How to use Article in a sentence
The newspaper included a photo with the article about the wreck.
Dean recalled reading the same article in his copy.
Snails are reared in some parts of the country as an article of food, those of Burgundy being specially esteemed.
Fred perused the article.
For further references to the literature on Alexander, see Kaerst's article in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie (1894).Advertisement
A complete life, founded on the lately discovered process of 1626 and the new letters, was being prepared by the author of the present article at the time of his death.
Between 1755 and 1756 he composed various articles for the Encyclopedic, and between 1757 and 1760 an article on Valeurs et monnaies, probably for the Dictionnaire du commerce of the abbe Morellet.
The systematic theosophy of Plotinus and his successors does not belong to the present article, except so far as it is the presupposition of their mysticism; but, inasmuch as the mysticism of the medieval Church is directly derived from Neoplatonism through the speculations of the pseudo-Dionysius, Neoplatonic mysticism fills an important section in any historical review of the subject.
Stripped of its definitely miraculous character, the doctrine of the inner light may be regarded as the familiar mystical protest against formalism, literalism, and scripture-worship. Swedenborg, though selected by Emerson in his Representative Men as the typical mystic, belongs rather to the history of spiritualism than to that of mysticism as understood in this article.
About 4,000,000 bottles of water are exported annually, and another article of export is the salt recovered from the water by evaporation.Advertisement
Moreover, he wrote an article in the Edinburgh Review of July 1805 criticizing Sir William Gill's Topography of Troy, and these circumstances led Lord Byron to refer to him in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers as "the travell'd thane, Athenian Aberdeen."
The chief article of export being corn, the trade of the city is subject to great fluctuations.
In an article in the Quarterly Review he threw out a suggestion for "an association of our nobility, clergy, gentry and philosophers," which was taken up by others and found speedy realization in the British Association for the Advancement of Name.
Liquorice is an article of export.
According to early methods of cropping, which were destined to prevail for centuries, wheat, the chief article of food, was sown in one autumn, reaped the next August; the following spring, oats or barley were sown, and the year following the harvest was a period of fallow.Advertisement
Under the article " To falowe," he observes, " the greater clottes (clods) the better wheate, for the clottes kepe the wheat warme all wynter; and at March they will melte and breake and fal in manye small peces, the whiche is a new dongynge and refreshynge of the come."
Improving upon the procedure of the Convention in Vendemiaire 1795, Bonaparte procured the nomination of three consuls in an article of the new constitution; they were Bonaparte (First Consul), Cambaceres and Lebrun.
The reader is referred to the article France (Law and Institutions) for the information respecting the various codes dating from this period, and to the article Concordat for the famous measure whereby Napoleon re-established official relations between the state and the church in France.
The tsar acquired a frontier district from Prussia, recognized the changes brought about by Napoleon in Germany and Italy, and agreed by a secret article that the Cattaro district on the east coast of the Adriatic should go to France.
The writer of this article is much indebted to the works of Schmoller, particularly his Grundris der allgemeinen Volkswirtschaftslehre (1900), and Adolph Wagner, particularly his Grundlegung der politischen Okonomie.Advertisement
The name of Willard Gibbs, who was the most distinguished American mathematical physicist of his day, is especially associated with the "Phase Rule," of which some account will be found in the article Energetics.
In the present article it is only possible to treat of the division of the Hexapoda into orders and sub-orders and of the relations of these orders to each other.
The many different arrangements that have been proposed can hardly be referred to in this article.
The cogent arguments against this view are set forth in the article on Arthropoda.
It is unnecessary here to discuss the views of Gadow, as that author himself has contributed the article BIRD to this edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and has there set forth his revised scheme.Advertisement
The chief features of this epoch -the Antinomian dissensions, the Quaker and Baptist persecutions, the witchcraft delusion (four witches were executed in Boston, in 1648, 165r, 1656, 1688) &c.-are referred to in the article Massachusetts.
For curious instances of the part played by the ass in medieval church festivals see the article Fools, Feast Of.
Mythologie; also works cited in footnotes, and article Cyprus.
The exact extent, however, to which each particular class of enemy has affected the protective habits and attributes of spiders is by no means always evident; and it is impossible to discuss the question in detail within the limits of a short article.
But this aspect of the law, under which the landlord, other than the crown, is himself always a tenant, falls beyond the scope of the present article, which is restricted to those holdings that arise from the hiring and leasing of land.Advertisement
The Indian law of landlord and tenant is described in the article Indian Law.
In 1844 an article by Mr Barnett in the Nineteenth Century discussed the question of university settlements.
See the article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie.
Exposed thus to attack, his weakness, if not his venality, was long an article of faith among the liberals.
An excellent article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopcidie (3rd ed.), "Briider des gemeinsamen Lebens," supplies copious information with references to all the literature; see also Max Heimbucher, Orden and Kongregationen (1897), ii.Advertisement
The rivers are well stocked with fish, especially with salmon, which forms a common article of food.
Here the application of the term is limited to the liquid which is so important an article of commerce, though references will also be made to natural gas which accompanies petroleum.
Particulars of the shales which yield oil on destructive distillation are given in the article on paraffin.
These are so numerous and varied in form that a description would be impossible within the scope of this article.
Petroleum has very long been known as a source of light and heat, while the use of crude oil for the treatment of wounds and cutaneous affections, and as a lubricant, was even more general and led to the raw material being an article of commerce at a still earlier date.Advertisement
In the above the article by von Rohden in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie has been followed.
For the purposes of this article, however, only those among these races which bear the name of Orang Malayu, speak the Malayan language, and represent the dominant people of the land, can be included under the title of Malays.
Behind their villages the rice-fields usually spread, and rice, which is the staple food of the people, is the principal article of agriculture among them.
These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.
It may be noted that the word " alembic " is derived from the Greek "cup," with the Arabic article prefixed, and that the instrument is figured in the MSS.Advertisement
In the Old Testament it is regularly written with the article, i.e.
