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artificially

artificially Sentence Examples

  • However this may be, it would always be possible, with the aid of a grating of given resolving power, to construct artificially from white light mixtures of slightly different wave-length whose resolution or otherwise would discriminate between powers inferior and superior to the given one.3 2 Compare also F.

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  • The ears are usually artificially clipped so as to present a rounded lower margin.

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  • The beds are kept artificially moist by the application of water brought from the surface, and the different galleries bear crops in succession.

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  • In 1882, at Reading, a gold medal was given for a cream separator for horse power, whilst a prize of roo guineas offered for the most efficient and most economical method of drying hay or corn crops artificially, either before or after being stacked, was not awarded.

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  • The formula is Fe n, Sn+, where n may vary from 5 to 16; usually it is Fe, S8 or Fe l s S12, the latter being also the composition of the artificially prepared compound.

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  • Various alpine plants are found on the Riesengebirge, some of them having been artificially introduced on the Schneekoppe.

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  • Various alpine plants are found on the Riesengebirge, some of them having been artificially introduced on the Schneekoppe.

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  • It may therefore be said that caoutchouc has been already artificially or synthetically prepared, and the possibility of producing synthetic rubber cheaply on a commercial scale remains the only problem.

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  • Artificially formed crystals of the various species of mica have been observed in furnace-slags and in silicate fusions.

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  • After the determination of a number of cosmopolitan insects that may well have been artificially introduced, there remains a large proportion of endemic species - sometimes referable to distinct genera - which suggest a high antiquity for the truly insular faunas.

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  • After the determination of a number of cosmopolitan insects that may well have been artificially introduced, there remains a large proportion of endemic species - sometimes referable to distinct genera - which suggest a high antiquity for the truly insular faunas.

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  • The one fact which the Lamarckians can produce in their favour is the account of experiments by Brown-Sequard, in which he produced epilepsy in guinea-pigs by section of the large nerves or spinal cord, and in the course of which he was led to believe that in a few rare instances the artificially produced epilepsy and mutilation of the nerves was transmitted.

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  • "You're a scoundrel and a blackguard, and I don't know what deprives me from the pleasure of smashing your head with this!" said Pierre, expressing himself so artificially because he was talking French.

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  • The yield of leaf is often much increased, the plants are protected from the weather, and the enhanced value of the crop much more than repays the very considerable expense involved in artificially shading whole fields.

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  • The storing of such tobacco for a lengthened period matures and deprives it of harshness, and the same result may be artificially hastened by macerating the leaves in water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and washing them out with pure water.

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  • To him, it was no different than artificially inseminating a cow at his clinic... well, the concept wasn't.

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  • The whole story is a composite product, and it is possible that some of the stories are artificially attached to the central figure.

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  • The most common of these sulphides is cobaltous sulphide, CoS, which occurs naturally as syepoorite, and can be artificially prepared by heating cobaltous oxide with sulphur, or by fusing anhydrous cobalt sulphate with barium sulphide and common salt.

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  • Cadmium sulphide, CdS, occurs naturally as greenockite (q.v.), and can be artificially prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through acid solutions of soluble cadmium salts, when it is precipitated as a pale yellow amorphous solid.

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  • In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.

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  • The crystalline form appears to be due entirely to the carotin, which can be artificially crystallized from an alcohol or ether solution.

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  • Rhombic sulphur may be obtained artificially by slowly crystallizing a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide, or, better, by exposing pyridine saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen to atmospheric oxidation (Ahrens, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 2708).

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  • The vegetation is everywhere most scanty, and scarcely anything deserving the name of a tree is to be found unless in the more sheltered spots, and then artificially planted.

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  • It may be obtained direct from pure and bright coloured portions of the native ore cinnabar, or, artificially, by subliming a mixture of mercury and sulphur.

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  • Gilgamesh is artificially brought into contact with Ut-Napishtim, to whom he pays a visit for the purpose of learning the secret of immortal life and perpetual youth which he enjoys.

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  • The salt is obtained from the soil in which it occurs naturally, or from the heaps in which it is formed artificially, by extracting with water, and adding to the solution wood-ashes or potassium carbonate.

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  • Gilgamesh is artificially brought into contact with Ut-Napishtim, to whom he pays a visit for the purpose of learning the secret of immortal life and perpetual youth which he enjoys.

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  • It must be noted that the processes described by the alchemists of the 13th century are not put forward as being miraculous or supernatural; they rather represent the methods employed by nature, which it is the end of the alchemist's art to reproduce artificially in the laboratory.

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  • It is artificially obtained by adding hydrochloric acid to a solution of lead salt, as a white precipitate, little soluble in cold water, less so in dilute hydrochloric acid, more so in the strong acid, and readily soluble in hot water, from which on cooling, the excess of dissolved salt separates out in silky rhombic needles.

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  • The most efficient means, however, of improving strong, ill-tasting tobacco is by renewed fermentation artificially induced by moisture and heat.

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  • Wounds may be artificially grouped, under such heads as the following: Burrows and excavations in bark and wood, due te boring insects, especially beetles.

