Artificial sentence example

artificial
  • The artificial breeze from the fan provided only temporary relief.

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  • And he fell back into that artificial realm of imaginary greatness, and again--as a horse walking a treadmill thinks it is doing something for itself--he submissively fulfilled the cruel, sad, gloomy, and inhuman role predestined for him.

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  • Its waters have been in great part carried off by an artificial channel, and more than half its surface laid bare.

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  • It lies on either side of the formerly natural, now artificial outlet of the river Waveney to the North Sea, while to the west the river forms Oulton Broad and Lothing Lake.

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  • The language must be one used by a nation, not an artificial thing.

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  • Napoleon's face wore an unpleasant and artificial smile.

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  • Animals, hitherto unknown to the Romans, were exhibited in the circus, and an artificial lake (eunipus) was made for the reception of crocodiles and hippopotamuses.

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  • The other is made of artificial flowers, shaped and colored by a skillful artist.

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  • The right arm was the original bed, and the left arm, on which Babylon was built, the artificial deviation, as is clear from the cuneiform inscriptions.

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  • These are immense artificial excavations of unknown date.

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  • From the brain these spirits are conveyed through the body by means of the nerves, regarded by Descartes as tubular vessels, resembling the pipes conveying the water of a spring to act upon the mechanical appliances in an artificial fountain.

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  • It was obviously artificial.

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  • Where artificial copsewood is the object, hazel, hornbeam and other bushes may be planted between the oaks; but, when large timber is required, the trees are best without undergrowth.

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  • The combination is certainly artificial and not historical.

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  • The present port is entirely artificial.

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  • The 1990s brought us a hepatitis A vaccine and artificial muscles.

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  • I suppose they're both a little artificial.

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  • The boundaries, it will be observed, were wholly artificial.

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  • He pointed to the changes wrought on domesticated organisms by the artificial selection of similar variations, and drew the inference that there must be parallel occurrences under wild nature.

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  • It was called Bolbitine by the Greeks, but according to Herodotus the Bolbitine mouth was artificial, and it was evidently of little importance compared with the Canopic, Sebennytic and Pelusiac mouths.

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  • The numerous harbours are chiefly artificial, usually located at the mouths of streams, the improvements consisting of two parallel piers extending into the lake and protecting a dredged channel.

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  • The effect upon the permanent level of the lakes of the withdrawal of water through this artificial outlet is receiving much attention.

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  • But even among the late Arabian alchemists it was doubted whether the resources of the art were adequate to the task; and in the West, Vincent of Beauvais remarks that success had not been achieved in making artificial metals identical with the natural ones.

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  • His studies of the eruptive rocks of Corsica, Santorin and elsewhere; his researches on the artificial reproduction of eruptive rocks, and his treatise on the optical characters of felspars deserve special mention; but he was perhaps best known for the joint work which he carried on with his friend Michel Levy.

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  • In the r i th tablet, Ut-Napishtim tells the famous story of the Babylonian flood, which is so patently attached to Gilgamesh in a most artificial manner.

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  • He was a man of insignificant character, with a taste for artificial verse.

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  • Deep valleys winding through the barren foothills lead gradually up to the higher mountains, and as the track ascends the scenery and vegetation change their character; the trees which line the banks of the wadi are overgrown with creepers, and the running stream is dammed at frequent intervals, and led off in artificial channels to irrigate the fields on either side; the steeper parts of the road are paved with large stones, substantially built villages, with their masonry towers or da y s, crowning every height, replace the collection of *mud walls and brushwood huts of the low country; while tier above tier, terraced fields cover the hill slopes and attest the industry of the inhabitants and the fertility of their mountains.

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  • In our own day, when the literary medium of Scotland is identical with that of England, the term Scottish literature has been reserved for certain dialectal revivals, more or less bookish in origin, and often as artificial and as unrelated to existing conditions as the most " aureate " and Chaucerian " Ynglis " of the 1 5th century was to the popular speech of that time.

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  • Strong as the Chaucerian influence was, it was too artificial to change the native habit of Scots verse; and though it helps to explain much in the later history of Scots literature, it offers no key to the main process of that literature in succeeding centuries.

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  • Artificial props of several kindswires, cane work, trellis work, &c.are also in use in many districts (in the neighborhood of Rome canes are almost exclusively employed), and in some the plant is permitted to trail along the ground.

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  • For example, after the size of 1904-1905 crops became known, and the Americans attempted to hold back cotton, the " points on " for many qualities rose considerably owing to artificial scarcity, though the price of cotton, as indicated by " spot," remained low.

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  • Cessation of bleeding may take place from natural or from artificial means.

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  • Roman Cement is another cement of the Portland class which came into use shortly before the manufacture of artificial Portland cement was attempted.

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  • The later one is entirely in verse, and shows off the author's mastery of the artificial rules of prosody and poetics, according to which a poem, a maha-kavya, ought, according to the later writers on the Ars poetica, to be composed.

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  • As a ballad poet, Schiller's popularity has been hardly less great than as a dramatist; the bold and simple outline, the terse dramatic characterization appealed directly to the popular mind, which did not let itself be disturbed by the often artificial and rhetorical tone into which the poet falls.

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  • Even more than Herder's precept and example, this passion showed Goethe how trivial and artificial had been the Anacreontic and pastoral poetry with which he had occupied himself in Leipzig; and the lyrics inspired by Friederike, such as Kleine Blumen, kleine Blcitter and Wie herrlich leuchtet mir die Natur!

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  • Throughout all this region the boundary is generally of an artificial character, marked by pillars, but it is here and there indicated by natural features forming local lines of water-parting or water-course.

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  • It was formerly isolated by marshes and accessible only by boat or artificial causeway, and under these conditions it gained its historical fame as the retreat of King Alfred in 8 8-87 when he was unable to withstand the incursions of the Danes.

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  • The element of chance, which prevails in the region on either side of the border between pass and failure, obviously prevails equally on either side of the border between " classes," where candidates are classified; it has been suggested by Dr Schuster that numerical order should accompany classification so as to avoid the creation of an artificial gap between the last candidate in one class and the highest in the next.

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  • The combination was, however, of an artificial character, and the consciousness that Ishtar was in reality an independent goddess never entirely died out.

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  • St Luke gives a table of genealogy which is irreconcilable with the artificial table of St Matthew's Gospel, and which traces our Lord's ancestry up to Adam, " which was the son of God."

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  • Pomp Eio (1569-1616), a native of Corsica, who served under Alessandro Farnese and the marquis of Spinola in the Low Countries, where he lost an arm, and, from the artificial substitute which he wore, came to be known by the sobriquet Bras de Fer.

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  • The history of the world is a scene of judgment where one people and one alone holds for awhile the sceptre, as the unconscious instrument of the universal spirit, till another rises in its place, with a fuller measure of liberty - a larger superiority to the bonds of natural and artificial circumstance.

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  • The sodium in the latter costs next to nothing, being obtained from natural or artificial brine in which the sodium chloride possesses an extremely slight value.

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  • A nearly saturated solution of sodium chloride is obtained by purifying natural or artificial brine, i.e.

