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aromatic

aromatic

aromatic Sentence Examples

  • Above her, bees buzzed around the aromatic apple blossoms.

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  • The Dogwood trees were in full bloom, their aromatic blossoms creating white blotches on the hills.

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  • The azo-group is particularly active, both the aliphatic and aromatic compounds being coloured.

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  • It readily condenses with aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of sulphuric acid.

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  • The valleys within the hill ranges are fragrant with aromatic shrubs.

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  • The same increase accompanies the introduction of the amino group into aromatic nuclei.

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  • It combines with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of alcoholic potash to form addition products which are converted by acids into styrol derivatives (J.

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  • In these countries aromatic shrubs are abundant.

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  • Several different products may be obtained by the reduction of the aromatic nitro compounds, the substances formed in any particular case depending on the conditions of experiment.

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  • In these countries aromatic shrubs are abundant.

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  • Natasha ate of everything and thought she had never seen or eaten such buttermilk cakes, such aromatic jam, such honey-and-nut sweets, or such a chicken anywhere.

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  • von Liebig discovered, in 1834, an interesting aromatic compound, potassium carbon monoxide or potassium hexaoxybenzene, the nature of which was satisfactorily cleared up by R.

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  • The aromatic and irritating fumes emitted by burning amber are mainly due to this acid.

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  • The aromatic and irritating fumes emitted by burning amber are mainly due to this acid.

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  • Numerous nitroso compounds are met with in the aromatic series.

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  • Long-continued treatment with halogens may, in some cases, result in the formation of aromatic compounds; thus perchlorbenzene, C 6 C1 6, frequently appears as a product of exhaustive chlorination, while hexyl iodide, C 6 H 13 I, yields perchlorand perbrom-benzene quite readily.

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  • This is obviously unsymmetrical, consisting of an aliphatic and an aromatic nucleus; Claus explained the formation of the same phthalic acid from the oxidation of either nucleus by supposing that if the aromatic group be oxidized, the aliphatic residue assumes the character of a benzene nucleus.

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  • Thus ortho-phenylene diamine yields the following products: N H N ./`N; Xn NZ In some cases oxidation of condensed benzenoid-heterocyclic nuclei results in the rupture of the heterocyclic ring with the formation of a benzene dicarboxylic acid; but if the aromatic nucleus be weakened by the introduction of an amino group, then it is the benzenoid nucleus which is destroyed and a dicarboxylic acid of the heterocyclic ring system obtained.

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  • In those parts of the desert which have a hard level soil of clay, a few stunted mimosas, acacias and other shrubs are produced, together with rue, various bitter and aromatic plants, and occasionally tufts of grass.

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  • They are all, as found in commerce, of a pale yellow-green colour; they emit a peculiar aromatic odour, and have a slightly astringent bitter taste.

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  • Aromatic and medicinal herbs, of which the state has several hundred distinct species, have been obtained in larger, quantities than from any other state in the Union.

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  • Many species produce gums and resins, their stems being encrusted with the exudations, and pungency and aromatic odour is an almost universal quality of the plants of desert regions.

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  • The following diagrams illustrate these statements: - C ` H C OH HC /CH HC CH HC,/CH 'N/ HC CH CH CH From the benzene nucleus we can derive other aromatic nuclei, graphically represented by fusing two or more hexagons along common sides.

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  • The aromatic aldehydes resemble the aliphatic aldehydes in most respects, but in certain reactions they exhibit an entirely different behaviour.

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  • CYPRESS (Cupressus), in botany, a genus of fifteen species belonging to the tribe Cupressineae, natural order Coniferae, represented by evergreen aromatic trees and shrubs indigenous to the south of Europe, western Asia, the Himalayas, China, Japan, north-western and north-eastern America, California and Mexico.

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  • Salicylic aldehyde (ortho-hydroxybenzaldehyde), HO(I)� C 6 H 4 �CHO(2), an aromatic oxyaldehyde, is a colourless liquid of boiling point 196° C. and specific gravity.

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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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  • There also exists an extensive class of compounds termed the " heterocyclic series " - these compounds are derived from ring systems containing atoms other than carbon; this class is more generally allied to the aromatic series than to the aliphatic.

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  • Other hydrocarbon nuclei generally classed as aromatic in character result from the union of two or more benzene nuclei joined by one or two valencies with polymethylene or oxidized polymethylene rings; instances of such nuclei are indene, hydrindene, fluorene, and fluoranthene.

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  • By the ancients the country was called regio romataica, from the abundance of aromatic plants which it produced.

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  • Cinnamic aldehyde ((3-phenyl acrolein), C6H5�CH: CH�CHO, an unsaturated aromatic aldehyde, is the chief constituent of cinnamon oil.

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  • Wash it down with a specialty cocktail or an aromatic glass of wine, and end your meal with a rich chocolate torte accompanied by a raspberry sauce.

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  • Aromatic Nitro Compounds.-The aromatic nitro compounds are generally obtained by the direct action of nitric acid.

