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aryan

aryan

aryan Sentence Examples

  • Previous to this the Aryan settlements, along the three routes they followed in their penetration into India, had remained isolated, independent and small communities.

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  • The king's language and the royal writing, and also religious words are, however, apparently of Aryan origin and akin to Pali.

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  • In one Asura, whose Aryan original was Varuna, he concentrated the whole of the divine character, and conferred upon it the epithet of "the wise" (mazdao) .

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  • The mud is 1 The word is descended from the Aryan name of the animal, cf.

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  • As they all bear Aryan names, and in some of their treaties appear Aryan deities (Indra, Varuna, Mithra, &c.), it is clear that Mesopotamia had now a further new element in its population, bearing apparently the name Kharri.

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  • Hirai has done much to establish his theory that Japanese and Aryan had a common parent.

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  • They were the original inhabitants of the country whom the Aryan conquerors had driven back into the barren hills and unhealthy forests.

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  • Various unsuccessful attempts have been made to prove the language Aryan in its origin.

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  • iv.) has shown, to the group of tales classified as the Aryan Expulsion and Return formula, found in all Aryan lands.

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  • The word translated "noble" in Noble Path, Noble Truth, is ariya, which also means Aryan.'

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  • Broadly speaking, the Himalayas are peopled by Mongoloid tribes; the great river plains of Hindustan are still the home of the Aryan race; the triangular table-land has formed an arena for a long struggle between that gifted race from the north and what is known as the Dravidian stock in the south.

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  • A circuit of 84 kos around Gokul and Brindaban bears the name of the Braj-Mandal, and carries with it many associations of earliest Aryan times.

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  • The statement as to their Medic origin, regarded as incomprehensible by Herodotus, is doubtfully explained by Rawlinson as indicating that "the Sigynnae retained a better recollection than other European tribes of their migrations westward and Aryan origin"; R.

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  • The Burmese alphabet is borrowed from the Aryan Sanskrit through the Pali of Upper India.

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  • In the reign of Darius, however, the Susianians attempted to revolt, first under Assina or Atrina, the son of Umbadara, and later under Martiya, the son of Issainsakria, who called himself Immanes; but they gradually became completely Aryanized, and their agglutinative dialects were supplanted by the Aryan Persian from the south-east.

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  • The ancient Sacae, or Scyths, are recognized in the Aryan population, who may be found in great numbers and in their purest form in the more inaccessible mountains and glens of the central highlands.

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  • There were probably two successive Aryan immigrations, and the tradition of a struggle between them may be preserved in the Mahabharata.

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  • The Roman people were of Aryan stock, a section of a host of invaders from the north, who overran and settled in the Italian peninsula.

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  • This Indo - Aryan origin for the Australian blackfellows is borne out by their physique.

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  • The motley body of Aryan folk-belief, when subjected to the unifying thought of a speculative brain, was transformed to a selfcontained theory of the universe and a logical dualistic principle.

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  • C. von Hahn as the Aryan Expulsion and Return formula, which counts among its representatives such heroes as Perseus, Cyrus, Romulus and Remus, Siegfried, and, as Alfred Nutt has pointed out, Arthur himself.

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  • evyKOs, a bend; both connected with the Aryan root ank-, to bend: see Angling), in geometry, the inclination of one line or plane to another.

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  • evyKOs, a bend; both connected with the Aryan root ank-, to bend: see Angling), in geometry, the inclination of one line or plane to another.

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  • Notwithstanding certain points of resemblance in structure and phonetics, Albanian is entirely distinct from the neighbouring languages; in its relation to early Latin and Greek it may be regarded as a co-ordinate member of the Aryan stock.

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  • This name of Haroyu, as it is written in the Vendidad,or Hariwa,as it appears in the inscriptions of Darius, is a cognate form with the Sanskrit Sarayu, which signifies " a river," and its resemblance to the ethnic title of Aryan (Sans.

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  • More familiar to the Anglo-Saxon race is the connexion between the soul and the breath; this identification is found both in Aryan and Semitic languages; in Latin we have spiritus, in Greek pneuma, in Hebrew ruach; and the idea is found extending downwards to the lowest planes of culture in Australia, America and Asia.

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  • Jevons, Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan People, p. 161, &c. (London, 1890); L.

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  • Whilst giving an Aryan descent to their first kings, the ancient Tibetans assigned to their princesses a divine origin, and called them lhamo, " goddess."

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  • And it is from this presence of the highest forms of Aryan and of Semitic man that the history of Sicily draws its highest interest.

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  • Nor has any certainty been reached about the ethnological problems of the population, the Aryan or non-Aryan character of the Picts and the like.

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  • To hold any such view would, according to the doctrine of the Noble (or Aryan) Path, be erroneous, and the error would block the way against the very entrance on the Path.

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  • Still less foundation exists for the belief, once widely spread, that Bactria was the cradle of the Indo-European race; it was based on the supposition that the nations of Europe had immigrated from Asia, and that the Aryan languages (Indian and Iranian) stood nearest to the original language of the Indo-Europeans.

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  • Every house possesses its staircase, its well, and cisterns for irrigation; and on the whole the Aryan Tajiks of this northern section of the Oxus valley seem to be well provided with most of the comforts, if not the luxuries, of life.

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  • Still less foundation exists for the belief, once widely spread, that Bactria was the cradle of the Indo-European race; it was based on the supposition that the nations of Europe had immigrated from Asia, and that the Aryan languages (Indian and Iranian) stood nearest to the original language of the Indo-Europeans.

