits on the hulls of the ships only five can with certainty be ascribed to projectiles from rifled guns, and thirty were unquestionably due to the old smoothbores, which were not provided with sights.
Sophus Birket Smith (Copenhagen, 1868), who also edited the comedies ascribed to Chr.
13-16 really forms part of the original narrative of J, and is not rather to be ascribed to the redactor of JE.
1-3), can only be ascribed to a priestly writer: its absence from Deut.
Its present position is, doubtless, to be ascribed to a redactor who was influenced by the same conception as the author of Deuteronomy.
The blue colour, which disappears on heating or dissolving the salt, has been variously ascribed to the presence of sodium subchloride, sodium, sulphur or of a certain compound of iron, or again to the existence of minute cavities with parallel walls.
cannot be ascribed to the 1 It is generally assumed that the addition in Exodus is from a hand akin to Gen.
oldest source, and if, in accordance with many critics, this chapter is ascribed to the Elohist or Ephraimite school, its incorporation can scarcely be older than the middle of the 8th century, and is probably later.
But the general result of a study of the Decalogue as a whole, in connexion with Israelite political history and religion, strongly supports, in fact demands, a post-Mosaic origin, and modern criticism is chiefly divided only as to the approximate date to which it is to be ascribed.
The assertion of Areschoug that conjugation occurs among zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia, in the case of Dictyosiphon hippuroides, is no doubt to be ascribed to error of observation.
Whether or no the so-called "fourth formula" (Hahn, § 156) is to be ascribed to a continuation of this synod or to a subsequent but distinct assembly of the same year, its aim is like that of the first three; while repudiating certain Arian formulas it avoids the Athanasian shibboleth "homoousios."
None of them, indeed, can be ascribed to a very early period, and hardly any trace can be found of the influence of Assyrian or other Oriental art.
It may be added that a Jewish origin has been ascribed to the place from the name Marketjew.
The splendid decorations of the interior are ascribed.
There are no traces or record of Breconshire being inhabited before the Neolithic period, but to that period may be ascribed a.
Two lives edited by Thomas Hearne under the names of Elmham and Titus Livius Forojuliensis come from a common source; the longer, which Hearne ascribed incorrectly to Elmham, is perhaps the original work of Livius, who was an Italian in the service of Humphrey of Gloucester, and wrote about 1440.
Malcolm's brother, William the Lion (1165-1214), initiated the French alliance, fondly ascribed to the time of Charlemagne.
As the Bruce faction had asserted their fealty to Edward, the carefully patriotic attitude of the Scots may be ascribed to the two bishops, who did not consistently live on this level.
Outstanding examples of this rustic style are Peblis to the Play and Christis Kirk on the Grene, ascribed by some to James V.
Nevertheless the passage in the Spanish text undeniably lends some support to the Portuguese claim, and recent critics have inclined to the belief that Amadis de Gaula was written by Joao de Lobeira, a Galician knight who frequented the Portuguese court between 1258 and 1285, and to whom are ascribed two fragments of a poem in the Colocci-Brancuti Canzoniere (Nos.
dedic., which is ascribed to Aldhelm (d.
Other sayings and verses, most of them ascribed, not to the Buddha, but to the disciples themselves, were put into a supplementary Nikaya.
There has also been preserved a collection of stanzas ascribed to his leading followers.
There are five kinds of currency in the islands, consisting of beads of glass and enamel, to which a supernatural origin is ascribed.
of the Corpus Poeticum Boreale, and ascribed by the editors of that collection to one poet - " the Helgi Poet."
A prophecy in verse, adorned with pictures, which is ascribed to Leo VI.
His symbol is carried into the thick of the fray, so that the god is actually present to grant assistance in the crisis, and the victory is with becoming humility invariably ascribed by the kings "to the help of Assur."
The construction of roads, the abolition of direct taxes and of the system of farming the church lands, the securing of impartial administration of justice, and the establishment of educational institutions are among the services ascribed to his efforts.
r) means nothing for us except that there was a disposition among the later Jews to refer their books to great names of the past, Enoch, Daniel, Job, Moses, David, Solomon, Ezra; as also, outside of Jewry, works were ascribed to Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Tacitus and others that were not composed by these authors.
10-31), two are ascribed to the unknown persons Agur (xxx.
among them being the church of St James, a handsome Late Gothic edifice, with some paintings ascribed to Wohlgemuth; the old Carmelite church containing a monument to Duke Albert II.
It has often been said that he commenced and frequently practised as an illuminator; this is dubious and a presumption arises that illuminations executed by Giovanni's brother, Benedetto, also a Dominican, who died in 1448, have been ascribed to the more famous artist.
The next definite stage is the dynasty of the Israelite Omri, to whom is ascribed the founding of the city of Samaria.
Temples, shrines and holy places were no novelty in Palestine, and the in- Jerusalem auguration of the great centre of Judaism is ascribed to Solomon the son of the great conqueror David.
especially Isaiah), the character of the reforms ascribed to Josiah (2 Kings xxiii.), the pictures drawn by Jeremiah and Ezekiel, and the latter's condemnation of the half-Hittite, half-Amorite capital, combine with the events of later history to prove that the religion of the national sanctuary must not be too narrowly estimated from the denunciations of more spiritual minds or from a priori views of the inevitable concomitants of either henotheism or monotheism or of a lofty ethical teaching.