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  • The body was embalmed and filled with aromatic herbs, and then brought to this region, passing through the lands of various tribes.

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  • When cut open, it displays an infinity of tiny leaf-buds and stems, and at intervals there exudes from it an aromatic resin, which from its astringent properties is used by the shepherds as a vulnerary, but has not been converted to any commercial purpose.

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  • Certain crude oils have also been found to contain camphenes, naphthalene and other aromatic hydrocarbons.

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  • The rationale of this treatment is not fully understood, but the action appears to consist in the separation or decomposition of the aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty and other acids, phenols, tarry bodies, &c., which lower the quality of the oil, the sulphuric acid removing some, while the caustic soda takes out the remainder, and neutralizes the acid which has been left in the oil.

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  • The .modern "balm of Gilead" or "Mecca balsam," an aromatic gum produced by the Balsamodendron opobalsamum, is more likely the Hebrew mor, which the English Bible wrongly renders "myrrh."

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  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.

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  • In general, the aliphatic residues in such mixed compounds retain the characters of their class, while the aromatic residues retain the properties of benzene.

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  • In the aromatic compounds there is no regularity between the increments due to the introduction of methyl groups into the benzene nucleus or side chains; the normal value of 20 0 -21° is exhibited, however, by pyridine and its derivatives.

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  • Beckmann, Ber., 1886, 1 9, p. 9 8 9; 188 7, 20, p. 2580), yielding as final products an acid-amide or anilide, thus: RC(:N OH)R'-RC(OH) :NR' ---> As regards the constitution of the oximes, two possibilities exist, namely >C: NOH, or > C' ?, and the first of these is presumably correct, since on alkylation and subsequent hydrolysis an alkyl hydroxylamine of the type NH 2 OR is obtained, and consequently it is to be presumed that in the alkylated oxime, the alkyl group is attached to oxygen, and the oxime itself therefore contains the hydroxyl group. It is to be noted that the oximes of aromatic aldehydes and of unsymmetrical aromatic ketones frequently exist in isomeric forms. This isomerism is explained by the HantzschWerner hypothesis (Ber., 1890, 23, p. II) in which the assumption is made that the three valencies of the nitrogen atom do not lie in the same plane.

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  • The Brazilian flora is also rich in medicinal and aromatic plants, dye-woods, and a wide range of gum and resin-producing shrubs and trees.

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  • The nitro group in the aromatic series is bound very firmly in the molecule and is not readily exchanged for other groups.

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  • The electrolytic reduction of the aromatic nitro compounds gives rise to substituted hydroxylamines which are immediately transformed into aminophenols or amines.

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  • In general, the aliphatic residues in such mixed compounds retain the characters of their class, while the aromatic residues retain the properties of benzene.

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  • into two groups: (r) those exhibiting properties closely analogous to the aliphatic series - the polymethylenes, and (2) a series exhibiting properties differing in many respects from the aliphatic and polymethylene compounds, and characterized by a peculiar stability which is to be associated with the disposition of certain carbon valencies not saturated by hydrogen - the " aromatic series."

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  • and >- CH, the first characterizing the polymethylene and reduced heterocyclic compounds, the second true aromatic compounds.

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  • In the vegetable kingdom glucose occurs, always in admixture with fructose, in many fruits, especially grapes, cherries, bananas, &c.; and in combination, generally with phenols and aldehydes belonging to the aromatic series, it forms an extensive class of compounds termed glucosides.

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  • Pinner, Ber., 1892, 25, p. 1624): / NH N C?CsH 5 2C61 - 15 C +(CH 3 C0) 2 0 -> C6H5 C N; NH 2 N :C?CH3 or by the condensation of aromatic nitriles with acid chlorides in the presence of aluminium chloride (Eitner and Krafft, Ber., 1892, 25, p. 2263).

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  • It is excreted when many aromatic compounds, such as benzoic acid and toluene, are taken internally.

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  • These compounds may be considered as 5-triazolones, a series of isomeric 3-triazolones resulting from the condensation of phenylsemicarbazide with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of an oxidant.

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  • An aromatic earth, found on the coast of Cutch, is used as incense in the temples of western India.

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  • Chemically it is one of the most interesting substances known, since it is the parent of the enormous number of compounds styled the " aromatic " or " benzenoid " compounds.

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  • STYROLENE, C 6 H 5 CH:CH 2, also known as phenylethylene or vinylbenzene, an aromatic hydrocarbon found to the extent of 1 to 4% in storax; it also occurs with crude xylene in coal tar fractions.

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  • The raw material in the warehouses is of various qualities: some is strong, rough and harsh, and so is unfit for ordinary smoking; other samples are mild and fine, with aromatic and pleasant flavour, but devoid of strength.

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  • aromatic substances, sugar, liquorice, common salt and saltpetre, &c., dissolved in water.

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  • The peculiar properties of snuff are dependent on the presence of free nicotine, free ammonia and the aromatic principles developed during fermentation.

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  • They are all trees, usually of large size, with alternate stalked, unequally pinnate leaves, and abounding in an aromatic resinous juice.