Elliptic orbits, and a parabolic orbit considered as the special case when the eccentricity of the ellipse is 1, are almost the only ones the astronomer has to consider, and our attention will therefore be confined to them in the present article.
Mr Peppe's article, reproduced in Rhys Davids' Buddhist India, p. 89.
Peppe's original article is in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1898, pp. 573 sqq.
As their fur is an important article of commerce, large numbers are annually killed, being either trapped or speared at the mouths of their holes.Advertisement
The Constitutions are discussed in the article on the Jesuits.
His publications include Philosophy of Kant (1878); Critical Philosophy of Kant (1889); Religion and Social Philosophy of Comte (1885); Essays on Literature and Philosophy (1892); Evolution of Religion (Gifford Lectures, 1891-1892); Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); and he is represented in this encyclopaedia by the article on Cartesianism.
The rivers and neighbouring seas seem to be well stocked with fish, and especial mention must be made of the turtles, flying-fish, and brilliant I coral-fish which swarm in the waters warmed by the Kurosiwo current, the gulf-stream of the Pacific. Shell-fish form an important article of diet to both the Chinese and the aborigines along the coast - a species of Cyrena, a species of Tapes, Cytheraea petechiana and Modiola teres being most abundant.
But some of the most valuable products of the island, as camphor and rattan, are to be found in the upland forests, and the Chinese, whenever they ventured too far in search of these products, fell into ambushes of hill-men who neither gave nor sought quarter, and who regarded a Chinese skull as a specially attractive article of household furniture.
The history of the alchemical period is treated in more detail in the article Alchemy, and of the iatrochemical in the article Medicine.
It is unnecessary in this place to recapitulate the many results which had accumulated by the end of the 18th century, or to discuss the labours and theories of individual workers since these receive attention under biographical headings; in this article only the salient features in the history of our science can be treated.
Torbern Olof Bergman used an elaborate system in his Opuscula physica et chemica (1783); the 1 Dalton's atomic theory is treated in more detail in the article Atom.
Their full significance is treated in the section of this article dealing with organic chemistry, and in the articles Isomerism and STEREO-Isomerism.
In this article the development of this branch of the science is treated historically.
It must be mentioned here that the reactions of any particular substance are given under its own heading, and in this article we shall only collate the various operations and outline the general procedure.
This subject is treated in the article Solution; for the properties of liquid mixtures reference should also be made to the article Distillation.
Combustion is a familiar example of the transformation of chemical energy into heat and light; the quantitative measures of heat evolution or absorption (heat of combustion or combination), and the deductions therefrom, are treated in the article Thermochemistry.
Photography is based on chemical action induced by luminous rays; apart from this practical application there are many other cases in which actinic rays occasion chemical actions; these are treated in the article Photochemistry.
Specific Heat and Composition.-The nature and experimental determination of specific heats are discussed in the article Calorimetry; here will be discussed the relations existing between the heat capacities of elements and compounds.
In the article Thermodynamics it is shown that the amount of heat required to raise a given weight of a gas through a certain range of temperature is different according as the gas is maintained at constant pressure, the volume in creasing, or at constant volume, the pressure increasing.
In the article Thermo Chemistry a general account of heats of formation of chemical compounds is given, and it is there shown that this constant measures the stability of the compound.
The researches of Julius Thomsen and others have shown that in many cases definite conclusions regarding constitution can be drawn from quantitative measurements of the heats of combustion; and in this article a summary of the chief results will be given.
Colour and Constitution.-In this article a summary of the theories which have been promoted in order to connect the colour of organic compounds with their constitution will be given, and the reader is referred to the article Colour for the physical explanation of this property, and to Vision for the physiological and psychological bearings.
A clear distinction must be drawn between colour and the property of dyeing; all coloured substances are not dyes, and it is shown in the article Dyeing that the property of entering into chemical or physical combination with fibres involves properties other than those essential to colour.
Fluorescence and Constitution.-The physical investigation of the phenomenon named fluorescence-the property of transforming incident light into light of different refrangibilityis treated in the article Fluorescence.
Capillarity and Surface Tension.-Reference should be made to the article Capillary Action for the general discussion of this phenomenon of liquids.
The development of the theory of crystal structure, and the fundamental principles on which is based the classification of crystal forms, are treated in the article Crystallography; in the same place will be found an account of the doctrine of isomorphism, polymorphism and morphotropy.
In the article Crystallography the nature and behaviour of twinned crystals receives full treatment; here it is sufficient to say that when the planes and axes of twinning are planes and axes of symmetry, a twin would exhibit higher symmetry (but remain in the same crystal system) than the primary crystal; and, also, if a crystal approximates in its axial constants to 'a higher system, mimetic twinning would increase the approximation, and the crystal would be pseudo-symmetric.
The last two examples at the end of the article on Harmony show almost all that is new in Wagner's harmonic principles.
The highest English authority on Wagner is his friend Dannreuther, whose article in Grove's Dictionary is classical.
The present article contains a general account of the empire in its various aspects.
The chief article of export is coal from the neighbouring collieries, the other leading exports being ale, whisky, glass and manufactured goods.
In 1789 he drew up the first article of the cahier of the electors of the bailliage of Roye, demanding the abolition of feudal rights.
Molinier, Les Sources de l'histoire de France; as well as notices by Kervyn de Lettenhove prefixed to the Ouvres and in the Biographie nation* de Belgique; and an article (three parts) by Vallet de Viriville in the Journal des savants (1867).
The difference between friars and monks is explained in article Monasticism.
A special article, the object of which was to pacify those who had received grants of land from Sulla, declared such possessions to be private property, for which compensation was to be paid in case of surrender.
See also works mentioned at the close of sections on Adult Schools and on Quakerism in America, Scotland and Ireland, and elsewhere in this article; also Fox, George.