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  • The name of Aryan has been given to the races speaking languages derived from, or akin to, the ancient form of Sanskrit, who now occupy the temperate zone extending from the Mediterranean, across the highlands of Asia Minor, Persia and Afghanistan, to India.

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  • Bradley, "is ultimately derived from the great Aryan sunmyth.

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  • The Aryan folkreligion was polytheistic. Worship was paid to popular divinities, such as the war-god and dragon-slayer Indra, to natural forces and elements such as fire, but the Aryans also believed in the ruling of moral powers and of an eternal law in nature (v.

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  • Some few of these have names; and among those names of the old Aryan divinities emerge here and there, e.g.

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  • Of the Aryan races the Slavs - Serbs, Bulgarians, Pomaks and Cossacks - and the Greeks predominate, the other representatives being chiefly Albanians and Kurds.

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  • The race is probably the result of a fusion of the Malay aborigines of Indo-China with the Aryan and Mongolian invaders of the country.

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  • In Hindu (the Puranas), Parsi and Arab tradition, Mer y is looked upon as the ancient Paradise, the cradle of the Aryan families of mankind, and so of the human race.

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  • The so-called Dard races are referred to by Pliny and Ptolemy, and are supposed to be a people of Aryan origin who ascended the Indus valley from the plains of the Punjab, reaching as far north as Chitral, where they dispossessed the Khos.

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  • That is to say, it has been at two separate periods the battle-field of Aryan and Semitic man.

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  • Evidence has been yearly accumulating on the existence of restrictions as to intermarriage, and as to the right of eating together (commensality) among other Aryan tribes, Greeks, Germans, Russians and so on.

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  • Rules of endogamy and exogamy; privileges, restricted to certain classes, of eating together, are not only Indian or Aryan, but world-wide phenomena.

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  • Evidence has been yearly accumulating on the existence of restrictions as to intermarriage, and as to the right of eating together (commensality) among other Aryan tribes, Greeks, Germans, Russians and so on.

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  • These Tajiks (as they are usually called) form the underlying population of Persia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan and Badakshan, and their language (in the central districts of Asia) is found to contain words of Aryan or Sanskrit derivation which are not known in Persian.

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  • One hypothesis supposes that the shores of the Mediterranean were originally inhabited by a homogeneous race neither Aryan nor Semitic.

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  • If the Hittites were Aryans, one can hardly suppose a primeval Aryan element in Anatolia.

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  • His doctrine was rooted in the old Iranian - or Aryan - folk-religion, of which we can only form an approximate representation by comparison with the religion of the Veda.

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  • Its population is almost pure Hindu, except in the two great tracts of hill and forest, where the aboriginal tribes retired before the Aryan invasion.

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  • The exploit thus attaches itself to the very common Aryan myth of the sun-god as the conqueror of the powers of darkness.

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  • Although for nearly a thousand years established in Europe and subjected to Aryan influences, the Magyar has yet retained its essential Ural-Altaic or Turanian features.

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  • Although for nearly a thousand years established in Europe and subjected to Aryan influences, the Magyar has yet retained its essential Ural-Altaic or Turanian features.

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  • We can only glance briefly at the ancient religions of India (Aryan).

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  • Munda Family (3,179,275) Indo-European Family, Aryan Sub-familyIranian Branch (1,377,023) Indo-Aryan Branch (219,780,650) Semitic Family (42,881)..

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  • The Rig-Veda forms the great literary memorial of the early Aryan settlements in the Punjab.

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  • The Aryan tribes in the Veda are acquainted with most of the metals.

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  • In those early days the Aryan tribes were divided into four social grades on a basis of colour: the Kshatriyas or nobles, who claimed descent from the early leaders; the Brahmans or sacrificing priests; the Vaisyas, the peasantry; and last of all the Sudras, the hewers of wood and drawers of water, of non-Aryan descent.

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  • The Kanishka commentaries were written in the Sanskrit language, perhaps because the Kashmir and northern priests who formed his council belonged to isolated Aryan colonies, which had been little influenced by the growth of the Indian vernacular dialects.

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  • Here lay the scene, known as Madhya Desa or " middle country," -of the second period of Aryan colonization, when the two great epics, the Mahabharata and Ramayana, were probably composed, and when the religion of Brahmanism took form.

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  • His inscriptions are written in cuneiform, in Assyrian, whilst those of his successors are in cuneiform, in their own language, which is neither Aryan nor Semitic. The kings of Biainas extended their kingdom eastward and westward, and defeated the Assyrians and Hittites.

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  • Shortly after 645 B.C. the kingdom fell, possibly conquered by Cyaxares, and a way was thus opened for the immigration of the Aryan Armenians.

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  • When the great Aryan immigration from Europe commenced is unknown, but it was dying out in the 11th and 10th centuries B.C. In Phrygia the Aryans founded a kingdom, of which traces remain in various rock tombs, forts and towns, and in legends preserved by the Greeks.

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  • The social organism of the Aryan tribe did not probably differ essentially from that of most communities at that primitive stage of civilization; whilst the body of the people - the Vis (or aggregate of Vaisyas) - would be mainly occupied with agricultural and pastoral pursuits, two professional classes - those of the warrior and the priest - had already made good their claim to social distinction.

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  • when the fair-coloured Aryan immigrants first came in contact with, and drove back or subdued the dark-skinned race that occupied the northern plains - doubtless the ancestors of the modern Dravidian people - the preservation of their racial type and traditionary order of things would naturally become to them a matter of serious concern.