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  • The aromatic gums for which Arabia was famed in ancient times are still produced, though the trade is a very small one.

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  • Aromatic Amines.-The aromatic amines in some respects resemble the aliphatic amines, since they form salts with acids, and double salts with platinum chloride, and they also distil without decomposition.

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  • The primary aromatic amines may be prepared by the reduction of the nitro-hydrocarbons, the reducing agents used being either alcoholic-ammonium sulphide (N.

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  • It is to be noted that only traces of the aromatic amines are produced by heating the halogen substituted benzenes with ammonia, unless the amino group be situated in the side chain, as in the case of benzylamine.

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  • The secondary amines may be of two types-namely,the purely aromatic amines, and the mixed secondary amines, which contain an aromatic residue and an alkyl group. The purely aromatic amines result upon heating the primary amines with their hydrochlorides, and, in some cases, by heating a phenol with a primary amine and anhydrous zinc chloride.

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  • The mixed secondary amines have basic properties, but the purely aromatic secondary amines are only very feeble bases.

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  • The tertiary amines may also be of two types, the purely aromatic and the mixed type.

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  • The simplest aromatic tertiary amine, triphenylamine, is prepared by the action of brombenzene on sodium diphenylamine (C. Heydrich, Ber., 1885, 18, p. 2156).

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  • The simplest aromatic monamine is aniline, and the simplest mixed amines are monoand di-methyl aniline.

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  • The aromatic amine resembling the aliphatic amines is benzylamine, C 6 H 5 �CH 2 �NH 2, which may be prepared by reducing benzonitrile in alcoholic solution by means of zinc and acetic acid (0.

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  • Diphenylamine, (C6H5)2NH, is the simplest representative of the true aromatic secondary amines.

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  • The censer, to use the more general term, is a vessel which contains burning charcoal on which the aromatic substances to be burned are sprinkled.

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  • It is convenient to distinguish between aliphatic and aromatic acids; the first named being derived from open-chain hydrocarbons, the second from ringed hydrocarbon nuclei.

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  • Other reactions which introduce carboxyl groups into aromatic groups are: the action of carbonyl chloride on aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of aluminium chloride, acid-chlorides being formed which are readily decomposed by water to give the acid; the action of urea chloride Cl�CO�NH 2, cyanuric acid (CONH) 3, nascent cyanic acid, or carbanile on hydrocarbons in the presence of aluminium chloride, acid-amides being obtained which are readily decomposed to give the acid.

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  • Thus primary alcohols and aldehydes, both of the aliphatic and aromatic series, readily yield on oxidation acids containing the same number of carbon atoms. These reactions may be shown thus: - � R�CH 2 OH -> R.

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  • An important oxidation synthesis of aromatic acids is from hydrocarbons with aliphatic side chains; thus toluene, or methylbenzene, yields benzoic acid, the xylenes, or dimethyl-benzene, yield methyl-benzoic acids and phthalic acids.

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  • The great mass of the vegetation, however, is of the low-growing type (maquis or garrigue of the western Mediterranean), with small and stiff leaves, and frequently thorny and aromatic, as for example the ilex (Quercus coccifera), Smilax, Cistus, Lentiscus, Calycotome, &c. (2) Next comes, from 1600 to 6500 ft., the mountain region, which may also be called the forest region, still exhibiting sparse woods and isolated trees wherever shelter, moisture and the inhabitants have permitted their growth.

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  • Sodium in boiling amyl alcohol reduces it to aromatic tetrahydro-a-naphthylamine, a substance having the properties of an aromatic amine, for it can be diazotized and does not possess an ammoniacal smell.

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  • Since it does not form an addition product with bromine, reduction must have taken place in one of the nuclei only, and on account of the aromatic character of the compound it must be in that nucleus which does not contain the amino group. This tetrahydro compound yields adipic acid, (CH 2) 4 (CO 2 H) 2, when oxidized by potassium permanganate.

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  • The destruction of its forests has led to the loss of all its alluvial soil, and now it is for the most part a brown and barren rock, covered at best with scanty aromatic scrub, pastured by sheep and goats.

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  • There are several varieties of benzoin in commerce: (I) Siam benzoin, which apparently does not come from Styrax benzoin, is the finest and most aromatic, and occurs in the form of small "tears," rarely exceeding 2 in.

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  • The neighbourhood abounds in market gardens and plantations of aromatic herbs for the manufacture of scents and essences.

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  • It was famous in ancient times for its bees, which gathered honey of peculiar flavour from its aromatic herbs; their fame still persists.

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  • The odour of cubebs is agreeable and aromatic; the taste, pungent, acrid, slightly bitter and persistent.

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  • The transverse fracture has a resinous appearance with white streaks; the flavour is bitter and aromatic, and the odour characteristic. It consists of a mixture of resin, gum and essential oil, the resin being present to the extent of 25 to 40%, with 21to 8% of the oil, myrrhol, to which the odour is due.