Its pith was also a common article of food, and was eaten both cooked and in its natural state.
The very large number of classical and other Greek papyri, of the Ptolemaic and later periods, which have been recovered in Egypt, are noticed in the article on Palaeography.
His Encyclopaedia article, "Probability," was published separately.
For the catacombs of Alexandria, Neroutsos Bey, L'Ancienne Alexandrie, may be consulted in addition to De Rossi's article mentioned in the text.
In former times it was a common article of food in England and France, but is now rarely if ever eaten, being valuable only for the oil obtained from its blubber.
This thesis he further developed in a magazine article written in view of the colonial conference held in London in 1907.
Such provision was made in the Ordinance of 1787 (for the Northwest Territory), which in Article VI.
From the wool which their sheep yield they manufacture every article of native dress and good blankets.
The theory of these extensions of the ideas of number is dealt with in the article Number.
The special nature of the "axioms" which constitute geometry is considered in the article Geometry (Axioms).
A short account of the history of each branch will be found in connexion with the article which deals with it.
The founder of the modern point of view, explained in this article, was Leibnitz, who, however, was so far in advance of contemporary thought that his ideas remained neglected and undeveloped until recently; cf.
At this time the pine-apple was introduced as an article of cultivation at Eleuthera; and a few years subsequently, during the American war of independence, colonists arri.ved in great.
The Budget was supposed to be drawn up according to an excellent set of regulations sanctioned by imperial decree, dated the 6th of July 1290 (1875), of which the first article absolutely prohibited the increase, by the smallest sum, of any of the expenses, or the abandonment of the least iota of the revenues fixed by the budget.
The Public Debt Administration plays so considerable a part in the finances of the Ottoman Empire, and its history is of such importance that a special section of this article will be devoted to it below.
This article is of great historical importance as forming the basis of the later claim of Russia to possess by treaty the right to protect the Orthodox subjects of the Porte.'
In the present article are described the campaigns in central and eastern Europe, directed by Napoleon - no longer one amongst many French generals,.
Napoleon's short Spanish Campaign of 1809 is dealt with under Peninsular War (this article covering the campaigns in Spain, Portugal and southern France 1808-1814), and for the final drama of Waterloo the reader is referred to Waterloo Campaign.
The western inner ranges are the most important of the whole system, and in the present article are described first as the Moroccan Ranges.
For the purposes of this article it will be taken in its most restricted sense, as signifying the Roman province which was so called after the district that intervened between the river Ister (Danube) and the Haemus Mountains (Balkan) had been formed into the separate provinces of Moesia, and the region between the rivers Strymon and Nestus, which included Philippi, had been added to Macedonia.
The vascular system does not readily lend itself to morphological comparison between such widely different animals as Balanoglossus and Amphioxus, and the reader is therefore referred to the memoirs cited at the end of this article for further details.
Father Fitzherbert, who is described as "a person of excellent parts, a notable politician, and of graceful behaviour and generous spirit," wrote many controversial works, a list of which is given in the article on him by Mr Thompson Cooper in the Dictionary of National Biography, together with authorities for his life.
Benrath, Lokalfiihrer durch Hamburg and Umgebungen (1904); and the consular reports by Sir William Ward, H.B.M.'s consul-general at Hamburg, to whom the author is indebted for great assistance in compiling this article.
In Arabia it is the chief source of national wealth, and its fruit forms the staple article of food in that country.
Nor is it, when newly gathered, heating, - a defect inherent to the preserved fruit everywhere; nor does its richness, however great, bring satiety; in short it is an article of food alike pleasant and healthy."
In the present article Bury's reconstruction of the saint's life has been chiefly followed.
The details of the calculation are given in the article Electric conduction, § where also will be found an account of the methods which have been used to measure the velocities of many ions by direct visual observation.
Ecclesiastical vestments, with which the present article is solely concerned, are the special articles of costume worn by the officers of the Christian Church "at all times of their ministration" - to quote the Ornaments Rubric of the English Book of Common Prayer, i.e.
The present article can only give a brief outline of a subject as intricate as it is vast, frequently also extremely obscure, and rendered still more obscure by the fact that those who have applied themselves to it have too often done so in anything but a scientific spirit.
These transformations are fully discussed in the article Sugar.
If an article made of cut sheet be immersed for a few minutes in a bath of melted sulphur, maintained at a temperature of 120 0 C., the rubber absorbs about one-tenth of its weight of that element, and, although somewhat yellowish in colour from the presence of free sulphur, it is still unvulcanized, and unaltered as regards general properties.
Before it is put in, the article is roughly put together, and the expansion of the included air forces the rubber into contact with the internal surface of the mould, or a little carbonate of ammonia is enclosed.
By article 6 of the Anglo-French convention of the 8th of April 1904, the islands were ceded to France.
In the article Electrolysis it is shown how the passage of an electric current through a solution containing metallic ions involves the deposition of the metal on the cathode.
Berry-yielding plants are found everywhere, even on the goltsy, at the upper limit of tree vegetation; on the lower grounds they are an article of diet.
The present article is merely concerned with algebraical linear transformation.
It is shown in the article on Combinatorial Analysis that (w; 0,n) is the coefficient of a e z w in the ascending expansion of the fraction 1-a.
In October 1867 his article on "The Talmud," published in the Quarterly Review, made him known.
The latter article was immediately followed by Loisy's dismissal, without further explanation, from the Institut Catholique.
From 1881 to 1884 his activity in Tunisia so raised the prestige of France that it drew from Gambetta the celebrated declaration, L'Anticldricalisme n'est pas un article d'exportation, and led to the e .?mption of Algeria from the application of the decrees concerning the religious orders.
The inferior varieties of commercial "white lead" are produced by mixing the genuine article with more or less of finely powdered heavy spar or occasionally zinc-white (ZnO).
