How to use Arsenious in a sentence
The action of these acids on many metals was also studied; Glauber obtained zinc, stannic, arsenious and cuprous chlorides by dissolving the metals in hydrochloric acid, compounds hitherto obtained by heating the metals with corrosive sublimate, and consequently supposed to contain mercury.
The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.
As a general rule the modification stable at higher temperatures possesses a lower density; but this is by no means always the case, since the converse is true for antimonious and arsenious oxides, silver iodide and some other substances.
The insufficiency of this argument, however, is shown by the data for arsenious and antimonious oxides, and also for the polymorphs of calcium carbonate, the more symmetrical polymorphs having a lower density.
Electrolytes possess the power of coagulating solutions of colloids such as albumen and arsenious sulphide.Advertisement
Iodine in the presence of water frequently acts as an oxidizing agent; thus arsenious acid and the arsenites, on the addition of iodine solution, are converted into arsenic acid and arsenates.
It is detected by heating with ordinary alcohol and sulphuric acid, which gives rise to acetic ester or ethyl acetate, recognized by its" fragrant odour; or by heating with arsenious oxide, which forms the pungent and poisonous cacodyl oxide.
His services to industry included his improvements in the processes for the manufacture of sulphuric acid (1818) and oxalic acid (1829); methods of estimating the amount of real alkali in potash and soda by the volume of standard acid required for neutralization, and for estimating the available chlorine in bleaching powder by a solution of arsenious acid; directions for the use of the centesimal alcoholometer published in 1824 and specially commended by the Institute; and the elaboration of a method of assaying silver by a standard solution of common salt, a volume on which was published in 1833.
Tungstic acid closely resembles molybdic acid in combining with phosphoric, arsenious, arsenic, boric, vanadic and silicic acids to form highly complex acids of which a great many salts exist.
In association with antimonious and arsenious sulphides, silver sulphide forms many important minerals, which sometimes present dimorphous forms, reflecting the dimorphism of silver sulphide; moreover, the corresponding arsenious and antimonious compounds are frequently isomorphous.Advertisement
Flue-dust contains principally ferric oxide, zinc oxide, arsenious and sulphuric acids, and small quantities of the various metals occurring in the raw ore.
Arsenides, Arsenites, &c. - Several iron arsenides occur as minerals; lolingite, FeAs 2, forms silvery rhombic prisms; mispickel or arsenical pyrites, Fe2AsS2, is an important commercial source of arsenic. A basic ferric arsenite, 4Fe2O3 As2O3.5H 2 O, is obtained as a flocculent brown precipitate by adding an arsenite to ferric acetate, or by shaking freshly prepared ferric hydrate with a solution of arsenious oxide.
It can also be obtained by the reduction of white arsenic (arsenious oxide) with carbon.
It is easily oxidized by heating with concentrated nitric acid to arsenic acid, and with concentrated sulphuric acid to arsenic trioxide; dilute nitric acid only oxidizes it to arsenious acid.
In Fleitmann's test, the solution containing the arsenious compound is mixed with pure potassium hydroxide solution and a piece of pure zinc or aluminium foil dropped in and the whole then heated.Advertisement
In the Marsh test the solution containing the arsenious compounds is mixed with pure hydrochloric acid and placed in an apparatus in which hydrogen is generated from pure zinc and pure sulphuric acid.
A blank experiment should always be carried out in testing for small quantities of arsenic, to ensure that the materials used are quite free from traces of arsenic. It is to be noted that the presence of nitric acid interferes with the Marsh test; and also that if the arsenic is present as an arsenic compound it must be reduced to the arsenious condition by the action of sulphurous acid.
In the wet way, arsenious oxide and arsenites, acidified with hydrochloric acid, give a yellow precipitate of arsenic trisulphide on the addition of sulphuretted hydrogen; this precipitate is soluble in solutions of the alkaline hydroxides, ammonium carbonate and yellow ammonium sulphide.
In the sulphide method, the arsenic should be in the arsenious form.
Arsenic can also be estimated by volumetric methods; for this purpose it must be in the arsenious condition, and the method of estimation consists in converting it into the arsenic condition by means of a standard solution of iodine, in the presence of a cold saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate.Advertisement
Arsenic trihydride (arsine or arseniuretted hydrogen), AsH3, is formed by decomposing zinc arsenide with dilute sulphuric acid; by the action of nascent hydrogen on arsenious compounds, and by the electrolysis of solutions of arsenious and arsenic acids; it is also a product of the action of organic matter on many arsenic compounds.
It easily burns, forming arsenious oxide if the combustion proceeds in an excess of air, or arsenic if the supply of air is limited; it is also decomposed into its constituent elements when heated.
Arsenious oxide is very poisonous.
The solution of arsenious oxide in water reacts acid towards litmus and contains tribasic arsenious acid, although on evaporation of the solution the trioxide is obtained and not the free acid.
By the action of oxidizing agents such as nitric acid, iodine solution, &c., arsenious acid is readily converted into arsenic acid, in the latter case the reaction proceeding according to the equation H3AsO3 +I2 + H2O = H3AsO4 + 2HI.Advertisement
Arsenic pentoxide, As2O5, is most easily obtained by oxidation of a solution of arsenious acid with nitric acid; the solution on concentration deposits the compound 2H3AsO4.
Orpiment (auri pigmentum) occurs native in pale yellow rhombic prisms, and can be obtained in the amorphous form by passing a current of sulphuretted hydrogen gas through a solution of arsenious oxide or an arsenite, previously acidified with dilute hydrochloric acid.
On distillation of equal parts of dry potassium acetate and arsenious oxide, a colourless liquid of unbearable smell passes over, which is spontaneously inflammable and excessively poisonous.
Externally, arsenious acid is a powerful caustic when applied to raw surfaces, though it has no action on the unbroken skin.
According to Binz and Schultz its power is due to the fact that it is an oxygen-carrier, arsenious acid withdrawing oxygen from the protoplasm to form arsenic acid, which subsequently yields up its oxygen again.Advertisement
The complete conversion of stannous into stannic chloride may be effected by a great many reagents - for instance, by chlorine (bromine, iodine) readily; by mercuric chloride in the heat, with precipitation of calomel or metallic mercury; by ferric chloride in the heat, with formation of ferrous chloride; by arsenious chloride in strongly hydrochloric solutions, with precipitation of chocolate-brown metallic arsenic. All these reactions are available as tests for "stannosum" or the respective agents.
Mispickel is the principal source of arsenious oxide or the "white arsenic" of commerce (see Arsenic).