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  • Thus, by his enemies, Thorbecke was often held up to scorn as a pure materialist and no friend of the fine arts, because at a sitting of the states-general in 1862 he had said that it is not the duty of the state, nor in the true interest of art itself, for the government to "protect" art, since all state-aided art must be artificial, like any forced plant.

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  • The next step is to calculate the estimated produce of each field, having regard to every kind of both natural and artificial advantage.

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  • This great shrinkage in exchange caused considerable loss to the Indian government in remitting to Europe, and entailed hardship upon Anglo-Indians who received pensions or other payments in rupees, while on the other hand it supplied an artificial stimulus to the export trade by increasing the purchasing power of gold.

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  • No doubt there is much that is purely artificial and untrustworthy in the late (post-exilic) representations of these divisions, but it is almost incredible that the historical foundation for their early career is severed from the written sources by centuries of warfare, immigration and other disturbing factors.

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  • Trees and curiously shaped stones were also worshipped, and artificial pillars of wood or stone.

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  • In consequence, however, of the frequent violence of the southwesterly gales and other causes, the communication ceased in the middle of the 19th century, and the artificial harbour designed by John Rennie has gradually fallen into decay.

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  • Besides quarrying, the industries include granitepolishing, concrete (crushed granite) works, dye-works, papermills and artificial manures.

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  • Other remains which bear witness to tlae civilization of, the Mayas are the paved highways and the artificial reservoirs (aguadas) designed for the preservation of water for towns through the long dry season.

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  • Very often, if not most frequently, it cannot be doubted that the occult religious significance depends on an artificial exegesis; but there are also poems of Hafiz, Saadi, and other writers, religious in their first intentions.

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  • An excellent water-supply has been provided from two large artificial lakes.

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  • But by a process of successive and continued artificial cultures under different conditions, the virus of the organism is found to become attenuated; and when this weakened virus is administered, the animal is rendered immune against further attacks.

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  • They made mother-of-pearl fishhooks, and they still use a part of those old hooks - or artificial bait - in combination with steel hooks, the native-made portion being generally shaped like a small fish.

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  • Although cultivated with most primitive appliances, and with little or no attempt at irrigation or artificial fertilization, the average yield is eightto twelve-fold annually.

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  • In steam boilers artificial galvanic couples are often set up by the suspension of zinc plates in the boiler, so that the corrosion of the zinc may preserve the steel boiler plates from waste.

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  • Various artificial protective coatings are applied to the plates of steel ships.

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  • Orthodox churchmen, Evangelical and Tractarian alike, were alarmed by views on the incarnate nature of Christ that seemed to them to impugn his Divinity, and by concessions to the Higher Criticism in the matter of the inspiration of Holy Scriptures which appeared to them to convert the "impregnable rock," as Gladstone had called it, into a foundation of sand; sceptics, on the other hand, were not greatly impressed by a system of defence which seemed to draw an artificial line beyond which criticism was not to advance.

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  • He found for natural pond-ice a density 0.9179 and for artificial ice 0.9161.

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  • The harbour has an artificial breakwater and extensive modern fortifications (Fort Preble, on the Cape Shore; Fort Levett, on Cushing's Island; Fort Williams, at Portland Head; and Fort McKinley, on Great Diamond Island) among the best equipped in the United States.

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  • The valley bed is more or less covered with alluvial soil, and cultivated in places by artificial irrigation.

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  • Twenty-five miles below Basra the river Karun from Shushter and Dizful throws off an arm, which seems to be artificial, into the Euphrates.

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  • We speak of the Saracen very much as we speak of the Norman; for of the Mussulman masters of Sicily very many must have been only artificial Arabs, Africans who had adopted the creed, language and manners of Arabia.

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  • The plebs, like the English commons, contained families differing widely in rank and social position, among them those families which, as soon as an artificial barrier broke down, joined with the patricians to form the new older settlement, a nobility which had once been the whole people, was gradually shorn of all exclusive privilege, and driven to share equal rights with a new people which had grown up around it.

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  • The Great Council of Venice was anything but a primitive institution; it was the artificial institution of a late age, which grew at the expense of earlier institutions, of the prince on the one side and of the people on the other.

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  • Wealth, popularity and power tend to dethrone the authority of reason and to pervert the soul from the natural to the artificial.

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  • Avoiding the artificial restraints of civilization, they were prone to fall back into animalism pure and simple.

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  • The old tendency illustrated by the outcome of the revolutionary movements of 1848 was once more in evidence - the tendency of merely artificial theories of democratic liberty to succumb to the immemorial instinct of race and race ascendancy.

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  • The wagons are pushed by an engine at their rear up one slope of an artificial mound, and as they run down the other slope by gravity are switched into the desired siding.

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  • Ceremonies of initiation are the means by which the alliance is established between the deity and the young man, when the latter enters upon the rights of manhood; and the supposed bond of kinship is thus regarded as an artificial union from the outset, so far as the individual is concerned, although Robertson Smith still maintains the theory of the fatherhood of the god, where it is a question of the origin of the totem-kin.

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  • Halfway across this, on an artificial island, is the Rathaus (rebuilt 1744-1756).

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  • On the north of the Tsze-kin ch'eng, and separated from it by a moat, is an artificial mound known as the King shan, or "Prospect Hill."

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  • Other industries are the manufacture of cellulose, artificial manure, flour and malt; and there are saw-mills, iron foundries and breweries in the town.

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  • The industries comprise the manufacture of chemicals and artificial manures, granite polishing, flour and sawmills, bootand shoe-making, carriagebuilding and woollen manufactures.

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  • The other cereals may be seen occasionally, where artificial irrigation is practised, in all stages of progress at all seasons of the year, though the operations of agriculture are, as a general rule, limited to the rainy months, when alone is the requisite supply of water commonly forthcoming.

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  • Owing to their possession of this common property, these natural fatty bodies and various artificial derivatives of glycerin, which behave in the same way when treated with alkalis, are known as glycerides.

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  • The chief industries of Grimsby are shipbuilding, brewing, tanning, manufactures of ship tackle, ropes, ice for preserving fish, turnery, flour, linseed cake, artificial manure; and there are saw mills, bone and corn mills, and creosote works.

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  • A consort Antum (or as some scholars prefer to read, Anatum) is assigned to him, on the theory that every deity must have a female associate, but Antum is a purely artificial product - a lifeless symbol playing even less of a part in what may be called the active pantheon than Anu.

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  • They lived in natural or artificial caves in their mountains.

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  • But in the middle of the century the natural beds had been almost exhausted and the system of government control, letting "parks" to private tenants, and artificial cultivation was instituted.

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  • Next he sought to prepare the inactive form of the acid by artificial means; and after great and long-continued labour he succeeded, and was led to the commencement of his classical researches on fermentation, by the observation that when the inactive acid was placed in contact with a special form of mould (Penicillium glaucum) the right-handed acid alone was destroyed, the left-handed variety remained unchanged.

