How to use As-in in a sentence
Does swimming alone late at night strike you as in character for Byrne?
A fifth appeared, as in Sofi's vision, and tried to push the door closed.
In 1502 Warham was consecrated bishop of London and became keeper of the great seal, but his tenure of both these offices was short, as in 1504 he became lord chancellor and archbishop of Canterbury.
The western Mediterranean is cut off by a bank crossing the narrow strait between Sicily and Cape Bon, usually known as the Adventure Bank, on which the depth is nowhere 200 fathoms. The mean depth of the western basin is estimated at 881 fathoms, and the deepest sounding recorded is 2040 fathoms. In the eastern Mediterranean the mean depth is nearly the same as in the western basin.
The ovary has many cavities with a large number of ovules attached to its walls, and is surmounted by a flat stigma of many radiating rows as in a poppy.Advertisement
The molar teeth are six in number on each side, increasing in size from before backwards, and, as in the elephants, with a horizontal succession, the anterior teeth being lost before the full development of the posterior ones, which gradually move forward, taking the place of those that are destroyed by wear.
In the potential curves of the diagram the ordinates represent the hourly values expressed - as in Tables II.
Up to the revolutionary year 1830 his religious views had remained strongly tinged with rationalism, Hegel remaining his guide in religion as in practical politics and the treatment of history.
Where the ritual, as in most cases, is a revival of pre-Reformation.
The " roods " themselves were not The simplest form is the " flat roof " consisting of horizontal wood joists laid from wall to wall as in floor construction.Advertisement
In front of the former, as in front of those of Heracles and Zeus, stood a huge altar for burnt offerings, as long as the facade of the temple itself.
To avoid such error Dawes used double wires, not spider webs, placing the image of the star symmetrically between these wires, as in fig.
One double web, fixed in the box, is pointed symmetrically, as in fig.
In the measuring machines in general use the field of view, as in the case of the glass-scale micrometer, is sufficiently large to include the image of the 5 mm.
These three adjustments having been made, the prisms P3 and P4 are removed and replaced by another prism in which the silvering is arranged as in fig.Advertisement
The floor of the enclosure is constituted as in the other Zimbabwe buildings by a thick bed of cement which extends even outside the main wall.
The principles of construction, the use of stone and cement are the same as in the "elliptical" kraal; there is no definite plan, the shape and arrangement of the enclosures being determined solely by the natural features of the ground.
Examples may perhaps occasionally still be found in the uninhabited forests of Hungary and Transylvania, and occasionally in Spain and Greece, as well as in the Caucasus and in some of the Swiss cantons, but the original race has in most countries interbred with the domestic cat wherever the latter has penetrated."
The fact that in tabby Persians the body-markings are never so strong as in the short-haired breeds is in some degree confirmatory of this, as suggesting descent from a nearly wholecoloured type.
Instead of these are cats with more or less abbreviated tails, showing in greater or less degree a decided kink or bend near the tip. In other cases the tail is of the short curling type of that of a bulldog; sometimes it starts quite straight, but divides in a fork-like manner near the tip; and in yet other instances it is altogether wanting, as in the typical Manx cats.Advertisement
The other members of the group are relative and dependent, and only to be understood as in various degrees subordinate to the primitive conception.
One hypothesis supplants the various principles of life; the rule of absolute mechanism is as complete in the animal as in the cosmos.
Thus in the perfection of man, as in the nature of God, will and intellect must be united.
In reason, as in revelation, man can only attain to the lower kind of knowledge; there is a higher kind which we may not hope to reach.
The first book, after a short introduction upon the nature of theology as understood by Aquinas, proceeds in 119 questions to discuss the nature, attributes and relations of God; and this is not done as in a modern work on theology, but the questions raised in the physics of Aristotle find a place alongside of the statements of Scripture, while all subjects in any way related to the central theme are brought into the discourse.Advertisement
The mud brought down by it, calculated at 7150 lb an hour at Bagdad, is not deposited in marshes to form alluvium, as in the case of the Euphrates, but although in flood time the river becomes at places an inland sea, rendering navigation extremely difficult and uncertain, the bulk of the mud is deposited in banks, shoals and islands in the bed of the river, and is finally carried out into the Persian Gulf.
Just as in 335 he had crossed the Danube, so he now made one raid across the frontier river, the Jaxartes (Sir Dania), to teach the fear of his name to the outlying peoples of the steppe (summer 328).
Hubert de Burgh was the last of the great justiciars; after his fall (1231) the justiciarship was not again committed to a great baron, and the chancellor soon took the position formerly occupied by the justiciar as second to the king in dignity, as well as in power and influence.
There are two conjugations; the passive formation, now wanting inmost Indo-European languages, has been retained, as in Greek; thus kerko-iy, " I seek," forms kerko-n -em, " I am sought."
The infinitive is not found; as in Greek, Rumanian and Bulgarian, it is replaced by the subjunctive with a particle.Advertisement
The use of the slips for the purpose of multiplication is now evident; thus to multiply 2085 by 736 we take out in this manner the multiples corresponding to 6, 3, 7, and set down the digits as they are obtained, from right to left, shifting them back one place and adding up the columns as in ordinary multiplication, viz.
They were convened by the magistrate, who presided as in the Roman senate.
The general assembly is representative of the whole Church, either, as in the Irish General Assembly, by a minister and elder sent direct to it from every congregation, or, as in the Scottish General Assemblies, by a proportion of dele- Assembly.
Though the jus divinum of presbytery is not now insisted upon as in some former times, Presbyterians claim that it is the church polity set forth in the New Testament.
Just as in the synagogue there was a plurality of rulers called elders, so there was in every Christian church a plurality of elders.Advertisement
The grana cheese known as Parmesan is not now so well made at Parma as in some other parts of Italy - Lodi, for example.
In France, as in Great Britain, volcanic eruptions occurred during several of the Palaeozoic periods, but during the Mesozoic era the // /
The following were the countries sending the largest quantities of goods (special trade) to France (during the same periods as in previous table).
They decide, as in England, on facts only, leaving the application of the law to the judges.
But in 1908, owing to the prevailing want of trained soldiers in France, it was proposed to set free the white troops in Algeria by applying the principles of universal service to the natives, as in Tunis.Advertisement
From this point a gap (the troue dEpinal) was left, so as in some sort to canalize the flow of invasion (General Bonnal), until the upper Moselle was reached at Epinal (q.v.).
There is a registrar, as in the high court.
He admits in the sacred writings as in the classics only one acceptation, and that the grammatical, convertible into and the same with the logical and historical.
According to this the figures of combatants do not all face towards the centre, but are broken up, as in other early compositions, into a series of groups of two or three figures each.