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  • The flora of the high plateaus consists chiefly of grasses, notably various kinds of alfa or esparto, and aromatic herbs.

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  • When chewed a small piece is wrapped up in a leaf of the betel vine or pan, with a pellet of shell lime or chunam; and in some cases a little cardamom, turmeric or other aromatic is added.

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  • The taste is mucilaginous, sweetish and slightly bitter and aromatic. The root is frequently forked, and it is probably owing to this circumstance that medicinal properties were in the first place attributed to it, its resemblance to the body of a man being supposed to indicate that it could restore virile power to the aged and impotent.

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  • This plant, credited with wonderful medicinal and aromatic properties, has not been certainly identified with any existing species.

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  • The mixed azo compounds are those in which the azo group N: N is united with an aromatic radical on the one hand, and with a radical of the aliphatic series on the other.

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  • BENZALDEHYDE (oil of bitter almonds), C 6 H 5 CHO, the simplest representative of the aromatic aldehydes.

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  • There are three main varieties, of which the worst is dark in colour and strong in flavour; the best, grown in the districts of Diryus and Amamareh, is light and aromatic, and is exported mainly to Alexandria; but much goes also to Constantinople, Cyprus and direct to Europe.

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  • For winter use the tops of the most useful kinds of herbs should be cut when in flower or full leaf and quite dry, and spread out in an airy but shady place so as to part slowly with the moisture they contain and at the same time retain their aromatic properties.

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  • It combines with acetoacetic ester to form the aromatic compound meta-oxyuvitic acid, C 6 11 2 CH 3 OH (Cooh) 2.

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  • CH 3, is an aromatic smelling liquid of boiling point 129.5-130° C. It is insoluble in water, but readily dissolves in alcohol.

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  • It is reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution to "aromatic" tetrahydro-a-naphthol (reduction occurring in the ring which does not contain the hydroxyl group).

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  • Blagden (Ber.,1900,33,p.2544), who consider that three simultaneous reactions occur, namely, the formation of labile double salts which decompose in such a fashion that the radical attached to the copper atom wanders to the aromatic nucleus; a catalytic action, in which nitrogen is eliminated and the acid radical attaches itself to the aromatic nucleus; and finally, the formation of azo compounds.

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  • Jochem (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337), who arrived at the conclusion that the normal decomposition of diazonium salts by alcohols results in the formation of phenolic ethers, but that an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol, or the accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus, diminishes the yield of the ether and increases the amount of the hydrocarbon formed.

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  • These iso-diazotates are formed much more readily when the aromatic nucleus in the diazonium salt contains negative radicals.

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  • The esters of the aliphatic amino acids may be diazotized in a manner similar to the primary aromatic amines, a fact discovered by T.

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  • In this article we shall confine ourselves to the fatty compounds, from which the fundamental notions were first obtained; reference may be made to the article Chemistry: Organic, for the general structural relations of organic compounds, both fatty and aromatic.

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  • The esters of the aliphatic and aromatic acids are colourless neutral liquids, which are generally insoluble in water, but readily dissolve in alcohol and ether.

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  • This conception led Kekule to his "closed-chain" or "ring" theory of the constitution of benzene which has been called the "most brilliant piece of prediction to be found in the whole range of organic chemistry," and this in turn led in particular to the elucidation of the constitution of the "aromatic compounds," and in general to new methods of chemical synthesis and decomposition, and to a deeper insight into the composition of numberless organic bodies and their mutual relations.

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  • It is a colourless liquid, with a faint aromatic smell, and boils at 206° C. On oxidation with nitric acid it is converted into benzaldehyde, whilst chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid.

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  • The best-known fruits, besides dates and grapes, are figs, sycamore-figs and pomegranates, apricots and peaches, oranges and citrons, lemons and limes, bananas, which are believed to be of the fruits of Paradise (being always in season), different kinds of melons (including some of aromatic flavour, and the refreshing water-melon), mulberries, Indian figs or prickly pears, the fruit of the lotus and olives.

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  • Gattermann, Ann., 1888, 244, p. 30), melts at 50° C. and boils at 61-62° C. In the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride it reacts with aromatic hydrocarbons to form the amides of aromatic acids.

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  • BENZOIC ACID, C 7 H 6 0 2 or C 6 H S 000H, the simplest representative of the aromatic acids.

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  • Ceylon cinnamon of fine quality is a very thin smooth bark, with a light-yellowish brown colour, a highly fragrant odour, and a peculiarly sweet, warm and pleasing aromatic taste.

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  • Its flavour is due to an aromatic oil which it contains to the extent of from.

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  • It is of a golden-yellow colour, with the peculiar odour of cinnamon and a very hot aromatic taste.

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  • NITROBENZENE, C 6 H 5 NO 2, the simplest aromatic nitro compound.

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  • It combines with aromatic amines to form azocompounds, with arylhydroxylamines to form azoxy compounds, and with hydroxylamine it gives isodiazobenzene.

