(6) Artistic Production.
As a scientific engineer and practical architect Wren was perhaps more remarkable than as an artistic designer.
The finest glass is made in Tuscany and Venetia; Venetian glass is often colored and of artistic form.
In 1832 Edward Lear, afterwards well known as a humorist, brought out his Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidae, a volume which deserves especial notice from the extreme fidelity to nature and the great artistic skill with which the figures were executed.
To judge, however, from the insignificant remains of his writings, and from the opinions of Cicero and Horace, he can have had no pretension either to original genius or to artistic accomplishment.
He took no leading part in the war against the English, his energies being largely occupied with the satisfaction of his artistic and luxurious tastes.
In recent times there has been a good deal of activity in Venice in regard to the preservation of its artistic and architectural treasures.
If these things, however, indicate Prescott's deficiencies from the point of view of ideal history, few historians have had in a higher degree that artistic feeling in the broad arrangement of materials which ensures popular interest.
The free use of discords and of wider intervals, together with the influence of the florid elements of solo-singing, enlarged the bounds of choral expression almost beyond recognition, while they crowded into very narrow quarters the subtleties of 16th-, century music. These, however, by no means disappeared; :and such devices as the crossing of parts in the second Kyrie of Bach's B Minor Mass (bars 7, 8, 14, 15, 22, 23, 50) abundantly show that in the hands of the great masters artistic truths are not things which a change of date can make false.
The Japanese people have added to their ancient civilization and their remarkable artistic faculty, an adaptation of Western methods, and a capacity for progress in war and commerce, which single them out among Eastern races as a great modern world-force.
In the art of [Bach and Handel, instrumentation, as distinguished from choral;writing, has attained a definite artistic coherence.
Katie," she said to the maid, "bring the princess her gray dress, and you'll see, Mademoiselle Bourienne, how I shall arrange it," she added, smiling with a foretaste of artistic pleasure.
Squarcione, whose original vocation was tailoring, appears to have had a remarkable enthusiasm for ancient art, and a proportionate faculty for acting, with profit to himself and others, as a sort of artistic middleman; his own performances as a painter were merely mediocre.
(4) Artistic fabrics, e.g.
Helen has the vitality of feeling, the freshness and eagerness of interest, and the spiritual insight of the artistic temperament, and naturally she has a more active and intense joy in life, simply as life, and in nature, books, and people than less gifted mortals.
There is probably no other branch of art in which orthodox tradition is so entirely divorced from the historical sense, and the history, when studied at all, so little illuminated by the permanent artistic significance of its subjects.
His policy of living at peace with England and of arranging marriages between the members of the royal families of the two countries did not commend itself to the turbulent section of his nobles; his artistic tastes and lavish expenditure added to the discontent, and a rebellion broke out.
From this period came some of humanity's greatest masterpieces, including St. Peter's Basilica, Da Vinci's Last Supper, Michelangelo's Pieta, and hundreds of other instantly recognizable artistic treasures.
4 may refer to the old man's inability to make or hear music: in the house there is no sound of birds 1 or of singers, there are none of the artistic delights of a well-to-do household; further (v.
Lord Leighton pronounced the silver ware from Malaya to be the most artistic of any exhibited at the Colonial Exhibition held in London in 1886.
We see however the similarity of the metal-working of both countries at approximately the same time; both are in the same style of artistic development, the Egyptian perhaps the more advanced of the two, and (if the published analysis by Mosso is to be relied upon) with the additional technique of the alloy with tin, making the metal bronze, and so easier for the heads to be cast.
Within a few months of the same age, the two became brothers in intellectual and artistic cameraderie.
He had no artistic appreciation of the subject he discussed, and he mistook cause for effect in asserting that the decline in public morality was due to the flagrant indecency of the stage.
There can be little doubt that a strong power was now fixed in one Aegean centre, and that all the area had come under its political, social and artistic influence.
In artistic representations, Brahma usually appears as a bearded man of red colour with four heads crowned with a pointed, tiara-like head-dress, and four hands holding his sceptre, or a sacrificial spoon, a bundle of leaves representing the Veda, a bottle of water of the Ganges, and a string of beads or his bow Parivita.
The pianoforte trios of Haydn are perhaps the only-works of first-rate artistic importance in which there is no doubt that the earlier stages of the new art do not admit of sufficient polyphony to give the instruments fair play.
His artistic taste was shown by his patronage of Velasquez, and his love of letters by his favour to Lope de Vega, Calderon, and other dramatists.
Other works of Arnolfo, such as the Braye tomb at Orvieto, show an intimate artistic alliance between him and the Cosmati.
He received the first elements of his artistic education from Cosimo Roselli; and after leaving him, devoted himself to the study of the great works of Leonardo da Vinci.
But it took firm root on Norman soil; it made its way to England at an early stage of its growth, and from that time it went on developing and improving on both sides of the Channel till the artistic revolution came by which, throughout northern Europe, the Romanesque styles gave way to the Gothic. Thus the history of architecture in England during the 11th and 12th centuries is a very different story from the history of the art in Sicily during the same time.
50 3): " Since their emancipation the Jews have taken an active part in the political, industrial, scientific and artistic life of Hungary.
From one stage to another, fabrics, forms and motives of decoration develop gradually; so that, at the close of a span of more than two thousand years, at the least, the influences of the beginning can still be clearly seen and no trace of violent artistic intrusion can be detected.
The most important addition to the educational and artistic life of the community was the Museum of Art, located in Wade park.
An artistic effort designed specially for a doting grandpa has place of honor on the wall.
No one has better understood or more skilfully portrayed the artistic temperament - the musician, the actor, the poet - and no French writer before her had so divined and laid bare the heart of a girl.
Such artistic faculty as survived elsewhere issued in the lifeless geometric style which is reminiscent of the later Aegean, but wholly unworthy of it.
They crushed a civilization already hard hit; and it took two or three centuries for the artistic spirit, instinct in the Aegean area, and probably preserved in suspended animation by the survival of Aegean racial elements, to blossom anew.
Secondly, besides the plagiarist Tudebod, there are the artistic redacteurs of the Gesta, who confess their indebtedness, but plead the bad style of their original - Guibert of Nogent, Balderich of Dol, Robert of Reims (all c. 1120-1130), and Fulco, the author of a Virgilian poem on the Crusades, continued by Gilo (ob.
A vigorous campaign against monasticism took place; the monasteries were closed, and many of them pulled down or converted into barracks; monks and nuns were compelled to marry, and exiled in large numbers to Cyprus; the literary and artistic treasures were sold for the benefit of the imperial treasury.
On the other hand, the domestic industries are extensively carried on and exhibit a high degree of technical skill and artistic taste.
Richmond has many fine monuments and statues of historic interest and artistic merit, the most noteworthy of the former being the Washington Monument, in Capitol Square.
The space thus cleared has been used for the rearrangement of the Archaeological and Artistic Museum.
The literary and artistic value of many of the Robin Hood ballads cannot be pronounced considerable, but eight of them attain the high-water mark of their class.
Its phenomena are, however, perfectly real, and can be observed wherever artistic conditions make the tone of a mass of harmony more important than the interior threads of its texture.
Antonio and Francesco both having died childless, the duchy passed to Charles of Bourbon (Don Carlos), infante of Spain, who, becoming king of Naples in 1734, surrendered Parma and Piacenza to Austria, but retained the artistic treasures of the Farnese dynasty which he had removed from Parma to Naples.
Lower down the valley cattle-breeding is the chief source of wealth, while in the small towns and villages of the former Georgian kingdom various petty trades, exhibiting a high development of artistic taste and technical skill, are widely diffused.
The bridge of chief artistic merit is the Cambridge Bridge (1908), which replaced the old West Boston Bridge, and is one feature of improvements long projected for the beautifying of the Charles river basin.
But in every case these artistic efforts were followed at short intervals by gross relapses into barbarism which reflect the anarchy of the political conditions.
The Pergamene court was in no degree behind the Ptolemaic in its literary and artistic zeal.
A masterly conspectus of the general character of the Hellenistic kingdoms in their political, economic and social character, their artistic and intellectual culture is given by Beloch, Griech.
Lastly there is a pair of giant globes of artistic design, turned out by V.
Gradually, however, the process was applied without restraint and the products lost all artistic quality.
It sought also to make the art and poetry of Greece live a new artistic life.
The manuscripts of the time are accurate and artistic, copies of valuable books were made and by careful collation the texts were purified.
To say nothing of his other great qualities, he is certainly the most artistic of all the Magyar poets.
The Lyric glee singers gave a varied selection of glee singers gave a varied selection of glees, songs &c, in a most artistic manner.
Ross Brewer, British champion artistic gymnastics I am the current British Champion for menÃ¢s artistic gymnastics.
We have had a hiccup, a log jam which involves ' artistic ' sub-contractors who are slightly behind on deadlines.
Information is available on speed skating, artistic skating, hockey, inline hockey, downhill skating, and trail skating.