It may open either forward or backwards; and although present in the great majority of the species, and enclosing the teats, it may, as in many of the opossums, be completely absent, when the teats extend in two rows along the whole length of the under-surface of the body.Advertisement
In Hungary, as in Italy, he was accused of brutality.
If the human soul is a force in the narrower sense, a substance, and not a combination of substances, then, as in the nature of things there is no transition from existence to non-existence, we cannot naturally conceive the end of its existence, any more than we can anticipate a gradual annihilation of its existence."
Nor are there any snowfields to feed rivers, as in the other continents.
We pass on to the other curious order of non-placental mammals, that of the Monotremata, so called from the structure of their organs of evacuation with a single orifice, as in birds.
In South Australia and the Northern Territory a large number are outside the bounds of settlement, and it is probable that they are as numerous there as in Queensland.Advertisement
The marriage rate varies as in other countries from year to year according to the degree of prosperity prevailing.
In Queensland the fields were all showing development in 1891, when the output exhibited a very large increase compared with that of former years; but, as in the case of Victoria, the production of the metal seems to have ceased.
Oriental amethysts also have been found in that state, and the ruby has been found in Queensland, as well as in New South Wales.
The experience of the party was also much the same as in New South Wales, but its greatest triumphs were achieved in party.
To his translation (1530) of a Latin Chronicle and Description of Turkey, by a Transylvanian captive, which had been prefaced by Luther, he added an appendix holding up the Turks as in many respects an example to Christians, and presenting in lieu of the restrictions of Lutheran, Zwinglian and Anabaptist sects, the vision of an invisible spiritual church, universal in its scope.
Whether the division of the lobus dexter into two divisions - (i) lobus dexter proper and (2) lobus quadratus, as in modern anatomical nomenclature - was also assumed in Babylonian hepatoscopy, is not certain, but the groove separating the right lobe into two sections - the fossa venae umbilicalis - was recognized and distinguished by the designation of "river of the liver."
In 1894 a more serious rebellion in the mountainous region of Sassun was ruthlessly stamped out; the Powers insistently demanded reforms, the eventual grant of which in the autumn of 1895 was the signal for a series of massacres, brought on in part by the injudicious and threatening acts of the victims, and extending over many months and throughout Asia Minor, as well as in the capital itself.
There is no special board of commissioners or supervisors as in most of the other states, the county authority being the assistant judges of the county court.
In the southern parts of Australia and in New Zealand the tree seems to flourish as well as in its native home.
Both these oaks grow well in British plantations, where their bright autumn foliage, though seldom so decided in tint as in their native woods, gives them a certain picturesque value.
But as in Ireland so Cromwell's policy in Scotland was unpopular and was only upheld by the maintenance of a large army, necessitating heavy taxation and implying the loss of the national independence.
At one time, as in the case of Blechingdon, they would perform strange exploits worthy of the most daring hussars; at another their speed and tenacity paralyses armies.
On the whole the history of the colony has been one of peaceful progress, interrupted now and again, as in 1903, by severe droughts.
In cases where the direction of the air motion is always the same, as in the ventilating shafts of mines and buildings for instance, these anemometers, known, however, as air meters, are employed, and give most satisfactory results.
He argued that, if heat be energy, then, when it is employed in doing work, as in a steam-engine, some of the heat must itself be consumed in the operation.
It is not possible to work double current from one set alone, as in this case, if one key of a group of instruments is up and another is down, the battery would be short-circuited and no current would flow to line.
A noticeable feature in the modern A B C indicator, as well as in all modern forms of telegraph instruments, is the adoption of " induced " magnets in the moving portion of the apparatus.
It differs from the open circuit in only requiring one battery (although, as in the figure, half of it is often placed at each end), in having the re circuit ceiving instrument between the line and the key, and in having the battery continuously to the line.
When signals are to be sent from either station the operator turns the switch c out of contact with the stop b, and then operates precisely as in open circuit send '" i ing.
In Squier and Crehore's " Synchronograph " system " sine waves of current, instead of sharp " makes and breaks," or sharp reversals, are employed for transmitting signals, the waves being produced by an alternating-current dynamo, and regulated by means of a perforated paper ribbon, as in the Wheatstone automatic system.
These indications form the telegraph alphabet and are read in the same manner as in the case of the " single needle " instrument used on land.
The short leg of the siphon tube dips into an insulated ink-bottle, so' that the ink it contains becomes electrified, while the long leg has its open end at a very small distance from a brass table, placed with its surface parallel to the plane in which the mouth of the leg moves, and over which a slip of paper may be passed at a uniform rate, as in the spark recorder.
A, slip as received on recorder, using ordinary relays for translating on to second cable; B, slip as received on recorder, when interpolator is used at intermediate station, for sending on to second cable; C (four cells through a line, KR=3.6), signals with recorder under ordinary conditions; D, all conditions the same as in C, but magnifying relay inserted between the end of the line and the recorder.
Dolbear, 2 the effects were produced by electrostatic instead of electromagnetic forces, as in con- the Bell telephone.
Each subscriber was given the exclusive use of a circuit as in other systems, and shared a call-wire with a number of other subscribers.
On each side of that great chain are found extensive Tertiary deposits, sometimes, as in Tuscany, the district of Monferrat, &c., forming a broken, hilly country, at others spreading into broad plains or undulating downs, such as the Tavoliere of Puglia, and the tract that forms the spur of Italy from Bari to Otranto.
But nowhere are these contrasts so striking as in Calabria.
Co-operative dairy farms are numerous in north Italy, and though only about half as many as in 1889 (114 in 1902) are better organized.
The Mobile Militia will not, however, at that date have felt the effects of the scheme, and the Territonial Militia (setting the drain of emigration against the increased population) will probably remain at about the same figure as in 1901.
We have seen that the name of Italy was originally applied only to the southernmost part of the peninsula, and was only gradually extended so as to comprise the central regions, such as Latium and Campania, which were designated by writers as late as Thucydides and Aristotle as in Opicia.
Leo for a while relied on Francis; for the vast power of Charles V., who succeeded to the empire in 1519, as in 1516 he had succeeded to the crowns of Spain and Lower Italy, threatened the whole of Europe.
The system of setting nations by the ears with the view of settling the quarrels of a few reigning houses was reduced to absurdity when the people, as in these cases, came to be partitioned and exchanged without the assertion or negation of a single principle affecting their interests or rousing their emotions.
Lombardy was made the seat of war; and here the king of Sardinia acted as in some sense the arbiter of the situation.
In the case of Italy, as in that of Germany, he frankly regretted the constitution of powerful homogeneous states upon the borders of France.
A motion was passed for his committal by the Lords, who, as in Clarendon's case, voted his banishment.
We lectic" may explain this to ourselves as an extraordinarily space as well as in time; nothing does anything for itself.
It is rare to find in the polyp a regular, symmetrical disposition of the tentacles as in the medusa.