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  • With aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, in the cold, there is a large evolution of hydrochloric acid gas, and an aldehyde is formed; at 100° C., on the other hand, anthracene derivatives are produced.

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  • In these latter cases the reaction may proceed in different directions; thus, with the aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorine in the cold or in the presence of a carrier substitutes in the benzene nucleus, but in the presence of sunlight or on warming, substitution takes place in the side chain.

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  • It is an ingredient in pot-pourri, is employed for flavouring beer and is chewed to clear the voice; and its volatile oil is employed by makers of snuff and aromatic vinegar.

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  • It also yields crystalline compounds with many aromatic hydrocarbons and bases.

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  • Most of these belong to the aromatic group of bodies, although one of them, antipyrin, belongs rather to the furfurol group. Carbolic acid has an antipyretic action, but on account of its poisonous properties it cannot be employed as an antipyretic. Salicylic acid has a strong antipyretic action, and is most commonly used in the form of its sodium salt, which is much more soluble than the acid itself.

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  • 1 He gives a very accurate account of this forlorn tract, its general aridity and the necessity of obtaining water by digging in the beds of torrents; describes the food of the inhabitants as dates and fish; and adverts to the occasional occurrence of fertile spots, the abundance of aromatic and thorny shrubs and fragrant plants, and the violence of the monsoon in the western part of Makran.

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  • When bruised the leaves give out an aromatic odour.

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  • The leaves, which have a pungent aromatic odour, are said to yield a yellow dye.

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  • Many ortho and, para-compounds of the aromatic series (for example, the brom-phenols, benzene para-disulphonic acid) also yield resorcin on fusion with caustic potash.

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  • C 6 H 5, the simplest representative of the true aromatic ketones.

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  • To celebrate his seventieth birthday his scientific papers were collected and published in two volumes (Gesammelte Werke, Brunswick, 1905), and the names of the headings under which they are grouped give some idea of the range and extent of his chemical work: (1) organic arsenic compounds, (2) uric acid group, (3) indigo, (4) papers arising from indigo researches, (5) pyrrol and pyridine bases, (6) experiments on the elimination of water and on condensation, (7) the phthaleins, (8) the hydro-aromatic compounds, (9) the terpenes, (io) nitroso compounds, (11) furfurol, (12) acetylene compounds and "strain" (Spannungs) theory, (13) peroxides, (14) basic properties of oxygen, (15) dibenzalacetone and triphenylamine, (16) various researches on the aromatic and (17) the aliphatic series.

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  • THYMOL, C10H,40 or C 6 H 3 (OH) (CH 3) (C 3 H 7) [1: 3: 6 ], a methylisopropylphenol isomeric with carvacrol, is an aromatic substance found with the hydrocarbons cymene, C, 0 H, 4j and thymene, Collis, in oil of thyme (from Thymus vulgaris) and in other essential oils, e.g.

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  • Elionurus, a widespread savanna grass in tropical and subtropical America, and also in the tropics of the old world, is rejected by cattle probably on account of its aromatic character, the spikelets having a strong balsam-like smell.

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  • Other aromatic members are Andropogon Nardus, a native of India, but also cultivated, the rhizome, leaves and especially the spikelets of which contain a volatile oil, which on distillation yields the citronella oil of commerce.

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  • It is a colourless mobile liquid, boiling at 125-1° and having a pungent, slightly aromatic odour.

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  • Thiophosphoryl bromide, PSBr3, obtained after the manner of the corresponding chloride, forms yellow octahedra which melt at 38°, and have a penetrating, aromatic odour.

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  • The reaction is a perfectly general one, for the aniline may be replaced by other aromatic amines and the aldehyde by other aldehydes, and so a large number of quinoline homologues may be prepared in this way.

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  • But its chief technical application depends upon the formation of sulphonic acids when it reacts with aromatic hydrocarbon residues; these compounds being important either as a step towards the preparation of hydroxy-compounds, e.g.

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  • Both it and the aromatic solution are powerful intestinal astringents, and are therefore useful in diarrhoea of a serious type, being strongly recommended both as a prophylactic and as a treatment during epidemics of Asiatic cholera.

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  • Small doses of the aromatic acid also serve as a prophylactic to those artisans who work in lead and as a treatment in lead poisoning in order to form an insoluble sulphate of lead.

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  • The junipers, of which there are twenty-five or more species, are evergreen bushy shrubs or low columnar trees, with a more or less aromatic odour, inhabiting the whole of the cold and temperate northern hemisphere, but attaining their maximum development in the Mediterranean region, the North Atlantic islands, and the eastern United States.

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  • The wood is very aromatic and is used for ornamental purposes.

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  • TOLUENE, Or Methylbenzene, C7H8 Or C6H5 CH 3, an aromatic hydrocarbon; the first homologue of benzene.

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  • In organic chemistry, a celebrated example is Cannizzaro's reaction wherein an aromatic aldehyde gives an acid and an alcohol: 2C E H 5 CHO+H 2 O =C6H5C02H+C6H5CH20H.