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  • m., artificially irrigated by works completed in 1895.

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  • True amber is sometimes coloured artificially.

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  • The ventilation of a mine must in general be produced artificially.

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  • Bismuth forms several oxysulphides: Bi 4 O,S constitutes the mineral karelinite found at the Zavodinski mine in the Altai; B1603S4 and Bi 2 OsS have been prepared artificially.

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  • parasites, tuberculosis; (0) on the ground that the flesh of artificially fed animals is full of excretory substances, and that, therefore, under modern conditions, flesh-eating is injurious, and may be a cause of excretory substance and uric acid deposits or rapid tissue-destroying diseases in man; e.g.

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  • Calcium fluoride, CaF2, constitutes the mineral fluor-spar, and is prepared artificially as an insoluble white powder by precipitating a solution of calcium chloride with a soluble fluoride.

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  • The mineral brushite, CaHPO 4.2H 2 0, which is isomorphous with the acid arsenate pharmacolite, CaHAs04.2H20, is an acid phosphate, and assumes monoclinic forms. The normal salt may be obtained artificially, as a white gelatinous precipitate which shrinks greatly on drying, by mixing solutions of sodium hydrogen phosphate, ammonia, and calcium chloride.

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  • Calcium metasilicate, CaSiO 3, occurs in nature as monoclinic crystals known as tabular spar or wollastonite; it may be prepared artificially from solutions of calcium chloride and sodium silicate.

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  • Le Chatelier (Annales des mines, 188 7, p. 345) has obtained artificially the compounds: CaSiO 3, Ca2S104, Ca3S1207, and Ca3S105.

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  • But it is soon learned that a similar physical state can be produced artificially, and at the Canaanite sanctuaries this was done on a large scale.

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  • Embryos in the second stage, if artificially released from the uterus, are able to live in water, in the same way as similarly developed larvae of S.

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  • Schuppan has shown that it is possible to produce good butter from Pasteurized or even sterilized cream, and Weigmann introduced the plan of artificially souring cream by means of pure cultures of B.

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  • 28), seem hardly to admit of the latter supposition; and even if they did, it would still be scarcely possible to maintain the correctness of the 480 years: it is difficult to harmonize with what, as we have seen, appears to be the most probable date of the Exodus; it is, moreover, open itself to the suspicion of having been formed artificially, upon the assumption that the period in question consisted of twelve generations 4 of 40 years each.

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  • The process is readily brought about artificially by the addition of sera or chemical solutions to blood containing the parasites.

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  • It may be prepared artificially by the oxidation of methyl alcohol and of formaldehyde; by the rapid heating of oxalic acid (J.

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  • The wall is nearly encircled by a stream of water, artificially diverted from the small rivulets which flow through the precincts, furnishing the establishment with an abundant supply in every part, for the irrigation of the gardens and orchards, the sanitary requirements of the brotherhood and for the use of the offices and workshops.

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  • In traversing the beautiful valley of Campan it is artificially augmented in summer by the waters of the Lac Bleu, which are drawn off by means of a siphon, and flow down the valley of Lesponne.

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  • The sesquioxide, Cr 2 0 3, occurs native, and can be artificially obtained in several different ways, e.g., by igniting the corresponding hydroxide, or chromium trioxide, or ammonium bichromate, or by passing the vapours of chromium oxychloride through a red-hot tube, or by ignition of mercurous chromate.

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  • The North-West Frontier Province differs from the older provinces of India in having been artificially built up out of part of a previous province together with new districts for a definite administrative purpose.

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  • Between loss and delay the spinner found an obvious alternative in damping the yarn artificially.

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  • high at the other, in which two rooms have been artificially hollowed out, traditionally believed to be the bed-chambers of Trolld, the dwarf of the sagas, and his wife.

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  • When required in the Heroult-Hall process as a solvent, it is sometimes made artificially.

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  • Though success in transplanting depends much on the humidity of the atmosphere, the most important requisite is warmth in the soil; humidity can be supplied artificially, but heat cannot.

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  • When the subsoil is too compact to be pervious to water, effectual drainage must be resorted to; when it is very loose, so that it drains away the fertile ingredients of the soil as well as those which are artificially supplied, the compactness of the stratum should be increased by the addition of clay, marl or loam.

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  • When thus artificially compounded, unless for immediate use, they should be made strong for convenience of storage, and applied as required much diluted.

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  • Some plants root so freely that they need only pegging down; but in most cases the arrest of the returning sap to form a callus, and ultimately young roots, must be brought about artificially, either by twisting the branch, by splitting it, by girding FIG.

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  • Of late years not only have many fine hybrids been raised artificially between various species, but some remarkable bigeneric hybrids (between what are considered two distinct genera) have also been produced (indicated in the list below by *).

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  • Feed the plants artificially as soon as good crops are set; do not wait for signs of distress.

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  • Holtz's machine is very uncertain in its action in a moist climate, and has generally to be enclosed in a chamber in which the air is kept artificially dry.

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  • a section of artificially drained land), by surrounding it with dikes or quays for the twofold purpose of protecting it from all further inundation from outside and of controlling the amount of water inside.