Almiro has been most selective on your behalf; choosing to display mostly homegrown artistic talent for you.
hotbed of artistic creativity.
All these features make London a source of artistic inspiration.
With the Semitic conquest it lost its independence, its rulers becoming patesis, dependent rulers, under Sargon and his successors; but it still remained Sumerian and continued to be a city of much importance, and, above all, a centre of artistic development.
Indeed, it was in this period and under the immediately succeeding supremacy of the kings of Ur, Ur-Gur and Dungi, that it reached its highest artistic development.
His was especially the era of artistic development.
iv.-vi.---The first three chapters show great artistic skill, and the power of the artist is no less conspicuous in what follows.
Their manners are more courteous, their women better treated, than is usual with Papuans, but they show perhaps less ingenuity and artistic taste.
They are distinguished by artistic form, purity of expression and strict attention to the laws of metre and prosody, qualities which, however good in themselves, do not compensate for want of originality, freshness and power.
Sainte-Marie contains many artistic treasures, the chief of which are the magnificent stained-glass windows of the Renaissance which light the apsidal chapels, and the 113 choir-stalls of carved oak, also of Renaissance workmanship. The archbishop's palace adjoins the cathedral; it is a building of the 18th century with a Romanesque hall and a tower of the r4th century.
His education was begun at the College des Quatre Nations, where he obtained a smattering of the classics; but, his artistic talent being already obvious, he was soon placed by his guardian in the studio of Francois Boucher.
It is difficult for a generation which has witnessed another complete revolution in the standards of artistic taste to realize the secret of David's immense popularity in his own day.
30-35) owing to his artistic skill.
It is, moreover, a work of some artistic merit, although not free from inaccuracies.
His home was one of the centres of the vigorous literary and artistic life for which at that time Dusseldorf was renowned.
One remarkable tetradrachm with the Sabaean legend Abyath'a is imitated from an Alexander of the 2nd century B.C., the execution being quite artistic and the weight Attic. There are also coins struck at Raydan and Harib, which must be assigned to the Himyarite period (1st and 2nd century A.D.).
The principal industries are tilework, inlaying with silver wire, and the manufacture of thick-soled yellow slippers, much-esteemed flintlocks, and artistic "towels" used as cape and skirt by Moorish country girls.
The Siamese are an artistic nation.
His passion for details not only swelled his volumes to a portentous size, but was fatal to artistic construction.
It is possible that this is, in part, due to the artistic blight of the Calvinism which so long dominated the town.
Aix, which during the middle ages was the capital of the county of Provence, did not reach its zenith until after the 12th century, when, under the houses of Aragon and Anjou, it became an artistic centre and seat of learning.
The pioneer work in this latter direction is Weizsdcker's skilful and artistic Apostolisches Zeitalter (1st ed.
There is, therefore, some slight presumption that the three earlier periods, which together cover about fifteen years, were intended by so artistic a writer as St Luke to mark each some similar lapse of time.
There in the 19th century Senor Zuloaga successfully revived the artistic inlaying of gold and silver in steel and iron.
After various experiments as schoolmaster, private tutor and actor, he turned to journalism, and afterwards more than avenged himself for the triviality and narrowness of his new surroundings in his famous Roda rummet (" The Red Room," 1879), described in the sub-title as sketches of literary and artistic life.
His father intended him for the law, but his impulses towards an artistic career were irresistible.
Legend tells stories of his teaching men picture-writing and the calendar, and also the artistic work of the silversmith, for which Cholula was long famed; but at last he departed, some say towards the unknown land of Tlapallan, but others to Coatzacoalcos on the Atlantic coast on the confines of Central America, where native tradition still keeps up the divine names of Gucumatz among the Quiches and Cukulcan among the Mayas, these names have the same meaning as Quetzalcoati.
such as that remaining of Xochicalco, which is figured by Humboldt, as well as the ornamented woodwork, feather-mats, and vases, are not without artistic merit.
His genius was unusually rich and versatile; his artistic conscience always alert and sober.
This, the greatest of all the monuments of the wealth and artistic taste of the Norman kings in northern Sicily, was begun about 1170 by William II., and in 1182 the church, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, was, by a bull of Pope Lucius III., elevated to the rank of a metropolitan cathedral.
The bas-reliefs with which the walls are adorned are unrivalled in antiquity, for variety of subject, breadth of composition, truth of presentation and artistic treatment.
An active trade, fostered by abundant railway communications, is combined with manufactures of iron and steel wares, paper, chemicals, vinegar, physical and optical instruments, besides artistic printing and lithography.
A red-haired Jew, he possessed a magnetic and artistic temperament, and had various special methods of arousing and restraining the revolutionary masses, including orchestral and vocal concerts of high excellence in the formerly royal theatres and the opera house of Munich.
It is also widely known for the artistic pottery manufactured by the Indians of the city and of its suburb, San Pedro.
Novels Are Not Yet Much In Vogue; Though Madame Conan'S L'Oublie (1902) Has Been Crowned By The Academy; While Dr Choquette'S Les Ribaud (1898) Is A Good Dramatic Story, And His Claude Paysan (1899) Is An Admirably Simple Idyllic Tale Of The Hopeless Love Of A Soil Bound Habitant, Told With Intense Natural Feeling And Fine Artistic Reserve.
The civic museum has a great variety of artistic and literary curiosities, among them a remarkable collection of autographs and the Lombard missal (14901.
The public parks and gardens are numerous and include the Botanical Garden with its famous avenue of royal palms (Oreodoxa regia); the Passeio Publico (dating from 1783), a small garden on the water-front facing the harbour entrance; the Jardim d'Acclamacao, forming part of the Praca da Republica (once known as the Campo de Sant' Anna) with its artistic walks and masses of shrubbery; the Praca Tiradentes (the old Largo do Rocio, afterwards rechristened Praca da Constituicao) with its magnificent equestrian statue of Dom Pedro I.
Dresden owes a large part of its fame to its extensive artistic, literary and scientific collections.
The royal palace also has a gallery of arms consisting of more than 2000 weapons of artistic or historical value.
It was by no means a mere antiquarian and artistic study.
tall, noted for their artistic sense.
The tattooing of their bodies is less artistic than that of the New Zealanders, and much more limited than among some of the other islanders.
Educated at the Boulogne municipal college, where he distinguished himself and showed much artistic talent, he went to England in 1839 when eighteen as professor of French and drawing at a boys' school at Stratford-on-Avon.
Its finest products were in bronze, but the artistic impulse spread to humbler work in wood and pottery.
It is, on the whole, true that by the exclusion of the Moors they lost their opportunity of playing any conspicuous part in the literary and artistic development of Spain.
The somewhat surprising degree of wealth and artistic skill of which many of even the earliest antiquities give evidence is probably to be explained by the importance of the amber trade.
Its history is largely a record of commercial and artistic development.
From the universal standpoint of history the significance of Nicholas's pontificate lies in the fact that, he put himself at the head of the artistic and literary Renaissance.
encouraged men of learning and the art of printing, and built the magnificent palace of San Marco, in which he established a noble collection of artistic treasures.
Precisely as to-day inventions are guarded by patents, and literary and artistic creations by the law of copyright, so, at that period, the papal bull and the protection of the Roman Church were an effective means for ensuring that a country should reap where she had sown and should maintain the territory she had discovered and conquered by arduous efforts; while other claimants, with predatory designs, were warned back by the ecclesiastical censorship. In the Vatican the memory of Alexander VI.
- a man who saw his noblest task, not in an artistic Maecenate, nor in the prosecution ofolitical designs, but in the reform of the Church 152 2 -1 23., P g ?
The gueridon is still occasionally seen in something approaching its original form; but it had no sooner been introduced than the artistic instinct of the French designer and artificer converted it into a far worthier object.
Some of the simpler and more artistic forms were of wood carved with familiar decorative motives and gilded.
The industries are confined to the manufacture of woollen cloth of various degrees of fineness and colour, and called truk, tirma and lawa, to that of small rugs, pottery of an inferior quality, utensils of copper and iron, some of which show considerable artistic skill in design, and to such other small trades as are necessary to supply the limited wants of the people.
In any case they are interesting as showing the way in which ancient artists treated mythological and other subjects, and are written with artistic knowledge and in attractive language.
His mind was cultivated; he was a discriminating patron of literature, and Westminster Abbey is an abiding memorial of his artistic taste.
The worship of crosses into which the Spirit or Christ had been inserted by the priest must have satisfied the religious needs of a people who, save in architecture, showed little artistic faculty.
Technically it was often imperfect, and its artistic treatment was never of a high order.
The whole artistic movement in Phoenicia may be divided into two great periods: in the first, from the earliest times to the 4th century B.C., Egyptian influence and then Babylonian or Asiatic influence is predominant, but the national element is strongly marked; while in the second, Greek influence has obtained the mastery, and the native element, though making itself felt, is much less obtrusive.
This at once prevented the graces of spontaneity and secured the beauties of artistic elaboration.