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  • In 1855 Adolph Wurtz had shown that when sodium acted upon alkyl iodides, the alkyl residues combined to form more complex hydrocarbons; Fittig developed this method by showing that a mixture of an aromatic and alkyl haloid, under similar treatment, yielded homologues of benzene.

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  • It possesses a somewhat pleasant vinous odour and a burning aromatic taste; it is a highly acrid poison.

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  • They have an aromatic smell and a hot burning taste, and can be distilled unchanged.

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  • It has an amorphous internal structure, a dull fracture; is of a yellow to yellowish-brown hue, the purer varieties being almost colourless, or possessing a greenish tinge, and has a somewhat bitter aromatic taste, and a balsamic odour, which is developed by heating.

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  • The aromatic bitters such as chamomile flowers, cascarilla bark, hops, orange peel and others contain in addition small quantities of essential oils which increase their local action.

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  • It is smoked with or without tobacco; or it is made into a sweetmeat with honey, sugar and aromatic spices; or it is powdered and infused in cold water, yielding a turbid drink, subdschi.

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  • The Dogwood trees were in full bloom, their aromatic blossoms creating white blotches on the hills.

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  • Above her, bees buzzed around the aromatic apple blossoms.

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  • Aliphatic conjugated and aromatic aldehydes failed to produce urticarial skin reactions with the exception of acrolein.

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  • Don't be afraid to try different flavors, the more aromatic the more adventurous you will appear to newly found amigos.

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  • Components of cooked meat that have been suggested to cause this include heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrogenous residues and iron.

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  • An aromatic primary amine is one in which the -NH 2 group is attached directly to a benzene ring.

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  • Thyme has a warm aromatic and slightly sharp flavor.

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  • A strong mellow ruby colored ale, brewed using malt made from Maris Otter barley and the finest English aromatic hops.

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  • aromatic on the nose.

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  • Several species have deliciously aromatic foliage, the most well-known being common sage, Salvia officinalis.

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  • It is still cultivated in the warmer regions of the Upper Nile for its flowers, which are intensely aromatic.

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  • Medium roasted for a smooth, richly aromatic liquor, suitable for drinking throughout the day.

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  • It has a fantastic leaf arrangement with a wonderfully aromatic scent.

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  • The leaves are strongly aromatic, a good attractor for bees.

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  • A stunning fuschia pack of 25 beautifully aromatic ' Passion ' incense sticks complete with a stylish heart-shaped aluminum incense holder.

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  • aromatic hydrocarbons is set at 20 parts per billion.

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  • aromatic primary amine is one in which the -NH 2 group is attached directly to a benzene ring.

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  • aromatic herbs, roots and woods which you will find useful.

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  • aromatic compound is one which contains a benzene ring.

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  • aromatic foliage beneath a mist of pretty purple flowers.

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  • aromatic spices.

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  • aromatic with hints of plum, white peach and citrus.

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  • An aromatic is a organic compound that contains a benzene ring in is molecule or has very similar chemical properties to benzene.

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  • Aliphatic any non-aromatic organic compound Aromatic any organic compound containing de-localised electrons in a ring structure - e.g. benzene, benzoic acid.

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  • Dry hydrogen chloride gas is used in some cases, but these tend to involve aromatic esters (ones containing a benzene ring ).

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  • Ingredients: Top notes: fresh bergamot and darling black pepper with hints of aromatic lavender and spicy cinnamon leaves.

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  • All steaks glazed with a blend of aromatic spices and cracked black pepper.

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  • blend of aromatic spices and cracked black pepper.

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  • The aromatic, attractive flowers have many small bulbils in between them.

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  • A fountain flowing with aromatic Belgian chocolate creates the center piece to your special occasion.

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  • From this closed chain now follow all the substances which are usually called aromatic compounds.

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  • Uses medicinal, herbal dyestuffs, aromatic and culinary.

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  • You may choose one of our aromatic herbal oils to improve the skin's elasticity.

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  • In India, the aromatic basmati rice is very popular; the word basmati means fragrant.

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  • Take fragrant spices; gum mastic, aromatic shells, 4 galbanum; add pure frankincense to the spices in equal proportions.

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  • fry chopped onion fried in with some aromatic spices makes this even more interesting.

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  • The boswellic acids and their O-acetyl derivatives are the major constituens of the fresh aromatic gum resins from Boswellia trees.

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  • Colorful and aromatic medicinal herbs are planted in curvaceous beds with sweeping, fluid shapes.

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  • There will be a new Daughter Directive on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

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  • For example, the maximum volume concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons is set at 20 parts per billion.

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  • Potential triggers to develop PCT are alcohol excess, pregnancy, use of estrogen, exposure to poly aromatic hydrocarbons and cigarette smoking.

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  • incomparable natural beauty, Kerala is also known for its aromatic spices.

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  • Santolina - cotton lavender, with delicate silver foliage, aromatic and has yellow daisy-like flowers.

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  • leathery leaves or very aromatic foliage are not usually on the menu.