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  • But it was the achievement of Wailer alone, in 1828, to break down the barrier held to exist between organic and inorganic chemistry by artificially preparing urea, one of those substances which up to that time it had been thought could only be produced through the agency of "vital force."

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  • The harbour, artificially constructed, and equipped with a jetty and piers, admits vessels of 250 tons.

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  • Whether naturally or artificially grown the produce is looked on by the English law as fructus industrialis.

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  • The mineral is also frequently found massive, with a coarse or fine granular structure and a crystalline fracture; sometimes it occurs as a soft, white, amorphous deposit resembling artificially precipitated zinc sulphide.

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  • Although in many cases it is easy to explain the reasons why water artificially applied to land brings crops or increases their yield, the theory of our ordinary water-meadow irrigation is rather obscure.

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  • But to irrigate this upper 18 m., water must either be raised artificially, or supplied from another canal taking its source 18 m.

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  • It may be artificially prepared by the hydrolysis of isopropylcyanide with alkalies, by the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid (I.

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  • Artificial Phenomena resembling Aurora.-At Sodankyla, the station occupied by the Finnish Arctic Expedition of 1882-1883, Selim Lemstrom and Biese (23) described and gave drawings of optical phenomena which they believed to be artificially produced aurora.

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  • Egypt before the Deltaic dynasties, but Diodorus in the first century B.C. describes how its eggs were hatched artificially, as they are at the present day.

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  • The simplest of all pozzuolanic cements would be a mixture of pure lime and hydrated silica, but though the latter is prepared artificially for various purposes, it is too expensive to be used as a cement material.

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  • Some of these naturally possess a composition differing but little from that of the mixture of raw materials artificially prepared for the manufacture of Portland cement itself.

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  • These pools, artificially created, date in many cases from the 15th century, some to earlier periods, and were formed by landed proprietors who in those disturbed times saw a surer source of revenue in fish-breeding than in agriculture.

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  • The term "hunting" has come to be applied specially to the pursuit of such quarries as the stag or fox, or to following an artificially laid scent, with horse and hound.

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  • Their features are generally fairly regular and often beautiful; eyes invariably black, and in some persons oblique; jaws not projecting, except in a few instances; lips of medium thickness; the noses are naturally long, well shaped and arched, but many are artificially flattened at the bridge in infancy.

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  • His Hebrew instinct leads him to begin with a table of genealogy, artificially constructed in groups of fourteen generations - from Abraham to David, from David to the Captivity, and from the Captivity to the Christ.

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  • In the strip of low country that fringes the peninsula below the Ghats the rainfall is heavy and the climate warm and damp, the vegetation being dense and characteristically tropical, and the steep slopes of the Ghats, where they have not been artificially cleared, thickly clothed with forest.

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  • The monoxide, NiO, occurs naturally as bunsenite, and is obtained artificially when nickel hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate or sulphate is heated.

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  • Taken as a whole, the lieutenantgovernorship consists of the richest wheat-bearing country in India, irrigated both naturally by the rivers which take their rise in the northern mountains, and artificially by the magnificent system of canals which owe their origin to British enterprise.

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  • It is often asserted that these rapids were artificially formed by the Spaniards themselves to prevent the buccaneers from penetrating to Lake Nicaragua.

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  • Denying any form of moral sense or conscience, he regards all the social virtues as evolved from the instinct for self-preservation, the give-and-take arrangements between the partners in a defensive and offensive alliance, and the feelings of pride and vanity artificially fed by politicians, as an antidote to dissension and chaos.

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  • In° India, on the other hand, the institution of caste - even if artificially contrived and imposed by the Indo-Aryan priest and ruler - had at least ample time allowed it to become firmly established in the social habits, and even in the affections, of the people.

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  • Another of his papers dealt with the delusions of the philosopher's stone, but nevertheless he believed that iron could be artificially formed in the combustion of vegetable matter.

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  • It then either stops naturally, owing to the fact that the yeast cells will not work rapidly in a liquid containing more than a certain percentage of alcohol, or it is stopped artificially either by the addition of spirit or by other means which will be referred to below.

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  • The vineyards are, in fact, situated on artificially made terraces, supported by wallsi on the mountain sides.

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  • To further the prosperity of the town a most liberal charter was granted to it, and in addition the trade of the port was artificially fostered by a decree requiring that every vessel navigating within sight of its lights should put in there.

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  • The disappearance of the forests (which has in a measure been artificially remedied) naturally affected the rivers, which are mostly mere torrents, dry in summer.

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  • It may be prepared artificially by heating copper wire to a white heat, and afterwards at a red heat, by the atmospheric oxidation of copper reduced in hydrogen, or by the slow oxidation of the metal under water.

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  • It may be artificially prepared by heating salt with ammonium copper sulphate to Poo°.

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  • The species and the numerous hybrids which have been obtained artificially, show a great variety in size and colour of the flower, including the richest deep crimson and blood-red, white, or with striped, mottled or blended colours.