In the polyp the nervous tissue is always in the form of a scattered plexus, never concentrated to form a definite nervous system as in the medusa.
The buds may all become detached after a time and give rise to separate and independent individuals, as in the common Hydra, in which only polyp-individuals are produced and sexual elements From Allman's Gymnoblastic Hydroids, by permission of are developed the Council of the Ray Society.
Thus the typical hydroid colony starts from a " founder " polyp, which in the vast majority of cases is fixed, but which may be floating, as in Nemopsis, Pelagohydra, &c. The founder-polyp usually produces by budding polyp-individuals, and these in their turn produce other buds.
In some cases, however, medusabuds are formed on the hydro rhiza, as in Hydrocorallines.
The manubrium is absent altogether in the fresh-water medusa Limnocnida, in which the diameter of the mouth exceeds half that of the umbrella; on the other hand, the manubrium may attain a great length, owing to the centre of the sub-umbrella with the stomach being drawn into it, as it were, to form a long proboscis, as in Geryonia.
The stomach may be altogether lodged in the manubrium, from which the radial canals then take origin directly as in Geryonia (Trachomedusae); it may be with or without gastric pouches.
The muscle-fibres arise as processes from the bases of the epithelial cells; such cells may individually become sub-epithelial in position, as in the polyp; or, in places where muscular tissue is greatly developed, as in the velum or sub-umbrella, the entire muscular epithelium may be thrown into folds in order to increase its surface, so that a deeper sub-epithelial muscular layer becomes separated completely from a more superficial bodyepithelium.
The medial portion forms radiating tracts of fibres, the so-called " bell-muscles " running underneath, and parallel to, the radial canals; when greatly developed, as in Tiaridae, they form ridges, so-called mesenteries, projecting into the sub-umbral cavity.
The nervous system of the medusa consists of sub-epithelial ganglion-cells, which form, in the first place, a diffuse plexus of nervous tissue, as in the polyp, but developed chiefly on the subumbral surface; and which are concentrated, in the second place, to form a definite central nervous system, never found in the polyp. In Hydromedusae the central nervous system forms two concentric nerverings at the margin of the umbrella, near the base of the velum.
The sense-cells form, in the first place, a diffuse system of scattered sensory cells, as in the polyp, developed chiefly on the manubrium, the tentacles and the margin of the umbrella, where they form a sensory ciliated epithelium covering the nerve-centres; in the second place, the sense-cells are concentrated to form definite sense-organs, situated always at the margin of the umbrella, hence often termed " marginal bodies."
The endoderm of the medusa shows the same general types of structure as in the polyp, described above.
The first case gives a colony entirely composed of polyps, as in many Hydroidea.
By a simple modification, the open pit becomes a solid ectodermal ingrowth, just as in Teleostean fishes the hollow medullary tube, or the auditory pit of other vertebrate embryos, is formed at first as a solid cord of cells, which acquires a cavity secondarily.
Especially noteworthy in the germinal budding of Margellium is the formation of the entocodon, as in the vegetative budding of the indirect type.
The medusa arises direct from the actinulastage and there is no entocodon formed, as in the budding described above.
The gymnoblastic polyp usually has a distinct perisarc investing the hydrorhiza and the hydrocaulus, sometimes also the hydranth as far as the bases of the tentacles (Bimeria); but in such cases the perisarc forms a closely-fitting investment or cuticule on the hydranth, never a hydrotheca standing off from it, as in the next sub-order.
An important variation is seen, in the form of the hydrotheca itself, which may come off from the main stem by a stalk, as in Obelia, or may be sessile, without a stalk, as in Sertularia.
Letters a to h same as in fig.
The development of the Trachomedusae, so far as it is known, shows an actinula-stage which is either free (larval) or passed over in the egg (foetal) as in Geryonia; in no case does there appear to be a free planula-stage.
The umbrella is shallow and has the margin supported by a rim of thickened ectoderm, as in the Trachomedusae, but not so strongly developed.
The tentacles are always solid, as in Trachomedusae.
It is a re markable fact that all specimens of Limnocodium hitherto seen have been males; it may be inferred from this either that only one polypstock has been introduced into Europe, from which all the medusae seen hitherto have been budded, or perhaps that the female medusa is a sessile gonophore, as in Pennaria.
Thus from the original planula three appendages are, as it were, budded off, while the planula itself mostly gives rise to coenosarc, just as in some hydroids the planula is converted chiefly into hydrorhiza.
In this case, however, we cannot say that each step goes out of the other as in that of individual development.
In this particular, as in his view of organic actions, Kant distinctly opposed the idea of evolution as one universal process swaying alike the physical and the moral world.
Only before its union with the State, its power in this direction, as in others, was merely over the spirits of men.
The occupants of certain sees by a kind of prescription became legates without special appointment, legati nati, as in the case of Canterbury.
In the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands courts Christian have now jurisdiction substantially as in England.
Ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Ireland was as in England till the Irish Church was disestablished in 1869 by 32 & 33 Vict.
Heresy has been treated as a crime to be tried in and punished by the ordinary courts of the country, as in the cases of Servetus and Grotius.
In the more typical Lemuridae there are two pairs of upper incisor teeth, separated by a gap in the middle line; the premolars may be either two or three, but the molars, as in the lower jaw, are always three on each side.
With the exception of the second toe of the hind-foot, the digits have well-formed, flattened nails as in the majority of monkeys.
In the members of the typical genus Lemur, as well as in the allied Hapalemur and Lepidolemur, none of the toes or fingers are connected by webs, and all have the hind-limbs of moderate length, and the tail long.
How severely strict medieval abstinence was may be gauged from the fact that armies and garrisons were sometimes, in default of dispensations, as in the case of the siege of Orleans in 1429, reduced to starvation for want of Lenten food, though in full possession of meat and other supplies.
Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the greensand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value.
The abuses connected with nocturnal vigils 1 led to their being attacked, especially by Vigilentius of Barcelona (c. 400), against whom Jerome fulminated in this as in other matters.
Thus he was in some cases, as in that of St James's, Piccadilly, content to make the exterior of an almost barnlike plainness.
The Mosses and Liverworts include forms with a more or less leaf-like thallus, such as many of the liverworts, and forms in which the plant shows a differentiation into a stem bearing remarkably simple leaves, as in the true mosses.
The spores, as in the heterosporous Pteridophyta, are of two kindsmicrospores (pollen grains) borne in microsporangia (pollen sacs) on special leaves (sporophylls) known as stamens, and macrospores (embryo-sac) borne in macrosporangia (ovules) on sporophylls known as carpels.
The male gametophyte is represented by one or few cells and, except in a few primitive forms where the male cell still retains the motile character as in the Pteridophyta, is carried passively to the macrospore in a development of the pollen grain, the pollen tube.