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  • Take fragrant spices; gum mastic, aromatic shells, 4 galbanum; add pure frankincense to the spices in equal proportions.

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  • The masses of wild garlic by the Sylfaen brook, close to the A458, concluded an aromatic but rather nervy outing.

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  • He was walking home after an overnight stint, thinking of aromatic nitration, as she was walking into the department.

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  • Filling the central cavity is a yellowish aromatic pulp, surrounding numerous hard black seeds attached to small peg-like outgrowths on the fruit wall.

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  • Laboratory work will be complemented by both chamber and modeling studies, to provide improved mechanisms for aromatic oxidation.

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  • Generally, however, there is no correlation with either native state shift perturbations or with sequence proximity to aromatic groups.

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  • The island has been famous throughout the centuries for its silver fir trees whose aromatic aroma still pervades parts of the island.

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  • poached in a light, aromatic stock, which makes it very versatile, " says Kylie.

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  • polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are molecules built up of benzene rings which resemble fragments of single layers of graphite.

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  • polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC ).

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  • polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could also be detected, derived from anthropogenic combustion sources.

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  • Local business people are lunchtime regulars, tucking into set menus of both crispy aromatic duck & sweet & sour pork.

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  • Specialists in Peking and Cantonese cuisine - their aromatic crispy duck is fabulous, as is their sesame prawn toast.

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  • Thyme One of the most ancient of culinary herbs, it is from aromatic, slightly resinous tasting leaves.

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  • seasoning herbs, the ones loaded with aromatic oils.

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  • The formula contains Vitamin PP and a starch derivative that absorbs and regulates excess sebum as well as aromatic plants that purify the skin.

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  • As a closed shell singlet, 7 is planar and aromatic, with C 2v symmetry.

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  • Meat eaters are catered for with a selection of dishes ranging from crispy aromatic duck to satay chicken skewers.

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  • Well, the chicken tikka pieces should be aromatic and slightly smoky from the tandoor.

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  • Ordinary paints use aromatic solvents of the white spirit type, derived from processing of crude oil.

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  • Apart from its incomparable natural beauty, Kerala is also known for its aromatic spices.

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  • Luscious sultana and aromatic herbal nose, again a cinnamon spice note.

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  • Nose: The beer has a full, aromatic, slightly spicy nose.

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  • sprinkled powder which produced a strong aromatic smell.

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  • The ring substituents R=H and also R=F were studied, the latter having being shown to enhance Möbius aromatic character in particular.

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  • Aromatic fluorine substituent improves bioavailability and increases potency, but it is not critical.

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  • Previous stilbene rotaxanes have been prepared by aromatic nucleophilic substitution [5] and by slipping macrocycles over pre-formed dumbbells [6] .

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  • sulphurotorua has a number of hot sulfur springs, which makes the whole town quite aromatic, to say the least.

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  • This is full of aromatic plants and includes a delightful teahouse with a heather thatched roof.

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  • The resin contains aromatic chemicals called terpenes, which make it volatile and flammable.

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  • creeping thyme Alongside the path you will discover the charming, delicate and aromatic Thymes.

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  • Morgon 1994 Michel Jambon A very voluptuous wine, with an aromatic fleshy nose, full of rich dark chocolate flavor.

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  • Rosemary (organic) Rosemary's needle-like leaves are very aromatic, with a slightly woody... .

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  • It readily condenses with aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of sulphuric acid.

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  • In 1900 Bielefeldt found that a fulminate placed on top of an aromatic nitro compound, such as trinitrotoluene, formed a useful detonator; this discovery has been especially taken advantage of in Germany, in which country detonators of this nature are being largely employed.

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  • The former contained 55, or, according to some formulae, 72 ingredients, and occurs in all the dispensatories, from that of Corvus Valerius up to the pharmacopoeias of the 19th century; and aromatic preparations of opium are still used, under the name of Theriaka in Persia.

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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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  • The valleys within the hill ranges are fragrant with aromatic shrubs.

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  • They are all, as found in commerce, of a pale yellow-green colour; they emit a peculiar aromatic odour, and have a slightly astringent bitter taste.

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  • When cut open, it displays an infinity of tiny leaf-buds and stems, and at intervals there exudes from it an aromatic resin, which from its astringent properties is used by the shepherds as a vulnerary, but has not been converted to any commercial purpose.

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  • CYPRESS (Cupressus), in botany, a genus of fifteen species belonging to the tribe Cupressineae, natural order Coniferae, represented by evergreen aromatic trees and shrubs indigenous to the south of Europe, western Asia, the Himalayas, China, Japan, north-western and north-eastern America, California and Mexico.

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  • Aromatic and medicinal herbs, of which the state has several hundred distinct species, have been obtained in larger, quantities than from any other state in the Union.

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  • Many species produce gums and resins, their stems being encrusted with the exudations, and pungency and aromatic odour is an almost universal quality of the plants of desert regions.

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  • Certain crude oils have also been found to contain camphenes, naphthalene and other aromatic hydrocarbons.