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  • of the site of the town, traversed by the Cremera brook, are the ruins of two ancient bridges and of some baths of the Roman period; and here is also the Ponte Sodo, a natural tunnel, artificially enlarged, through which.

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  • Hence it is that so-called artificial fertilization is possible; that is to say, fertilization will take place when ripe eggs and milt are artificially pressed from the oysters and allowed to fall into a vessel of sea-water.

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  • Artificially it may be prepared by heating cetyl alcohol with soda lime to 270° or by fusing oleic acid with potassium hydrate.

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  • Antimony trioxide occurs as the minerals valentinite and senarmontite, and can be artificially prepared by burning antimony in air; by heating the metal in steam to a bright red heat; by oxidizing melted antimony with litharge; by decomposing antimony trichloride with an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate, or by the action of dilute nitric acid on the metal.

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  • The demand for " Port " and " Madeira" was thus artificially stimulated to such an extent that almost the whole productive energy of Portugal was concentrated upon the wine and cork trades.

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  • Artificially propagated eggs and fry after planting must submit to the same mortality as the other eggs and fry around them.

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  • The artificially propagated eggs of the shad from the eastern rivers of the United States were planted in those of California and the Mississippi, where the species did not naturally occur.

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  • The Royal Society of London awarded him the Davy medal in 1881 for his researches on indigo, the nature and composition of which he did more to elucidate than any other single chemist, and which he also succeeded in preparing artificially, though his methods were not found commercially practicable.

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  • The readiness with which the young Mytilus attaches itself to wicker-work is made the means of artificially cultivating and securing these molluscs for the market both in the Bay of Kiel in North Germany and at the mouth of the Somme and other spots on the coast of France.

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  • Although the figure-of-8 represents with considerable fidelity the twisting of the wing upon its axis during extension and flexion, when the insect is playing its wings before an object, or still better when it is artificially fixed, it is otherwise when the down stroke is added and the insect is fairly on the wing and progressing rapidly.

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  • There are several lakes: that of Bala being the largest, except the old lake of Vyrnwy, reconstituted artificially to store the rainfall for the water-supply of Liverpool, 68 m.

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  • It has been suggested from time to time that conditions very unlike those now existing were necessary for the first appearance of life, and must be repeated if living matter is to be constructed artificially.

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  • His theory is in consonance with the interpretation of the structure of protoplasm as having behind it a long historical architecture and leads to the obvious conclusion that if protoplasm be constructed artificially it will be by a series of stages and that the product will be simpler than any of the existing animals or plants.

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  • Artificially induced dwarfed plants of Pinus, Cupressus, Sciadopitys (umbrella pine) and other genera are commonly cultivated by the Japanese.

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  • Crystals of quartz may be readily prepared artificially by a number of methods; for example, by heating glass or gelatinous silica with water under pressure.

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  • P. Ha§deu, Cuvente 2 Apart from certain instances in which the Latin form has been artificially restored in comparatively modern times.

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  • A special feature of the Athenian festival was the "Adonis gardens," small pots of flowers forced to grow artificially, which rapidly faded (hence the expression was used to denote any transitory pleasure).

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  • Arafa or Arafat is a space, artificially limited, round a small isolated hill called the Hill of Mercy, a little way outside the holy territory, on the road from Mecca to Taif.

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  • In practice it is usual in chalk formations to imitate artificially the action of such underground watercourses, by driving from the well small tunnels, or " adits " as they are called, below the water-level, to intercept fissures and water-bearing beds, and thus to extend the collecting area.

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  • Such a saltwater saucer of fresh water is maintained full to overflowing by the rainfall, and owing to the frictional resistance of the sand and to capillary action and the fact that a given column of fresh water is balanced by a shorter column of sea water, the fresh water never sinks to the mean sea-level unless artificially abstracted.

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  • Asphalt, whether a natural product or artificially obtained, as, for example, in some chemical manufactures, is a most useful material if properly employed in connexion with reservoir dams. Under sudden impact it is brittle, and has a conchoidal fracture like glass; but under continued pressure it has the properties of a viscous fluid.

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  • The large traffic on Lake Erie has brought into existence a number of important harbours on the south shore, nearly all artificially made and deepened, with entrances between two breakwaters running into the lake at right angles to the coast line.

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  • It may be obtained artificially by passing steam over red-hot iron.

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  • Pyrite may be prepared artificially by gently heating ferrous sulphide with sulphur, or as brassy octahedra and cubes by slowly heating an intimate mixture of ferric oxide, sulphur and salammoniac. It is insoluble in dilute acids, but dissolves in nitric acid with separation of sulphur.

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  • It may be obtained artificially as a white precipitate, which rapidly turns blue or green on exposure, by mixing solutions of ferrous sulphate and sodium phosphate.

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  • Thousands of the dark lines in the solar spectrum agree absolutely in wave-length with the bright rays artificially obtained from known substances, and appertaining to them individually.

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  • naturally to the wilderness of Shur, and it associates him with traditions of a movement direct into south Palestine which finds its counterpart when the clan Caleb (q.v.) is artificially treated as possessing its seats with Joshua's permission.