The thallus in all cases consists of a branched filament of cells placed end to end, as in many of the Green Algae.
Many of the lower forms of Brown Seaweeds (Phoeophyceae) have a thallus consisting of simple or branched cell threads, as in the green and red forms. The lateral union of the branches to form a solid thallus is not, however, so common, nor is it carried to so high a pitch of elaboration as in the Rhodophyceae.
In addition to the cell types described, it is a very common occurrence in these bulky forms for rhizoid-like branches of the cells to grow out, mostly from the cells at the periphery of the medulla, and grow down between the cells, strengthening the whole tissue, as in the Rhodophyceae.
The surface-layer of the body in the massive Fungi differs in character according, to its function, which is not constant throughout the class, as in the Algae, because of the very various conditions of life to which different Fungi are exposed.
This leptom is not so highly differentiated as in the most advanced Laminariaceae, but shows some of the characters of sieve-tubes with great distinctness.
The end wall is usually very thin, and the protoplasm on artificial contraction commonly sticks to it just as in a sieve-tube, though no perforation of the wall has been found.
A very common function of hairs is to diminish transpiration, by creating a still atmosphere between them, as in the case of the sunk stomata already mentioned.
They may, for instance, be glandular or stinging, as in the common stinging nettle, where the top of the hair is very brittle, easily breaking off when touched.
The gaps in the outer tubular stele, however, are formed by the departure of aerial branch-traces, instead of leaf-traces as in the ferns.
Leaf-gaps are formed in essentially the same way as in the ferns, but when in the case of a plurifascicular trace the bundles are distributed at intervals round the cylinder it is obvious that several gaps must be formed as the different bundles leave the stele.
The latter is often sclerized, especially opposite the phloem, and to a less extent opposite the xylem, as in the stem.
The body thus formed ment of is called the embryo, and this develops into the adult Primary plant, not by continued growth of all its parts as in an animal, but by localization of the regions of cell-division and growth, such a localized region being called a growing-point.
In that case either very little secondary tissue is formed, as in the gourds, some Ranunculaceae, &c., or a considerable amount may be produced (clematis, barberry, ivy).
In either case, narrow, secondary rays are formed at intervals, just as in the stem.
We have the formation of numerous mechanisms which have arisen in connection with the question of food supply, which may not only involve particular cells, but also lead to differentiation in the protoplasm of those cells, as in the development of the chloroplastids of the leaves and other green parts.
But it also appears that honeydew may be excreted by ordinary processes of over-turgescence pressing the liquid through water-pores, as in the tropical Caesalpinia, Calliandra, &c. That these exudations on leaves should afterwards serve as pabulum for Fungie.g.
A soil may be physically wet; but if the plants absorb the water only with difficulty, as in a salt marsh, then the soil is, as regards plants, physiologically dry.
Chloroplastids are frequently present in the epidermal cells, as in some shade plants.
Forms of stone cells or stereids occur in some of the more suffruticose halophytes, as in Arthrocneniumglaucum.
It may also take place where rapid proliferation of the cell is going on, as in the budding of the Yeast plant.
In the Thallophytes the cytoplasm may be segmented by constriction, due to the in-growth of a new cell wall from the old one, as in Spirogyra and Cladophora, or by the formation of cleavage furrows in which the new cell-wall is secreted, as occurs in the formation of the spores in many Algae and Fungi.
They are present from the beginning of the development of the cell-wail, and arise from the spindle fibres, all of which may be continued as connecting threads (endosperm of Tamus communis), or part of them may be overlaid by cellulose lamellae (endosperm of Lilium Martagon), or they may be all overlaid as in pollen mother-cells and pollen grains of Helleborus foetidus.
Even insects, as in the case of South African locusts, have been found to be a means of distributing seeds.
Both in Persepolis and Pasargadae large masses of gold and silver from the tribute of the subject nations were treasured, as in Susa and Ecbatana.
The typical peninsula is connected with the mainland by a relatively narrow isthmus; the name is, however, extended to any limb projecting from the trunk of the mainland, even when, as in the Indian peninsula, it is connected by its widest part.
This place may either be a point, as in a volcanic cone, or a line, as in a mountain range or ridge of hills.
In places where the low ground is marshy, roads and railways often follow the ridge-lines of hills, or, as in Finland, the old glacial eskers, which run parallel to the shore.
Here the opisthotic bone appears in the occipital region, as in the adult Chelonian.
Between these, resting vertically upon the rostrum, appears the vomer; very variable in shape and size, often reduced to a mere trace, as in the Galli, or even absent, broken up into a pair of tiny splints in Pici.
The mandible is composed of several bones as in reptiles.
This condition occurs in the Ratitae as well as in the well-flying Platyrcecinae amongst parrots.
Of course this doubleheaded condition is the more primitive, and as such exists in most nidifugous birds, but in many of these, as well as in many nidicolous birds, either the caudal or the iliac head is absent, and in a very few (Cancroma, Dicholophus, Steatornis and some Cathartes) the whole muscle is absent.
When fully dilated, the pupil is round in all birds; when contracted it is usually round, rarely oval as in the fowl.
In the retina the cones prevail in numbers over the rods, as in the mammals, and their tips contain, as in other Sauropsida, coloured drops of oil, mostly red or yellow.
Of the outer eyelids, the lower alone is movable in most birds, as in reptiles, and it frequently contains a rather large saucer-shaped cartilage, the tarsus palpebralis.
The rejected books receiving little attention have mostly either been altogether lost or have survived only in translations, as in the case of the Apocrypha.
The tradition, as in the case of the Targums, was again twofold; that which had grown up in the Palestinian Schools and that of Babylonia.
The meanings of the monosyllables were differentiated, as in the other Tai languages and in Chinese, by a system of tones, but these were rarely indicated in writing, and the tradition regarding them is lost.
The natives are skilled in such crafts as weaving and metal-work, as well as in agriculture and road-making.
But the Norman, as a distinct people, is as little to be seen in the one island as in the other.
In these buildings, as in those of Aquitaine, the pointed arch is the surest sign of Saracenic influence; it must never be looked on as marking the approach of the Gothic of the North.
Where, as in Sicily, the Normans felt that they could not improve, they simply adopted the style of the country.
Where, as in England, they felt that they could improve, they substituted for the style of the country their own style - that is, a style which they had not created but which they had adopted, which they had made thoroughly their own, and which they went on improving in England no less than in Normandy.
In some orders the parts are numerous, chiefly in the case of the stamens and the carpels, as in the buttercup and other members of the order Ranunculaceae.
Where they existed, as in Switzerland, they have been overthrown.
Where they did not exist, as in America, everything has made it more and more impossible that they should arise.
One noteworthy feature in Liberia, however, is the relative absence of mosquitoes, and the white ants and some other insect pests are not so troublesome here as in other parts of West Africa.