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  • He seemed to be thinking only of the convenience and pleasure of his guests, not as a rule of artificial breeding as from Chesterfield or Madame Geniis, but from innate feeling.

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  • In the absence of artificial grasses and roots, hay was very valuable; it constituted almost the only winter food for live stock, which were consequently in poor condition in spring.

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  • On the other hand, he had enjoyed the advantage of an extended supply of feeding-stuffs - such as maize, linseedcake and cotton-cake - and of artificial manures imported from abroad.

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  • A contemporaneous effort in the direction of drying hay by artificial means led to nothing of practical importance.

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  • Amongst the field experiments there is, perhaps, not one of more universal interest than that in which wheat was grown for fifty-seven years in succession, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with various artificial manures.

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  • Although barley is appropriately grown on lighter soils than wheat, good crops, of fair quality, may be grown on the heavier soils after another grain crop by the aid of artificial manures, provided that the land is sufficiently clean.

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  • Of the twenty plots into which this land is divided, two were left without manure from the outset, two received ordinary farmyard manure for a series of years, whilst the remainder each received a different description of artificial or chemical manure, the same being, except in special cases, applied year after year on the same plot.

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  • As to the source of the nitrogen of the root-crops-the so-called " restorative crops "-these are as dependent as any crop that is grown on available nitrogen within the soil, which is generally supplied by the direct appli cation of nitrogenous manures, natural or artificial.

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  • Medieval economics was little more than a casuistical system of elaborate and somewhat artificial rules of conduct.

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  • Its variations may be due equally to natural denudation of a stratum once of uniform depth, or to the artificial heaping up of a mound by later builders.

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  • The purely artificial character of the System of Linnaeus and his successors had been perceived, and men were at a loss to find a substitute for it.

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  • The remaining three are now seen to be obviously artificial associations, and the second of them, Clamatores, in particular, containing a very heterogeneous assemblage of forms; but it must be bottle in mind that the internal structure of some of them was at that time still more imperfectly known than now.

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  • In the main it was an artificial system.

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  • The soil is an oozy mud which can only be made capable of carrying buildings by the artificial means of pile-driving; there is no land fit for agriculture or the rearing of cattle; the sole food supply is fish from the lagoon, and there is no drinking-water save such as could be stored from the rainfall.

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  • The villages are built on artificial mounds of earth, so as to raise them above the flood-level.

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  • This stream, which has hitherto been regarded as the eastern branch of the Ilissus rising at Kaesariane, has been identified by Dorpfeld with a brook descending from the south slope of Lycabettus and conducted in an artificial channel to the north-western end of the city, where it made its exit through the walls, eventually joining the Ilissus.

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  • The peribolos, a large artificial platform supported by a retaining wall of squared Peiraic blocks with buttresses, was excavated in 1898 without important results; it is to be hoped that the stability of the columns has not been affected by the operations.

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  • In 1814 Tassaert observed the spontaneous formation of a blue compound, very similar to ultramarine, if not identical with it, in a soda-furnace at St Gobain, which caused the Societe pour l'Encouragement d'Industrie to offer, in 1824, a prize for the artificial production of the precious colour.

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  • Processes were devised by Guimet (1826) and by Christian Gmelin (1828), then professor of chemistry in Tubingen; but while Guimet kept his process a secret Gmelin published his, and thus became the originator of the "artificial ultramarine" industry.

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  • Artificial, like natural, ultramarine has a magnificent blue colour, which is not affected by light nor by contact with oil or lime as used in painting.

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  • It is remarkable that even a small addition of zinc-white (oxide of zinc) to the reddish varieties especially causes a considerable diminution in the intensity of the colour, while dilution with artificial precipitated sulphate of lime ("annalin") or sulphate of baryta ("blanc fix") acts pretty much as one would expect.

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  • The variations which have been perpetuated and intensified by artificial selection are, with the exception of those of the dog, greater than have been induced in any other mammal.

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  • As an orator he was the leader of the opponents of the florid Asiatic school, who took the simplest Attic orators as their model and attacked even Cicero as wordy and artificial.

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  • Larger globes are usually on a stand the top of which supports an artificial horizon.

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  • All the well-known breeds of dogs are highly artificial and their maintenance requires the constant care of the breeder in mating, and in rejecting aberrant progeny.

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  • The artificial harbour, somewhat exposed, lies south of the ancient Hanseatic harbour, now filled up and covered with gardens.

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  • This second manufacture, however, is thought to have been detrimental to the papyrus, as it would then have been in a dried condition requiring artificial aids, such as a more liberal use of gum or paste, in the process.

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  • The loculi were intact and the epitaphs still in their places, so that " they form a kind of museum, in which the development, the formulae, and the symbolic figures of Christian epigraphy, from its origin to the end of the 3rd or 4th century, can be notified and contemplated, not in artificial specimens as in the Lateran, but in the genuine and living reality of their original condition."

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  • Of the fortress built by William the Conqueror in 1068 some portions were probably incorporated in Clifford's tower, the shell of which, showing an unusual ground plan of four intersecting circles, rises from an artificial mound.

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  • The chief industrial establishments are iron foundries, railway and motor engineering works, breweries, flour-mills, tanneries and manufactories of confectionery, artificial manure, &c. There is water communication by the Ouse with the Humber, and by the Foss Navigation to the N.E.

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  • Thus it encouraged an unrestrained emotionalism, rank superstition, an unhealthy asceticism, and the employment of artificial means to induce the ecstatic state.

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  • The dependence of the island on one crop has been an artificial economic condition often of grave momentary danger to prosperity; but generally speaking, the progress of the industry has been steady.

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  • This was met in a very large measure by deposits of natural nitre and the products of artificial nitrieres, whilst additional supplies are available in the ammoniacal liquors of the gas-manufacturer, &c. The possible failure of the nitre deposits led to attempts to convert atmospheric nitrogen into manures by processes permitting economic success.

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  • An artificial lake in New Providence, constructed for the use of the turtle-catchers, is noted as exhibiting an extraordinary degree of phosphorescence.

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  • An intense and passionate ardour breathes in his verses, and forms one of the most remarkable as well as one of the most attractive characteristics of his style; for, while few even among Turkish poets are more artificial than he, few seem to write with greater earnestness and sincerity.

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  • His hasidas are almost equal to his ghazels; for, while they rival those of Nef `i in brilliancy, they surpass them in beauty of diction, and are not so artificial and dependent on fantastic and farfetched conceits.

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  • A little to the north is the great artificial cut carrying the waters of the river Nene; and the neighbourhood is intersected with many other navigable "drains."

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  • This combination of natural and artificial highways of commerce derives an additional importance from the character of the regions thus.

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  • There are numerous breweries, producing annually about 24,000,000 gallons of beer, spirit distilleries and factories of artificial.

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  • Among other important articles of domestic industry are tobacco and cigars (manufactured mainly in bond, within the free harbour precincts), hydraulic machinery, electro-technical machinery, chemical products (including artificial manures), oils, soaps, india-rubber, ivory and celluloid articles and the manufacture of leather.

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  • This supersedes artificial irrigation, and the plains so watered yield abundantly in rice, jute and mustard.