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  • long, - caused the inundation alluded to, the latter branch has been artificially blocked and the whole of the Danube now flows through Budapest in a single channel.

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  • It occurs naturally in the mineral claudetite, and can be artificially prepared by burning arsenic in air or oxygen.

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  • Realgar occurs native in orange prisms of specific gravity 3.5; it is prepared artificially by fusing together arsenic and sulphur, but the resulting products vary somewhat in composition; it is readily fusible and sublimes unchanged, and burns on heating in a current of oxygen, forming arsenic trioxide and sulphur dioxide.

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  • In logic Avicenna starts from distinguishing between the isolated concept and the judgment or assertion; from which two primitive elements of knowledge there is artificially generated a complete and scientific knowledge by the two processes of definition and syllogism.

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  • Canals connect Louth with the Humber, Sleaford with the Witham, and Grantham with the Trent near Nottingham; but the greater rivers and many of the drainage cuts are navigable, being artificially deepened and embanked.

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  • In all, about 9% of the entire surface of Spain is artificially watered, but in 1900 the government adopted plans for the construction of new canals and reservoirs on a vast scale.

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  • On the eastern side the plains and rocky ridges, where not artificially cleared, are occupied by shaggy and often sombre forests mainly composed of the following genera: Eucalyptus (gum tree), Casuarina, Bursaria, Acacia, Leptospermum, Drimys, Melaleuca, Dodonaea, Notolea, Exocarpus, Hakea, Epacris, Xanthorrhoea, Frenela.

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  • Most fruit essences now employed in confectionery are artificially prepared oils, especially is this the case with cheap confectionery (jams, marmalades, &c.) in which the artificial fruit esters to a large extent replace the natural fruity flavour.

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  • It may be artificially prepared by passing benzene vapour through a red-hot tube; by the action of sodium on brombenzene dissolved in ether; by the action of stannous chloride on phenyldiazonium chloride; or by the addition of solid phenyldiazonium sulphate to warm benzene (R.

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  • Even now they waited for news that the eggs that had been taken from her body had been artificially fertilized.

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  • Renovate the old farmhouse, or consent to artificially producing a child?

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  • To him, it was no different than artificially inseminating a cow at his clinic... well, the concept wasn't.

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  • He stuffed it under her blouse as she had and then stepped behind her, putting his arms around her artificially enlarged waist.

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  • A number of methods are used to delay petal abscission artificially, including the use of chemicals.

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  • Her central argument being that a general strike is not a sterile demand, artificially created in the minds of timid trade union bureaucrats.

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  • It is artificially carbonated, pasteurized, served under gas pressure.

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  • The productive forces of Russia were artificially constrained by the bureaucratic system.

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  • The professor claims to be able to tell which sequences are truly random, and which have been artificially contrived.

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  • The policy of artificially stimulating investment is also too reminiscent of postwar conventional wisdom.

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  • The burrow was artificially created by poking a stick in the sand to the average depth of a male fiddler crab burrow.

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  • Furthermore, SCHIP enrollment in 2003 would be artificially depressed.

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  • Around 5.5 million people drink artificially fluoridated water in the UK.

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  • Creating francium artificially has not been a problem; however, it has been a major challenge to trap francium atoms and study them.

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  • generated artificially by implants are often described as having a relatively high pitch.

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  • They are given electric shocks, artificially induced diseases, have electrodes implanted in their brain.

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  • impregnated artificially so that they can produce off spring.

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  • Here the condition is artificially induced to produce an ' animal model ' .

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  • Can you say ' artificially inflated transfer market '?

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  • Hence many tricks are used to cheat them and achieve artificially inflated rankings.

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  • A. mellea and A. ostoyae were also found to infect artificially inoculated docks in field conditions.

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  • The cow is then artificially inseminated using semen from a proven bull " in the usual way " .

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  • Gazundering (trying to artificially lower the price at a crucial stage in proceedings) is a common practice.

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  • Day length was artificially manipulated to mimic the prevailing mid-summer photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark, 16L: 8D ).

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  • I assume this is more of a problem with regard to artificially coined neologisms than with words from the spoken language.

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  • petal abscission artificially, including the use of chemicals.

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  • pokee burrow was artificially created by poking a stick in the sand to the average depth of a male fiddler crab burrow.

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  • But, eventually the effects of prices made artificially high would begin to imitate those of an outright prohibition.

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  • False declarations of species having been captive-bred or artificially propagated is the second most common type of CITES fraud.

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  • These approaches combined show a potential way out of the current artificially created resource scarcity of spectrum.

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  • stimulateicy of artificially stimulating investment is also too reminiscent of postwar conventional wisdom.

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  • The north's economy continued to be kept artificially afloat by the huge annual subvention from the taxpayer.

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  • Simply put, sultanas lie on the ground for around one week and are then artificially dipped in a potash solution.

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  • Even artificially sweetened drinks still cause you to crave sweets - get off them.

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  • Modern stain removers use artificially produced urea to achieve the same result.

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  • In these situations the patient will have been artificially ventilated to enable a full diagnosis to take place.