On only three articles was there a majority against Judge Chase, the largest, on article viii., being four short of the necessary two-thirds to convict.
A discussion of the interesting question relating to the non Semitic so-called Sumero-Akkadian language and race will be found in the article Sumer.
See the article by C. Kohler in La Grande Encyclopedic; Bibliographic du Velay (1902), 640-650.
The present article is a digest, mainly from an experimental standpoint, of the leading facts and principles of magnetic science.
The second includes definitions of technical terms in common use, together with so much of the elementary theory as is necessary for understanding the experimental work described in subsequent portions of the article; a number of formulae and results are given for purposes of reference, but the mathematical reasoning by which they are obtained is not generally detailed, authorities being cited whenever the demonstrations are not likely to be found in ordinary textbooks.
The position of the Arachnida in the great sub-phylum Arthropoda, according to recent anatomical and embryological researches, is explained in the article Arthropoda.
A list of these memoirs is given at the close of this article (2, 3, 4, 5 and 13).
It is not desirable to occupy the limited space of this article by a full description of the limbs and segments of Limulus and Scorpio.
But it is necessary to remember, in the light of recent discoveries, that the sixth prosomatic pair of appendages is carried on the seventh somite of the whole series, there being two prosthomeres or somites in front of the mouth, the first carrying the eyes, the second the chelicerae; also that the first mesosomatic or genital somite is not the seventh or even the eighth of the whole series of somites which have been historically present, 1 See the article Arthropoda for the use of the term " prosthomere."
In the bibliography at the close of this article (referred to by leaded arabic numerals in brackets throughout these pages), the titles of works are given which contain detailed information as to the genera and species of each order or sub-order, their geographical distribution and their habits and economy so far as they have been ascertained.
Pocock, assistant in the Natural History departments of the British Museum, for valuable assistance in the preparation of this article and for the classification and definition of the groups of Eu-arachnida here given.
The general scheme and some of the details have been brought by the writer into agreement with the views maintained in this article.
References to works dealing with the taxonomy and geographical distribution of scorpions are given at the end of this article (28).
References to systematic works will also be found at the end of this article (33).
See article in Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography, iv.
See Ktientzle, Ober die Sternsagen der Griechen (1897), and his article in Roscher's Lexikon; he shows that in the oldest legend Orion the constellation and Orion the hero are quite distinct, without deciding which was the earlier conception.
The first article is unquestionably meant for the jurist.
See the article in the Dict.
The principal article of export is copra.
The history of international arbitration is dealt with in the article Peace, where treaties of general arbitration are discussed, both those which embrace all future differences thereafter to arise between the contracting parties, and also those more limited conventions which aim at the settlement of all future differences in regard to particular subjects, e.g.
The present article is concerned exclusively with arbitration in regard to such existing differences as are capable of precise statement and of prompt adjustment.
Their flesh is used as an article of food, that of the paca being highly esteemed.
Rice has been cultivated in places, but without much success, although the quality produced compared favourably with the imported article.
In the Amazon valley fish is a principal article of food, and large quantities of pirarucu (Sudis gigas) are caught during the season of low water and prepared for storage or market by drying in the sun.
The results, of which the most important are summarized in the article Sparta, are published in the British School Annual, x.
In the domain of letters he remained until his death a veritable pontiff, and an article or book of his was an event celebrated from one end of Portugal to the other.
For a more complete account of Migne's life, see the article in the Catholic Encyclopedia (New York, 1906 seq.).
Its bark forms a valuable article of commerce.
The Christological theory of satisfaction expounded in the Cur Deus Homo falls beyond the scope of the present article.
But Aquinas, though he holds the fact of creation to be rationally demonstrable, regards the beginning of the world in time as only an article of faith, the philosophical arguments for and against being inconclusive.
A violent article, in which he demanded the annexation of Hanover and Saxony, and attacked with great bitterness the Saxon royal house, led to an estrangement from his father, who enjoyed the warm friendship of the king.
In the present article the kingdom is treated mainly as a whole, especially as regards statistics.
Certain districts are distinguished for particular kinds of fruit, which form an important article of commerce both for inland consumption and for export.
The products of these mills form the principal article of export of Hungary.
Besides the museums mentioned in the article Budapest, several provincial towns contain interesting museums, namely, Pressburg, Temesvhr, Deva, Kolozsvar, Nagyszeben; further, the national museum at Zagram, the national (Szekler) museum at Maros-Vasarhely, and the Carpathian museum at Poprad should be mentioned.
But he pointed out also that the question of a separate bank did not actually figure in the act of 1867, and that it could not be introduced into it, more especially since the capital article of the ministerial programme, i.e.
For works on the Compromise of 1867 and the relations of Austria and Hungary generally, see the bibliography to the article Austria-Hungary.
Other writers have derived the word from the Arabic particle al (the definite article), and geber, meaning " man."
To attempt a history of the development of the various topics in this article is inappropriate, and we refer the reader to the separate articles.
This article, which was based upon a mass of incriminating documents supplied to Friedjung by the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office, had been timed to coincide with the outbreak of hostilities against Serbia, and was to have been the first of a series convicting the Serbian Government and dynasty of aggressive and even murderous designs.
It is unnecessary to follow in this article all these subjects, since they are for the most part treated under separate headings, not indeed under these names - which are too comprehensive for that purpose - but under those of the more specific questions which arise under each.
In the latter class Kimhi stands pre-eminent; to the editions of his commentary on the Psalms enumerated in the article Kimhi must now be added the admirable edition of Dr Schiller-Szinessy (Cambridge, 1883), containing, unfortunately, only the first book of his longer commentary.
Another article reserved to her majesty " the control of the external relations of the said state, including the conclusion of treaties and the conduct of diplomatic intercourse with foreign powers," and the right to march troops through the Transvaal.
The other article to which the greatest interest was subsequently attached was art.
See also bibliography to preceding article.