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  • Here the Aryan immigrants were not allowed to establish themselves without undergoing a considerable admixture of foreign blood.

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  • It must remain uncertain whether it was that the thickly-populated character of the land scarcely admitted of complete occupation, but only of a conquest by an army of fighting men, starting from the Aryanized region - who might, however, subsequently draw women of their own kin after them - or whether, as has been suggested, a second Aryan invasion of India took place at that time through the mountainous tracts of the upper Indus and northern Kashmir, where the nature of the road would render it impracticable for the invading bands to be accompanied by women and children.

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  • Be this as it may, the physical appearance of the population of this central region of northern India - Hindustan and Behar - clearly points to an intermixture of the tall, fair-coloured, fine-nosed Aryan with the short-sized, dark-skinned, broad-nosed Dravidian; the latter type becoming more pronounced towards the lower strata of the social order.'

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  • The land being appropriated by the conquerors, husbandry, as the most respectable industrial occupation, became the legitimate calling of the Aryan settler, the Vaisya; whilst handicrafts, gradually multiplying with advancing civilization and menial service, were assigned to the subject race.

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  • The serf, the Sudra, was not to worship the gods of the Aryan freemen.

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  • Indeed, the paucity of women of the Aryan stock would probably render these mixed unions almost a necessity from the very outset; and the vaunted purity of blood which the caste rules were calculated to perpetuate can scarcely have remained of more than a relative degree even in the case of the Brahman caste.

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  • At the same time, one could more easily understand how such a system could have found general acceptance all over the Dravidian region of southern India, with its merest sprinkling of Aryan blood, if it were possible to assume that class arrangements of a similar kind must have already been prevalent amongst the aboriginal tribes prior to the advent of the Aryan.

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  • Indeed, the sacerdotal class themselves had made its universal acceptance an impossibility, seeing that their laws, by which the relations of the classes were to be regulated, aimed at permanently excluding the entire body of aboriginal tribes from the religious life of their Aryan masters.

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  • In course of time the process of intermingling, as we have seen, assumed such proportions that the priestly class, in their pride of blood, felt naturally tempted to recognize, as of old, only two" colours,"the Aryan Brahman and the non-Aryan Sudra.

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  • The grossly idolatrous practices, however, still so largely prevalent in the Dravidian South, show how superficial, after all, that influence has been in those parts of India where the admixture of Aryan blood has been so slight as to have practically had no effect on the racial characteristics of the people.

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  • To what extent the changes, which the religious belief of the Aryan classes underwent in post-Vedic times, may have been due to aboriginal influences is a question not easily answered, though the later creeds offer only too many features in which one might feel inclined to suspect influences of that kind.

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  • But he is there as the companion and friend of man, which is Aryan and not Semitic. So alien indeed is this from the Semitic mind that in the Aramaic and Hebrew versions the dog does not appear.

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  • The Welsh language belongs to the Celtic branch of the Aryan or Indo-European family of languages.

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  • The sounds of parent Aryan appeared in Primitive Celtic with the following modifications: - p disappeared, thus Aryan * peter, which gave Latin pater, Eng.

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  • The other Aryan consonants seem generally to have remained.

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  • Aryan a, i, u remained.

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  • Aryan e became i, as in Irish fir, Welsh gwir, " true," cognate with Latin ver-us.

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  • Aryan o became a, as in Irish ldr, cognate with AngloSaxon flor, Eng.

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  • The short vowels remained, except that Aryan a became a, as in the other European branches.

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  • The Aryan system of inflexion was preserved in Celtic, as may be seen in Stokes 's restoration of Celtic declension (Trans.

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  • Aryan declension naturally disappeared with the loss of final syllables.

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  • Vowel Changes.-(I) Long a, whether from Aryan a or o or from Latin a, becomes aw in monosyllables, as in brawd, " brother " from *brater; in the penult it is o, as in broder, " brothers," in the ultima aw, later o, as in pechawd, now pechod, from peccatum.

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  • Long i, whether from Aryan e or i, or from Latin i, remains as i, see examples above.

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  • From the historical and linguistic side attention was first fixed upon the myth, and the publication of the ancient hymns of the Rig Veda led Max Milner to seek in the common elements of Aryan thought for the secrets of primitive religion (essay on Comparative Mythology, 1856).

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  • He is the patron-deity of the invading Aryan race in India, the god of battle to whose help they look in their struggles with the dark aborigines.

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  • Thus the name of Iranians is understood to comprehend all these people of Aryan nationality.

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  • That the Iranians must have come from the East to their later home, is sufficiently proved by their close relationship to the Indians, in conjunction with whom they pre- frani8fls viously formed a single people, bearing the name and Aryan Arya.

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  • That these were conscious of their Aryan origin is proved by the names Ariantas and Ariapeithes borne by Scythian (Scolot) kings (Herod, iv.

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  • The transition, moreover, to settled life and agriculture belongs to the Aryan period; and to it may be traced the peculiar sancitity of the cow in India and Persia.

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  • These, in part, are rooted in the primeval Indo-European days, though their ultimate form dates only from the Aryan epoch.

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  • is doubtless an inheritance from the Aryan period.

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  • In the religion of the people, these divinities always survived; and the popularity of Mithras is evinced by the numerous Aryan proper names thence derived (Mithradates, &c.).

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  • Only one element in the old Aryan belief was preserved by Zoroaster in all its sanctity: that of Firethe purest manifestation of Ahuramazda and the powers of Good.