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  • The most common of these sulphides is cobaltous sulphide, CoS, which occurs naturally as syepoorite, and can be artificially prepared by heating cobaltous oxide with sulphur, or by fusing anhydrous cobalt sulphate with barium sulphide and common salt.

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  • The beds are kept artificially moist by the application of water brought from the surface, and the different galleries bear crops in succession.

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  • The zadruga system of land tenure was artificially kept in existence (see Servia).

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  • Its great abundance of curved trunks and boughs rendered the oak peculiarly valuable to the shipwright when the process of bending timber artificially was less understood; the curved pieces are still useful for knees.

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  • Cadmium sulphide, CdS, occurs naturally as greenockite (q.v.), and can be artificially prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through acid solutions of soluble cadmium salts, when it is precipitated as a pale yellow amorphous solid.

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  • True amber is sometimes coloured artificially.

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  • Wounds may be artificially grouped, under such heads as the following: Burrows and excavations in bark and wood, due te boring insects, especially beetles.

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  • The crystalline form appears to be due entirely to the carotin, which can be artificially crystallized from an alcohol or ether solution.

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  • Rhombic sulphur may be obtained artificially by slowly crystallizing a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide, or, better, by exposing pyridine saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen to atmospheric oxidation (Ahrens, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 2708).

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  • Desert pastoral life does not necessarily imply any intellectual inferiority, and its religious conceptions, though susceptible of modification, are not artificially moulded through the influence of other civilizations.

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  • But Israel after the fall of Samaria is artificially excluded from the Judaean horizon, and lies as a foreign land, although Judah itself had suffered from the intrusion of foreigners in the preceding centuries of war and turmoil, and strangers had settled in her midst, had formed part of the royal guard, or had even served as janissaries (§ 15, end).

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  • When the natural conditions of independent nationality all failed them, they nevertheless artificially maintained it with an energy truly marvellous, and thereby preserved for themselves, and at the same time for the whole world, an eternal good."

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  • The vegetation is everywhere most scanty, and scarcely anything deserving the name of a tree is to be found unless in the more sheltered spots, and then artificially planted.

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  • Lupine, beans, peas and vetches were grown for fodder, and meadows, often artificially watered, supplied hay.

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  • Improved varieties, obtained by cross-impregnation either naturally or artificially brought about, were carefully propagated and generally adopted, and increased attention was bestowed on the cultivation of the natural grasses.

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  • In 1882, at Reading, a gold medal was given for a cream separator for horse power, whilst a prize of roo guineas offered for the most efficient and most economical method of drying hay or corn crops artificially, either before or after being stacked, was not awarded.

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  • In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.

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  • The use by the Malays of artificially constructed terms to denote these things may certainly be taken to strengthen the opinion that the Malays arrived in the lands they now inhabit at a comparatively late period in their history, and at a time when they had developed considerably from the original state of primitive man.

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  • It must be noted that the processes described by the alchemists of the 13th century are not put forward as being miraculous or supernatural; they rather represent the methods employed by nature, which it is the end of the alchemist's art to reproduce artificially in the laboratory.

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  • It may be obtained direct from pure and bright coloured portions of the native ore cinnabar, or, artificially, by subliming a mixture of mercury and sulphur.

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  • Berzelius immediately appreciated the importance of this discovery, notwithstanding 1 The reader is specially referred to the articles Alizarin; Indigo; Purin and Terpenes for illustrations of the manner in which chemists have artificially prepared important animal and vegetable products.

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  • The two friends by their united force succeed in killing the bull, and then after performing certain votive and purification rites return to Erech, where they are hailed with joy In this adventure it is clearly Eabani who is artificially introduced in order to maintain the association with Gilgamesh.

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  • Philip's bimetallic system, which had attempted artificially to fix the value of silver in spite of the great depreciation of gold consequent upon the working of the Pangaean mines, was abandoned.

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  • The ears are usually artificially clipped so as to present a rounded lower margin.

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  • The formula is Fe n, Sn+, where n may vary from 5 to 16; usually it is Fe, S8 or Fe l s S12, the latter being also the composition of the artificially prepared compound.

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  • It has been so useful in relieving the Mississippi of floods, that the Red river may possibly be permanently diverted again into the bayou artificially.

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  • It may therefore be said that caoutchouc has been already artificially or synthetically prepared, and the possibility of producing synthetic rubber cheaply on a commercial scale remains the only problem.

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  • Artificially formed crystals of the various species of mica have been observed in furnace-slags and in silicate fusions.

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  • An authority on precious stones, and especially the diamond, he succeeded in artificially making some minute specimens of the latter gem; and on the discovery of radium he was one of the first to take up the study of its properties, in particular inventing the spinthariscope, an instrument in which the effects of a trace of radium salt are manifested by the phosphorescence produced on a zinc sulphide screen.

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  • It is artificially obtained by adding hydrochloric acid to a solution of lead salt, as a white precipitate, little soluble in cold water, less so in dilute hydrochloric acid, more so in the strong acid, and readily soluble in hot water, from which on cooling, the excess of dissolved salt separates out in silky rhombic needles.