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  • The flowers spring in branching spadices from the axils of the leaves, and as the trees are unisexual it is necessary in cultivation to fertilize the female flowers by artificial means.

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  • In the same way artificial glass can be devitrified if it be kept at a temperature slightly below the fusing point for some days.

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  • A kind of vulcanite which contains a large proportion of vermilion or other mineral pigment is used, under the name of dental rubber, for making artificial gums and supports for artificial teeth.

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  • Daux, discovered the jetties and the moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour (Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre, the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab cafe (Kahwat-el-Kubba).

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  • In the same address he called attention to the conditions of the world's food supply, urging that with the low yield at present realized per acre the supply of wheat would within a comparatively short time cease to be equal to the demand caused by increasing population, and that since nitrogenous manures are essential for an increase in the yield, the hope of averting starvation, as regards those races for whom wheat is a staple food, depended on the ability of the chemist to find an artificial method for fixing the nitrogen of the air.

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  • If the iron is soft and fairly pure, it loses its attractive property when removed from the neighbourhood of the magnet; if it is hard, some of the induced magnetism is permanently retained, and the piece becomes an artificial magnet.

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  • Steel is much more retentive of magnetism than any ordinary iron, and some form of steel is now always used for making artificial magnets.

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  • There are also numerous canals, and what look like artificial harbours constructed amid the shallow lagoons.

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  • The artificial preparation of minerals, especially of apatite and isomorphous minerals and of crystalline oxides, was another subject in which he made many experiments.

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  • The Mithraic temples of Roman times were artificial grottoes (spelaea) wholly or partially underground, in imitation of the original selcuded mountain caverns of Asia.

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  • There are cloth, artificial flower, and cigar factories, glass-works, potteries, and in the neighbourhood large granite quarries.

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  • Among other manufactures are butter and cheese, canned fruits and vegetables, glass and earthenware, printing and wrapping paper, furniture, matches, hats, clothing, pharmaceutical products, soaps and - p erfumery, ice, artificial drinks, cigars and cigarettes, fireworks anc candles.

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  • The metallurgical works of the Societe de la Franche-Comte are established in the city and there are saw-mills, printing-works, paperfactories, distilleries, and manufactories of boots and shoes, machinery, hosiery, leather, elastic fabric, confectionery and artificial silk.

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  • It serves for the thatching of roofs, for a papermaking material, for ornamenting small surfaces as a "strawmosaic," for plaiting into door and table mats, mattresses, &c., and for weaving and plaiting into light baskets, artificial flowers, &c. These applications, however, are insignificant in comparison with the place occupied by straw as a raw material for the straw bonnets and hats worn by both sexes.

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  • The difficulty is due to the fact that number is naturally not continuous, so that continuity can only be achieved by an artificial development.

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  • From time to time efforts were made by those who believed that the Creator must have followed a symmetrical system in his production of animals to force one or other artificial, neatly balanced scheme of classification upon the zoological world.

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  • The third account fails chiefly in being too plausible, but there seems no reason to reject it as an artificial combination of unconnected facts.

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  • But the illumination of the bow is so weakened by the repeated reflections, and the light of the sun is generally so bright, that these bows are rarely, if ever, observed except in artificial rainbows.

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  • Anyhow, it is much to be regretted that no Syriac writing from Harran has survived.3 Syriac literature continued in life from the 3rd to the 14th century A.D., but after the Arab conquest it became an increasingly artificial product, for Arabic gradually killed the vernacular use of Syriac.

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  • In archaic figures the hair is most frequently arranged over the brow and temples in parallel rows of small curls which must have been kept in their places by artificial means.

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  • The production of the so-called "artificial silk" depends on this action.

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  • There can be little doubt that all unnatural and artificial modes of life tend to deterioration of the powers of resistance of the organism to disease.

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  • That the methods and the subject-matter of surgery and of medicine are substantially the same, and that the advance of one is the advance of the other, the division being purely artificial and founded merely on accidents of personal bent and skill, must be insisted upon at this time of our history.

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  • In the former he was one of the leading workers, in collaboration from 1879 to 1887 with Emile Edmond Sarasin (1843-1890), at the formation of minerals by artificial means, particularly in the wet way with the aid of heat and pressure, and he succeeded in reproducing a large number of the natural compounds.

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  • Although Voltaire had neither the perfect versification of Racine nor the noble poetry of Corneille, he surpassed the latter certainly, and the former in the opinion of some not incompetent judges, in playing the difficult and artificial game of the French tragedy.

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  • But there is immense wit, a wonderful command of such metre and language as the taste of the time allowed to the poet, occasionally a singular if somewhat artificial grace, and a curious felicity of diction and manner.

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  • The natural process of sedimentation assisted the gradual artificial drainage of the marshes by means of embankments confining the river.

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  • The principal Canadian ports are Kingston, at the head of the St Lawrence river; Toronto, where the harbour is formed by an island with improved entrance channels constructed both east and west of it; and Hamilton, at the head of the lake, situated on a landlocked lagoon, connected with the main lake by Burlington channel, an artificial cut.

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  • Its industrial establishments include factories for tobacco, cloth, matches, leather, artificial manure, besides breweries and distilleries.

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  • The artificial harbour was formed (1807-1832) between the mainland and the picturesque island of Ireland's Eye, and preceded Kingstown as the station for the mail-packets from Great Britain, but was found after its construction to be liable to silt, and is now chiefly used by fishing-boats and yachts.

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  • In metal mines, however, artificial ventilation is rarely attempted, and natural ventilation often fails to furnish a sufficient quantity of air.

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  • In any case whether natural or artificial means be employed, a mine can only be ventilated properly when it has at least two distinct openings to the surface, one an intake or " downcast," the other a chimney serving as an " upcast."

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  • Positive blowers and exhausting apparatus of a great variety of forms have been used in mines for producing artificial ventilation.

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  • The refractive indices of all glasses at present available lie between 1.46 and 1 90, whereas transparent minerals are known having refractive indices lying considerably outside these limits; at least one of these, fluorite (calcium fluoride), is actually used by opticians in the construction of certain lenses, so that probably progress is to be looked for in a considerable widening of the limits of available optical materials; possibly such progress may lie in the direction of the artificial production of large mineral crystals.

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  • This definition, however, is highly artificial and objectionable on principle, because when we speak of metals we think, not of their chemical relations, but of a certain sum of mechanical and physical properties which unites them all into one natural family.

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  • And as the personal element disappears in the conception of the prophetic calling, so it tends to disappear in the prophetic view of history, and the future comes to be conceived not as the organic result of the present under the divine guidance, but as mechanically determined from the beginning in the counsels of God, and arranged under artificial categories of time.

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  • These events belonged in the main to the past, but the writer represented them as still in the future, arranged under certain artificial categories of time definitely determined from the beginning in the counsels of God and revealed by Him to His servants the prophets.

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  • Before beetroot had been brought to its present state of perfection, and while the factories for its manipulation were worked with hydraulic presses for squeezing the juice out of the pulp produced in the raperies, the cane sugar planter in the West Indies could easily hold his own, notwithstanding the artificial competition created and maintained by sugar bounties.