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  • And far removed as the Persians are from disavowing their proud sense of nationality (a Persian, the son of a Persian, an Aryan of Aryan stock says Darius of himself in the inscription on his tomb) yet equally vivid is the feeling that they rule the whole civilized world, that their task is to reduce it to unity, and that by the will of Ahuramazda they are pledged to govern it aright.

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  • Thus the old figures of the Aryan folk-religion return to the foreground, there to be amalgamated with the Babylonian divinities.

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  • The original native name of the race which spoke these tongues was Aryan.

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  • King Darius is called on an inscription a Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan of Aryan race; and the followers of the Zoroastrian religion in their earliest records never give themselves any other title but Airyavo don ghavo, that is to say, Aryan races.

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  • The ever-restless Baluchi language belongs to the Iranian branch of the Aryan subfamily of the Indo-European family.

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  • It is remarkable to find in Baluchistan a Dravidian tongue, surrounded on all sides by Aryan languages, and with the next nearest branch of the same family located so far away as the Gond hills of central India.

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  • The river Jumna, which washes the walls of its fort, was the natural highway for the traffic of the rich delta of Bengal to the heart of India, and it formed, moreover, from very ancient times, the frontier defence of the Aryan stock settled in the plain between the Ganges and the Jumna against their western neighbours, hereditary freebooters who occupied the highlands of Central India.

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  • Aryan >>

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  • As in India, after the expulsion of Buddhism, the degrading worship of Siva and his dusky bride had been incorporated into Hinduism from the savage devil worship of Aryan and of non-Aryan tribes, so, as pure Buddhism died away in the north, the Tantra system, a mixture of magic and witchcraft and sorcery, was incorporated into the corrupted Buddhism.

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  • What is remarkable is that the swords not only show the design of the cross in the shape of the handle, but also in tracery what is believed to be an imitation of the Svastika, that ancient Aryan symbol which was probably the first to be made with a definite intention and a consecutive meaning.

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  • His name is formed from a root div, meaning " bright," which appears in other Aryan languages as a formative part of divine names, such as the Sanskrit Dydus, " sky "; Latin Diovis, Jovis, Diespiter, divus; Old English Tiw; Norse Tyr.

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  • In the next place, we cannot trace the origin of his worship 1 See, however, Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples (trans.

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  • The Aryan Hellenes found in many of the conquered lands the predominant cult of a mother-goddess, to whom they gradually had to affiliate their own High God: and in Crete they found her cult associated with the figure of.

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  • His prophet-priests the Selloi " with unwashed feet, couching on the ground," 1° lived about the sacred oak, which may be re garded" as the primeval shrine of the Aryan God, and interpreted its oracular voice, which spoke in the rustling of its leaves or the cooing of its doves.

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  • The Pisaca languages are Aryan by origin, but are neither Iranian nor Indo - Aryan.

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  • It is curious that the same survival of Christian ceremonial should be found amongst the Sarikoli, a Shiah people of Aryan descent akin to the Tajiks of Badakshan, as may be traced amongst the Kirghiz.

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  • Yet more striking is the evidence of the Indo-European (formerly called Aryan) family of languages.

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  • Nevertheless, it is now acknowledged that at some far remoter time, before these nations were divided from the parent stock, and distributed over Asia and Europe, a single barbaric people stood as physical and political representative of the nascent Aryan race, speaking a now extinct Aryan language, from which, by a series of modifications not to be estimated as possible within many thousands of years, there arose languages which have been mutually unintelligible since the dawn of history, and between which it was only possible for an age of advanced philology to trace the fundamental relationship.

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  • Judging, then, by the extirpation and adoption of languages within the range of history, it is obvious that to classify mankind into races, Aryan, Semitic, Turanian, Polynesian, Kaffir, &c., on the mere evidence of language, is intrinsically unsound.

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  • The ancient Banga formed one of the five outlying kingdoms of Aryan India, and was practically conterminous with the delta of Bengal.

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  • Excluding immigrants the languages spoken by the people of Bengal belong to one or other of four linguistic families - Aryan, Dravidian, Munda and Tibeto-Burman.

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  • Of these the languages of the Aryan family are by far the most important, being spoken by no less than 95% of the population according to the census of r901.

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  • The Aryan languages are spoken in the plains by almost the whole population; the Munda and Dravidian in the Chota Nagpur plateau and adjoining tracts; and the Tibeto-Burman in Darjeeling, Sikkim and Jalpaiguri.

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  • The most important Aryan languages are Bengali, Bihari, Eastern Hindi and Oriya.

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  • In the 6th century B.C. the Aryan tribes had long been settled far down the valley of the Ganges.

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  • The Veddahs exhibit the phenomenon of a race living the wildest of savage lives and yet speaking an Aryan dialect.

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  • The Veddahs are not to be confounded with the Rodiyas of the western uplands, who are a much finer race, tall, wellporportioned, with regular features, and speak a language said to be radically distinct from all the Aryan and Dravidian dialects current in Ceylon.

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  • of Institutions (1875) and Early Law and Custom, pp. 162, 180 (1883); Hearn's Aryan Household (1879), and Maclennan's Studies in Ancient History, pp. 453-5 0 7 (1876), contain interesting general reference, but the writers were not themselves original students of the laws.

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  • As such it became the centre of that strife between Europe and Africa, between Aryan and Semitic man, in its later stages between Christendom and Islam, which forms the great interest of Sicilian history.