And the inner mind of Butler has moral anchorage in the Analogy, quite as much as in the Sermons.
This material world is no longer, as in Zoroastrianism, essentially a creation of the good God, but the powers of evil have created it with the aid of some stolen portions of light.
The natives of Bali, though of the same stock as the Javanese, and resembling them in general appearance, exceed them in stature and muscular power, as well as in activity and enterprise.
Javanese influence is also traceable in the use of three varieties of speech, as in the Javanese language, according to the rank of the people addressed.
The file may be on the head - either upper or lower surface - and the scraper formed by the front edge of the prothorax, as in various wood-boring beetles (Anobium and Scolytus).
Or ridged areas on the sides of the prothorax may be scraped by "files" on the front thighs, as in some ground-beetles.
With very few exceptions, the larva in this group is active and campodeiform, with cerci and elongate legs as in the Adephaga, but the leg has only four segments and one claw.
It is thus a common mineral in all copper mines, and sometimes occurs in large masses, as in Arizona and in South Australia, where it has been worked as an ore of copper, of which element it contains 55%.
In the Baltic Sea, as well as in the lakes of its basin (Ladoga, Onega, Ilmen, &c.), the yearly value is estimated at £ 200,000.
As these independent Tatar states were always jealous of each other, and their jealousy often broke out in open hostility, it was easy to prevent any combined action on their part; and as in each khanate there were always several pretenders and contending factions, Muscovite diplomacy had little difficulty in weakening them individually and preparing for their annexation.
On the whole, however, at that period as in more recent times, they contributed largely to the process of territorial expansion.
At first it had seemed that the new birth of Russia would lead to a revival of pan-Slavism, directed not, Neo-Slav as in the middle of the i 9th century, against Austria and pan= but against Germany.
There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
Bridges Adams, the intention being by " fishing " the joints to convert the rails into continuous beams. In the original design two chairs were placed, one under each rail, a few inches apart, as in fig.
Of trespassers the number killed per mile of line is about as large in England as in America, the density of population and of traffic in Great Britain apparently counterbalancing the laxity of the laws against trespassing in America.
The number of persons killed on the railways of the German Empire in the year 1907 was 1249, classified as in Table XVII.
Instead of the borrowing power being restricted to a small percentage of the total capital, as in European countries, most of the railway mileage of America has been built with borrowed money, represented by bonds, while stock has been given freely as an inducement to subscribe to the bonds on the XXII.
Although this fact will not in itself make the companies liable to any process of reorganization similar to that following insolvency and foreclosure of the American railway, it is probable that reorganization of some sort must nevertheless take place in Great Britain, and it may well be questioned whether the position of the transportation system of that country would not have been better if it had been built up and projected on the experience gained by actual earlier losses, as in the United States.
Sometimes also a viaduct consisting of a series of arches is preferred to an embankment when the line has to be taken over a piece of fiat alluvial plain, or when it is desired to economize space and to carry the line at a sufficient height to clear the streets, as in the case of various railways entering London and other large towns.
Such train ferries arc common in America, especially on the Great Lakes, and exist at several places in Europe, as in the Baltic between Denmark and Sweden and Denmark and Germany, and across the Straits of Messina.
In the United Kingdom, as in Europe generally, the vehicles used on passenger trains include firstclass carriages, second-class carriages, third-class carriages, composite carriages containing compartments for two or more classes of passengers, dining or restaurant carriages, sleeping carriages, mail carriages or travelling post offices, luggage brake vans, horse-boxes and carriage-trucks.
The principal types to be found in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe are open wagons (the lading often protected from the weather by tarpaulin sheets), mineral wagons, covered or box wagons for cotton, grain, &c., sheep and cattle trucks, &c. The principal types of American freight cars are box cars, gondola cars, coal cars, stock cars, tank cars and refrigerator cars, with, as in other countries, various special cars for special purposes.
On the other hand, where, as in America, the great volume of freight is raw material and crude food-stuffs, and the distances are great, a low charge per unit of transportation is more important than any consideration such as quickness of delivery; therefore full car-loads of freight are massed into enormous trains, which run unbroken for distances of perhaps 1000 m.
Opposition on petition could be heard before a select committee or a joint committee as in the case of private bills.
Their primary object being the development and peopling of the land, they have naturally been made as cheaply as possible; and as in such cases the cost of the land is inconsiderable, economy has been sought by the use of lighter and rougher permanent way, plant, rolling stock, &c. Such railways are not " light " in the technical sense of having been made under enactments intended to secure permanent lowness of cost as compared with standard lines.
The one form, which probably arose from the conception of Yahweh as in an especial sense the protector of the poor, was that gifts to God may properly be bestowed on the needy, and that consequently alms have the virtue of a sacrifice.
The active measures taken then and later reduced their numbers greatly, so that towards the end of the century they became scarce, but, as in the case of the sister island, the date of their final disappearance cannot now be ascertained.
At the same time he cannot be classed as in the highest sense a philosophic historian.
The " black mouse " or Carson field mouse (Microtus montanus) is found throughout Nevada, as well as in Utah, north-eastern California, and eastern Oregon; it multiplies rapidly under favourable conditions, and at times causes serious injury to crops.
In the Washoe Mountains, as in the rest of the Sierra Nevada range, there is a heavy growth of conifers, extending down to the very valleys; but in many places these mountains have been almost deforested to provide timbers for the mines.
Fogs and hail are rare, but, as in all treeless countries, the rain comes in unequal quantities, and cloudbursts are not unknown.
The prevailing soils are sand and gravel loams, but other varieties are numerous, ranging from rich alluvial beds of extinct lakes, as in parts of Lyon and Esmeralda counties, to the strongly alkaline plains of the southern deserts.
The exterior brick walls are divided by shallow arches and pilasters, as in other churches of Ravenna.
Perhaps Erysichthon may be explained as the personification of the labourer, who by the systematic cultivation and tilling of the soil endeavours to force the crops, instead of allowing them to mature unmolested as in the good old times.
It was the author's original intention to complete this work in four volumes, but as the first volume was keenly attacked in Germany as well as in France, Fustel was forced in self-defence to recast the book entirely.
During the commonwealth and empire aes grave was used to denote the old as in contradistinction to the existing depreciated coin; while aes rude was applied to the original oblong coinage of primitive times.
Her victim was a porca, as in the cults of other deities of fertility, and was called damium, and we are told that the goddess herself was known as Damia and her priestess as damiatrix.
The alleged occurrence of the disease in localities free from mosquitoes or without their agency is not well attested; its absence from other localities where they abound is accounted for by their being of an innocent species, or - as in England - free from the parasite.
When a place cannot be kept free from mosquitoes the house may be protected, as in the experiments in Italy, by wire gauze at the doors and windows.