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  • The nitrogen-fixing nodule bacteria can be cultivated on artificial media, and many attempts have been made to utilize them for practical purposes.

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  • There is little doubt, however, that in the near future means will be devised to obtain the most efficient work from these minute organisms, either by special artificial cultivation and subsequent application to the soil, or by improved methods of encouraging their healthy growth and activity in the land where they already exist.

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  • Artificial heat may be resorted to in bad weather; in the States, cigar tobaccos and " White Burley " are usually cured in this way.

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  • Zinc chloride solution readily dissolves the oxide with the formation of oxychlorides, some of which are used as pigments, cements and for making artificial teeth.

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  • Lying for the most part below sea-level, the islands are protected by a continuous line of artificial dikes, which hide them from view on the seaward side, whence only an occasional church steeple is seen.

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  • On this theory he prepared artificial manures containing the essential mineral substances together with a small quantity of ammoniacal salts, because he held that the air does not supply ammonia fast enough in certain cases, and carried out systematic experiments on ten acres of poor sandy land which he obtained from thr town of Giessen in 1845.

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  • Shammar and Tema, there are numerous wells and artificial as well as natural reservoirs resorted to by the nomad tribes.

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  • Thus poetry became more and more artificial, until in the Abbasid period poets arose who felt themselves strong enough to give up the worn-out forms and adopt others more suitable.

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  • The greater part of the town, which seems at one time to have been very large, is situated on an artificial mound about 150 ft.

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  • Besides the wine industry, an irregular though important industry is the manufacture of artificial or counterfeit spirits and liqueurs in Callao and Lima.

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  • The other industrial products include wall-paper, railway plant, machinery, gloves and artificial flowers.

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  • The famous "lakes" in the southern part of the field were artificial ponds, which have long since been drained.

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  • Subsequently, artificial took the place of natural grottoes.

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  • Numerous canals are cut from the rivers for the purpose of affording artificial irrigation, which has proved of immense benefit to the country.

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  • Comte's immense superiority over such praeRevolutionary utopians as the Abbe Saint Pierre, no less than over the group of post-revolutionary utopians, is especially visible in this firm grasp of the cardinal truth that the improvement of the social organism can only be effected by a moral development, and never by any changes in mere political mechanism, or any violences in the way of an artificial redistribution of wealth.

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  • Utility remains becomes substantially an arch of utilitarian proposi tions, with an artificial Great Being inserted at the top to keep them in their place.

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  • Asconius Pedianus and Thrasea Paetus were natives of the town; and Quintilian speaks of the directness and simplicity of their diction as Patavinitas, comparing it with the artificial obscurity of the writers of Rome itself.

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  • Thus the artificial lakes and hills, the stones forming rockeries or simulating solitary crags, the trees and even the bushes are all selected or manipulated so as to fall congruously into the general scheme.

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  • The average Japanese may be said to live without artificial heat; his paper doors admit the light but do not exclude the cold.

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  • Equally is he a stranger to methods of artificial cooling.

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  • He believed that the recognition of the prince and the artificial ethnical formation of the principality would be pledges of security for France.

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  • The summit of Slieve Gullion is crowned by a large cairn, which forms the roof of a singular cavern of artificial construction, probably an early burial-place.

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  • His diction is still very artificial, the poetic diction of Delille transformed in the direction of Hugo, but not very much.

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  • The actual boundaries between animals and plants are artificial; they are rather due to the ingenious analysis of the systematist than actually resident in objective nature.

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  • It is most sincere in its representation, least artificial in diction, most penetrating in its satire, most just in its criticism of art and style.

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  • After chewing the sacred bay and drinking of the spring Cassotis, which was conducted into the temple by artificial channels, she took her seat on the sacred tripod in the inner shrine.

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  • After the plants have done flowering, they should all get a little artificial warmth, plenty of moisture, and a slight shade, while they are making their growth, during which period the tips of the young shoots should be nipped out when 6 or 8 in.

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  • This species swarms in some years in prodigious numbers; in Pennant's time amazing shoals appeared in the fens of Lincolnshire every seven or eight years, No instance of a similar increase of this fish has been observed in our time, and this possibly may be due to the diminished number of suitable breeding-places in consequence of the introduction of artificial drainage.

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  • This breezy life saved him from the artificial stupidity which is too often superinduced in boys by their school training.

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  • Curius Dentatus, who in 272 B.C. first opened an artificial channel by which the greater part of the Lacus Velinus in the valley below Reate was drained.

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  • The chief industries are tanning and the manufacture of weapons, shoes, cloth, hats and artificial flowers.

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  • Kunkel shares with Boyle the honour of having discovered the secret of the process by which Brand of Hamburg had prepared phosphorus in 1669, and he found how to make artificial ruby (red glass) by the incorporation of purple of Cassius.

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  • The Hindenburg line had been breached on a front of nine miles, and an average advance of seven miles effected in the face of the most formidable obstacles, both natural and artificial.

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  • As an orator, he followed Cicero instead of the Atticizing school, but his style was affected and artificial.

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  • Lord Rayleigh has made many investigations of the absolute densities of gases, one of which, namely on atmospheric and artificial nitrogen, undertaken in conjunction with Sir William Ramsay, culminated in the discovery of argon.

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  • The symbols and myths in these are not the creation of the writer, but borrowed from the past, and in not a few instances the materials are too foreign to his subject to lend themselves to his purpose without the help of artificial and violent expedients.

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  • These artificial lakes are usually formed by throwing embankments across the lower extremities of valleys, and thus arresting and accumulating the waters flowing through them.

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  • The town of Multai contains an artificial tank, from the centre of which the Tapti is said to take its rise; hence the reputed sanctity of the spot, and the accumulation of temples in its honour.

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  • Two large tributaries from the N., the Afrin and Kara Su, here reach it through the former Lake of Antioch, which is now drained through an artificial channel (Nahr al-Kowsit).

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  • The valley in which the city lies has no opening to the coast, and the water finds its way, often only with much care and artificial aid, through underground passages (katavothra) to the sea.

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  • Within the walls the most conspicuous landmark is the theatre, which, unlike the majority of Greek theatres, consists entirely of an artificial mound standing up from the level plain.

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  • The artificial propagation and preservation of salmon and other edible fresh-water fish have been carried on successfully under the supervision of a state commission.

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  • Vast water-power is developed on the Merrimac at Lawrence and Lowell, and on the Connecticut at South Hadley, and to a less extent at scores of other cities on many streams and artificial ponds; many of the machines that have revolutionized industrial conditions since the beginning of the factory system have been invented by Massachusetts men; and the state contains various technical schools of great importance.

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  • Mexico was formerly one of the worst drained large cities of the New World, its subsoil being permanently saturated and its artificial drainage being through open ditches into the San Lazaro Canal which nominally discharged into Lake Texcoco.

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  • In all parts of the western hemisphere society was organized on cognate kinship, real or artificial, the unit being the clan.