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  • ARYAN, a term which has been used in a confusing variety of significations by different philologists.

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  • "Aryas are those who speak Aryan languages, whatever their colour, whatever their blood.

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  • In calling them Aryas we predicate nothing of them except that the grammar of their language is Aryan" (p. 245).

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  • The Aryas are those who speak Aryan without regard to the question whether Aryan is their hereditary language or not.

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  • As he says still more definitely elsewhere in the same work (p. 120), "I have declared again and again that if I say Aryas, I mean neither blood nor bones, nor hair nor skull; I mean simply those who speak an Aryan language.

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  • I assert nothing beyond their language when I call them Hindus, Greeks, Romans, Germans, Celts and Slaves; and in that sense, and in that sense only, do I say that even the blackest Hindus represent an earlier stage of Aryan speech and thought than the fairest Scandinavians.

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  • To me an ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar."

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  • The Sanskrit usage of the word is fully illustrated by him from the early Sanskrit writings in the article "Aryan" in the ninth edition of this encyclopaedia.

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  • Within Sanskrit itself probably two words have to be distinguished: (1) drya, the origin of Aryan, from which the usual term arya is a derivative; (2) arya, which frequently appears in the Rig Veda as an epithet of deities.

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  • In the Avesta, airya- is found both as adjective and substantive in the sense of Aryan, but no light is thrown upon the history of the word.

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  • Darius describes himself in an inscription as of Aryan stock, Daraya h va h us ariyahci'aah.

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  • In the Avesta the derivative airyana- is also found in the sense of Aryan.

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  • Of the stages in the occupation of the Iranian table-land by the Aryan people nothing is known, the people themselves having apparently no tradition of a time when they did not hold these territories (Spiegel, Arische Periode, p. 319).

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  • By four well-marked characteristics the Aryan group is easily distinguishable from the other Indo-European languages.

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  • Dr Grierson has shown in his monograph on "The Pisaca Languages of North-Western India" (Royal Asiatic Society, 1906) that there is good reason for regarding various dialects of the north-western frontier (Kafiristan, Chitral, Gilgit, Dardistan) as a separate group descended from Aryan but independent of either Sanskrit or Iranian.

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  • The history of the separation of the Aryan from the other Indo-European languages is not yet clear (see INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES).

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  • Up to 1909 only a preliminary account had been given of Tocharish, a hitherto unknown Indo-European language, which is reported to be in some respects more akin to the Western groups than to Aryan.

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  • in the account of Arthur's birth and upbringing) common to all the Aryan peoples, in others specifically Celtic. Thus there are a number of parallels between the Arthurian and the Irish heroic cycles, the precise nature of which has yet to be determined.

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  • The Aryan Tajik, the aborigines of the fertile parts of Turkestan, were subdued by the Turko-Mongol invaders and partly compelled to emigrate to the mountains, where they are now known as Galchas.

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  • The other representatives of Aryan race in Turkestan are a few (8000) Persians, mostly liberated slaves; Indians (300), who carry on trade and usury in the cities; a few Gipsies (Soo), and the Russians.

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  • The agricultural population of the oases are principally of Turkish stock, powerfully influenced by Aryan blood.

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  • It appears very probable that at the dawn of history East Turkestan was inhabited by an Aryan population, the ancestors of the present Slav and Teutonic races, and that a civilization not inferior to that of Bactria had already developed at that time in the region of the Tarim.'

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  • In connexion with the objection based upon the sub-boreal character of the regions which were the cradle of the Aryans, as proved by the so-called palaeontology of the Aryan languages, it may be observed that by the end of the Glacial, and during the earlier Lacustrine (Post-Glacial) period, the vegetation of Turkestan and of Central Asia was quite different from what it is now.

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  • This art, however, appears not to have been, as some other modes of ascertaining the will of the gods undoubtedly were, of genuine Aryan growth.

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  • Max Muller refers the beginning of his system of mythology to the discovery of the connexion of the Indo-European or, as they are called, " Aryan " languages.

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  • The attempt to disengage the history of times forgotten and unknown, by means of analysis of roots and words in Aryan languages, has been unsuccessful, or has at best produced disputable results.

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  • Max Muller's system was a result of the philological theories that indicated the linguistic unity of the Indo-European or " Aryan " peoples, and was founded on an analysis of their language.

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  • But myths precisely similar in irrational and repulsive character, even in minute details, to those of the Aryan races, exist among Australians, South Sea Islanders, Eskimo, Bushmen in Africa, among Solomon Islanders, Iroquois, and so forth.

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  • The facts being identical, an identical explanation should be sought, and, as the languages in which the myths exist are essentially different, an explanation founded on the Aryan language is likely to prove too narrow.

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  • - The gods of the Vedas and Brahmanas (the ancient hymns and canonized ritual-books of Aryan India) are, on the whole, of the usual polytheistic type.

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  • The Aryan versions of this sensible legend will be found in Satapatha-Brahmana.'

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  • Greece, India and Scandinavia will supply a fair example of Aryan mythology (without entering on the difficult Slavonic and Celtic fields).

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  • Of the socalled Arabian philosophers of the East, al-Farabi, Ibn-Sina and al-Ghazali were natives of Khorasan, Bokhara and the outlying provinces of north-eastern Persia; whilst al-Kindi, the earliest of them, sprang from Basra, on the Persian Gulf, on the debatable ground between the Semite and the Aryan.