For information on artistic anatomy as applied to physiognomy see th catalogue of sixty-two authors by Ludwig Choulant, Geschichte and Bibliographie der anatomischen Abbildung, &c. (Leipzig, 1852), and the works of the authors enumerated above, especially those of Aristotle, Franz, Porta, Cardan, Corvus and Bulwer.
The rhythmical and artistic form of the sentence is sacrificed to a passion for emphasis that delights in deferring the point to the close of the period.
It contains the early 14th-century tomb of Santa Eulalia, the patron saint of the city, besides many other monuments of artistic or historical interest.
In these days the rock-garden is a most important feature, and it requires a good deal of care and skill to arrange the boulders, walks, pools or streams in natural and artistic fashion.
Very careful and artistic representations of the stupa with its daghoba and interesting rail, pillars and sculptures will be found in Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship, and in his History of Indian Architecture (1876).
His court at Munich was the resort of artists of all kinds, and the city was enriched with splendid buildings; while artistic works were collected from Italy and elsewhere.
A large quantity of silver-plate and goldsmiths' work of great value and considerable artistic elaboration was found in 1874 in the king's palace at Kumasi, not the least remarkable objects being masks of beaten gold.
The front hall, corridors and apartments are painted in the Pompeian style, with brilliant colours and with great artistic skill.
He was the first to give an artistic form to the Atellanae Fabulae by arranging beforehand the details of the plot which had hitherto been left to improvisation, and providing a written text.
Large halls, which had subsequently been broken up into smaller apartments, were found, and among a great number of other artistic remains one seal-impression of special interest showing a one-masted ship carrying a thoroughbred horse - perhaps representing the first importation of horses into Crete.
I am sure you will have made a difference on a social level without compromising artistic integrity.
Indeed, the vocal parts intermingled in an artistic garrulousness.
Both organizations were set up to explore intersections between artistic disciplines.
Her beautiful, skilled photographs represent a landmark in the extraordinary career of the 20th century's most unforgettable artistic pioneer.
Asked whether she had any sporting or artistic leanings, he said he did not know which football team she followed.
A quantum leap in artistic terms for Scott, every song a winner.
Only in the descriptions of scenery, which here resemble too much purple patches, does George Sand reveal her true inspiration, the artistic qualities by which she will live.
In every mature period of art it will be found that, however much the technical rules may be collected in one special category, every artistic category has a perfect interaction with all the others; and this is nowhere more perfectly shown than when the art is in its simplest possible form of maturity.
While the French directory saw in that province little more than a district which might be plundered and bargained for, Bonaparte, though by no means remiss in the exaction of gold and of artistic treasures, was laying the foundation of a friendly republic. During his sojourn at the castle of Montebello or Mombello, near I\Iilan, he commissioned several of the leading men of northern Italy to draw up a project of constitution and list of reforms for that province.
Its industries include cotton-spinning, brewing, distilling, and the manufacture of tobacco, earthenware and matches; native industry produces carved and inlaid furniture, bronzes and artistic metalwork, silk embroidery, &c. Hanoi is the junction of railways to Hai-Phong, its seaport, Lao-Kay, Vinh, and the Chinese frontier via Lang-Son.
The Hellenistic The embellishments which the city received during period: the Hellenistic and Roman periods were no longer the artistic expression of the religious and political life of ment of the city: Attalus I.
Not more than eighty years separate these two buildings; the old Procuratie were built by Bartolomeo Buono about 150o, the new by Scamozzi in 1580, yet it is clear that each belongs to an entirely different world of artistic ideas.
The reorganization of the Archaeological and Artistic Museum and of the Royal Gallery of Ancient Art coincided with the inauguration in April 1895 of a series of biennial International Art Exhibitions, arranged in order to celebrate the silver wedding of the king and queen of Italy.
But it is much more likely that Wagner would then have found his artistic difficulties too formidable to let the ideas descend to us from Walhalla and the Hall of the Grail at all.
This, by the way, points to the conclusion that Babylonian (Sumerian) culture and art were considerably older than the Egyptian; but we have no definite evidence yet on this point.24 Later points of artistic connexion may be seen when we compare the well-known bronze statues of Pepi I.
Coin Catalogue, Crete, &c.; P. Gardner, The Types of Greek Coins), which during the good period display a peculiarly picturesque artistic style distinct from that of the rest of the Greek world, and sometimes indicative of a revival of Minoan types.
- The World according to Cosmas Indicoplcustes (535) a compromise between the two former, or an artistic development of the circular type.
The year of his return, 1832, may be said to close the period of his artistic and to open that of his scientific life.
His pleasant manners and varied culture, not less than his artistic skill, contributed to render him popular.
Wilpert's great work, in which these frescoes are reproduced in colours, now enables the student even better to distinguish the styles of different centuries and follow the course of artistic development or decay.
The statuary of the lateral portals, the stained glass of the 13th century, and the choir-screen of the Renaissance are all unique from the artistic standpoint.
Of the artistic treasures with which the Escorial was gradually enriched, it is sufficient to mention the frescoes of Peregrin or Pellagrino Tibaldi, Luis de Carbajal, Bartolommeo Carducci or Carducho, and Luca Giordano, and the pictures of Titian, Tintoretto and Velasquez.
deep, and of the furnaces where they melted copper, tin and gold, are very numerous; their weapons of a hard bronze, their pots (one of which weighs 75 ib), and their melted and polished bronze and golden decorations testify to a high development of artistic feeling and industrial skill, strangely contrasting with the low level reached by their earthenware.
The Thracians of the region from Olympus to the Pangaean district, usually regarded as rude tribes, had from a very early time worked the gold and silver of that region, had begun to strike coins almost as early as the Greeks, and displayed on them much artistic skill and originality of types.
A little farther away are the headquarters of the Patriotic Society (Patriotische Gesellschaft), founded in 1765, with fine rooms for the meetings of artistic and learned societies.
Their bronze ornaments and implements, often polished, evince considerable artistic taste; and their irrigated fields covered wide areas in the fertile tracts.
They were acquainted with iron, and learned from their subjects the art of bronze-casting, which they used for decorative purposes only, and to which they gave a still higher artistic stamp. Their pottery is much more perfect and more artistic than that of the Bronze period, and their ornaments are accounted among the finest of the collections at the St Petersburg museum of the Hermitage.
As to artistic representations of the goddess, we have first the rude figure which seems to be a copy of the Palladium; secondly, the still rude, but otherwise more interesting, figures of her, as e.g.
Ulm still preserves the dignified and old-fashioned appearance of a free imperial town, and contains many medieval buildings of historic and of artistic interest.
Marryat's first attempt was somewhat severely criticized from an artistic point of view, and he was accused of gratifying private grudges by introducing real personages too thinly disguised; and as he attributed some of his own adventures to Frank Mildmay he was rather shocked to learn that readers identified him with that disagreeable character.
Modified though never essentially changed, (1) by contact with the star-worship of the Chaldaeans, who identified Mithras with Shamash, god of the sun,(2) by the indigenous Armenian religion and other local Asiatic faiths and (3) by the Greeks of Asia Minor, who identified Mithras with Helios, and contributed to the success of his cult by equipping it for the first time with artistic representations (the famous Mithras relief originated in the Pergamene school towards the 2nd century B.C.), Mithraism was first transmitted to the Roman world during the 1st century B.C. by the Cilician pirates captured by Pompey.
The higher results of artistic training, however, are less marked than a widespread dilettantism.
From an artistic standpoint, these stories are rather laboured productions, besides being ultra-romantic in tone; but it must be remembered that they were written mainly with an educational object, and, moreover, they deserve high praise for their style.
The newcomers adopted the language of the conquered, but brought with them new customs and a new artistic taste probably largely borrowed from the metal-working tribes of Siberia.
Hardy, simple and industrious, fond of music, kind-hearted, and with a strangely artistic taste in dress, these people possess in a wonderful degree the secret of cheerful contentment.
Even if, by a bold assumption, we grant the unity of authorship, it is plain upon the face of it that the chapters in question cannot have been composed at the same time or under the same circumstances; literary and artistic unity is wholly wanting.
Though without claims to creative originality, Terence must have had not only critical genius, to enable him fully to appreciate and identify himself with his originals, but artistic genius of a high and pure type.
The importance of his position in Roman literature consists in this, that he was the first writer who set before himself a high ideal of artistic perfection, and was the first to realize that perfection in style, form, and consistency of conception and execution.
While his great gift to Roman literature is that he first made it artistic, that he imparted to "rude Latium" the sense of elegance, consistency and, moderation, his gift to the world is that through him it possesses a living image of the Greek society in the 3rd century B.C., presented in the purest Latin idiom.
A consequence of this change of circumstances was that comedy was no longer national in character and sentiment, but had become imitative and artistic. The life which Terence represents is that of the well-to-do citizen class whose interests are commonplace, but whose modes of thought and speech are refined, humane and intelligent.
Believing that the pendulum had overshot its swing from conventional classicality towards pictorial realism, he turned from the " fleshy " school towards the Greek, while realizing the artistic necessity for modern feeling.