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  • Powell sets forth the laws of real and artificial kinship among the North American tribes, as well as tribal organization and government, the formation of confederacies, and the intricate rules of artificial kinship by which rank and courtesy were established.

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  • The artificial mole was probably of earlier date than the reign of Augustus (possibly 2nd century B.C.); and by that time at any rate there were docks large enough to contain the vessels employed in bringing the obelisks from Egypt.

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  • Many of the oceanic islets are composed of coral limestone, which in this way becomes phosphatized; others are igneous, consisting of trachyte or basalt, and these rocks are also phosphatized on their surfaces but are not so valuable, inasmuch as the presence of iron or alumina in any quantity renders them unsuited for the preppration of artificial manures.

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  • At the base of the Red Crag in East Anglia, and occasionally at the base of the other Pliocene Crags, there is a " nodule bed," consisting of phosphatic nodules, with rolled teeth and bones, which were formerly worked as " coprolites " for the preparation of artificial manure.

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  • Thus the boundary between New York and the province of Quebec, Canada, is wholly artificial.

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  • If artificial manures are used, a usual dressing consists of 2 or 3 cwt.

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  • In the South artificial grassing went on for a time hand in hand with cereal-growing, which by 1876 seemed likely to develop on a considerable scale, thanks to the importation of American agricultural machinery, which the settlers were quick to utilize.

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  • He went to the mountainous districts of the Abruzzi, and at last came to the ruins of Nero's palace and the artificial lake at Subiaco, 40 m.

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  • His style was high-flown and artificial, as was natural considering his early training, and he frequently sacrificed truth to rhetoric effect; but, according to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, he and Theopompus were the only historical writers whose language was accurate and finished.

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  • Its artificial harbour, which admits vessels drawing 19 ft., is freer from ice in winter than any other Swedish Baltic port.

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  • The great artificial harbour, enclosed by breakwaters, is bounded on the south by a slight promontory.

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  • The port has assumed first-class importance, mail steamers calling vL23 d regularly as well as men-of-war and the mercantile marine of all nations; and it is now one of the finest artificial harbours in the world.

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  • Waxcloth is manufactured at Leipzig, and artificial flowers at Leipzig and Dresden.

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  • Both are animated by an active local patriotism, and both honour the same patron saints, Jirjis (St George) and Jonah; the grave of the latter is pointed out on an artificial mound on the left bank of the Tigris.

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  • During the years of its domestication, the canary has been the subject of careful artificial selection, the result being the production of a bird differing widely in the colour of its plumage, and in a lew of its varieties even in size and form, from the original wild species.

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  • It is the female canary which is almost invariably employed in crossing, as it is difficult to get the females of the allied species to sit on the artificial nest used by breeders.

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  • This is a universal trait of primitive Christian writings; so that to speak of primitive Christian "literature" at all is hardly accurate, and tends to an artificial handling of their contents.

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  • Much attention has been paid to the explanation of this fact, since knowledge on this point might enable an artificial product, without the disadvantages of this oil, to be substituted for it.

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  • The vocalization is artificial, the Masoretes having given it the vowel-points of bosheth.

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  • On the other hand, he is wholly without originality, and his poetry, though free from glaring defects, is artificial and elaborately dull.

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  • In 1799 he proved that carbonate of copper, whether natural or artificial, always has the same composition, and later he showed that the two oxides of tin and the two sulphides of iron always contain the same relative weights of their components and that no intermediate indeterminate compounds exist.

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  • The artificial manure known as "superphosphate of lime" consists of this salt and calcium sulphate, and is obtained by treating ground bones, coprolites, &c., with sulphuric acid.

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  • It is an artificial method, because it takes into account only a few marked characters in plants, and does not propose to unite them by natural affinities.

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  • Accordingly, besides his artificial index, he also promulgated fragments of a natural method of arrangement.

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  • It is used largely as an artificial manure, and also for the preparation of other ammonium salts.

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  • Albertus Magnus, in his treatise De alchymia, informs us that there were two kinds of sal ammoniac, a natural and an artificial.

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  • The natural was sometimes white, and sometimes red; the artificial was more useful to the chemist.

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  • Devoting his evenings to private investigations in a rough laboratory fitted up at his home, Perkin was fired by some remarks of Hofmann's to undertake the artificial production of quinine.

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  • Perkin also had a large share in the introduction of artificial alizarin, the red dye of the madder root.

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  • These beautiful elegies have been justly praised by Mickiewicz; they are enough to raise Kochanowski far above the level of a merely artificial poet.

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  • There is an artificial air about the idylls of Szymonowicz which makes one feel too keenly that they are productions of the Renaissance; one of their best features is the humane spirit towards the miserable peasantry which they everywhere display.

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  • Here may be mentioned, although living a little time before the reign of Stanislaus, a Polish poetess, Elizabeth Druzbacka (1695-1760), whose writings show a feeling for nature at a time when verse-making of the most artificial type was prevalent throughout the country.

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  • That each of these sections, except the Cacatuinae, is artificial any regard to osteology would show.

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  • The background consists of artificial rockwork, supported on huge wooden scaffoldings.

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  • In most temperate climates, artificial heating is necessary, at least occasionally, in many cases, but the tendency has been to be more sedulous of warmth than of ventilation.

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  • The site of both this and the Roman station is marked by an artificial mound known as Burg Hill, not far from the church, above the river.

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  • Carbon dioxide finds industrial application in the preparation of soda by the Solvay process, in the sugar industry, in the manufacture of mineral waters, and in the artificial production of ice.

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  • It is extensively employed for the preparation of other potassium salts, but the largest quantity (especially of the impure product) is used in the production of artificial manures.

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  • Prior to the establishment of the monarchy the conditions for securing an exact and consecutive chronology did not exist; the dates in the earlier period of the history, though apparently in many cases precise, being in fact added long after the events described, and often (as will appear below) resting upon an artificial basis, so that the precision is in reality illusory.

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  • The figures are in most, if not in all cases artificial, though the means now fail us of determining upon what principles they were calculated.

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  • In its external features the new phenomenon was exceedingly like what is still seen in the East in every zikr of dervishes - the enthusiasm of the prophets expressed itself in no artificial form, but in a way natural to the Oriental temperament.

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  • Their real importance was that they embodied an intenser vein of feeling than was expressed in the ordinary feasts and sacrifices, and that the greater intensity was not artificial, but due to a revival of national sentiment.

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  • This appears to be an artificial and misleading notion.

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  • It is important to notice that in the Constructio logarithms are called artificial numbers; and Robert Napier states that the work was composed several years (aliquot annos) before Napier had invented the name logarithm.

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  • The city is supplied with water from the Yan Yean works, an artificial lake at the foot of the Plenty Range, nearly 19 m.

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  • It has an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, manufactories of gloves, patent leather, paper, metal ware and artificial manures, and a considerable trade in cereals.

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  • This explains the laborious and artificial way in which the person of Jesus is connected in many Gnostic systems with the original Gnostic conception of redemption.

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  • Campeche has a small artificial harbour, which is so silted up that vessels drawing 9 ft.