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  • Another oxychloride, PbC1 2.7PbO, known as "Cassel yellow," was prepared by Vauquelin by fusing pure oxide, PbO, with one-tenth of its weight of sal ammoniac. "Turner's yellow" or "patent yellow" is another artificially prepared oxychloride, used as a pigment.

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  • It may be artificially prepared by leading sulphur vapour over lead, by fusing litharge with sulphur, or, as a black precipitate, by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of a lead salt.

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  • m., artificially irrigated by works completed in 1895.

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  • The one fact which the Lamarckians can produce in their favour is the account of experiments by Brown-Sequard, in which he produced epilepsy in guinea-pigs by section of the large nerves or spinal cord, and in the course of which he was led to believe that in a few rare instances the artificially produced epilepsy and mutilation of the nerves was transmitted.

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  • However this may be, it would always be possible, with the aid of a grating of given resolving power, to construct artificially from white light mixtures of slightly different wave-length whose resolution or otherwise would discriminate between powers inferior and superior to the given one.3 2 Compare also F.

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  • With Mahommedan peoples it is sufficient for a woman to cover her face; the Chinese women would think it extremely indecent to show their artificially compressed feet, and it is even improper to mention them to a woman; in Sumatra and Celebes the wild tribes consider the exposure of the knee immodest; in central Asia the finger-tips, and in Samoa the navel are similarly regarded.

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  • The transplantation of a piece of living pancreas into the tissues of an animal, thus rendered artificially diabetic, is said to restore it to health.

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  • The ventilation of a mine must in general be produced artificially.

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  • The whole story is a composite product, and it is possible that some of the stories are artificially attached to the central figure.

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  • It is also probable that the English mixed sugar or honey with the wine and thus supplied artificially that sweetness which the English sun denied.

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  • A rapid in the Tagus, artificially converted into a weir, renders irrigation easy, and has thus created an oasis in the midst of the barren plateau of New Castile.

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  • Robertson has shown that the typhoid bacillus can grow very easily in certain soils, can persist in soils through the winter months, and when the soil is artificially fed, as may be done by a leaky drain or by access of filthy water from the surface, the microorganism will take on a fresh growth in the warm season.

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  • The salt is obtained from the soil in which it occurs naturally, or from the heaps in which it is formed artificially, by extracting with water, and adding to the solution wood-ashes or potassium carbonate.

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  • The yield of leaf is often much increased, the plants are protected from the weather, and the enhanced value of the crop much more than repays the very considerable expense involved in artificially shading whole fields.

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  • The storing of such tobacco for a lengthened period matures and deprives it of harshness, and the same result may be artificially hastened by macerating the leaves in water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and washing them out with pure water.

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  • The most efficient means, however, of improving strong, ill-tasting tobacco is by renewed fermentation artificially induced by moisture and heat.

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  • Zinc sulphide, ZnS, occurs in nature as blende (q.v.), and is artificially obtained as a white precipitate by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a neutral solution of a zinc salt.

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  • They have been obtained artificially by Hautefeuille by the interaction of titanium fluoride and steam.

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  • This compound occurs in nature as bismuth ochre, and may be prepared artificially by oxidizing the metal at a red heat, or by heating the carbonate, nitrate or hydrate.

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  • Bismuth forms several oxysulphides: Bi 4 O,S constitutes the mineral karelinite found at the Zavodinski mine in the Altai; B1603S4 and Bi 2 OsS have been prepared artificially.

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  • The great natural advantages it thus enjoyed were artificially increased to an enormous extent by the care of the sovereigns of Egypt.

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  • The most favoured areas were those where corn and other plants could be artificially produced, and there barbaric cultures were elaborated.

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  • An artificially deepened channel through the Bahira into the Gulf of Tunis has converted the city into a seaport (see below).

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  • It is a noteworthy fact that whilst pyrites has been prepared artificially, marcasite has not.

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  • parasites, tuberculosis; (0) on the ground that the flesh of artificially fed animals is full of excretory substances, and that, therefore, under modern conditions, flesh-eating is injurious, and may be a cause of excretory substance and uric acid deposits or rapid tissue-destroying diseases in man; e.g.

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  • Calcium fluoride, CaF2, constitutes the mineral fluor-spar, and is prepared artificially as an insoluble white powder by precipitating a solution of calcium chloride with a soluble fluoride.

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  • The mineral brushite, CaHPO 4.2H 2 0, which is isomorphous with the acid arsenate pharmacolite, CaHAs04.2H20, is an acid phosphate, and assumes monoclinic forms. The normal salt may be obtained artificially, as a white gelatinous precipitate which shrinks greatly on drying, by mixing solutions of sodium hydrogen phosphate, ammonia, and calcium chloride.

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  • Calcium metasilicate, CaSiO 3, occurs in nature as monoclinic crystals known as tabular spar or wollastonite; it may be prepared artificially from solutions of calcium chloride and sodium silicate.

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  • Le Chatelier (Annales des mines, 188 7, p. 345) has obtained artificially the compounds: CaSiO 3, Ca2S104, Ca3S1207, and Ca3S105.