On John of Asia or Ephesus, the eminent Monophysite bishop and earliest Syriac church historian, see the separate article.
Another very characteristic garment suggests an original loin-cloth considerably longer than the elementary article which was noticed above.
The chief article of male dress was called the tebenna.
When the toga went out of use as an article of everyday wear, the pallium, i.e.
Rice is a common article of food and is one of the principal imports.
The number of cod is still further reduced by the trade carried on in roe, large quantities of which are used in France as groundbait in the sardine fishery, while it also forms an article of human food.
As an article of food the cod-fish is in greatest perfection during the three months preceding Christmas.
Starling does not accept this view, and cannot regard as an article of faith Heidenhain's dictum that normally filtration plays no part in the formation of lymph.
The part of Syracuse in general Sicilian affairs has been traced in the article Sicily; but one striking scene is wholly local, when the defeated Ducetius took refuge in the hostile city (451), and the common voice of the people bade "spare the suppliant."
For the history of the discovery, and its consequences in anatomy and physiology, we must refer to the article Harvey.
It is not probable that the sweet-smelling gums and resins of the countries of the Indian Ocean began to be introduced into Greece before the 8th or 7th century B.C., and doubtless XiOavos or X q /3avw-rOs first became an article of extensive commerce only after the Mediterranean trade with the East had been opened up by the Egyptian king Psammetichus (c. 664-610 B.C.).
Each borough is noticed in a separate article.
Of those associated with ecclesiastical foundations several occur in the course of this article (Section II., Ecclesiastical Architecture, &c.).
It brought into existence the twenty-eight Metropolitan boroughs enumerated at the outset of this article.
This is only alluded to in Gomme's book, but it is elaborated in an article in the Cornhill Magazine (November 1906).
This article contains an account of Duke William's movements after the battle of Senlac between Enfield, Edmonton, Tottenham and Berkhampstead.
In the article on Mineral Deposits the distribution and mode of occurrence of the useful minerals and ores are fully discussed.
But the fleet also included two semidreadnoughts (" Lord Nelson," " Agamemnon "), the battlecruiser " Inflexible " and the newly completed " Queen Elizabeth," 1 On the naval operations, see also the article Naval History Of The War.
I will try to do that with this article, to illustrate.
Nor can the relation of master and pupil be certainly inferred from the superscription quoted (observe the omission of any article), which really asserts no more than that Hero re-edited an earlier treatise by Ctesibius, and implies nothing about his being an immediate predecessor.
Weiss, Die Quellen des Lukas-evangeliums (1907); also books on the Four Gospels, or the Synoptic Gospels, mentioned at end of article Gospel.
It was the hand of the author of that offensive Missive to Frederick William III., on the liberty of the press, that drafted the Carlsbad decrees; it was he who inspired the policy of repressing the freedom of the universities; and he noted in his diary as "a day more important than that of Leipzig" the session of the Vienna conference of 1819, in which it was decided to make the convocation of representative assemblies in the German states impossible, by enforcing the letter of Article XIII.
The mechanical properties of the curves are treated in the article MECHANIcs,where various forms are illustrated.
With producer gas it is necessary to pre-heat both the gas and the air which is supplied for its combustion by passing both through heated regenerators (for an account of the principles of the regenerative furnace see article Furnace).
It is impossible to describe this machinery within the limits of this article, but it is notable that the principal difficulties to be overcome arise from the necessity of providing the glass with a perfectly continuous and unyielding support to which it can be firmly attached but from which it can be detached without undue difficulty.
Referring the reader to the article Elasticity for the theoretical and to the Strength Of Materials far the practical aspects of this subject, we give here a table of the "modulus of elasticity," E (column 2), for millimetre and kilogramme.
The constitution of the benzene ring, the isomerism of its derivatives, and their syntheses from aliphatic or openchain compounds, are treated in the article Chemistry.
In the result the north-western part of German East Africa was conquered by the Belgian native troops (as described in the article on the campaign) and from Sept.
An article may be consulted in the Phil.
He was received with enthusiasm on returning to Florence and became absolute master ' The history of Florence from 1434 to 1737 will be found in greater detail in the article Medici, save for the periods from 1494 to 1512 and from 1527 to 1530, during which the republic was restored.
On the eucharistic controversy see the article on Radbertus by Steitz in Herzog-Hauck's Real-Encyklopadie; Bach, Dogmengeschichte des Mittelalters, i.
But the great achievement of recent manufacture is the production, without the use of animal charcoal, of a cheaper, but good and wholesome article, in appearance equal to refined sugar for all intents and purposes, except for making preserves of fruits in the old-fashioned way.
In a process employed with great success in some refineries the raw sugars are washed before being melted, and thus a purer article is obtained for subsequent treatment.
Throughout Europe it continued to be a costly luxury and article of medicine only, till the increasing use of tea and coffee in the 18th century brought it into the list of principal food staples.
The first article declared that " The high contracting parties engage to take such measures as shall constitute an absolute and complete guarantee that no open or disguised bounty shall be granted on the manufacture or exportation of sugar."
The seventh article provided that bountied sugars (sucres primes) must be excluded from import into the territories of the signatory powers, by absolute prohibition of entry or by levying thereon a special duty in excess of the amount of the bounties, from which duty sugars coming from the contracting countries, and not bountyfed, must be free.
Lime of exceptionally good quality is burnt to a large extent in the neighbourhood, and forms an important article of trade; it is derived from the Lower Chalk formation.
When one takes into account that the next article of the declaration decreed death for domestic theft, the legislation is not relatively cruel.
The Bovidae are divided into a number of sections, or subfamilies, each of which is briefly noticed in the present article, while fuller mention of some of the more important representatives of these is made in other articles.
Thus there are several words for eating, each applied to a particular article of food.
See the article in Dictionary of Christian Antiquities; Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexicon (2nd ed.); and Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopeidie (3rd ed.); also the general histories of the time.