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  • The Mongolian peoples not only count their lunar months by these signs, but they reckon the successive days by them, rat-day, bull-day, tiger-day, &c., and also, by combining the twelve signs in rotation with the elements, they obtain a means of marking each year in the sixty-year cycle, as the woodrat year, the fire-tiger year, &c. This method is highly artificial, and the reappearance of its principle in the Mexican and Central American calendar is suggestive of importation from Asia.

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  • In 1828 he was awarded the prize offered by the Societe d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale for a process of making artificial ultramarine with all the properties of the substance prepared from lapis lazuli; and six years later he resigned his official position in order to devote himself to the commercial production of that material, a factory for which he established at Fleurieux sur Saone.

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  • Its industries include iron and steel works, breweries, distilleries and brickyards, and the manufacture of starch, sugar, malt, machinery and artificial manure.

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  • In 1880 the United States government under - took the formation of an artificial harbour with a channel 13 ft.

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  • The chief manufactures of the town are artificial flowers and furniture.

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  • Ammonia should be given by inhalation, and artificial respiration must never be forgotten, as by it the paralysed breathing may be compensated for and the poison excreted.

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  • But this is as artificial as Otto's attempt to classify the contents of the epistle under the three notes of the Iry 13 a in i.

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  • Nothing but actual practice with hounds can teach a man how to ride where all kinds of going and obstacles of various sorts, natural and artificial, have to be encountered in a day's hunting.

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  • Prairie fires, both of natural and artificial origin, are also a contributive cause; for young trees are exterminatedby fires, but annual plants soon reappear.

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  • The change, wrote General Walker, which produced this falling off from the traditional rate of increase of about 3% per annum, was that from the simplicity of the early times to comparative luxury; involving a rise in the standard of living, the multiplication of artificial necessities, the extension of a paid domestic service, the introduction of women into factory labor.2 In his opinion the decline in the birth-rate coincidently with the increase of immigration, and chiefly in those regions where immigration was greatest, was no mere coincidence; nor was such immigrant invasion due to a weakening native increase, or economic defence; but the decline of the natives was the effect of the increase of the foreigners, which was a shock to the principle of population among the native element.

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  • In the Middle and Western states the township is a more artificial organism than the rural town of New England.

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  • In the states west of the Alleghanies each township covers an artificial area 6 m.

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  • Churchwardens are always lay persons, and as they may, like "artificial persons," hold goods and chattels and bring actions for them, they are recognized in law as quasi-corporations.

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  • From this eastward to the state of Maine the boundary is an artificial line nearly corresponding to lat.

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  • The Garton artificial fertilization experiments have shown endless deviations from the ordinary type, ranging from minute seeds with a closely adhering husk to big berries almost as large as sloes and about as worthless.

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  • Now, from the outset of his Rhetoric Aristotle himself claims to be the first to distinguish between artificial evidences from arguments and other evidences which he regards as mere additions; and he complains that the composers of arts of speaking had neglected the former for the latter.

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  • As we cannot without a tittle of evidence accept such a consequence, we conclude that Aristotle formulated the distinction between argumentative and adventitious, artificial and inartificial evidences, both in the Rhetoric to Alexander and in the Rhetoric; and that the former as well as the latter is a genuine work of Aristotle, the founder of the logic of rhetoric.

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  • I, 1 355 a 33-35); rhetoric, since its artificial evidences involve characters, passions and reasoning, is called a kind of offshoot of dialectic and morals, and a copy of dialectic, because neither is a science of anything definite, but both faculties (SvvItyas) of providing arguments (i.

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  • Rhetoric is a faculty on any subject of investigating what may be persuasive (acOavov), which is the work of no other art; its means are artificial and inartificial evidences (7riorecs), and, among artificial evidences, especially the logical arguments of example and enthymeme.

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  • Verneuil succeeded in imparting a sapphire-blue colour to artificial alumina by addition of i 5% of magnetic oxide of iron and o.

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  • Under artificial illumination many sapphires appear dark and inky, whilst in some cases the blue changes to a violet, so that the sapphire seems to be transformed to an amethyst.

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  • Her models are Thucydides, Polybius and Xenophon, and her style exhibits the striving after Atticism characteristic of the period, with the result that the language is highly artificial.

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  • Such is the very complicated and artificial, though highly ingenious method, invented by Lilius, for the determination of Easter and the other movable feasts.

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  • Alluvial soils are almost invariably of great fertility; it is due to the alluvial mud annually deposited by the Nile that the dwellers in Egypt have been able to grow their crops for over 4000 years without artificial fertilization.

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  • The artificial cultivation of fish, now chiefly carp, in the numerous ponds that surround the town dates from the 14th century.

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  • Rio de Janeiro has manufactures of flour from imported wheat, cotton, woollen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, readymade clothing, furniture, vehicles, cigars and cigarettes, chocolate, fruit conserves, refined sugar, biscuits, macaroni, ice, beer, artificial liquors, mineral waters, soap, stearine candles, perfumery, feather flowers, printing type, &c. There are numerous machine o nd repair shops, the most important of which are the shops of the Central railway.

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  • These endeavours to stimulate by artificial means have in scarcely any instance resulted in permanent success.

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  • The art of sericulture concerns itself with the rearing of silkworms under artificial or domesticated conditions, their feeding, the formation of cocoons, the securing of these before they are injured and pierced by the moths, and the maturing of a sufficient number of moths to supply eggs for the cultivation of the following year.

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  • That the silkworm is subject to many serious diseases is only to be expected of a creature which for upwards of 4000 years has been propagated under purely artificial conditions, and these most frequently of a very insanitary nature, and where, not the healthy life of the insect, but the amount of silk it could be made to yield, was the object of the cultivator.

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  • Whereas during the 19th century states were being cut out to suit the existing distribution of language, in the 20th the tendency seems to be to avoid further rearrangement of boundaries, and to complete the homogeneity, thus far attained, by the artificial method of forcing reluctant populations to adopt the language of the predominant or governing race.

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  • In the United States this artificial method has become a necessity, to prevent the upgrowth of alien communities, which might at some later date cause domestic trouble of a perilous character.

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  • The spirit of his thought is mystical and by no means easy to follow, and this difficulty is accentuated, even to German readers, by the use of artificial terminology.

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  • The causes of famine are partly natural and partly artificial.

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  • The artificial causes of famine have mostly ceased to be operative on any large scale.

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  • This division into absorption and radiation is to some extent artificial and will have to be revised when the.

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  • The steppes of the Kura are also fertile, but require artificial irrigation, especially for cotton.

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  • Fish in an interesting variety of colours and shapes abound in the sea and in artificial ponds along the coasts.'

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  • The town of Corfu stands on the broad part of a peninsula, whose termination in the citadel is cut from it by an artificial fosse formed in a natural gully, with a salt-water ditch at the bottom.