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  • The race was probably a mixed one, consisting of aborigines and Aryan immigrants.

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  • In the 7th century B.C., between 640 and 600, the country was conquered by an Aryan people, who imposed their language, and possibly their name, upon the vanquished, and formed a military aristocracy that was constantly recruited from Persia and Parthia.

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  • After the Arab and Seljuk invasions, there was a large emigration of Aryan and Semitic Armenians to Constantinople and Cilicia; and all that remained of the aristocracy was swept away by the Mongols and Tatars.

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  • The fall of the Biainian kingdom, perhaps overthrown by Cyaxares; was apparently soon followed by an immigration of Aryan (Medo-Persian) races, including the progenitors of the Armenians» But they spread slowly, for the "Ten Thousand," when crossing the plateau to Trebizond, 401-400 B.C., met no Armenians after leaving the villages four days' march beyond the Teleboas, now Kara Su.

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  • In prison he pursued the Vedic studies which had already given him a place in oriental scholarship. His elaborate paper on " The Orion, or Researches into the Antiquity of the Vedas," read at the International Congress of Orientalists, London 1892 (published at Poona, 1893), was followed in 1903 by his " Arctic Home in the Vedas " - expounding a theory of extremely remote Aryan origins which has failed to secure the acceptance of other scholars.

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  • Hence Pigorini regards the terramara people as an Aryan lake-dwelling people who invaded the north of Italy in two waves from Central Europe (the Danube valley) in the end of the stone age and the beginning of the bronze age, bringing with them the building tradition which led them to erect pile dwellings on dry land.

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  • To recapitulate the doctrine more succinctly, men originally said, in Sanskrit (or some Aryan speech more ancient still), "fire is got by rubbing or boring;" nothing could have been more scientific and straightforward.

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  • But we may, at least, point out that the myth of the stealing of fire and of the fire-stealer is current among races who are not Aryan, and never heard the word pramantha.

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  • exterminated such people precisely to prevent them from " contaminating " the Aryan gene pool.

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  • According to Rauschning Hitler often talked about the Aryan superman having a Cyclops eye.

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  • supremacy of the Aryan race.

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  • In the Vedic sutras, the word aryan is used to refer to those who are spiritually oriented and of noble character.

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  • They are probably the descendants of the earliest Aryan immigrants, who were represented in historical times by the kindred Illyrians, Macedonians and Epirots; the Macedonians and Epirots are believed by Hahn to have formed the core of the pre-Hellenic Tyrrheno-Pelasgian population which inhabited the southern portion of the peninsula and extended its limits to Thrace and Italy.

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  • Notwithstanding certain points of resemblance in structure and phonetics, Albanian is entirely distinct from the neighbouring languages; in its relation to early Latin and Greek it may be regarded as a co-ordinate member of the Aryan stock.

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  • This Indo - Aryan origin for the Australian blackfellows is borne out by their physique.

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  • Previous to this the Aryan settlements, along the three routes they followed in their penetration into India, had remained isolated, independent and small communities.

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  • In the reign of Darius, however, the Susianians attempted to revolt, first under Assina or Atrina, the son of Umbadara, and later under Martiya, the son of Issainsakria, who called himself Immanes; but they gradually became completely Aryanized, and their agglutinative dialects were supplanted by the Aryan Persian from the south-east.

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  • The name of Aryan has been given to the races speaking languages derived from, or akin to, the ancient form of Sanskrit, who now occupy the temperate zone extending from the Mediterranean, across the highlands of Asia Minor, Persia and Afghanistan, to India.

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  • The ancient Sacae, or Scyths, are recognized in the Aryan population, who may be found in great numbers and in their purest form in the more inaccessible mountains and glens of the central highlands.

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  • These Tajiks (as they are usually called) form the underlying population of Persia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan and Badakshan, and their language (in the central districts of Asia) is found to contain words of Aryan or Sanskrit derivation which are not known in Persian.

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  • One hypothesis supposes that the shores of the Mediterranean were originally inhabited by a homogeneous race neither Aryan nor Semitic.

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  • There were probably two successive Aryan immigrations, and the tradition of a struggle between them may be preserved in the Mahabharata.

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  • Bradley, "is ultimately derived from the great Aryan sunmyth.

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  • If the Hittites were Aryans, one can hardly suppose a primeval Aryan element in Anatolia.

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  • His doctrine was rooted in the old Iranian - or Aryan - folk-religion, of which we can only form an approximate representation by comparison with the religion of the Veda.

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  • The Aryan folkreligion was polytheistic. Worship was paid to popular divinities, such as the war-god and dragon-slayer Indra, to natural forces and elements such as fire, but the Aryans also believed in the ruling of moral powers and of an eternal law in nature (v.

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  • In one Asura, whose Aryan original was Varuna, he concentrated the whole of the divine character, and conferred upon it the epithet of "the wise" (mazdao) .

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  • Some few of these have names; and among those names of the old Aryan divinities emerge here and there, e.g.

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  • The motley body of Aryan folk-belief, when subjected to the unifying thought of a speculative brain, was transformed to a selfcontained theory of the universe and a logical dualistic principle.

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  • Of the Aryan races the Slavs - Serbs, Bulgarians, Pomaks and Cossacks - and the Greeks predominate, the other representatives being chiefly Albanians and Kurds.

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  • The race is probably the result of a fusion of the Malay aborigines of Indo-China with the Aryan and Mongolian invaders of the country.

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  • The king's language and the royal writing, and also religious words are, however, apparently of Aryan origin and akin to Pali.