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  • But it is soon learned that a similar physical state can be produced artificially, and at the Canaanite sanctuaries this was done on a large scale.

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  • Embryos in the second stage, if artificially released from the uterus, are able to live in water, in the same way as similarly developed larvae of S.

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  • Schuppan has shown that it is possible to produce good butter from Pasteurized or even sterilized cream, and Weigmann introduced the plan of artificially souring cream by means of pure cultures of B.

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  • As an artificial product, graphite is well known as dark lustrous scales in grey pig-iron, and in the "kish" of iron furnaces: it is also produced artificially on a large scale, together with .carborundum, in the electric furnace (see below).

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  • 28), seem hardly to admit of the latter supposition; and even if they did, it would still be scarcely possible to maintain the correctness of the 480 years: it is difficult to harmonize with what, as we have seen, appears to be the most probable date of the Exodus; it is, moreover, open itself to the suspicion of having been formed artificially, upon the assumption that the period in question consisted of twelve generations 4 of 40 years each.

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  • Ussher, in order to remove it, has recourse to the doubtful expedient of artificially lengthening the northern series of years, by assuming (without any authority in the text) an " interregnum of I i years " after the death of Jeroboam II., and an " anarchy for some years " between Pekah and Hoshea (see the margin of A.V.

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  • The process is readily brought about artificially by the addition of sera or chemical solutions to blood containing the parasites.

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  • It may be prepared artificially by the oxidation of methyl alcohol and of formaldehyde; by the rapid heating of oxalic acid (J.

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  • The wall is nearly encircled by a stream of water, artificially diverted from the small rivulets which flow through the precincts, furnishing the establishment with an abundant supply in every part, for the irrigation of the gardens and orchards, the sanitary requirements of the brotherhood and for the use of the offices and workshops.

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  • In traversing the beautiful valley of Campan it is artificially augmented in summer by the waters of the Lac Bleu, which are drawn off by means of a siphon, and flow down the valley of Lesponne.

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  • The sesquioxide, Cr 2 0 3, occurs native, and can be artificially obtained in several different ways, e.g., by igniting the corresponding hydroxide, or chromium trioxide, or ammonium bichromate, or by passing the vapours of chromium oxychloride through a red-hot tube, or by ignition of mercurous chromate.

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  • The North-West Frontier Province differs from the older provinces of India in having been artificially built up out of part of a previous province together with new districts for a definite administrative purpose.

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  • Between loss and delay the spinner found an obvious alternative in damping the yarn artificially.

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  • high at the other, in which two rooms have been artificially hollowed out, traditionally believed to be the bed-chambers of Trolld, the dwarf of the sagas, and his wife.

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  • When required in the Heroult-Hall process as a solvent, it is sometimes made artificially.

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  • The most characteristic feature of this region is the prevalence of coniferous trees, which, where they have not been artificially kept down, form vast forests that cover a large part of the surface.

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  • Though success in transplanting depends much on the humidity of the atmosphere, the most important requisite is warmth in the soil; humidity can be supplied artificially, but heat cannot.

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  • When the subsoil is too compact to be pervious to water, effectual drainage must be resorted to; when it is very loose, so that it drains away the fertile ingredients of the soil as well as those which are artificially supplied, the compactness of the stratum should be increased by the addition of clay, marl or loam.

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  • When thus artificially compounded, unless for immediate use, they should be made strong for convenience of storage, and applied as required much diluted.

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  • Some plants root so freely that they need only pegging down; but in most cases the arrest of the returning sap to form a callus, and ultimately young roots, must be brought about artificially, either by twisting the branch, by splitting it, by girding FIG.

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  • Of late years not only have many fine hybrids been raised artificially between various species, but some remarkable bigeneric hybrids (between what are considered two distinct genera) have also been produced (indicated in the list below by *).

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  • Feed the plants artificially as soon as good crops are set; do not wait for signs of distress.

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  • Holtz's machine is very uncertain in its action in a moist climate, and has generally to be enclosed in a chamber in which the air is kept artificially dry.

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  • a section of artificially drained land), by surrounding it with dikes or quays for the twofold purpose of protecting it from all further inundation from outside and of controlling the amount of water inside.

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  • But it was the achievement of Wailer alone, in 1828, to break down the barrier held to exist between organic and inorganic chemistry by artificially preparing urea, one of those substances which up to that time it had been thought could only be produced through the agency of "vital force."

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  • Moissan has produced the diamond artificially, by allowing dissolved carbon to crystallize out at a high temperature and pressure from molten iron, coupled with the occurrence in meteoric iron, has led Sir William Crookes and others to conclude that the mineral may have been derived from deep-seated iron containing carbon in solution (see the article GEM, Artificial).

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  • The harbour, artificially constructed, and equipped with a jetty and piers, admits vessels of 250 tons.

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  • Whether naturally or artificially grown the produce is looked on by the English law as fructus industrialis.

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  • The mineral is also frequently found massive, with a coarse or fine granular structure and a crystalline fracture; sometimes it occurs as a soft, white, amorphous deposit resembling artificially precipitated zinc sulphide.

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