The priestly system, as represented in the Pentateuch, is not fitted for the desert, where its initiation is ascribed, but on independent internal critical grounds belongs to the post-exilic age, where it stands at the head of further developments.
It may perhaps be no mere chance that with the dynasties of Omri and Jehu the historical continuity is more firm, that older forms of prophetical narrative are preserved (the times from Ahab to Jehu), and that to the reign of the great Jeroboam (first half of the 8th century), the canonical writers have ascribed the earliest of the extant prophetical writings (Amos and Hosea).
3 To the same post-exilic hand may also be ascribed the introduction of the "minor judges" (so several critics), and smaller additions here and there (ch.
His death was variously ascribed "to despair, to poison, and to the divine justice."
Pointing out that the sophists of that dialogue " profess Eis ap€riffs E7rt,u XELav 7rporpNiaL by means of dialogue," that ' they challenge the interlocutor inr w Xoyov," that " their examples are drawn from common objects and vulgar trades," that " they maintain positions that we know to have been held by Megarians and Cynics," he infers that " what we have here presented to us as ' sophistic ' is neither more nor less than a caricature of the Megarian logic "; and further, on the ground that " the whole conception of Socrates and his effect on his contemporaries, as all authorities combine to represent it, requires us to assume that his manner of discourse was quite novel, that no one before had systematically attempted to show men their ignorance of what they believed themselves to know," he is " disposed to think that the art of disputation which is ascribed to sophists in the Euthydemus and the Sophistes (and exhaustively analysed by Aristotle in the HEpi originated entirely with Socrates, and that he is altogether responsible for the form at least of this second species of sophistic."
Pandya king to whom a definite date can be ascribed is Rajasimha (c. A.D.
In such a movement as early Christian gnosticism, Babylonian elements - modified, to be sure, and transformed - are largely present, while the growth of an apocalyptic literature is ascribed with apparent justice by many scholars to the recrudescence of views the ultimate source of which is to be found in the astral-theology of the Babylonian and Assyrian priests.
Khalid contented himself with protesting; he was neither a politician nor a soldier, but a student of alchemy and astronomy; translations of Greek books have been ascribed to him (Jahiz, Bayan, i.
This lack of fountains is probably to be ascribed in part to the effect of earthquakes, which are not infrequent; that of 1769 continued for six whole days.
The Song of Absence, Peblis to the Play and Christis Kirk on the Greene have been ascribed to him without evidence.
But the economic decay and consequent loss of political influence among both imperial and territorial towns must be chiefly ascribed to inner causes.
A rationalistic explanation might be found in the connexion between the chthonic serpent and subterranean sources of wealth.3 Moreover, the serpent is often associated with metallurgy, and to serpent deities have been ascribed the working of metals, gem-cutting and indeed culture in general.
In many places streams or springs are credited with the power of removing barrenness which, in primitive thought, is often ascribed to supernatural malevolence.
This was ascribed to the naga demi-gods and rajahs of India and to the " king tt, of snakes " among North American Indians.'
The rites, we may suppose, have become modified and more orthodox, but none the less they are a valuable testimony to the persistence of the cult among people who still claim power over serpents and immunity from their bite, and who live hard by the home of the ancient tribe which ascribed its origin to the son of Circe."
It has also been ascribed to quarantine, but no effective quarantine was established till 1720, so that the cessation of plague in England must be regarded as spontaneous.
The fact that they were all ascribed to Homer merely means that they belong to a period in the history of the Ionian and Aeolian colonies when " Homer " was a name which drew to itself all ancient and popular verse.
The Theban cycle is represented by the Thebaid (which Callinus, who was of the 7th century, ascribed to Homer) and the Epigoni.
Possibly the growth of the legend of Krishna - his being reared at Go-kula (cow-station); his tender relations to the gopis, or cowherdesses, of Vrindavana; his epithets Gopala," the cowherd,"and Govinda," cow-finder,"actually explained as" recoverer of the earth "in the great epic, and the go-loka, or" cow-world,"assigned to him as his heavenly abode - may have some connexion with the sacred character ascribed to the cow from early times.
As the chief authority of their tenets, the Nimavats recognize the Bhagavata-purana; though several works, ascribed to Nimbarka - partly of a devotional character and partly expository of Vedanta topics - are still extant, Adherents of this sect are fairly numerous in northern India, their frontal mark consisting of the usual two perpendicular white lines, with, however, a circular black spot between them.
The generally recognized principal Avatars do not, however, by any means constitute the only occasions of a direct intercession of the deity in worldly affairs, but - in the same way as to this day the eclipses of the sun and moon are ascribed by the ordinary Hindu to these luminaries being temporarily swallowed by the dragon Rahu (or Graha, " the seizer") - so any uncommon occurrence would be apt to be set down as a special manifestation of divine power; and any man credited with exceptional merit or achievement, or even remarkable for some strange incident connected with his life or death, might ultimately come to be looked upon as a veritable incarnation of the deity, capable of influencing the destinies of man, and might become an object of local adoration or superstitious awe and propitiatory rites to multitudes of people.