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  • In Hindu (the Puranas), Parsi and Arab tradition, Mer y is looked upon as the ancient Paradise, the cradle of the Aryan families of mankind, and so of the human race.

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  • According to the New English Dictionary, the original may be found in two Aryan roots, both of the form gheu, one of which means "to invoke," the other "to pour" (cf.

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  • The Burmese alphabet is borrowed from the Aryan Sanskrit through the Pali of Upper India.

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  • It was only when Darius Hystaspis, the representative of the Aryan race and the Zoroastrian religion, had re-conquered the empire of Cyrus, that the old tradition was broken and the claim of Babylon to confer legitimacy on the rulers of western Asia ceased to be acknowledged (see DARIUs).

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  • A circuit of 84 kos around Gokul and Brindaban bears the name of the Braj-Mandal, and carries with it many associations of earliest Aryan times.

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  • C. von Hahn as the Aryan Expulsion and Return formula, which counts among its representatives such heroes as Perseus, Cyrus, Romulus and Remus, Siegfried, and, as Alfred Nutt has pointed out, Arthur himself.

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  • Hirai has done much to establish his theory that Japanese and Aryan had a common parent.

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  • They were the original inhabitants of the country whom the Aryan conquerors had driven back into the barren hills and unhealthy forests.

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  • The Roman people were of Aryan stock, a section of a host of invaders from the north, who overran and settled in the Italian peninsula.

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  • The original inhabitants of Ariana were no doubt of the Aryan family, and immediately cognate with the Persian race, but they were probably intermixed at a very early period with the Sacae and Massagetae, who seem to have held the mountains from Kabul to Herat from the first dawn of history, and to whom must be ascribed - rather than to an infusion of Turco-Tartaric blood introduced by the armies of Jenghiz and Timur - the peculiar broad features and flattish countenance which distinguish the inhabitants of Herat, Seistan and the eastern provinces of Persia from their countrymen farther to the west.

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  • This name of Haroyu, as it is written in the Vendidad,or Hariwa,as it appears in the inscriptions of Darius, is a cognate form with the Sanskrit Sarayu, which signifies " a river," and its resemblance to the ethnic title of Aryan (Sans.

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  • The mud is 1 The word is descended from the Aryan name of the animal, cf.

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  • We can only glance briefly at the ancient religions of India (Aryan).

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  • The so-called Dard races are referred to by Pliny and Ptolemy, and are supposed to be a people of Aryan origin who ascended the Indus valley from the plains of the Punjab, reaching as far north as Chitral, where they dispossessed the Khos.

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  • The statement as to their Medic origin, regarded as incomprehensible by Herodotus, is doubtfully explained by Rawlinson as indicating that "the Sigynnae retained a better recollection than other European tribes of their migrations westward and Aryan origin"; R.

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  • More familiar to the Anglo-Saxon race is the connexion between the soul and the breath; this identification is found both in Aryan and Semitic languages; in Latin we have spiritus, in Greek pneuma, in Hebrew ruach; and the idea is found extending downwards to the lowest planes of culture in Australia, America and Asia.

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  • Its population is almost pure Hindu, except in the two great tracts of hill and forest, where the aboriginal tribes retired before the Aryan invasion.

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  • Jevons, Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan People, p. 161, &c. (London, 1890); L.

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  • iv.) has shown, to the group of tales classified as the Aryan Expulsion and Return formula, found in all Aryan lands.

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  • Various unsuccessful attempts have been made to prove the language Aryan in its origin.

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  • As they all bear Aryan names, and in some of their treaties appear Aryan deities (Indra, Varuna, Mithra, &c.), it is clear that Mesopotamia had now a further new element in its population, bearing apparently the name Kharri.

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  • The language of the Mitanni state, however, was neither Aryan nor Semitic, and may very well be that of the mysterious "Hittite" hieroglyphic inscriptions (see Hittites).

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  • Whilst giving an Aryan descent to their first kings, the ancient Tibetans assigned to their princesses a divine origin, and called them lhamo, " goddess."

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  • Of the early history the main facts established are the Aryan invasion (c. 700 B.C.), the growth of the Maurya empire (250 B.C.) and the invasion (A.D.

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  • That is to say, it has been at two separate periods the battle-field of Aryan and Semitic man.

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  • And it is from this presence of the highest forms of Aryan and of Semitic man that the history of Sicily draws its highest interest.

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  • Nor has any certainty been reached about the ethnological problems of the population, the Aryan or non-Aryan character of the Picts and the like.

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  • The word translated "noble" in Noble Path, Noble Truth, is ariya, which also means Aryan.'

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  • To hold any such view would, according to the doctrine of the Noble (or Aryan) Path, be erroneous, and the error would block the way against the very entrance on the Path.

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  • Rules of endogamy and exogamy; privileges, restricted to certain classes, of eating together, are not only Indian or Aryan, but world-wide phenomena.

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  • Every house possesses its staircase, its well, and cisterns for irrigation; and on the whole the Aryan Tajiks of this northern section of the Oxus valley seem to be well provided with most of the comforts, if not the luxuries, of life.

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  • The exploit thus attaches itself to the very common Aryan myth of the sun-god as the conqueror of the powers of darkness.

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  • Broadly speaking, the Himalayas are peopled by Mongoloid tribes; the great river plains of Hindustan are still the home of the Aryan race; the triangular table-land has formed an arena for a long struggle between that gifted race from the north and what is known as the Dravidian stock in the south.