It could be carried out where the infected persons are few, by isolating and protecting them, but not where many are infected, as in native villages.
In the United States the common law of England was largely followed, and in most of the states, also, statutes were enacted against the offence, but, as in England, the law is practically never put in force.
Great Britain, for instance, could never be persuaded that it was as much in her interests as in the interests of Russia to subsidize the antiFrench party in Sweden.
Many instances of exaggerated and apparently unnatural structure nevertheless occur, as in the case of the genera Pangonia, Nemestrina, Achias, Diopsis and the family Celyphidae, .and, as might be expected, it is chiefly in tropical species that these peculiarities are found.
To withstand the chemical action of the gases, the " calorimetric bomb " is lined either with platinum, as in Berthelot's apparatus, or with porcelain, as in Mahler's.
In his relations with the Slays the emperor displayed the same conciliatory disposition as in the case of the Magyars; but though he more than once held out hopes that he would be crowned at Prague as king of fiohemia, the project was always abandoned.
In this, indeed, as in other cases, it may be said that the emperor was guided less by any abstract principles than by a common-sense appreciation of the needs and possibilities of the moment.
The study of the clan-group as an organization is as instructive here as in other fields.
The northern kingdom cherished the institution of a monarchy, and in this, as in all great political events, the prophets took part.
There are no signs of an extensive coalition as in the days of Shalmaneser; Ammon is probably included under Damascus; the position of Moab - which had freed itself from Jehoram of Israel - can hardly be calculated.
He was slain at Megiddo in 608, and Egypt, as in the long-distant past, again held Palestine and Syria.
In Israel as in Judah the political disasters not only meant a shifting of population, they also brought into prominence the old popular and non-official religion, the character of which is not to be condemned because of the attitude of lofty prophets in advance of their age.
In Elephantine, as in Nippur, the legal usages show that similar elements of Babylonio-Assyrian culture prevailed, and the evidence from two such widely separated fields is instructive for conditions in Palestine itself.3 20.
In Austria, as in Germany, anti-Semitism is a factor in the parliamentary elections.
Thus it is used of the purchase used in raising the flukes of an anchor to the bill-board; of a piece of wood or metal used to strengthen a sprung mast or yard; and of a plate of metal used, as in railway construction, for the strengthening of the meeting-place of two rails.
In this, as in so many other respects, the old Cretan tradition receives striking confirmation.
These latter, as in the well-known case of the Lion's Gate at Mycenae, often appear with guardian animals as their supporters.
Here, as in Crete, Daedalus executed great works like the temple of Eryx, and it was on Sicilian soil that Minos, engaged in a western campaign, was said to have met with a violent death at the hands of the native king Kokalos (Cocalus) and his daughters.
Here and there, as in Cyprus, we watch the development of some local schools.
No ruins are to be seen as in other Persian towns; the houses are comfortable, in good repair, roofed with tiles and enclosed by substantial walls.
This body is not, however, a special board, as in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, but a kind of administrative cabinet as in Iowa, consisting of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, and the superintendent of 2 The changes made in 1875 were adopted in a convention, were ratified in 1876, and were so numerous that the amended constitution is frequently referred to as the Constitution of 1876.
Reconstruction was a costly experience here as in other Southern states.
And as in Hebrew, the six letters b g d k p t are aspirated when immediately preceded by any vowel sound.
These pronominal suffixes are of much the same form as in Hebrew, but produce less change in the vowels of the words to which they are attached.
The Syriac verb is remarkable for having entirely lost the original passive forms, such as in Arabic can be formed in every conjugation and in Hebrew are represented by the Pual and Hophal.
Whereas the Hebrew verb is devoid of real tenses, and only expresses an action as completed or as in process without indicating time past, present or future, Syriac has by the help of an auxiliary verb constructed a set of tenses.
Here, as in the neighbouring Darab district, villages situated in the hills are called madan (mine), and some travellers have in their itineraries indicated a mine in localities where there is none.
Hugh's pupil, Richard of St Victor, declares, in opposition to dialectic scholasticism, that the objects of mystic contemplation are partly above reason, and partly, as in the intuition of the Trinity, contrary to reason.
The existence of numerous ancient cisterns shows that in Roman as in modern times rain-water was largely used for lack of springs.
These segments spring apparently from the top of the ovary - the real explanation, however, being that the end of the flower-stalk or "thalamus," as it grows, becomes dilated into a sort of cup or tube enclosing and indeed closely adhering to the ovary, so that the latter organ appears to be beneath the perianth instead of above it as in a lily, an appearance which has given origin to the term "inferior ovary."
In some cases, as in Catasetum, male flowers are produced so different from the female that before the different flowers had been found on the same pike, and before the facts of the case were fully known, they were taken to be representatives of distinct genera.
In Cypripedium two stamens are present, one on each side of the column instead of one only at the top, as in the group Monandreae, to which belong the remaining genera in which also only two stigmas are fertile.
From the Upper Carboniferous onward, however, no marine deposits are known; and, as in Siberia, plant-bearing beds are met with.
The emperor is head of the state and the high priest, who sacrifices to Heaven on behalf of his people, but he can be deposed, and no divine right is inherent in certain families as in Japan and Turkey.
Prickly pear (opuntia) hedges are as frequent as in Sicily.
The body consists of a number of exactly similar or closely similar segments, which are never fused and metamorphosed, as in the Arthropoda, to form specialized regions of the body.
Where locomotive appendages (the parapodia of the Polychaeta) exist, they are never jointed, as always in the Arthropoda; nor are they modified anteriorly to form jaws, as in that group.
The division and, indeed, partial suppression of the coelom culminates in the leeches, which in this, as in some other respects, are the most modified of Annelids.
The cerebral ganglia constitute an archicerebrum for the most part, there being no evidence that, as in the Arthropoda, a movement forward of post-oral ganglia has taken place.
Gonads not so restricted in position as in Oligochaets, and often more abundant; the individuals usually unisexual.
No specialized system of spermathecae, sperm reservoirs, and copulatory apparatus, as in Oligochaeta; development generally through a larval form; reproduction by budding also occurs.
As in the Oligochaeta the peristomial segment is often without setae; but this character is not by any means so constant as in the Oligochaeta.
There are even dimorphic forms among the Syllids where the sexes are, as in many Polychaets, separate.
The parapodia, as in the Capitellidae, are hardly developed.
The prostomium has many long filaments which recall the gills of the Sabellids, &c. The nephridia are specialized into two series, as in the last-mentioned worms. (5) Spioniformia (including Chaetopterus, Spio, &c.) and (6) Scoleciformia (Arenicola, Chloraema, Sternaspis) are the remaining groups.
The external segments are usually definable by the setae; and if the setae are absent, as in the anterior segments a, Penial seta of Perichaeta ceylonica.