The second great quality is the singular artistic skill and balance with which the Hippocratic physician used such materials and tools as he possessed.
Here we recognize the true Greek But this artistic completeness was closely connected with the third cardinal virtue of Hippocratic medicine - the clear recognition of disease as being equally with life a process governed by what we should now call natural laws, which could be known by observation, and which indicated the spontaneous and normal direction of recovery, by following which alone could the physician succeed.
7rEpi 4 o€ws, implies the subordination of the artistic to a speculative motive.
There are two other processes of marking patterns on glass, but they possess no artistic value.
Owing to the sacrifice of form to prismatic brilliance, cut-glass gradually lost its artistic value.
A frieze of lions devouring ibexes and deer, and incised with great artistic skill, runs round the neck, while the eagle crest of Lagash adorns the globular part.
The culture of Assyria, and still more of Babylonia, was essentially literary; we miss in it the artistic spirit of Egypt or Greece.
Both at Euyuk and Yasili Kaya reliefs in one and the same series are widely separated in artistic conception and execution, some showing the utmost naiveté, others expressing both outline and motion with fair success.
(2) It was under the Khatti that Carchemish was a flourishing commercial city; and if Jerablus be really Carchemish, it is significant that apparently the most numerous and most artistic of the monuments occur there.
Few cities are as rich as Florence in collections of works of artistic and historic interest, although the great majority of them belong to a comparatively limited period - from the 13th to the 16th century.
Vienna possesses both in the inner city and the outlying districts numerous squares adorned with artistic monuments.
In the number and variety of its leather and other fancy goods Vienna rivals Paris, and is also renowned for its manufacture of jewelry and articles of precious metals, objets d'art, musical instruments, physical chemicals and optical instruments, and artistic products generally.
Books, artistic publications, paper and beer are amongst the other principal products.
Its museum, which is of great historical and artistic value and includes a collection of portraits of the Peruvian viceroys and presidents, is in the upper floors of the Exposition Palace.
Munich has long been celebrated for its artistic handicrafts, such as bronze-founding, glass-staining, silversmith's work, and wood-carving, while the astronomical instruments of Fraunhofer and the mathematical instruments of Traugott Lieberecht von Ertel (1778-1858) are also widely known.
The new town, which lies on the flat expanse adjoining the crescent-shaped bay, partly on ground that has been reclaimed from the sea, has large and regularly built streets, and several large squares adorned with artistic monuments.
Nevertheless the artistic value of the objects consumed has been greatly exaggerated by some writers.
His works are very voluminous, and to a large extent fragmentary and devoid of artistic finish; nevertheless they are nearly always worth investigating for the brilliant suggestions in which they abound.
Alboin, the Lombard king, captured it in 568, and it was one of the chief residences of the Lombard, and later of the Frankish, monarchs; and though, like other cities of northern Italy, it suffered much during the Guelph and Ghibelline struggles, it rose to a foremost position both from the political and the artistic point of view under its various rulers of the Scaliger or Della Scala family.
Few cities of the same size as Frankfort are so richly endowed with literary, scientific and artistic institutions, or possess so many handsome buildings appropriated to their service.
His artistic education was chiefly supervised by his father, but he also attended the York School of Design, and worked for a short time in the Royal Academy Schools.
It is to Moronobu that Japan owes the popularization of artistic wood-engravings, for nothing before his series of xylographic albums approached his best work in strength and beauty, and nothing since has surpassed it.
These men, living in the past, paid little attention to the great popular movement, which seemed to be quite outside their social and artistic sphere and scarcely worthy of cultured criticism.
This was a weak affectation that found its chief votaries amongst literary men ambitious of an easily earned artistic reputation.
Although a little engraving on copper has been practised in Japan of late years, it is of no artistic value, and the only branch of the art which calls for recognition is the Engraving.
but highly artistic device is that of gradually rounding off the surfaces where necessary, in order to obtain in printing a soft and graduated mass of color which does not terminate too abruptly.
In color-printing, the colors, which are much the same as those in use in Europe, are mixed, with rice-paste as a medium, on the block for each operation, and the power of regulating the result given by this custom to an intelligent craftsman (who, again, is neither the artist nor the engraver) was productive in the best period of very beautiful and artistic effects, such as could never have been obtained by any mechanical device.
The colossal Nara Daibutsu (Vairocana) at Tdai-ji, cast in 749 by a workman of Korean descent, is the largest of the great bronzes in Japan, but ranks far below the Yakushi-ji image in artistic qualities.
Many families of sword artists sprang up at a later period, furnishing treasures for the collector even down to the present day, and their labors reached a level of technical mastery and refined artistic judgment almost without parallel in the art industries of Europe.
Great importance has always been attached by Japanese experts to the patina of metal used for artistic chiselling.
It has been frequently asserted by Western critics that the year (1876) which witnessed the abolition of sword-wearing in Japan, witnessed also the end of her artistic metal- Moderna,,d work.
But the term raku-yaki did not come into use until the close of the century, when Chjiro (artistic name, Choryu) received from Hideyoshi (the TaikO) a seal bearing the ideograph raku, with which he thenceforth stamped his productions.
Pottery was produced at several hamlets in Bizen as far back as the i4th century, but ware worthy of artistic notice did not make it~
In short, the artistic output of Chinese kilns in their palmiest days was, not faience or pottery,, but porcelain, whether of soft or hard paste.
In spite of their artistic defects, these specimens were exported in considerable numbers by merchants in the foreign settlements, and their first cost being very low, they found a not unreniunerative market.
It was he who gave their first really artistic impulse to the kilns of Awata, Mizoro and Iwakura, whence so many delightful specimens of faience issued almost without interruption until the middle of the 19th century and continue to issue to-day.
The glossy surface of a porcelain glaze is ill fitted for rendering artistic effects with ordinary colors.
The modern faience of Ito TOzan of KiOto, decorated with color under the glaze, is incomparably more artistic than the Tokyo asahi-yaki, from which, nevertheless, the KiOto master doubtless borrowed some ideas.
But his artistic instincts are higher than those of the Chinese, and there is reasonable hope that,in time he may excel their best works.
The sum of the matter is that the modern Japanese ceramist, after many efforts to cater for the taste of the Occident, evidently concludes that his best hope consists in devoting all his technical and artistic resources to reproducing the celebrated wares of China.
The base, usually of copper, was as thin as cardboard; the cloisons, exceedingly fine and delicate, were laid on with care and accuracy; the colors were even, and the designs showed artistic judgment.
high, adorned with an astronomical clock, an artistic and famous work, executed by Anton Pohl in 1422.
Of the artistic periodicals we may signalize the Art Journal (1849), Portfolio (1870), Magazine of Art (1878-1904), Studio (1893), Connoisseur (1901), and Burlington (1903).
Indexes to English Periodicals.-A large number of periodicals do not preserve literary matter of permanent value, but the highclass reviews and the archaeological, artistic and scientific magazines contain a great mass of valuable facts, so that general and special indexes have become necessary to all literary workers.
While the former was exclusively literary and artistic, the latter dealt more with philosophy.
Though his artistic training was mainly German, and his master belonged to the same school as Cornelius and Overbeck, he loved Italian art and Italy, and the first picture by which he became known to the British public was "Cimabue's Madonna carried in Procession through the Streets of Florence," which appeared at the Royal Academy in 18J5.
Although, since his infancy, he had only visited England once (in 1851, when he came to see the Great Exhibition), he was not quite unknown in the cultured and artistic world of London, as he had made many friends during a residence in Rome of some two years or more after he left Frankfort in 1852.
Leighton's life was throughout marked by distinction, artistic and social.
raised above it, is an impossible attitude, nor do snakes ever climb trees in spiral fashion, the classical artistic mode of representation.
Nevertheless it was by the work of a number of Roman chroniclers during this period that the materials of early Roman history were systematized, and the record of the state, as it was finally given to the world in the artistic work of Livy, was extracted from the early annals, state documents and private memorials, combined into a coherent unity, and supplemented by invention and reflection.
Although the artistic product of the first period of Latin literature which has reached us in a complete shape is limited to the comedies of Plautus and Terence, the influence may most appropriately be taken as marking the end of one period and the beginning of another.
It is the age of purest excellence in prose, and of a new birth of poetry, characterized rather by great original force and artistic promise than by perfect accomplishment.
The Roman oratory of the law courts had to deal not with petty questions of disputed property, of fraud, or violence, but with great imperial questions, with matters affecting the well-being of large provinces and the honour and safety of the republic; and no man ever lived who, in these respects, was better fitted than Cicero to be the representative of the type of oratory demanded by the condition of the later republic. To his great artistic accomplishment, perfected by practice and elaborate study, to the power of his patriotic, his moral, and personal sympathies, and his passionate emotional nature, must be added his vivid imagination and the rich and copious stream of his language, in which he had no rival among Roman writers or speakers.
He was the first of the purely artistic historians, as distinct from the annalists and the writers of personal memoirs.