He reorganized the committee of public education (law of the 27th of February 1880), and proposed a regulation for the conferring of university degrees, which, though rejected, aroused violent polemics because the 7th article took away from the unauthorized religious orders the right to teach.
A part of this poem, as is mentioned in the article C.Edmon, is extant only in an Old English translation.
Some of the features distinguishing the gorilla from the mere gorilla-like chimpanzees will be found mentioned in the article PRIMATES.
Among fruit trees the vine, apricot, peach, apple, quince, fig and banana are cultivated in the highlands, and in the lower country the date palm flourishes, particularly throughout the central zone of Arabia, in Hejaz, Nejd and El Hasa, where it is the prime article of food.
The present article, as explained under Electrochemistry, treats only of those processes in which electricity is applied to the production of chemical reactions or molecular changes at furnace temperatures.
It was found in practice (in 1889) that the expenditure of energy per pound of reduced aluminium was about 23 H.P.-hours, a number considerably in excess of that required at the present time for the production of pure aluminium by the electrolytic process described in the article Aluminium.
The shepherds (rulers) of the nation make their flock an article of trade and treat the sheep as sheep for the shambles.
Jalap has been cultivated for many years in India, chiefly at Ootacamund, and grows there as easily as a yam, often producing clusters of tubers weighing over 9 lb; but these, as they differ in appearance from the commercial article, have not as yet obtained a place in the English market.
These substances are treated in the article Aniline.
It is a universal article of food in Peru, and the output is consumed in the country.
The military events of the war, calamitous for Peru, are dealt with in the article Chile Peruvian War.
The later development of the boundary question is dealt with at the outset of this article.
See the genealogical table to the article Bourbon.
The Liber de Institutione Principum, a treatise on the duties of kings and their functionaries, has never yet been printed, and the only MS. copy the writer of this article has been able to consult does not contain in its prologue all the information which Echard seems to imply is to be found there.
See Leon Clugnet's article in the Catholic Encyclopaedia, vol.
An article by Thomas Carlyle in the Edinburgh Review (July 1832) is the best criticism on Elliott.
See sketch map in article WAG RAM.
The anatomical differences by which the platypus, and its only allies the echidnas, are separated from all other mammals, so as to form a distinct sub-class, are described in the article Monotremata, where also will be found the main distinctive characters of the two existing representatives of the group. It is there stated that the early stages of the development of the young are not yet fully known.
Certain practical forms are described in the article Photography.
A little money was earned by an occasional article in Le Producteur, in which he began to expound the philosophic ideas that were now maturing in his mind.
Through affection she purifies the activity of the test of every institution, impulse, act; his fabric and knowledge at every point, is evidently beyond the compass of such an article as this.
If Tennyson had died of the savage article which presently appeared in the Quarterly Review, literature would have sustained terrible losses, but his name would have lived for ever among those of the great English poets.
Meanwhile he had gained a high reputation as a preacher, and especially as the advocate of religious freedom; but his teaching became more and more offensive to the orthodox party, and on the appearance (1864) of his article on Renan's Vie de Jesus in the Nouvelle Revue de theologie he was forbidden by the Paris consistory to continue his ministerial functions.
Grasshoppers (batta) are abundant, and one kind (inago), which frequent the rice-fields when the cereal is.ripening, are caught and fried in oil as ad article of food.
Thele is no lobster on the coasts of Japan, but there are various species of cray-fish (Palinurus and Scyliarus) the principal of which, under the names of ise-ebi (Palinurus japonicus) and kuruma-ebi (Penaeus canaliculatus) are greatly prized as an article of diet.
Seto, in fact, acquired such a widespread reputation for its ceramic productions that the term seto-mono (Seto article) came to be used generally for all pottery and porcelain, just as China is in the West.
The matter was settled by a law of 1905, on the lines mentioned in the earlier section of this article.
The preparation, properties, &c., of cyanides are treated in the article Prussic Acid; reference should also be made to the articles on the particular metals.
In order to secure popular support for the Hochberg heir, Charles in 1818 granted to the grand-duchy, under article xiii.
General Grant had now taken Porter's part, and wrote an article in vol.
The present article chiefly deals with publications devoted to general literature, literary and critical reviews and magazines for the supply of miscellaneous reading.
In the article Societies an account is separately given of the transactions and proceedings of learned and scientific bodies.
These little papers, rapidly thrown off for a temporary purpose, were destined to form a very important ' The centenary of the Edinburgh Review was celebrated in an article in October 1902, and that of the Quarterly Review in two articles April and July 1909.
The history of the renewal of the war, of the fall of Addington's ministry, and of the formation of Pitt's second administration is so fully dealt with in the article on Pitt (q.v.) that it need not be repeated here.
The term is applied article of the Christian faith,"due to the introduction of" foreign elements "and resulting in a perversion of Christianity, and an amalgamation with it of ideas discordant with its nature (Fisher's History of Christian Doctrine, p. 9).
A list of the acids present in fats and oils is given in the article Oils.
More detail concerning skull, scales and teeth will be found in the diagnostic descriptions of the various families (vide infra); for further anatomical information the reader is referred to the article Reptiles (Anatomy).
In the article Lizard attention is drawn to the many characters which make it difficult, if not impossible, to give diagnoses applicable to all lizards and all snakes.
It is followed in the present article.
The classification of the animal kingdom is dealt with in the article ZOOLOGY.
In fact the uniformity of brass and bell-metal is only superficial; if we adopt the methods described in the article Metallography, and if, after polishing a plane face on a bit of gun-metal, we etch away the surface layer and examine the new surface with a lens or a microscope, we find a complex pattern of at least two materials.
For some notice of the Arabic, Syriac and Hebrew translations of works professedly by Hippocrates (Ibukrat or Bukrat), the number of which greatly exceeds that of the extant Greek originals, reference may be made to Fliigel's contribution to the article " Hippokrates " in the Encyklopadie of Ersch and Gruber.