The nervous system is embedded in the epidermis, and the pairs of ganglia are separated as in Serpula, &c.; each pair has a longish commissure between its two ganglia.
Sperm ducts and atria as in Limicolae; egg sacs large; body wall thick; vascular system and nephridia as in Terricolae.
The ganglia are crowded at the posterior end of the body as in leeches, and there is much tendency to the obliteration of the coelom as in that group. Pterodrilus and Cirrodrilus bear a few, or circles of, external processes which may be branchiae; Bdellodrilus and Astacobdella have none.
The vascular system is as in the lower Oligochaeta.
Eyes are present, but hardly so complex as in certain genera of Polychaetes.
Coelom generally reduced to a system of tubes, sometimes communicating with vascular system; in Acanthobdella and Ozobranchus a series of metamerically arranged chambers as in Oligochaeta.
The internal funnel varies in the same way as in the Oligochaeta in the number of cells which form it.
These septa are, however, rather incomplete and are not fastened to the gut; and, as in Acanthobdella, the nephridia are embedded vv FIG.
In this Annelid later the sac in question joins its fellow, passing beneath the nerve cord exactly as in the leech, and also grows out to reach the exterior.
It is to be noted that the Hirudinea differ from the Oligochaeta in that the male pore is in advance of the gonads (except in Acanthobdella, which here, as in so many points, approximates to the Oligochaeta), whereas in Oligochaeta that pore is behind the gonads (again with an exception, Aliurus).
The main idea is the same as in the classical account.
His vanity was certainly excessive; but I have no doubt that, in his public conduct as well as in his writings, he was desirous of doing good, that his ambition was of the noblest kind, anti that he proposed to himself the noblest ends.
He knew from his English experiences that such a veto would be hardly ever used unless the king felt the people were on his side, and that if it were used unjustifiably the power of the purse possessed by the representatives of the people would, as in England in 1688, bring about a bloodless revolution.
Webster's brief reply drew from Hayne a second speech, in which he entered into a full exposition of the doctrine of nullification, and the important part of Webster's second reply to Hayne on the 26th and 27th of January is a masterly exposition of the Constitution as in his opinion it had come to be after a development of more than forty years.
The workings of this Will are irrational primarily, but, as in its evolution it becomes more rationalized and understands the whole meaning of the Weltschmerz, it ultimately reaches the point at which the desire for existence is gone.
The purely theoretical character of Anu is thus still further emphasized, and in the annals and votive inscriptions as well as in the incantations and hymns, he is rarely introduced as an active force to whom a personal appeal can be made.
For many of these this county has long been famous, especially for that of silk, which is carried on to a large extent in Derby, as well as in Belper and Duffield.
Examples of Norman work are frequent in doorways, as in the churches of Allestree and Willington near Repton, while a fine tympanum is preserved in the modern church of Findern.
In the formation of the trees the same plan may be adopted as in the case of the apple.
The word " oxen," which occurs in our version of the Scriptures, as well as in the Septuagint and Vulgate, denotes the species, rather than the sex.
There is nothing to be found in Tusser about serfs or bondmen, as in Fitzherbert's works.
The farm-rooms in East Lothian, as in other districts, were divided into infield and outfield.
It is evident from this book that the society had exerted itself with success in introducing cultivated herbage and turnips, as well as in improving the former methods of culture.
But in nothing was this so apparent as in agriculture; the high prices of produce holding out a great inducement to improve lands then arable, to reclaim others that had previously lain waste, and to bring much pasture-land under the plough.
The agriculture of Great Britain, as a whole, advanced with rapid strides during this period; hint nowhere was the change so great as in Scotland.
It is noteworthy that in 1895 the country produced about half as much wheat as in any one of the years 1890, 1891 and 1898.
In some instances colleges are supported entirely by one county, as is the Holmes Chapel College, Cheshire; in others a college is supported by several affiliated counties, as in the case of the agricultural department of the University College, Reading, which acts in connexion with the counties of Berks, Oxon, Hants and Buckingham.
Trade unions, so far from disappearing, were legalized, gathered strength from the changes in industrial organization, and nowhere became so powerful as in the most progressive industries; while other forms of combination appeared, incomparably stronger, for good or evil, than those of earlier times.
In the tabulation and interpretation of statistical evidence, as in its collection, it is scarcely possible to overrate the importance of wide knowledge and experience.
In some forms the coiling disappears in the adult, leaving the shell simply conical as in Patellidae, Fissurellidae, &c., and in some cases the shell is coiled in one plane, e.g.
In these, as in Patella, the typical ctenidia are aborted, and the branchial function is assumed by close-set lamelliform processes arranged in a series beneath the mantle-skirt on either side of the foot.
The heart in Patella consists of a single auricle (not two as in Haliotis and Fissurella) and a ventricle; the former receives the blood from the branchial vein, the latter distributes it through a large aorta which soon leads into irregular blood-lacunae.
Supposing the tube to be completely introverted and to commence its eversion, we then find that eversion may take place, either by a forward movement of the side of the tube near its attached base, as in the proboscis of the Nemertine worms, the pharynx of Chaetopods and the eye-tentacle of Gastropods, or by a forward movement of the inverted apex of the tube, as in the proboscis of the Rhabdocoel Planarians, and in that of Gastropods here under consideration.
B, The same, partially everted by eversion of the sides, as in the Nemertine proboscis and Gastropod eye-tentacle = pleurecbolic.
In other Pectinibranchia (and such variations are representative for all Mollusca, and not characteristic only of Pectinibranchia) we find that there is a very unequal division of the egg-cell at the commencement of embryonic development, as in Nassa.
The sexes are distinct, as in all Streptoneura; and genital ducts and accessory glands and pouches are present, as in all Pectinibranchia.
In several of the more primitive forms the same torsion occurs as in Streptoneura, viz.
Where the modification is carried to its extreme degree, not only the shell but the pallial cavity, ctenidium and visceral hump disappear, and the body acquires a simple elongated form and a secondary external symmetry, as in Pterotrachaea and in Doris, Eolis, and other Nudibranchia.
In other cases (Tectibranchs) the reduced shell is enclosed by upgrowths of the edge of the mantle and becomes internal, as in many Cephalopods.
The genital duct is now said to be diaulic, as in Valvata, Oncidiopsis, Actaeon, and Lobiger among the Bullomorpha, in the Pleurobranchidae, in the Nudibranchia, except the Doridomorpha and most of the Elysiomorpha, and in the Pulmonata.
As in some Pectinibranchia, the free margin of the mantle-skirt is frequently reflected over the shell when a shell exists; and, as in some Pectinibranchia, broad lateral outgrowths of the foot (parapodia) are often developed which may be thrown over the shell or naked dorsal surface of the body.