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  • The rationale of this treatment is not fully understood, but the action appears to consist in the separation or decomposition of the aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty and other acids, phenols, tarry bodies, &c., which lower the quality of the oil, the sulphuric acid removing some, while the caustic soda takes out the remainder, and neutralizes the acid which has been left in the oil.

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  • The .modern "balm of Gilead" or "Mecca balsam," an aromatic gum produced by the Balsamodendron opobalsamum, is more likely the Hebrew mor, which the English Bible wrongly renders "myrrh."

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  • into two groups: (r) those exhibiting properties closely analogous to the aliphatic series - the polymethylenes, and (2) a series exhibiting properties differing in many respects from the aliphatic and polymethylene compounds, and characterized by a peculiar stability which is to be associated with the disposition of certain carbon valencies not saturated by hydrogen - the " aromatic series."

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  • There also exists an extensive class of compounds termed the " heterocyclic series " - these compounds are derived from ring systems containing atoms other than carbon; this class is more generally allied to the aromatic series than to the aliphatic.

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  • and >- CH, the first characterizing the polymethylene and reduced heterocyclic compounds, the second true aromatic compounds.

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  • Two primary divisions of carbocyclic compounds may be conveniently made: (I) those in which the carbon atoms are completely saturated - these are known by the generic term polymethylenes, their general formula being (CH 2), t: it will be noticed that they are isomeric with ethylene and its homologues; they differ, however, from this series in not containing a double linkage, but have a ringed structure; and (2) those containing fewer hydrogen atoms than suffice to saturate the carbon valencies - these are known as the aromatic compounds proper, or as benzene compounds, from the predominant part which benzene plays in their constitution.

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  • The following diagrams illustrate these statements: - C ` H C OH HC /CH HC CH HC,/CH 'N/ HC CH CH CH From the benzene nucleus we can derive other aromatic nuclei, graphically represented by fusing two or more hexagons along common sides.

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  • Other hydrocarbon nuclei generally classed as aromatic in character result from the union of two or more benzene nuclei joined by one or two valencies with polymethylene or oxidized polymethylene rings; instances of such nuclei are indene, hydrindene, fluorene, and fluoranthene.

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  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.

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  • Mixed aromatic-aliphatic amines, both secondary and tertiary, are also more strongly basic than the pure aromatic amines, and less basic than the true aliphatic compounds; e.g.

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  • It is necessary, therefore, to avoid reactions involving such intermolecular migrations when determining the orientation of aromatic compounds.

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  • methane, tetrachlormethane, &c., to yield aromatic compounds when subjected to a high temperature, the so-called pyrogenetic reactions (from Greek 7rup, fire, and - yon, fco, I produce); the predominance of benzenoid, and related compounds-naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, &c.-in coal-tar is probably to be associated with similar pyrocondensations.

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  • Long-continued treatment with halogens may, in some cases, result in the formation of aromatic compounds; thus perchlorbenzene, C 6 C1 6, frequently appears as a product of exhaustive chlorination, while hexyl iodide, C 6 H 13 I, yields perchlorand perbrom-benzene quite readily.

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  • von Liebig discovered, in 1834, an interesting aromatic compound, potassium carbon monoxide or potassium hexaoxybenzene, the nature of which was satisfactorily cleared up by R.

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  • This is obviously unsymmetrical, consisting of an aliphatic and an aromatic nucleus; Claus explained the formation of the same phthalic acid from the oxidation of either nucleus by supposing that if the aromatic group be oxidized, the aliphatic residue assumes the character of a benzene nucleus.

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  • The molecule is aromatic but not benzenoid; however, by the reduction of one half of the molecule, the other assumes a benzenoid character.

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  • (7) (2) Phenanthrene is regarded by Armstrong as represented by (3), the lateral rings being benzenoid, and the medial ring fatty; Bamberger, however, regards it as (4), the molecule being (3) (4) entirely aromatic. An interesting observation by Baeyer, viz.

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  • The more important types are derived from aromatic nuclei, benzene, naphthalene, &c.; the ortho-di-derivatives of the first named, lending themselves particularly to the formation of condensed nuclei.

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  • Thus ortho-phenylene diamine yields the following products: N H N ./`N; Xn NZ In some cases oxidation of condensed benzenoid-heterocyclic nuclei results in the rupture of the heterocyclic ring with the formation of a benzene dicarboxylic acid; but if the aromatic nucleus be weakened by the introduction of an amino group, then it is the benzenoid nucleus which is destroyed and a dicarboxylic acid of the heterocyclic ring system obtained.

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  • The oxidation with nitric acid in sealed tubes at a temperature of 150° to 200° for aliphatic compounds, and 250° to 260° for aromatic compounds, is in common use, for both the sulphur and phosphorus can be estimated, the former being oxidized to sulphuric acid and the latter to phosphoric acid.

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  • In the aromatic compounds there is no regularity between the increments due to the introduction of methyl groups into the benzene nucleus or side chains; the normal value of 20 0 -21° is exhibited, however, by pyridine and its derivatives.

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