He imitated the Greek historians in taking particular actions - the Jugurthan War and the Catilinarian Conspiracy - as the subjects of artistic treatment.
His two extant works are more valuable as artistic studies of the rival parties in the state and of personal character than as trustworthy narratives of facts.
Lucretius Carus (96-55) were entire seclusion from public life and absorption in the ideal pleasures of contemplation and artistic production.
While we recognize in the De Rerum Natura some of the most powerful poetry in any language and feel that few poets have penetrated with such passionate sincerity and courage into the secret of nature and some of the deeper truths of human life, we must acknowledge that, as compared with the great didactic poem of Virgil, it is crude and unformed in artistic design, and often rough and unequal in artistic execution.
While the imaginative and emotional side of Roman poetry was so powerfully represented by Lucretius, attention was directed to its artistic side by a younger genera tion, who moulded themselves in a great degree on Alexandrian models.
His greatest contribution to poetic art consisted in the perfection which he attained in the phalaecian, the pure iambic, and the scazon metres, and in the ease and grace with which he used the language of familiar intercourse, as distinct from that of the creative imagination, of the rostra, and of the schools, to give at once a lifelike and an artistic expression to his feelings.
Poetry thus acquired the tone of the world, kept in close connexion with the chief source of national life, while it was cultivated to the highest pitch of artistic perfection under the most favourable conditions of leisure and freedom from the distractions and anxieties of life.
He first vindicates the claims of his own age to literary pre-eminence, and then seeks to stimulate the younger writers of the day to what he regarded as the manlier forms of poetry, and especially to the tragic drama, which seemed for a short time to give promise of an artistic revival.
The vast scale on which the work was conceived and the thoroughness of artistic execution with which the details are finished are characteristically Roman.
The imitative impulse, which had much of the character of a creative impulse, and had resulted in the appropriation of the forms of poetry suited to the Roman and Italian character and of the metres suited to the genius of the Latin language, no longer stimulated to artistic effort.
A fresh impulse was given to letters on the accession of Nero, and this was partly due to the theatrical and artistic tastes of the young emperor.
But an artistic temperament was hardly that required of a king of Prussia on the eve of the Revolution; and Frederick the Great, who had employed him in various services - notably in an abortive confidential mission to the court of Russia in 1 780 - openly expressed his misgivings as to the character of the prince and his surroundings.
He was brought thus into contact with those artistic and classical associations which exercised so marked an influence on his character and opinions.
Salomon Reinach, guided by the analogy of similar practices among the aborigines of Australia, and noticing that these primitive pictures represent none but animals that formed the staple food of the age and place, and that they are usually found in the deepest and darkest recesses of the caves where they could only be drawn and seen by torchlight, has argued that they were not intended for artistic gratification (a late motive in human art), but were magical representations destined to influence and perhaps attract the hunter's quarry.
Not merely were artistic sculptures and bas-reliefs found that demonstrated a high development of artistic genius, but great libraries were soon revealed, - books consisting of bricks of various sizes, or of cylinders of the same material, inscribed while in the state of clay with curious characters which became indelible when baking transformed the clay into brick.
From this stratum came also various fragments of bas reliefs of high artistic excellence.
A burst of literary and artistic activity followed the Revolution; and van Hasselt's house became a centre of poets, artists and musicians of the romantic school.
In this more general respect, an arboretum or woodland affords shelter, improves local climate, renovates bad soils, conceals objects unpleasing to the eye, heightens the effect of what is agreeable and graceful, and adds value, artistic and other, to the landscape.
It has celebrated manufactories of carpets, &c., employing about 2000 workmen, the artistic standard of which is maintained by a national school of decorative arts, founded in 1869.
and other public buildings, are adorned, and which are not merely of a decorative character, but in many instances present us with elaborate compositions of figures, historical and mythological scenes, as well as representations of the ordinary life and manners of the people, which are full of interest to us, though often of inferior artistic execution.
The same character of elaborate decoration, guided almost uniformly by good taste and artistic feeling, is displayed in the mosaic pavements, which in all but the humbler class of houses frequently form the ornament of their floors.
One of these, in the House of the Faun, well known as the battle of Alexander, presents us with the most striking specimen of artistic composition that has been preserved to us from antiquity.
The artistic character is still Greek.
Had the natives of Egypt been asked to choose between the preservation of Ptolemy's famed temple and the benefit to be derived from a considerable additional depth of water storage, there can be no question that they would have preferred the latter; but they were not consulted, and the classical sentiment and artistic beauty of the place, skilfully pleaded by archaeologists and artists, prevailed.
Exempt from duty were now only refuse, raw products, scientific instruments, ships and literary and artistic objects; forty-four articles notably beer, vinegar, sugar, herrings, cocoa, salt, fish oils, ether, alum and sodawere unaffected by the change, while duties were henceforth levied upon a large number of articles which had previously been admitted dtity free, such as pig iron, machines and locomotives, grain, building timber, tallow; horses, cattle and sheep; and, again, the tariff law further increased the duties leviable upon numerous other articles.
Patronage of art is among the cherished traditions of the German princes; and even whereas for instance at Casselthere is no longer a court, the artistic impetus given by the former sovereigns has survived their fall.
It is to be noticed that none of the German finds (mostly in the south and west) show any traces of the highly developed artistic sense so characteristic of the dwellers in France at this period.
Lysias was the first to make this adaptation really artistic. His skill can be best appreciated if we turn from the easy flow of his graceful language to the majestic emphasis of Antiphon, or to the self-revealing art of Isaeus.
When Hellenism came to stand in the world for something concrete and organic, it was, of course, no mere abstract principle, but embodied in a language, a literature, an artistic tradition.
In the earliest existing monument of the Hellenic genius, the Homeric poems, one may already observe that regulative sense of form and proportion, which shaped the later achievements of the race in the intellectual and artistic spheres.
- Hellenic influences continued to penetrate the Scythian peoples from the Greek colonies of the Black Sea, at any rate in the matter of artistic fabrication.
In its artistic, its literary, its spiritual products the age after Alexander gave evidence of the change.
The literary schools of Alexandria and Pergamum built up grammatical science, and brought literary and artistic criticism to a fine point.
Outside literature, we have to look to the artistic remains offered by the region to determine Hellenic influence.
At the same time the prevalent tone of the populace was, no doubt, Hellenistic, as is shown by the fact that the Jews who settled there acquired Greek in place of Aramaic as their mother-tongue, and in its upper circles Alexandrian society under the Ptolemies was not only Hellenistic, but notable among the Hellenes for its literary and artistic brilliance.
Whilst the upper classes in Italy absorbed Greek influences by their education, by the literary and artistic tradition, the lower strata of the population of Rome became largely hellenized by the actual influx on a vast scale of Greeks and hellenized Asiatics, brought in for the most part as slaves, and coalescing as freedmen with the citizen body.
In point of style and artistic effect, the different parts of the Koran are of very unequal value.
Accordingly the sacred book has not even the artistic form of poetry; which, among the Arabs, includes a stringent metre, as well as rhyme.
The satire of Ennius seems to have resembled the more artistic satire of Horace in its record of personal experiences, in the occasional introduction of dialogue, in the use made of fables with a moral application, and in the didactic office which it assumed.
The inspiring idea of the poem was accepted, purified of all alien material, and realized in artistic shape by Virgil in his national epic. He deliberately imparted to that poem the charm of antique associations by incorporating with it much of the phraseology and sentiment of Ennius.
The Syrians and the, Keftiu, the latter now identified with the Cretans and other representatives of the Aegean civilization, are the only peoples who by their elaborate clothing and artistic products reveal themselves upon the ancient Egyptian monuments as the equals in culture of the Egyptian nation.
The Early Kings.The dynastic race wrought an entire transformation in the art of Egypt; in place of the clumsy and undetailed representations, there suddenly appears~highly artistic work, full of character, action and anatomical detail.
(A) The earliest statues of this, age are the colossi of the god Mm from Coptos; that they belong to the artistic race is evident from the spirited reliefs upon.
They show a keen sense of form, and the stags head, which is probably the earliest, already bears an artistic feeling *holly different to that of any of the prehistoric works (P.K.
The large ceremonial mace-heads recording the Sed festivals of the king Narmer and another, belong also to this school; but owing to their smaller size they have not such artistic detail.
43) is perhaps the most brilliant instance; the fidelity in the delicate curves of the nose and around the mouth is enhanced by the touch of artistic convention in the facing of the lips.
Another branch of stone-work, surface carving, was early developed by the artistic dynastic race.
The temple of Abydos is celebrated owing to its completeness, and the perfect condition of its sculptures, which render it one of the most interesting buildings as an artistic monument; and the variety of religious subjects adds to its importance.
In addition to the varied and beautiful forms of implements and weapons - frequently ornamented with a high degree of artistic taste - armlets and other personal ornaments in gold, amber, jet and bronze are not uncommon.