When the shell of an A plysia enclosed in its mantle is pushed well to the left, the sub-pallial space is fully exposed as in fig.
Our figure of the nervous system of Aplysia does not give the small pair of buccal ganglia which are, as in all glossophorous Molluscs, present upon the nerves passing from the cerebral region to the odontophore.
They are not merely digestive glands, but are sufficiently wide to act as receptacles of food, and in them the digestion of food proceeds just as in the axial portion of the canal.
In some Pulmonata (snails) the foot is extended at right angles to the visceral hump, which rises from it in the form of a coil as in Streptoneura; in others the visceral hump is not elevated, but is extended with the foot, and the shell is small or absent (slugs).
Pulmonata are widely distinguished from a small number of Streptoneura at one time associated with them on account of their mantle-chamber being converted, as in Pulmonata, into a lung, and the ctenidium or branchial plume aborted.
There is not a very large amount of food-material present in the egg of this snail, and accordingly the cells resulting from division are not so unequal as in many other cases.
The external form of the embryo goes through the same changes as in other Gastropods, and is not, as was held previously to Lankester's observations, exceptional.
In the marine Streptoneura they are ectodermic projections which ultimately fall off; in the Opisthobranchs they are closed pouches; in Paludina and Bithynia they are canals as in Pulmonata.
Curiously enough, however, they differ from the cephalic Molluscan eye in the fact that, as in the vertebrate eye, the filaments of the optic nerve penetrate the retina, and are connected with the re surfaces of the nerve-end cells nearer the lens instead of with the opposite end.
Hickson and others, that in the bivalves Pecten and Spondylus, which also have eyes upon the mantle quite distinct from typical cephalic eyes, there is the same relationship as in Oncidiidae of the optic nerve to the retinal cells.
In home affairs as in foreign affairs his actions bespoke the master.
Into these regions descended Hibil the brilliant, in the power of Mana rabba, just as in the Manichaean mythology the "primal man," armed with the elements of the king of light, descends to a contest with the primal devil.
Unfortunately, in so doing, he used phrases savouring of aristocracy which offended many of his countrymen, - as in the sentence in which he suggested that " the rich, the well-born and the able " should be set apart from other men in a senate.
Sundevall - equally proficient in classical as in ornithological knowledge - was, in 1863, compelled to leave more than a score of the birds of which Aristotle wrote unidentified.
Geoffroy here maintained that the five centres of ossification existed in the duck just as in the fowl, and that the real difference of the process lay in the period at which they made their appearance, a circumstance which, though virtually proved by the preparations Cuvier had used, had been by him overlooked or misinterpreted.
Cuvier seems to have acquiesced in the corrections of his views made by Geoffroy, and attempted no rejoinder; but the attentive and impartial student of the discussion will see that a good deal was really wanting to make the latter's reply effective, though, as events have shown, the former was hasty in the conclusions at which he arrived, having trusted too much to the first appearance of centres of ossification, for, had his observations in regard to other birds been carried on with the same attention to detail as in regard to the fowl, he would certainly have reached some very different results.
There can be no doubt that Professor Burmeister discharged his editorial duty with the most conscientious scrupulosity; but, from what has been just said, it is certain that there were important points on which Nitzsch was as yet undecided - some of them perhaps of which no trace appeared in his manuscripts, and therefore as in every case of works posthumously published, unless (as rarely happens) they have received their author's " imprimatur," they cannot be implicitly trusted as the expression of his final views.
In process of time some of these banks, as in the case of Venice, raised themselves above the level of the water and became the true shore-line, while behind them lay large surfaces of water, called lagoons, formed partly by the fresh water brought down by the rivers, partly by the salt-water tide which found its way in by the channels of the river mouths.
Indeed, in this as in the earlier styles, Venice struck out a line for herself and developed a style of her own, known as Lombardesque, after the family of the Lombardi (Solari) who came from Carona on the Lake of Lugano and may be said to have created it.
It has small angle-windows to light the interior inclined plane or staircase, and is not broken into storeys with grouped windows as in the case of the Lombard bell-towers.
In this part of the work, as in the preceding, his reasoning depends essentially upon his peculiar view of natural agents and their activities.
The style, however, as in all his works, is remarkably dull.
The triple summit of Beacon Hill, of which no trace remains to-day (or possibly a reference to the three hills of the then peninsula, Beacon, Copp's and Fort) led to the adoption of the name Trimountaine for the peninsula,-a name perpetuated variously in present municipal nomenclature as in Tremont; but on the 17th of September 1630, the date adopted for anniversary celebrations, it was ordered that " Trimountaine shall be called Boston," after the borough of that name in Lincolnshire, England, of which several of the leading settlers had formerly been prominent citizens.'
Another, Daniel Neal, in 1720, found Boston conversation " as polite as in most of the cities and towns in England, many of their merchants having the advantage of a free conversation with travellers; so that a gentleman from London would almost think himself at home at Boston, when he observes the number of people, their houses, their furniture, their tables, their dress and conversation, which perhaps is as splendid and showy as that of the most considerable tradesmen in London."
Boston had long since taken her place in the very front of anti-slavery ranks, and with the rest of Massachusetts was playing somewhat the same part as in the years before the War of Independence.
The lid is sometimes thin and wafer-like as in the burrow of the species of Nemesia, sometimes thick and cord-like as in that of the species of Cteniza or Pachylomerus.
Be that as it may, the snare in many instances, as in that of the Agalenidae (Tegenaria, Agalena), a family closely allied to the Lycosidae, is a horizontal sheet of webbing, upon which the spider runs, continuous with the lower half of the aperture of the tube, of which it is simply an extension.
Sometimes, as in Pholcus, it is merely a thin network of silk just sufficient to hold the eggs together.
More often it consists of a thick felting of silk, either spun in one continuous piece into a globular form, as in the Aviculariidae, or composed of two plate-like pieces, an upper and a lower, united at the edges and lenticular in shape, as in some of the Lycosidae.
As a rule terrestrial spiders guard the cocoon in the permanent burrow, as in the trap-door spiders, or in the silken retreat which acts as a temporary nursery, as in the Salticidae.
Other species of wandering habits carry the cocoon about with them, sometimes attached to the spinnerets, as in the Lycosidae, sometimes tucked under the thorax, as in the large tropical house-spider, Heteropoda regia, one of the Clubionidae.
Sometimes the shape of the spider combines with the colour to produce the same effect, as in the species of Uloborus, which as they hang in thin shabby-looking webs exactly resemble fragments of wind-blown rubbish.
Another form of alteration in a contract of tenancy is an under-lease, which differs from assignment in this - that the lessor parts with a portion of his estate instead of, as in assignment, with the whole of it.
The law as to the rights and obligations of assignees and sub-lessees and as to surrender is the same as in England.