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  • It is curious that Avenarius should have brought forward this artificial hypothesis as the natural view of the world, without reflecting that on the one hand the majority of mankind believes that the environment (R) exists, has existed, and will exist, without being a counterpart of any living being as central part (C); and that on the other hand it is so far from being natural to man to believe that sensation and thought (E) are different from, and merely dependent on, his body (C), that throughout the Homeric poems, though soul is required for other purposes, all thinking as well as sensation is regarded as a purely bodily operation.

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  • Artificial soffioni are sometimes prepared by boring through the rock until the fissures are reached, and the water so obtained is occasionally sufficiently impregnated with boric acid to be evaporated directly.

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  • The new compact was indicated in Mr Balfour's letter, in which he declared that "fiscal reform is, and must remain, the first constructive work of the Unionist party; its objects are to secure more equal terms of competition for British trade and closer commercial union with the colonies; and while it is at present unnecessary to prescribe the exact methods by which these objects are to be attained, and inexpedient to permit differences of opinion as to these methods to divide the party, though other means are possible, the establishment of a moderate general tariff on manufactured goods, not imposed for the purpose of raising prices, or giving artificial protection against legitimate competition, and the imposition of a small duty on foreign corn, are not in principle objectionable, and should be adopted if shown to be necessary for the attainment of the ends in view or for purposes of revenue."

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  • The latter's prosperity is still attested by its archaeological remains (notably the "Treasury of Minyas") and the traces of artificial conduits by which its engineers supplemented the natural outlets.

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  • He was always anxious to turn his knowledge to practical account, whether in preparing medicines, or in furthering industrial arts such as dyeing, or in increasing the fertility of the soil by artificial manures.

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  • After annexation, the city of Ferrara sank rapidly from her perhaps artificial prosperity to the dead level, losing two-thirds of her population in the process.

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  • The case of electro-magnetic forces between two conductors carrying electric currents affords an example of a statement of motion in terms of force of a highly artificial kind.

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  • This last is frequently found piled high and split into blocks apparently of artificial formation, but probably the result of the action of wind and intense cold.

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  • Artificial membranes are seldom or never perfectly semi-permeable - some leakage of solute nearly always occurs, but the imperfections of actual membranes need no more prevent our use of the ideal conception than the faults of real engines invalidate the theory of ideal thermodynamics founded on the conception of a perfect, reversible, frictionless, heat engine.

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  • The manufacture of porcelain was at the time attracting great attention in England, and while the factories at Bow, Chelsea, Worcester and Derby were introducing the artificial glassy porcelain, Cookworthy, following the accounts of Pere d'Entrecolles, spent many years in searching for English materials similar to those used by the Chinese.

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  • But it varies much in form and scaling, and some most aberrant varieties have been fixed by artificial selection, the principal being the king-carp or mirror-carp, in which the scales are enlarged and reduced in number, forming more or less regular longitudinal series on the sides, and the leather-carp, in which the scales have all but disappeared, the fish being covered with a thick, leathery skin.

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  • If death from asphyxia appears imminent artificial respiration may be resorted to.

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  • To these is added water, which combining chemically with the cement conglomerates the whole mixture into a solid mass, and forms a rough but strong artificial stone.

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  • Other matrices are slag cement, a comparatively recent invention, and some other natural and artificial cements which find occasional advocates.

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  • They are sometimes regulated by forming artificial "joints" in the structure by embedding strips of wood or sheet iron at regular intervals, thus forming "lines of weakness," at which the cracks therefore take place.

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  • To the north of the city is a large artificial lake called the Anasagar, whence the water supply of the place is derived.

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  • This valley, however, is not only fortunate in possessing a noble artificial lake, but is protected by the massive walls of the Nagpathar range or Serpent rock, which forms a barrier against the sand.

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  • The valley, at once spacious and definite, is a natural precinct, and it is probable that no artificial boundaries of the Altis, or sacred grove, existed until comparatively late times.

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  • There were no artificial seats.

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  • The doctrine of survivorship originated in the Roman Law, which had recourse to certain artificial presumptions, where the particular circumstances connected with deaths were unknown.

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  • The so-called port of Barcelona was at first only an open beach, on the east, slightly sheltered by the neighbouring hills, but at an early period the advantage of some artificial protection was felt.

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  • In favour of the conidial view is the fact that in the case of Collema and a few other forms the spermatia have been made to germinate in artificial cultures, and in the case of Calicium parietinum Moller succeeded in producing a spermogonia bearing thallus from a spermatium.

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  • Minet took out patents for electrolysing a mixture of sodium chloride with aluminium fluoride, or with natural or artificial cryolite.

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  • Thence he was led to study the production of carbon in its three varieties and to attempt the artificial preparation of diamond, of which he was able to make some minute specimens (see Gem, § Artificial).

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  • As these divisions, great or small, are so to speak artificial, several systems have been proposed according to which the Alps may be divided.

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  • Strictly speaking, we should follow the Reschen Scheideck route down the Adige valley, but as this would include in the Central Alps the Ortler and some other of the highest Tirolese summits, it is best (remembering the artificial character of the division) to draw a line from Nlals southwards either over the Umbrail Pass (the old historical pass) or the Stelvio (wellknown only since the carriage road was built over it in the first quarter of the 19th century) to the head of the Valtellina, and then over the Aprica Pass (as the Bergamasque Alps properly belong to the Central Alps) to the Oglio valley or the Val Camonica, and down that valley to the Lake of Iseo and Brescid.

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  • Artificial heat applied to the roots, called by gardeners " bottom-heat," is supplied by fermenting materials such as stable manure, leaves, &c., or by hot-water pipes.

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  • The art of retarding the period of flowering in certain plants consists, in principle, in the artificial application of cold temperatures whereby the resting condition induced by low winter temperature is prolonged.

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  • The occurrence of hybrids in nature explains the difficulty experienced by botanists in deciding on what is a species, and the widely different limitations of the term adopted by different observers in the case of willows, roses, brambles, &c. The artificial process is practically the same in hybridization as in cross-fertilization, but usually requires more care.

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  • The Peach House is a structure in which the ripening of the fruit is accelerated by the judicious employment of artificial heat.

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  • Orchard Houses are span-roofed or lean-to structures, in which various fruits are cultivated without the aid of artificial heat.

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  • In a natural state it is obtained from bones, guano and wood ashes; and in an artificial condition from basic slag or Thomas's phosphate, coprolites and superphosphate of lime.

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  • In the management of artificial heat for this purpose, a considerable degree of caution is required.

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  • In other words, the artificial temperature should increase by day and decrease by night, should rise in summer and fall in winter, should, in short, imitate as nearly as possible the varying influence of the sun.

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  • Many of the little alpines may be brought into the front line planted between suitable pieces of stone, or they may be relegated to a particular spot, and placed on an artificial rockery.

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  • Following the example of the great Kampen irrigation canal in Belgium, artificial irrigation is also practised by means of some of the smaller streams, especially in North Brabant, Drente and Overysel, and in the absence of streams, canals and sluices are sometimes specially constructed to perform the same service.

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  • The earthen dikes are protected by stone-slopes and by piles, and at the more dangerous points also by zinkstukken (sinking pieces), artificial structures of brushwood laden with stones, and measuring some 400 yds.

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