The mechanism of alcoholic fermentation is discussed in the article Fermentation, and the manufacture of alcohol from fermented liquors in.
It may be synthetically prepared by any of the general methods described in the article Alcohols.
The reader is also referred to an article by Lord Kelvin (Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism, p. 178), entitled " Determination of the Distribution of Electricity on a Circular Segment of a Plane, or Spherical Conducting Surface under any given Influence," where another equivalent expression is given for the capacity of an ellipsoid.
See article by von Hartmann in Allgem.
The importance of the fur of this animal as an article of commerce may be judged of from the fact that 15,000 skins were sold in one year by the Hudson's Bay Company as long ago as 1743.
An historical account of the development of thermodynamics is given in the article Heat.
The object of the present article is to illustrate the practical application of the two general principles - (I) Joule's law of the equivalence of heat and work, and (2) Carnot's principle, that the efficiency of a reversible engine depends only on the temperatures between which it works; these principles are commonly known as the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
The more general case is discussed in the article Energetics, and in the original memoirs of Willard Gibbs and others.
A regulation excluding Maltese from the navy (because of their speaking on board a language that their officers did not understand) provoked from Trinity College, Cambridge, the Strickland correspondence in The Times on the constitutional rights of the Maltese, and a leading article induced the Colonial Office to try an experiment known as the Strickland-Mizzi Constitution of 1887.
The fifteenth article, treating of the Lord's Supper, defines the ground common to both parties even in this debateable region, recognizing the necessity of participation in both kinds, and rejecting the sacrifice of the Mass.
With the latter attitude alone does the present article deal, and it may conveniently be called idolatry or image worship. For the history of the use of images in Christian worship see Iconoclasts.
For Hindu Chronology, see the article under that heading.
The sensitive impartiality which withheld him from touching perhaps the most interesting period in the history of the constitution did not save him from the charge of partisanship. The Quarterly Review for 1828 contains an article on the Constitutional History, written by Southey, full of railing and reproach.
Brit., it should, however, be stated that the writer of this article regards "Tyrol" as more correct.
Iron of the finest quality is found in almost every part, and forms a main article of export.
The relationship of the Hymenoptera to other orders of insects is discussed in the article Hexapoda, but it may be mentioned here that in structure the highest members of the order are remarkably specialized, and that in the perfection of their instincts they stand at the head of all insects and indeed of all invertebrate animals.
It is almost certain that the distal of these two segments really belongs to the thigh, but the ordinary nomenclature will be used in the present article, as this character is of great importance in discriminating families, and the two segments in question are referred to the trochanter by most systematic writers.
But the last of these was part of a much wider struggle by land, known to Continental historians as the Dutch War of 1672-78, and the second part of this article deals with their struggle on the various frontiers of France, which was illustrated by the genius of Turenne and Conde.
Reference should be made to the article Gravitation for an account of the methods employed to determine the "mean density of the earth."
Roscher (Nektar and Ambrosia, 1883; see also his article in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologic) nectar and ambrosia were originally only different forms of the same substance - honey, regarded as a dew, like manna, fallen from heaven, which was used both as food and drink.
In this article the liturgy is treated in the former and stricter sense.
The Anoplura or lice should not be included among the Hemiptera, but it has been thought convenient to refer briefly to them at the close of this article.
Also see bibliography to the article on James I.
As time is an object, the conditions alluded to in the article on Copper as being favourable to the use of high current densities should be studied, bearing in mind that a tough copper deposit of high quality is essential.
The following full description of the only species which attacks the vine, the Phylloxera vastatrix, or grape-louse, is reprinted from the article Vine in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia.
Aroused by the prophets Haggai and Zechariah the building was then resumed, and despite fresh attempts to hinder the work it was completed, consecrated and dedicated 1 References to I Esdras in this article are to the book discussed above as Ezra, Third Book Of.
This article is restricted to general oceanography in its physical aspects, the closely-related meteorological,, biological and economic aspects being dealt with elsewhere.
Graverol (1686), see the article in the Nouvelle biographie generale, based partly on the MS. registers of the Saumur Academie.
He entered the Presbyterian Secession Hall in 1840, and in 1843 wrote an article in the Secession Magazine on the Free Church movement, which aroused the interest of Thomas Chalmers.
On his return he wrote a long article on "Recent Scottish Theology" for the Presbyterian and Reformed Review, for which he read over every theological work of note published in Scotland during the preceding half-century.
Oppert supposes the title "Gur Khan" to have been confounded with Yukhanan or Johannes; and it is probable that even in the Levant the stories of "John the patriarch of the Indies," repeated in the early part of this article, may have already mingled with the rumours from the East.
The principal article of export is coffee, which is grown extensively in the neighbouring hills and is of the finest quality.
For the detailed chemical significance of these terms, see Chemistry; and for the atomic theory of the chemist (as distinguished from the atomic or molecular theory of the physicist) see Atom; reference may also be made to the article Matter.
The leading historical stages in the evolution of the modern conception of the molecular structure of matter are treated in the following passage from James Clerk Maxwell's article Atom in the 9th edition of the Ency.
The remainder of this article is devoted to a brief statement of the methods and results of the kinetic theory.
His success in reproducing articles he had read in The Spectator led him to write an article for his brother's paper, which he slipped under the door of the printing shop with no name attached, and which was printed and attracted some attention.
Mr Way, in the article alluded to, says of the custom of offering crowns to churches that frequent notices of the usage may be found in the lives of the Roman pontiffs by Anastasius.
For a complete list of Neale's works see article in Diet.
See an article by Louis Madelin in La Revolution francaise (1900).
Towards the end of his arts course he became a contributor to the Westminster Review (first article "Electrotype and Daguerreotype," September 1840).
In this article it is impossible to attempt a history of the sacraments and of the controversies which in every age have arisen about them.