By the autumn of the same year, probably feeling the incompleteness of the artistic training that could be obtained north of the Alps, he must have taken advantage of some opportunity, we know not what, to make an excursion of some months to Italy, leaving his lately married wife at Nuremberg.
From associates like these Di.irer could imbibe the spirit of Renaissance culture and research; but the external aspects and artistic traditions which surrounded him were purely Gothic, and he had to work out for himself the style and formlanguage fit to express what was in him.
During the first seven or eight years of his settled life in his native city from 1495, he betrays a conflict of artistic tendencies as well as no small sense of spiritual strain and strife.
Diirer's interest and curiosity, both artistic and personal, were evidently stimulated by his travels in the highest degree.
His labours, whether artistic or theoretic, had for some time been carried on in the face of failing health.
The columns supporting the roof and gallery are irregularly placed, with a view to artistic effect; and the general form of the piers, arches and pillars is most graceful.
Slowly and obscurely the Renaissance comes to Scotland; its presence is indicated by the artistic tastes of the king, and, later, by the sweet and mournful poetry of Henryson.
In the mountainous region on the upper waters of the Sangarius, between Kutaiah Eski Shehr and Afium (Afiom) Kara Hissar, there exist numerous monuments of great antiquity, showing a style of marked individuality, and implying a high degree of artistic skill among the people who produced them.
Having acted for some time as secretary to Jules Senard, ex-president of the Constituent Assembly, he published an original paper on artistic copyright, but as soon as possible resumed the history of law.
B eule was also the author of high-class popular works on artistic and historical subjects: Histoire de l'art grec avant Pericles (2nd ed., 1870); Le Proces des Cesars (1867-1870, in four parts; Auguste, sa famille et ses amis; Tibere et l'heritage d'Auguste; Le Sang de Germanicus; Titus et sa dynastie).
This conversion, represented as having been brought about while he was hunting on Good Friday by a miraculous appearance of a stag bearing between his horns a cross or crucifix surrounded with rays of light, has frequently been made the subject of artistic treatment.
His Socialism, though it made a brave show at times, was at heart a passionate enthusiasm for an inaccessible artistic ideal.
The artistic life in Budapest is fostered by the academy of music, which once had Franz Liszt as its director, a conservatoire of music, a dramatic school, and a school for painting and for drawing, all maintained by the government.
In virtue of its cultural institutions, it is also the intellectual and artistic centre of Hungary.
His house was the centre of the highest culture of Hamburg, and a monument of his influence in that city still remains in the Haus der patriotischen Gesellschaft, where the learned and artistic societies partly founded by him still meet.
Was it not a greater thing to ennoble them than to destroy their artistic representation ?
Having laid the founda - tions of a successful business in his admirable domestic pottery - the best the world had ever seen up to that time - he turned his attention to artistic pottery, and the European renaissance of classic art - fostered by the discovery of Pompeii and the recovery of Greek painted vases from the ancient graves in Campania.
At this date he was already distinguished as an accomplished scholar and critic, able to converse fluently in half-a-dozen languages, and well informed on most questions of scientific, artistic or antiquarian interest.
In due course it passed from Pergamene to Roman dominion, and according to Cicero, was plundered of many artistic treasures by Verres.
He had himself strong artistic tendencies, though his numerous poems show but little proof of this, and as a patron of the arts he proved himself as great as any who had ever occupied a German throne, and more than a mere dilettante.
Although he displayed a loyal attachment to the Catholic Church, especially owing to his artistic sympathies, he none the less opposed all its more exaggerated pretensions, especially as represented by the Jesuits, whom he condemned as un-German.
The monarch's artistic sense led him not only to adorn his house with a number of works of antique art, but also to study German medieval art, which he did to good effect.
Yet the writer who in a few pages presents us with so remarkable a representation shows no consciousness at all of artistic treatment.
The only other artistic solution of the problem is to follow Berlioz, Verdi and Dvorak in the complete renunciation of all ecclesiastical style.
The preface to the Phenomenology signalled the separation from Schelling - the adieu to romantic. It declared that a genuine philosophy has no kindred with the mere aspirations of artistic minds, but must earn its bread by the sweat of its brow.
Only a small fraction of Goethe's work was written in an impersonal and objective spirit, and sprang from what might be called a conscious artistic impulse; by far the larger - and the better - part is the immediate reflex of his feelings and experiences.
the story of the birth of Moses, accounts of creation and deluge, &c.), or when one observes the subsequent uncompromising objection to a display of artistic meaning, implying that it aroused definite conceptions.
The large employment of cast iron is comparatively modern, in England at least only dating from the i 6th century; it is not, however, incapable of artistic treatment if due regard be paid to the necessities of casting, and if no attempt is made to imitate the fine-drawn lightness to which wrought iron so readily lends itself.
Its most important use in an artistic form has been in the shape of baptismal fonts, chiefly between the lrth and the 14th centuries.
The numerous objects of bronze and other metals brought to light by the excavations in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys, though mostly on a small scale, bear witness to the great skill and artistic power of the people who produced them; while the discovery of some bronze statuettes, shown by inscriptions on them to be not later than 2200 B.C., proves how early was the development of this branch of art among the people of Assyria.
The mirrors of the Greeks are among the most important specimens of their artistic metal-work.
When the seat of the empire was changed, Byzantium became the chief centre for the production of artistic metal-work.
At the latter part of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th the Pollaiuoli, Ricci and other artists devoted much labour and artistic skill to the production of candlesticks and smaller objects of bronze, such as door-knockers, many of which are works of the greatest beauty.
Cellini, 1882), and Giovanni de Bologna in the latter part of the same century inherited to some extent the skill and artistic power of the great 15th-century artists.
and Queen Eleanor at Westminster, cast in bronze by the "cire perdue" process, and thickly gilt, are equal, if not superior, in artistic beauty to any sculptor's work of the same period (end of the 13th century) that was produced in Italy or elsewhere.
At a later time Augsburg and Nuremberg were the chief centres for the production of artistic works in the various metals.
- The term "art metal-work" is applied to those works in metal in which beauty of form or decorative effect is the first consideration, irrespective of whether the object is intended for use or is merely ornamental; and it embraces any article from a Birmingham brass bedstead to works of the highest artistic merit.
But when all artistic perception in Great Britain appeared lost in admiration of the triumphs of machinery and the expansion of trade, a new influence in art matters, that of the prince consort, began to make itself felt.
It is chiefly to architecture that metal-work owes its permanent artistic improvement.
The newer kinds of art metal-work have, until recently, reached the purchaser direct from the producer's workshop; but they may now also be seen in the shops of silversmiths, jewellers, and general dealers, who are thus helping to transfer production from large commercial manufactories to smaller ateliers under artistic control.
Cast iron, brought to perfection by the Coalbrookdale Company about 1860, but now little esteemed, owing to the poverty of design which so often counterfeits smiths' work, presents great opportunities to founders possessing taste or willing to submit to artistic control.
Italian metal-workers are mainly employed in reproduction; but traditions linger in some remote parts, while the sporadic appearance of craftsmen of a high order is evidence that the ancient artistic spirit is not wholly extinct.
For really fresh and progressive indigenous art we may perhaps have, in the near future, to turn to America and to Russia, where, having little artistic past to refer to, designers and craftsmen display unequalled individuality and force.
An artistic taste will recognize the essential differences, and not endeavour, apart from questions of strength, to graft a design suitable for one on another.
Next to the cathedral in artistic importance come the church of Santa Maria in Istrada, and the broletto or old palace of the commune, usually styled the Arengario; the former (founded in 1357) has a rich terra-cotta facade of 1 393, and the latter is raised on a system of pointed arches, and has a tall square tower terminating in machicolations surrounding a sharp central cone.
Thus, whereas hitherto the young Greek, having completed his elementary training in the schools of the rypaµµaTcvTi s, the KtOapuTr s, and the 7rat orpi(3ns, was left to prepare himself for his life's work as best he might, by philosophical speculation, by artistic practice, or otherwise, one who passed from the elementary schools to the lecture-room of Protagoras received from him a " higher education."
It would seem then, (1) that popular nomenclature included under the term " sophist " all teachers - whether professors, or like Socrates, amateurs - who communicated, not artistic skill, nor philosophical theory, but a general or liberal education; (2) that, of those who were commonly accounted sophists, some professed culture, some forensic rhetoric, some political rhetoric, some eristic, some (i.e.
As has been seen, it was just at this pe.iod that philosophy and art ceased to be available for educational purposes, and accordingly the literary sophists were popular precisely because they offered advanced teaching which was neither philosophical nor artistic. Their recognition of the demand and their attempt to satisfy it are no small claims to distinction.
Contrariwise, the sophists were always and essentially professors of the higher education; and, although in process of time specialization assimilated sophistry to the arts, at the outset at any rate, its declared aim - the cultivation of the civic character - sufficiently distinguished sophistical education both from professional instruction and from artistic training: It is true too that in some of the colonies philosophy had busied itself with higher education; but here again the forerunners of the sophists are easily distinguished from the sophists, since the sophists condemned not only the scientific speculations of their predecessors, but also their philosophical aims, and offered to the Greek world a new employment for leisure, a new intellectual ambition.