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  • Munda Family (3,179,275) Indo-European Family, Aryan Sub-familyIranian Branch (1,377,023) Indo-Aryan Branch (219,780,650) Semitic Family (42,881)..

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  • The Rig-Veda forms the great literary memorial of the early Aryan settlements in the Punjab.

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  • The Aryan tribes in the Veda are acquainted with most of the metals.

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  • In those early days the Aryan tribes were divided into four social grades on a basis of colour: the Kshatriyas or nobles, who claimed descent from the early leaders; the Brahmans or sacrificing priests; the Vaisyas, the peasantry; and last of all the Sudras, the hewers of wood and drawers of water, of non-Aryan descent.

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  • The Kanishka commentaries were written in the Sanskrit language, perhaps because the Kashmir and northern priests who formed his council belonged to isolated Aryan colonies, which had been little influenced by the growth of the Indian vernacular dialects.

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  • granum, seed, from an Aryan root meaning "to wear down," which also appears in the common Teutonic word "corn"), a word particularly applied to the seed, in botanical language the "fruit," of cereals, and hence applied, as a collective term to cereal plants generally, to which, in English, the term "corn" is also applied (see GRAIN TRADE).

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  • Here lay the scene, known as Madhya Desa or " middle country," -of the second period of Aryan colonization, when the two great epics, the Mahabharata and Ramayana, were probably composed, and when the religion of Brahmanism took form.

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  • His inscriptions are written in cuneiform, in Assyrian, whilst those of his successors are in cuneiform, in their own language, which is neither Aryan nor Semitic. The kings of Biainas extended their kingdom eastward and westward, and defeated the Assyrians and Hittites.

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  • Shortly after 645 B.C. the kingdom fell, possibly conquered by Cyaxares, and a way was thus opened for the immigration of the Aryan Armenians.

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  • When the great Aryan immigration from Europe commenced is unknown, but it was dying out in the 11th and 10th centuries B.C. In Phrygia the Aryans founded a kingdom, of which traces remain in various rock tombs, forts and towns, and in legends preserved by the Greeks.

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  • The social organism of the Aryan tribe did not probably differ essentially from that of most communities at that primitive stage of civilization; whilst the body of the people - the Vis (or aggregate of Vaisyas) - would be mainly occupied with agricultural and pastoral pursuits, two professional classes - those of the warrior and the priest - had already made good their claim to social distinction.

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  • when the fair-coloured Aryan immigrants first came in contact with, and drove back or subdued the dark-skinned race that occupied the northern plains - doubtless the ancestors of the modern Dravidian people - the preservation of their racial type and traditionary order of things would naturally become to them a matter of serious concern.

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  • Here the Aryan immigrants were not allowed to establish themselves without undergoing a considerable admixture of foreign blood.

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  • It must remain uncertain whether it was that the thickly-populated character of the land scarcely admitted of complete occupation, but only of a conquest by an army of fighting men, starting from the Aryanized region - who might, however, subsequently draw women of their own kin after them - or whether, as has been suggested, a second Aryan invasion of India took place at that time through the mountainous tracts of the upper Indus and northern Kashmir, where the nature of the road would render it impracticable for the invading bands to be accompanied by women and children.

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  • Be this as it may, the physical appearance of the population of this central region of northern India - Hindustan and Behar - clearly points to an intermixture of the tall, fair-coloured, fine-nosed Aryan with the short-sized, dark-skinned, broad-nosed Dravidian; the latter type becoming more pronounced towards the lower strata of the social order.'

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  • The land being appropriated by the conquerors, husbandry, as the most respectable industrial occupation, became the legitimate calling of the Aryan settler, the Vaisya; whilst handicrafts, gradually multiplying with advancing civilization and menial service, were assigned to the subject race.

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  • The serf, the Sudra, was not to worship the gods of the Aryan freemen.

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  • Indeed, the paucity of women of the Aryan stock would probably render these mixed unions almost a necessity from the very outset; and the vaunted purity of blood which the caste rules were calculated to perpetuate can scarcely have remained of more than a relative degree even in the case of the Brahman caste.

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  • At the same time, one could more easily understand how such a system could have found general acceptance all over the Dravidian region of southern India, with its merest sprinkling of Aryan blood, if it were possible to assume that class arrangements of a similar kind must have already been prevalent amongst the aboriginal tribes prior to the advent of the Aryan.

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  • Indeed, the sacerdotal class themselves had made its universal acceptance an impossibility, seeing that their laws, by which the relations of the classes were to be regulated, aimed at permanently excluding the entire body of aboriginal tribes from the religious life of their Aryan masters.

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  • In course of time the process of intermingling, as we have seen, assumed such proportions that the priestly class, in their pride of blood, felt naturally tempted to recognize, as of old, only two" colours,"the Aryan Brahman and the non-Aryan Sudra.

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  • The grossly idolatrous practices, however, still so largely prevalent in the Dravidian South, show how superficial, after all, that influence has been in those parts of India where the admixture of Aryan blood has been so slight as to have practically had no effect on the racial characteristics of the people.

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  • To what extent the changes, which the religious belief of the Aryan classes underwent in post-Vedic times, may have been due to aboriginal influences is a question not easily answered, though the later creeds offer only too many features in which one might feel inclined to suspect influences of that kind.

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  • But he is there as the companion and friend of man, which is Aryan and not Semitic. So alien indeed is this from the Semitic mind that in the Aramaic and Hebrew versions the dog does not appear.

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