Bergson's works on the other hand contain the elements of a reconstruction similar in spirit to the suggestions of the present article.
Other works are cited in the bibliography to the article on the see and province of Utrecht, above.
What may be called the inner side of Benedictine life and history is treated in the article Monasticism; here it is possible to deal only with the broad facts of the external history.
Many of his works will be found in Migne, Patrologia Graeca, cix., cxii., cxiii.; for editions of the rest, C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur (1897), and the article by Cohn in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (1900) should be consulted.
When the Lambeth articles put forward as a basis of union were discussed, it was evident that all the free churches were agreed in accepting the three articles dealing with the Bible, the Creed and the Sacraments as a basis of discussion, and were also agreed in rejecting the fourth article, which put the historic episcopate on the same level as the other three.
The word " article " for a time holds the field.
Where moderns would speak of the " doctrine " of this or that, Lutherans especially, but also churchmen of other communions, wrote upon this or that " article."
Many writers in each communion felt that an " article " is a higher thing.
In Chrismann the word " dogma " has superseded the word " article "; Holden uses both, though " article " has the preponderance.
The Books of Homilies referred to in the 35th article of the Church of England originated at a convocation in 1542, at which it was agreed "to make certain homilies for stay of such errors as were then by ignorant preachers sparkled among the people."
The great majority of antelopes, exclusive of the doubtful chamois group (which, however, will be included in the present article), are African, although the gazelles are to a considerable extent an Asiatic;'group. They include ruminants varying in size from a hare to an ox; and comprise about 150 species, although this number is subject to considerable variation according to personal views as to the limitations of species and races.
In this article the writer has been greatly assisted by the advice and suggestions of Lieut.-Col.
The present article is not intended to give either a complete course of study or a complete collection of formulae, and therefore such only of the ordinary formulae are given as are required for illustrating certain general principles.
In the present article the formulae for area or volume will be used throughout.
A constitutional convention met and proposed a new constitution in 1867, but every article was rejected by the people save one relating to the judiciary, which was adopted separately as an amendment in 1869.
The influence of Herzl's pamphlet, the progress of the movement he initiated, the subsequent modifications of his plans, are told at length in the article Zionism.
The mensuration of the cube, and its relations to other geometrical solids are treated in the article Polyhedron; in the same article are treated the Archimedean solids, the truncated and snubcube; reference should be made to the article Crystallography for its significance as a crystal form.
The relation of St Benedict's Rule to earlier monastic rules, and of his institute to the prevailing monachism of his day, is explained in the article Monasticism.
Schiedam is famous as the seat of a great gin manufacture, which, carried on in more than three hundred distilleries, gives employment besides to malt-factories, cooperages and cork-cutting establishments, and supplies grain refuse enough to feed about 30,000 pigs, as well as sufficient yeast to form an important article of export.
The present article will first describe its general structure and more obvious contents; compare it with the Synoptic Gospels; and draw out its leading characteristics and final object.
In the sense in which it is treated in this article it appears in 'Middle English as soun, and comes through Fr.
The physiological and psychical aspects of sound are treated in the article Hearing.
Some curious examples of echo are given in Herschel's article on " Sound " in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, but it appears that he is in error in one case.
The third mode of production of combination tones, the production in the medium itself, follows from the varying velocity of different parts of the wave, as investigated at the beginning of this article.
Although in their present form the additional narratives are in the chronicler's style, it is not necessary to deny an older traditional element which may have been preserved in sources now lost to us.4 BIBLIOGRAPHY.-Robertson Smith's article in the 9th ed.
The determination of the shortest distance between two small circles on a sphere is given in the article Variations, Calculus Of.
In mathematical geography the problem of representing the surface of a sphere on a plane is of fundamental importance; this subject is treated in the article MAP.
The present article is restricted to arbitration under municipal law; but a separate article is also devoted to the use of arbitration in labour disputes (see Arbitration And Conciliation).
The present article relates chiefly to metallic bridges.
This attempt also failed; for the Germans were numerically too weak, ' For Hungary, as the other constitutional half of the old AustroHungarian Monarchy, see the separate article under that heading; also Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the articles on the different " succession states " which were formed on the break-up of the monarchy in 1918.
Joseph's 2 As elsewhere throughout this article, the point of view is that of a fair-minded Austrian historian.
So soon as State control was applied to any article it could be taken as a sign that the supplies would soon come to an end, or at any rate were very restricted; and thus it was impossible to prevent the equipment of the army from becoming gradually more inadequate, and the provision both of the army and of the population behind the lines with all kinds of necessaries from being altogether insufficient; only wholly unsatisfactory substitutes could be provided, and the available provisions could hardly be made to go round.
His other writings were the article "` Evidence" in the Encyclopedie, and Recherches sur l'evidence des verites geometriques, with a Projet de nouveaux elements de geometrie, 1773.
There is a good bibliographical note at the end of Mr Sidney Lee's article in the National Dictionary of Biography.
An exhaustive bibliography and an excellent article onGregory by Carl Mirbt are to be found in Hauck's Realencyklopadie, ?3rd edition.
See the article Celt, § Literature, IV.
For the ancient kingdom of Kent see the preceding article.
The article on France must be consulted for the intricate events of the following years.
In the same field of literature Lord Selborne further laboured by the publication of another collection called The Book of Praise Hymnal; a contribution to an edition of Bishop Ken's hymns; a paper on English Church Hymnody at a Church Congress; and the article in the Encyclopaedia Britannica on "Hymns" (q.v.), which was republished as a separate volume in 1892.
But no other species equals the common herring in importance as an article of food or commerce.
The general question of food values is discussed in the article Dietetics; see also Nutrition.
The present article is confined to a description of the general character and main events of the war itself.
It must be remembered that Nestorius was as orthodox at all events as Athanasius on the subject of the incarnation, and sincerely, even fanatically, held every article