The colonies of hand-workers in silk, cotton, carpets, brass and silver ware, wood and ivory, and other skilled craftsmen, which formerly existed in various parts of India, have fallen off both in the extent of their output and in the artistic excellence of their work.
From an artistic point of view the metal manufactures are one of the most important products of India.
Sind is the only province of India where the potter's craft is pursued with any regard to artistic considerations; and there the industry is said to have been introduced by the Mahommedans.
Artistic pottery is made at Hyderabad, Karachi, Tatta and Hala, and also at Multan and Lahore in the Punjab.
The hospital possesses many artistic treasures, among them the mural paintings of the 17th century in the Salle St Hugues and an altar-piece, the Last Judgment, attributed to Roger van der Weyden.
The history of their discovery and exploration, and the artistic and literary relics which they have yielded, are worthy, however, of particular notice.
the 18th) forma collection of the highest scientific and artistic value.
These ruins have been particularly fruitful in inscribed material, especially clay tablets, many of them from the very earliest periods; but little of artistic or architectural importance has been discovered.
blacksmiths; skilful and intelligent workmen, such as the French and Japanese, find a wide outlet for their versatile and artistic talent.
The prince's intellectual and artistic leanings were well known; in particular, he has made a magnificent collection of historic Italian coins, on which subject he became a recognized authority.
In Toby Shandy he has drawn a character universally lovable and admirable; but Walter Shandy is almost greater as an artistic triumph, considering the difficulty of the achievement.
General conventions, to which most of the European states are parties, were signed in 1883 at Paris for the protection of industrial, and in 1886 at Bern for the protection of literary and artistic, property, and, from 1899 onwards, a series of general treaties, to none of which is Great Britain a party, have been signed at the Hague, as the result of conferences, invited by the government of the Netherlands, for solving some of the more pressing questions arising out of " the conflict of laws."
Poetry, philology, philosophy all flourished under his encouragement, and his name was handed down to posterity as the first of the many Spanish Jews who combined diplomatic skill with artistic culture.
The earth and the heavenly bodies are formed from mud, the product of fire and water, from which springs also man, at first in his lower forms. Man differs from animals by the possession of the moral and artistic faculty.
At a very early age she displayed considerable literary and artistic talent.
These epics had meanwhile been made the subject of a work which for exhaustive learning and delicacy of artistic perception has few rivals in the history of philology, the Epic Cycle of F.
But the proof that his scheme was the work of a great poet does not depend merely upon the artistic unity which excited the wonder of Aristotle.
The proof that Homer does not belong to that school - that his poetry is not in any true sense " ballad-poetry " - is furnished by the higher artistic structure of his poems (already discussed), and as regards style by the fourth of the qualities distinguished by Arnold - the quality of nobleness.
In the later Saiva mythology this theory finds its artistic representation in Siva's androgynous form of Ardha-narisa, or "halfwoman-lord," typifying the union of the male and female energies; the male half in this form of the deity occupying the right-hand, and the female the left-hand side.
If we may believe report, Nero found time in the intervals of his artistic triumphs for more vicious excesses.
Yet even the most defective poems commonly have, at least, a single verse, expressing some profound thought or tender shade of feeling, for which the sympathetic reader willingly pardons artistic imperfections in the rest.
What was even worse from an artistic point of view, they had contracted puerilities of style, vanities of rhetoric, stupidities of wearisome citation.
He showed, on the one side, how the history of a people can be written with a recognition of fixed principles, and at the same time with an artistic feeling for personal and dramatic episodes.
Italian society exhibited an almost unexampled spectacle of literary, artistic and courtly refinement crossed by brutalities of lust, treasons, poisonings, assassinations, violence.
The German dialects were too rough to receive that artistic elaboration under antique influences which had been so facile in Tuscany.
It may indeed be said in general that what is true of France is likewise true of all countries which felt the artistic impulses of the Renaissance.
Villon, his contemporary, may rather be ranked, so far as artistic form and use of knowledge are concerned, with poets of the middle ages, and in particular with the Goliardi.
Yet no other treatment was possible upon the lines laid down at the outset, where it was explained why the term Renaissance cannot now be confined to the Revival of Learning and the effect of antique studies upon literary and artistic ideals.
This preparation is technically called " making-ready," and is an operation requiring much time and care, especially in the case of illustrated work, where artistic appreciation and skill on the part of the workman is of great assistance in obtaining satisfactory and delicate results.
He was a metrist of the artistic order, skilful, learned and unimpassioned.
Bernhard Elis Malmstrom (1816-1865), who was a professor of aesthetics at the university of Upsala, was the author of many important books on artistic and literary history, notably a monograph on Franzen.
The political organization of the country has not been favourable to the development of artistic or scientific tastes, though Chile has produced political leaders, statesmen and polemical writers in abundance.
Another love story of similar antiquity formed the basis of Fakr-uddIn Asad JorjanIs Wis u R~min, which was composed in Isfahn about 1048 (440 A.H.)a poem remarkable not only for its high artistic value but also for its resemblance to Gottfried von Strassburgs Tristan und Isolt.
The epistle, on the other hand, rather takes the place of a public speech, it is written with an audience in view, it is a literary form, a distinctly artistic effort aiming at permanence; and it bears much the same relation to a letter as a Platonic dialogue does to a private talk between two friends.
One particular tribe (the Kalmats), who left their name on the Makran coast and subsequently dominated Bela and Sind, west of the Indus, for a considerable period, exhibit great power of artistic design in their sepulchral monuments.
The artistic sense of the nation is perhaps greatest among the peasantry, although Portugal has the most illiterate peasantry in western Europe.
From the 16th century to the 18th many artistic handicrafts were practised by the Portuguese in imitation of the fine pottery, cabinetwork, embroideries, &c., which they imported from India and Persia.
This influx of wealth furnished the economic basis for a sudden development of literary and artistic activity, inspired by contrast with the new world of the tropics..
All these poems, like the Elegiada of Luis Pereira Brandao on the disaster of Al Kasr, the Primeiro cerco de Diu of the chronicler Francisco de Andrade, and even the AfTonso Africano of Quevedo, for all its futile allegory, contain striking episodes and vigorous and well-coloured descriptive passages, but they cannot compare with The Lusiads in artistic value.
The Visconde de Santarem, and Judice Biker in geography and diplomatics, produced standard works; Luz Soriano compiled painstaking histories of the reign of King Joseph and of the Peninsular War; Silvestre Ribeiro printed a learned account of the scientific, literary and artistic establishments of Portugal, and Lieut.-Colonel Christovam Ayres was the author of a history of the Portuguese army.
An effort to induce the city to adopt, in the rebuilding after the earthquake of 1906, an artistic plan failed, and reconstruction followed practically the old plan of streets, although the buildings which had marked them had been for the most part obliterated.
The Bohemian Club is a famous centre of literary and artistic life.
Some earlier stories, such as The Wheels of Chance (1896) and Love and Mr Lewisham (1900), had proved his talent for drawing character, and pure phantasies like The War of the Worlds (1898) his abundant invention; but Kipps (1905) and Tono-Bungay (1909) showed a great advance in artistic power.
Its principal importance at the present time consists rather in the part it played in the revival of Bohemian literature than in its artistic value.
The result is a curious mosaic, in which pieces of all colours and dates are found side by side, and in which even the great artistic skill displayed throughout fails to conceal the lack of internal unity.
For it was on the artistic rather than on the critical side of history that stress was almost universally laid in antiquity, and the thing that above all others was expected from the historian was not so much a scientific investigation and accurate exposition of the truth, as its skilful presentation in such a form as would charm and interest the reader.
It is true that for us his artistic treatment of history is not without its drawbacks.
After his second marriage with Jeanne de Laval, daughter of Guy XIV., count of Laval, and Isabel of Brittany, Rene took a less active part in public affairs, and devoted himself more to artistic and literary pursuits.
His principal faults are his carelessness and inaccuracy in matters of chronology, his lack of artistic skill in the presentation of his material, his desultory method of treatment, and his failure to look below the surface and grasp the real significance and vital connexion of events.
The numerous class of ecclesiastical seals comprised episcopal seals of all kinds, official and personal; seals of cathedrals and chapters; of courts and officials, &c. The monastic series is one of the largest, and, from an artistic point of view, one of the most important.
Had Petrarch been possessed with a passion for some commanding principle in politics, morality or science, instead of with the thirst for selfglorification and the ideal of artistic culture, it is not wholly impossible that Italian humanism might have assumed a manlier and more conscientious tone.
Yet it was Herodotus' chief glory to have joined to this scientific spirit an artistic sense which enabled him to cast the material into the truest literary form.
Isolated workers or groups of workers grew into national or international associations, producing from archives vast collections of material to be worked up into the artistic form of history.
In the simple arts of broiling and roasting meat, the use of hides and furs for covering, the plaiting of mats and baskets, the devices of hunting, trapping and fishing, the pleasure taken in personal ornament, the touches of artistic decoration on objects of daily use, the savage differs in degree but not in kind from the civilized man.
His drawings on bone or tusk found in the caves show no mean artistic power, as appears by the three specimens copied in the Plate.
Between 1880 and 1890 an artistic coterie grew up here, the leaders of which were Edwin Harris, Walter Langley, Fred Hall, Frank Bramley, T.
His father showed some of his drawings to an acquaintance, Andrea del Verrocchio, who at once recognized the boy's artistic vocation, and was selected by Ser Piero to be his master.
Every fresh artistic problem immediately became for him a far-reaching scientific problem as well.
For these and other artistic labours Leonardo was rewarded in 1498 (ready money being with difficulty forthcoming and his salary being long in arrears) by the gift of a suburban garden outside the Porta Vercelli.
Florence had had other sons of comprehensive genius, artistic and mechanical, Leon Battista Alberti perhaps the chief.
The iron trade in its different branches rivals the woollen trade in wealth, including the casting of metal, and the manufacture of steam engines, steam wagons, steam ploughs, machinery, tools, nails, &c. Leeds was formerly famed for the production of artistic pottery, and specimens of old Leeds ware are highly prized.
The interior contains ancient paintings and other artistic works.
masterpiece, erected for Frederick Gonzaga in .1523-1535; of the numerous fresco-covered chambers which it contains, perhaps the most celebrated is the Sala dei Giganti, where, by a combination of mechanical with artistic devices, the rout of the Titans still contending with artillery of uptorn rocks against the pursuit and thunderbolts of Jove appears to rush downwards on the spectator.
His fine appearance, his flexible and sympathetic voice, his manifest sincerity, the perfect lucidity and artistic symmetry of his address, and the brilliance with which he illustrated his points would have attracted hearers even had he had little to say.
The friars responded not only to the new needs of the age, but to its new ideas - religious, intellectual, social, artistic.
Del Chiaro notices the great imitative capacity of the race, both artistic and mechanical.
The carved wooden doors of both the north and the south portals are masterpieces respectively of Gothic and Renaissance workmanship. The church possesses an elaborate astronomical clock (1866) and tapestries of the 15th and 17th centuries; but its chief artistic treasures are stained glass windows of the 13th, 14th and 16th centuries, the most beautiful of them from the hand of the Renaissance artist, Engrand Le Prince, a native of Beauvais.
The chief artistic features of the church are the group of the Last Judgment sculptured on the tympanum above the west door, and the painting by Ingres representing the martyrdom of St Symphorien, which took place at Autun in 179.
He was beginning to be himself by 1864 or 1865 - that was the first of such periods of his as may be accounted good - and, though not at that time so fully a master of transient effects of weather as he became later, he began then to paint with a success genuinely artistic the scenes of the harbour and the estuary, which no longer lost vivacity by deliberate and too obvious completeness.
One of them, Alessandro (1520-1589), was created cardinal at the age of fourteen; he was a man of learning and artistic tastes, and lived with great splendour surrounded by scholars and artists, among whom were Annibal Caro, Paolo Giovio, Mons.
The artistic taste of the landscape gardening is excellent, and the mountain scenery is not unworthy of Kashmir.
While lacking the artistic tastes of the Valois, Henry beautified Paris, building the great gallery of the Louvre, finishing the Tuileries, building the Pont Neuf, the Hotel-de-Ville and the Place Royale.
In Margaret Smith's Journal an artistic, though suppositive, Colonial style is well maintained.
These drawings, which are remarkable for artistic skill and finish, were taken from dissections made by Bell for the lectures or demonstrations he gave on the nervous system as part of the course of anatomical instruction of his brother.
Sudden, unpremeditated volition may be the earliest and the most artistic, but it is not the best.
It was the tendency of the philosophy of Cousin to outline things and to fill up the details in an artistic and imaginative interest.
Other artistic collections in the Hague are the municipal museum (Gernsente Museum), containing paintings by both ancient and modern Dutch artists, and some antiquities; the fine collection of pictures in the Steengracht gallery, belonging to Jonkheer Steengracht; the museum Meermanno-Westreenianum, named after Count Meermann and Baron Westreenen (d.
hawked his indulgences round Europe to raise fui~ds which would enable him to gratify his artistic tastes.
In Italy the Renaissance might be purely concerned with things intellectual or artistic, and seem to have little or no touch with things moral.
The historian must apply scientific methods to his materials and artistic methods to his results; he must test his documents and then turn them into literature.
The cities of Path and Manaos have excellent tramways, many fine public buildings and private residences, gardens and public squares, all of which give evidence of artistic taste and great prosperity.
They settled in Chelsea (30 Cheyne Row), where in later years Mrs De Morgan had a large circle of intellectual and artistic friends.
1839), first became known in artistic circles as a potter, the "De Morgan" tiles being remarkable for his rediscovery of the secret of some beautiful colours and glazes.
In 1896 Dr Sven Hedin discovered in the desert not far from the town of Khotan, in a locality known as Borasan, objects in terra-cotta, bronze images of Buddha, engraved gems, coins and MSS.; the objects, which display artistic skill, give indications of having been wrought by craftsmen who laboured to reproduce Graeco-Indian ideals in the service of the cult of Buddha, and consequently date presumably from the 3rd century B.C., when the successors of Alexander the Great were founding their kingdoms in Persia, Khwarezm (Khiva), Merv, Bactria (Afghanistan) and northern India, and from that date to the 4th or 5th century A.D.
C. Baur for fullness, accuracy and artistic composition.
The manufacturing industries assisted by the government developed rapidly during the later years of the 19th century, notably metal-working, especially such branches of it as require exact and delicate workmanship. Of particular importance are iron and steel goods, locomotives (for which Esslingen enjoys a great reputation), machinery, motor-cars, bicycles, small arms (in the Mauser factory at Oberndorf), all kinds of scientific and artistic appliances, pianos (at Stuttgart), organs and other musical instruments, photographic apparatus, clocks (in the Black Forest),.
Frau von Schmerling, who was distinguished by literary and artistic abilities, at that time rare in the Austrian capital, died in 1840, leaving two daughters.
in 1822, and has since attained a high degree of prosperity as a centre of artistic culture.
The noble collection of paintings which formerly adorned the Dusseldorf gallery was removed to Munich in 1805, and has not since been restored; but there is no lack of artistic treasures in the town.
Even philosophies such as logic and aesthetic would be necessary for such an investigation, if thought and artistic production are normal.
It was important, no doubt, to express the need of observing due measure and proportion, in order to attain good results in human life no less than in artistic products; but the observation of this need was no new thing in Greek literature; indeed, it had already led the Pythagoreans and Plato to find the ultimate essence of the ordered universe in number.
Telling of stories was a recognized form of entertainment at all feasts and gatherings, and it was the necessity of the reciter which gradually worked them into a regular form, by which the memory was relieved and the artistic features of the story allowed to be more carefully elaborated.
Sagas exist showing all these phases, some primitive and rough, some refined and beautified, some diluted and weakened, according as their copyists have been faithful, artistic or foolish; for the first generation of MSS.
Plutarch's picturesque narrative bears the marks of artistic elaboration.
The orator in whom artistic genius was united, more perfectly than in any other man, with moral enthusiasm and with intel-.
The city has a large number of literary, scientific and artistic institutions.
The votive offerings in clay, amber, bronze, ivory and lead found in great profusion within the precinct range from the 9th to the 4th century B.C. and supply invaluable evidence for early Spartan art; they prove that Sparta reached her artistic zenith in the 7th century and that her decline had already begun in the 6th.
The favorite subject of themysteries and of other artistic manifestations was no longer the triumphant Christ of the middle ages, nor the smiling and teaching Christ of the I3th century, but the Man of sorrows and of death, the naked bleeding Jesus, lying on the knees of his mother or crowned with thorns.
For the graves yielded not only new types of statues, bronzes, ivory carvings and painted pottery - all of the highest artistic value - but also a large number of stone stelae inscribed with funerary formulae in the Meroitic script.
It has been thought that the Ionian migration from Greece carried with it some part of a population which retained the artistic traditions of the "Mycenaean" civilization, and so caused the birth of the Ionic school; but whether this was so or not, it is certain that from the 8th century onwards we find the true spirit of Hellenic art, stimulated by commercial intercourse with eastern civilizations, working out its development chiefly in Ionia and its neighbouring isles.
Thus provided for, he proceeded to enjoy life to the utmost, with the help of his wealth and liberality, his literary and artistic tastes.
Otherwise the town contains no buildings of artistic or historical interest, but it commands striking views.
During the iconoclastic reigns of terror it stood on the defensive, and succeeded in saving the artistic treasures of its churches: in the 9th century Joseph, one of its bishops, died in chains for his defence of image-worship. In the 7th century the Macedonian Sla y s strove to capture the city, but failed even when it was thrown into confusion by a terrible earthquake.